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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465259/latent-tuberculosis-in-childhood-tolerability-of-two-different-therapeutic-approaches
#1
Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Chiara Cordola, Paola Piccini, Leila Bianchi, Carlotta Montagnani, Sara Sollai, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid monotherapy for six or nine months and the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin for three or four months are the most used regimens for treating latent tuberculosis. The main aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the safety of latent tuberculosis treatment by analysing side effects in both regimens. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with latent tuberculosis and treated with isoniazid or isoniazid and rifampicin were included...
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451043/murepavadin-a-new-antibiotic-class-in-the-pipeline
#2
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Glenn E Dale, Antoni Torres
With the increase in multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobials with a novel mechanism of action are needed that can target these infections. Areas covered: Intravenous murepavadin is in Phase 3 development for the treatment of HABP/VABP due to P. aeruginosa. This paper summarizes the available information on the discovery, the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the clinical pharmacology of murepavadin to date. Expert commentary: P. aeruginosa has an intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics due to high cellular impermeability and efficient drug efflux mechanisms, and the recent increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant P...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415586/what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know-about-perinatal-zika-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#3
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Irene Rivero-Calle, Eleni Nastouli, Maria Espiau, M A Frick, Ana Alarcon, Federico Martinón-Torres
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, risk factors, time of infection during pregnancy, newborn symptoms, treatment, and vaccines...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415584/management-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-in-the-hematological-patient
#4
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Emanuela Zappulo, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Infection with HBV and HCV represents a growing challenge in the management of patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, hepatitis E (HEV) was recognized as an endemic infection in developed countries and as an emerging health problem in immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We reviewed the current knowledge on the impact of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological setting. Epidemiological features, screening strategies and indications for treatment and monitoring have been explored and commented...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415569/the-adhesins-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#5
Karen L Osman, Johanna M Jefferies, Christopher H Woelk, David W Cleary, Stuart C Clarke
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract and the greatest contributor to invasive Haemophilus disease. Additionally, in children, NTHi is responsible for the majority of otitis media (OM) which can lead to chronic infection and hearing loss. In adults, NTHi infection in the lungs is responsible for the onset of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to protect against NTHi infections...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411659/safety-and-efficacy-of-miltefosine-monotherapy-and-pentoxifylline-associated-with-pentavalent-antimony-in-treating-mucosal-leishmaniasis
#6
Fernanda Ventin, Carolina Cincurá, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado
Introduction Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) is a difficult to treat and severe form of Leishmaniasis. In general, more than 40% of subjects with ML have therapeutic failure upon the use of pentavalent antimony (Sbv) at 20mg/kg/day during 30 days. Additionally, Sbv is a toxic drug that requires parenteral administration, and many patients will need several courses to be cured. In cases that cannot be treated or cured by Sbv, the alternative is amphotericin B, another toxic and parenteral drug. As a consequence, many ML patients will be cured only after years of disease and may present several morbidities due to the aggressiveness of the disease or toxicity related to the treatment...
February 7, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406800/rapid-molecular-diagnostics-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india
#7
Rajeswari Ramachandran, M Muniyandi
Rapid molecular diagnostic methods help in the detection of TB and Rifampicin resistance. These methods detect TB early, are accurate and play a crucial role in reducing the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis. Areas covered: This review analyses rapid molecular diagnostic tools used in the diagnosis of MDR-TB in India, such as the Line Probe Assay and GeneXpert. We have discussed the burden of MDR-TB and the impact of recent diagnostic tools on case detection and treatment outcomes. This review also discusses the costs involved in establishing these new techniques in India...
February 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402125/management-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-current-evidence-and-future-prospects
#8
Chau-Chyun Sheu, Shang-Yi Lin, Ya-Ting Chang, Chun-Yuan Lee, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a major public health threat worldwide. Area covered: A thorough systematic literature review describing the current evidence and future prospects of therapeutic options for infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Expert commentary: The methods of detecting ESBLs have been evolving. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing lowered the MIC breakpoints of cephalosporins against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 2010...
February 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375022/do-tetracyclines-have-the-potential-to-reduce-the-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Sahil Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338458/tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-treatment-of-hbv-what-are-the-unanswered-questions
#10
Mauro Viganò, Alessandro Loglio, Glenda Grossi, Pietro Lampertico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the recommended drugs for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, reduced kidney function and loss of bone mineral density have been reported in some CHB patients treated with TDF. Consequent to these safety issues, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) [Vemlidy®], a phosphonate prodrug of TFV, was developed for the treatment of CHB patients. Areas covered: The favourable pharmacological profile of TAF allows a marked reduction in dosage (25 mg/day) thus reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir and improving the bone and renal safety, keeping however the same virological efficacy, compared to TDF 300 mg/day...
January 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353504/clostridium-difficile-control-measures-current-and-future-methods-for-prevention
#11
Erik R Dubberke, Carlos Mejia-Chew
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare associated infection, and C. difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. One obstacle to preventing CDI is lack of high quality data on interventions to prevent CDI. This has led some to focus on areas, such as method of hand hygiene, unlikely to impact CDI incidence as much as others, such as contact precautions. In addition, existing strategies, although effective, do have limitations. Another challenge is the ability to rapidly, and accurately, diagnose CDI...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347858/where-are-we-with-injectables-against-hiv-infection-and-what-are-the-remaining-challenges
#12
Said A Hassounah, Thibault Mesplède
Drug adherence has been a recurring issue in the field of HIV treatment, and low treatment adherence is typically associated with emergence of drug resistance, treatment failure and increased risks of transmission. Injectable antiretroviral drugs offer a unique opportunity to counter this issue for the treatment of HIV-positive individuals. In addition, injectables offer a remarkable opportunity to reduce new HIV infections, if applied in the context of both treatment-as-prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis...
January 19, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316826/the-role-of-metabolomic-markers-for-patients-with-infectious-diseases-implications-for-risk-stratification-and-therapeutic-modulation
#13
Seline Zurfluh, Thomas Baumgartner, Marc A Meier, Manuel Ottiger, Alaadin Voegeli, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing area of research. Metabolomic markers can provide information about the interaction of different organ systems, and thereby improve the understanding of physio-pathological processes, disease risk, prognosis and therapy responsiveness in a variety of diseases. Areas covered: In this narrative review of recent clinical studies investigating metabolomic markers in adult patients presenting with acute infectious disease, we mainly focused on patients with sepsis and lower respiratory tract infections...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310479/therapies-for-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-nosocomial-infections-a-perilous-journey-toward-molecularly-targeted-therapy
#14
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Alina Iovleva, Mohamad Yasmin, Brigid Wilson, Federico Perez, Robert A Bonomo
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are at the center of the antimicrobial resistance epidemic. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are both designated with a threat level to human health of "serious" by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Two other major non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia complex, while not as prevalent, have devastating effects on vulnerable populations, such as those with cystic fibrosis, as well as immunosuppressed or hospitalized patients...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310469/non-prescription-use-of-antibiotics-among-children-in-urban-china-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices
#15
Jie Chang, Bing Lv, Shan Zhu, Jiale Yu, Yu Zhang, Dan Ye, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Caijun Yang, Yu Fang
BACKGROUND: Non-prescription use of antibiotics in children is an important public health problem. We aimed to investigate primary caregivers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices of antibiotics use among children in urban China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 4200 caregivers of children under-7 years from three cities in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices regarding antibiotics use in children...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291633/kingella-kingae-from-oropharyngeal-carriage-to-paediatric-osteoarticular-infections
#16
Raimonda Valaikaite, Nawal El Houmami, Vasiliki Spyropoulou, Gabriel Braendle, Dimitri Ceroni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284320/clinical-and-virologic-effects-of-four-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-children-aged-4-12-years-an-open-label-randomized-study-in-japan
#17
Nobuo Hirotsu, Yutaka Saisho, Takahiro Hasegawa, Takao Shishido
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) reduce influenza symptoms but clear evidence of relationships between viral titer reduction and symptom alleviation is lacking. This open-label, randomized study evaluated differences in viral dynamics between NAIs, and relationships between viral dynamics and influenza symptoms (trial registration number: UMIN000012670). METHODS: Patients (n = 123) aged 4-12 years with influenza A virus infection were randomized to intravenous peramivir, oral oseltamivir, inhaled zanamivir, or inhaled laninamivir...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251001/ongoing-initiatives-in-azerbaijan-to-improve-the-use-of-antibiotics-findings-and-implications
#18
Vafa Abilova, Amanj Kurdi, Brian Godman
OBJECTIVES: There have been a numerous initiatives in Azerbiajan in recent years to improve antibiotic utilization including educational programmes among patients, pharmacists and physicians. This study aimed to analyse the influence of these multiple initiatives on antibiotic utilization as a basis for suggesting future initiatives. METHODS: Observational retrospective study of total antibiotic utilization from 2011 to 2015 based on import data. The quality of aggregated antibiotic prescribing was assessed against recognised indicators including those of WHO Europe, as well as compared to neighbouring countries as reference points...
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237320/clinical-management-of-women-with-listeriosis-risk-during-pregnancy-a-review-of-national-guidelines
#19
Lisa Pucci, Mario Massacesi, Giuseppina Liuzzi
INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is an uncommon foodborne infection that may cause moderate maternal illness, but can be extremely serious for the fetus and the newborn. Several guidelines have been elaborated in order to help clinicians on the care of pregnant women with known or suspected exposure to Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this review is to collect, assess and summarize them, in order to provide a comprehensive overlook and to highlight the grey areas in the guidance that could result in failure to detect some infected but asymptomatic women...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235885/is-there-a-relation-between-the-manipulative-activity-of-toxoplasma-and-personalized-medicine
#20
Jaroslav Flegr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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