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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

David Y Graham, Maria Pina Dore, Hong Lu
Recent Helicobacter pylori treatment guidelines recommend the 4-drug combinations bismuth quadruple therapy and concomitant therapy. Areas covered: We review antimicrobial therapy for H. pylori in the context of antimicrobial therapy in general and specifically in relation to good antimicrobial stewardship (defined as optimal selection, dose, and duration of an antimicrobial that results in the best clinical outcome for the treatment of infection, with minimal toxicity to the patient and minimal impact on subsequent resistance)...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Marta Bodro, Laura Linares, Diana Chiang, Asuncion Moreno, Carlos Cervera
Recurrent urinary tract infections are a common clinical problem in kidney transplant recipients. Due to the complex urological anatomy derived from the implantation of the kidney graft, the spectrum of the disease and the broad underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Recurrent urinary infections worsen the quality of life, decrease the graft survival and increase the costs of kidney transplantation. Areas covered. In this review we describe the definitions, clinical characteristics, pathophysiological mechanisms and microbiology of recurrent urinary tract infections in kidney transplantations...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Anuli Nwaohiri, Sarah Schillie, Marc Bulterys, Athena P Kourtis
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is an important contributor to the worldwide burden of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Mother-to-child transmission of HCV ranges from 6-11% in different populations globally, but accurate estimates on the burden of pediatric HCV infection are limited because screening approaches are not consistent. Areas covered: The advent of new direct-acting antiviral agents that achieve very high rates of sustained virologic response, (representing virologic cure) with short (i...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Simone Lanini, Raffaella Pisapia, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito
The World Health Organization recognizes that viral hepatitis is not only a massive public health issue but also a huge opportunity to improve quality of life and equity at a global level. Viral hepatitis causes about 1.5 million deaths each year and significantly affects the quality of life of hundreds of millions of people. To date, frail individuals in high-income countries and people living in low-income settings are paying the heaviest tool. Areas covered. Here we present a broad discussion on current knowledge and topical issues about the hepatitis pandemic...
August 2, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Suresh Misra, Douglas T Dieterich, Behnam Saberi, Tatyana Kushner
Hepatitis C contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. AHCV is defined as documented infection within 6 months of exposure. Treating acute hepatitis C virus (AHCV) with direct-acting antiviral agents in persons who inject drugs, HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and patients who acquire HCV nosocomially can contribute to the elimination of disease globally, preclude the morbidity and mortality of chronic disease, and prevent further transmission. Areas covered: In this review, we describe the epidemiology of AHCV, its natural history, the considerations involved in the decision of whether to treat AHCV, and the most current DAA therapy guidelines...
August 1, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Giovanni Di Caprio, Federica Calò, Federica Portunato, Salvatore Martini, Nicola Coppola
HBV reactivation (HBVr) in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known event. While there are clear directives on the management of current or resolved HBV infection in onco-hematological diseases, there are few data regarding patients with non-oncological diseases. Thus, the aim of the present review is to evaluate HBVr in patients with non-oncological diseases, and identify the management of these patients to prevent HBVr. Areas covered: Original papers, case reports and meta-analyses reporting data on HBVr of current or resolved infection in gastrointestinal, dermatological, rheumatologic and neurological diseases were evaluated...
August 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Richard R Watkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Eshwara Vandana Kalwaje, Jordi Rello
Optimizing management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) should focus on the accurate identification of true lung infection, determination of the etiological agent, and early institution of adequate empirical therapy and de-escalation. Local adaptation of the standard guidelines leads to favorable outcome in the management of VAP Areas covered: In this review, we present the concepts of early adequate therapy and the key considerations such as patient characters, clinical and etiological diagnosis, and assessment of patients for de-escalation that favor optimization of therapy...
July 25, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Miguel A Chavez, A Clinton White
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen that can cause diarrheal disease in healthy and immunosuppressed individuals, worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of cryptosporidiosis on children in resource-limited countries. Nitazoxanide is the only Food and Drug Administration approved treatment, but it is not consistently effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis in the most vulnerable populations. Areas covered: This review focused on recent published studies evaluating novel drugs and new compounds for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis...
July 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Philipp Schuetz, Rebekka Bolliger, Meret Merker, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Konrad Reinhart, Angela Branche, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Alessia Verduri, Bianca Beghé, Bin Cao, Yahya Shehabi, Jens-Ulrik S Jensen, Albertus Beishuizen, Evelien de Jong, Matthias Briel, Tobias Welte, Beat Mueller
Although evidence indicates that use of procalcitonin to guide antibiotic decisions for the treatment of acute respiratory infections (ARI) decreases antibiotic consumption and improves clinical outcomes, algorithms used within studies had differences in PCT cut-off points and frequency of testing. We therefore analyzed studies evaluating procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy and propose consensus algorithms for different respiratory infection types. Areas covered: We systematically searched randomized-controlled trials (search strategy updated on February 2018) on procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy of ARI in adults using a pre-specified Cochrane protocol and analyzed algorithms from 32 trials that included 10,285 patients treated in primary care settings, emergency departments (ED), and intensive care units (ICU)...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Catia Cillóniz, Carolina García-Vidal, Asunción Moreno, José M Miro, Antoni Torres
Despite active antiretroviral therapy (ART), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and incurs high health costs. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications on bacterial CAP in the HIV-infected population, focusing on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy, and prevention. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles...
July 12, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jacob Bodilsen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Henrik Nielsen, Diederik Van De Beek
INTRODUCTION: Brain abscess is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening infection of the CNS that can be caused by a range of different pathogens including bacteria, fungi, and parasites. A multidisciplinary approach is important and anti-infective treatment remains crucial. Here, we review anti-infective treatment of brain abscess. Areas covered: We used the terms '(Brain abscess[ti] AND (antibiotic* OR treatment)) NOT case report'), to conduct a search in the PubMed. Additional papers were identified by cross-reference checking and by browsing textbooks of infectious diseases and neurology...
July 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Edoardo Bruno Vicenzi, Simone Cesaro
Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole widely used to prevent and treat invasive mycoses in adults. Since it received marketing authorization more than a decade ago, many authors have reported on its off-label use in pediatric patients, despite the fact that the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy in children have not been extensively investigated. Areas covered: We reviewed pediatric studies published between 2010 and 2017 describing the prophylactic and therapeutic use of posaconazole, with special attention to the correlation between oral dose, plasma levels, safety, and effectiveness...
July 3, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 26, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Luca Rinaldi, Aldo Marrone, Mauro Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Alessandro Busca, Livio Pagano
Along with new diagnostic options, comes the recent development of novel antifungal agents that expanded the spectrum of activity over traditional treatments contributing to the successful management of fungal diseases. Nevertheless, invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a major hindrance to the favorable outcome of patients with hematologic malignancies. According to these observations, an appropriate prevention of IFI occurring in hematologic patients should be considered of paramount importance. However, the wide use of antifungal agents may facilitate the emergence of resistance and may be associated to the occurrence of severe adverse events and eventually may significantly increase the cost of therapeutic procedures...
July 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Akash Jain, Luke Utley, Thomas R Parr, Thomas Zabawa, Michael J Pucci
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, particularly Gram-negative bacteria, have become increasingly challenging to successfully treat. The beta-lactam antibiotic subclass, the carbapenems, have proven valuable for the treatment of such Gram-negative bacterial infections due to their spectrum and β-lactamase stability properties. However, all marketed carbapenems to date are parenterally administered to adult patients. Areas covered: One carbapenem, tebipenem-pivoxil (TBPM-PI), is an oral prodrug that was approved in Japan for pediatric use only in 2009...
July 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Sophie Masmejan, David Baud, Didier Musso, Alice Panchaud
Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged as a global public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV is responsible for severe neurological complications in adults and infection during pregnancy and can lead to congenital Zika syndrome. There is no licensed vaccine or drug to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to provide an overview and update of the progress of research on anti-ZIKV vaccine and medications until the end of 2017, with a special emphasis on drugs that can be used during pregnancy...
June 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Farnaz Zahedifard, Sima Rafati
Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases and is highly endemic in many countries. Currently, there is no adequate human vaccine and treatment to control the disease. Areas covered: As a result of the failure of chemotherapy and toxicity, it is necessary to find another approach for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Recently, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), originating from natural resources, have attracted much attention for their use as a new antibiotics for many infectious and noninfectious diseases...
June 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Yiyun Liu, Jian-Hua Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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