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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

Lisa Pucci, Mario Massacesi, Giuseppina Liuzzi
INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is an uncommon foodborne infection that may cause moderate maternal illness, but can be extremely serious for the fetus and the newborn. Several guidelines have been elaborated in order to help clinicians on the care of pregnant women with known or suspected exposure to Listeria monocytogenes. The aim of this review is to collect, assess and summarize them, in order to provide a comprehensive overlook and to highlight the grey areas in the guidance that could result in failure to detect some infected but asymptomatic women...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jaroslav Flegr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jose Luis Del Pozo
Biofilm formation represents a protected mode of growth that renders bacterial cells less susceptible to antimicrobials and to killing by host immune effector mechanisms and so enables the pathogens to survive in hostile environments and also to disperse and colonize new niches. Biofilm disease includes device-related infections, chronic infections in the absence of a foreign body, and even malfunction of medical devices. Areas covered: This review puts forward a new medical entity that represents a major public health issue, which we have named "biofilm-related disease"...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Javier Aragón-Sánchez, Benjamin A Lipsky
Introduction Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) has long been considered a complex infection that is both difficult to diagnose and treat, and is associated with a high rate of relapse and limb loss. Areas covered DFO can usually be diagnosed by a combination of clinical evaluation, serum inflammatory markers and plain X-ray. When the results of these procedures are negative or contradictory, advanced imaging tests or bone biopsy may be necessary. Staphylococcus aureus remains the most frequent microorganism isolated from bone specimens, but infection is often polymicrobial...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Hyunju Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Hoan Jong Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adolescents. Macrolides are recommended as the first-line therapy however, macrolide resistance rates in M. pneumoniae among children have been increasing substantially. Areas covered: This review focused on clinical characteristics and treatment of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. Expert commentary: Antibiotic choice should be based on in vitro activity, clinical efficacy and in consideration of potential adverse events...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Karen A O Martins, Anthony Cardile, Ronald Reisler, George W Christopher, Sina Bavari
During the 2014-2016 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak, several candidate therapeutics were used in EBOV-infected patients in clinical trials and under expanded access for emergency use. This review will focus briefly on medications used during the outbreak. We will discuss current therapeutic candidates and their status and will then turn to a related and essential topic: supportive care and the standard of care for filovirus infected patients. Potential benefits and pitfalls of combination therapies for filoviruses will be discussed...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ilias Karaiskos, Anastasia Antoniadou, Helen Giamarellou
The ongoing crisis and emergence of extensively-drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative pathogens in the nosocomial setting is worrisome. The limited armamentarium in combination with the increasing resistance rates of last resort antibiotics has led clinicians to re-exploit existing antibiotic classes. Areas covered: Current state of evidence concerning the administration of monotherapy versus combination therapy for the treatment of XDR gram-negative microorganism as well as salvage treatment are presented. Herein, the current knowledge concerning in vitro studies, animal models and clinical studies are discussed in detail...
November 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Thomas Naderer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Seven Johannes Sam Aghdassi, Petra Gastmeier
Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most frequent healthcare-associated infections worldwide, representing a substantial burden on the healthcare system and the individual patient. Various risk factors for SSI have been identified, which can be separated into patient-related, procedure-related and other risk factors. Areas covered: Other risk factors relevant for SSI are the season in which surgery is performed, the volume of surgeries in a department, the working atmosphere in the operating room and the indications for surgery...
November 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematology patients. Within a diagnostic-driven approach, the use of the serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) test represents a valid tool for the early diagnosis and treatment of IFD. Areas covered: The available literature on the use of BDG in hematology patients was systematically retrieved. Then, it was reviewed and discussed, to identify key issues pertaining to a clinically-oriented narrative presentation of the topic. Expert commentary: The use of BDG in hematology patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is secondary to the use of galactomannan...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Samareh Azeredo da Silveira, Antonio Perez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Marta Trevisan, Giorgio Palù, Luisa Barzon
Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Begoña Monge-Maillo, Sandra Chamorro Tojeiro, Rogelio López-Vélez
Osseous cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most complicated and devastating conditions caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Its management is difficult and there is scant literature about it. Areas covered: A literature review was performed to provide an update on its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Expert commentary: In most cases diagnosis of osseous CE can only be confirmed by surgery. Osseous CE should be managed by experienced physicians and addressed as a chronic disease with therapies must be aimed at controlling the disease and its sequels or complications, rather than with a curative intent...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Giovanni Nigro
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common and serious cause of congenital infections in developed countries since it is capable of infecting the fetus after both primary and recurrent maternal infection, and can be spread for years by infected children. Areas covered: Animal and human pregnancy studies about the prevention of congenital CMV infection and disease by CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin (HIG). Commercial HIG is manufactured from the plasma of selected donors with high anti-CMV antibody avidity and titers...
November 6, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mario Poljak, Anja Šterbenc, Maja M Lunar
In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men...
October 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Elsa Da Palma Afonso, Stijn Blot
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants. Understanding how gestational age affects the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis can be of use when defining strategies for its prevention and clinical management in NICU. Areas covered: Available evidence suggests the incidence and mortality of late-onset sepsis is higher in preterm and VLBW infants, but pathogen distribution and risk exposure is similar across all infants admitted to NICU...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Tammy B Matsitse, Elvera Helberg, Johanna C Meyer, Brian Godman, Amos Massele, Natalie Schellack
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global concern and a growing health crisis. Additionally, evidence has shown that non-compliance to treatment guidelines, especially in the management of communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), has the potential of further enhancing AMR rates. Data on the extent of these challenges in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in correctional centres in South Africa (SA) is limited. Hence this study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with the 2008 PHC Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List (PHC STGs/EML) in the management of STIs, and to identify potential factors contributing to the compliance and non-compliance to guide future strategies...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Amal A Gharamti, Zeina A Kanafani
Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), a Gram-positive biofilm-forming rod implicated in acne vulgaris, is increasingly recognized for its role in implant-associated infections. The diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections remains challenging. The optimal treatment is a combination of both surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the different types of implant-associated infections caused by C. acnes. We also highlight the clinical manifestations pertaining to the various sites of infection, and identify several risk factors previously reported in the literature...
December 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant human yeast pathogen associated with nosocomial transmission and high mortality. The organism can be a challenge to diagnose, may be even more difficult to treat, and continues to pose an expanding threat to patients. Areas covered: Our medical center and others in the surrounding area have seen a concerning rise in confirmed cases of C. auris infection and substantial resources have been dedicated to containment measures. We draw on our in vitro and in vivo work with this organism to examine the most effective ways to curb the current outbreak...
December 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Giulia Trippella, Luisa Galli, Maurizio De Martino, Catiuscia Lisi, Elena Chiappini
The management of children with fever without apparent sources (FWAS) is difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting serious or invasive bacterial infection (SBI or IBI) in children with FWAS. Areas covered: A systematic review of literature from 2007 to 2017 was performed on Medline. Twelve studies were included, involving 7,260 children with FWAS and analyzing the diagnostic performance of PCT. Four meta-analyses were performed to calculate pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve for PCT in detecting SBI and IBI, at two different thresholds...
November 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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