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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672172/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-botswana-university-of-botswana-symposium-meeting-report
#1
Celda Tiroyakgosi, Matshediso Matome, Emily Summers, Yohana Mashalla, Bene Anand Paramadhas, Sajini Souda, Brighid Malone, Fatima Sinkala, Joyce Kgatlwane, Brian Godman, Keneilwe Mmopi, Amos Massele
The objective of this meeting was to discuss ongoing initiatives in Botswana since February 2016 to improve antibiotic use. Subsequently, use the findings to refine national and local action plans. There was a high rate of antibiotic prescribing among ambulatory care patients in the public sector (42.7%) as well as for patients with URTIs in the private sector (72.9%). Prophylactic antibiotics were given to 73.3% of surgical patients to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in a leading tertiary hospital in Botswana; however, SSIs at 9% of patients can be reduced further with better timing of antibiotic prophylaxis...
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668334/metagenomics-culturomics-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#2
Sophie Amrane, Didier Raoult, Jean-Christophe Lagier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668332/neurological-complications-of-zika-virus-infection
#3
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620478/the-rise-of-hospitalists-an-opportunity-for-infectious-diseases-investigators
#4
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Despite the essential role played by infectious diseases specialists in patient care, public health, cost-containment, and biomedical research, the field has a substantially higher percentage of vacant positions than other medicine sub-specialties. While much has been written about what this disturbing trend means for patient care, comparatively little attention has been focused on the dire implications for clinical research and the development of novel anti-infective therapy. Areas covered: We examine the ways that hospitalists and infectious disease specialists might collaborate to study emerging diagnostic platforms, novel antimicrobial agents, and strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programs to improve the delivery of high-quality health care...
April 11, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633888/expanding-syphilis-testing-a-scoping-review-of-syphilis-testing-interventions-among-key-populations
#5
Jason J Ong, Hongyun Fu, M Kumi Smith, Joseph D Tucker
Introduction Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI). Despite inexpensive and effective treatment, few key populations receive syphilis testing. Innovative strategies are needed to increase syphilis testing among key populations. Areas covered This scoping review focused on strategies to increase syphilis testing in key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, people who use drugs, transgender people, and incarcerated individuals). Expert commentary We identified many promising syphilis testing strategies, particularly among MSM...
April 10, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617188/mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-hospital-associated-pathogens
#6
Ayesha Khan, William R Miller, Cesar A Arias
The introduction of antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th -century permitting the treatment of once incurable infections. Widespread use of antibiotics, however, has led to the development of resistant organisms, particularly in the healthcare setting. Today, the clinician is often faced with pathogens carrying a cadre of resistance determinants that severely limit therapeutic options. The genetic plasticity of microbes allows them to adapt to stressors via genetic mutations, acquisition or sharing of genetic material and modulation of genetic expression leading to resistance to virtually any antimicrobial used in clinical practice...
April 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569505/risk-factors-associated-with-complications-sequelae-of-acute-and-subacute-haematogenous-osteomyelitis-an-italian-multicenter-study
#7
Elena Chiappini, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Elena Bozzola, Clara Gabiano, Susanna Esposito, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Maria Rita Govoni, Cristina Vallongo, Icilio Dodi, Elio Castagnola, Nadia Rossi, Piero Valentini, Fabio Cardinale, Filippo Salvini, Gianni Bona, Grazia Bossi, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Fiorella Russo, Emilio Fossali, Gabriella Bottone, Marta Dellepiane, Maurizio de Martino, Alberto Villani, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM/SAHOM) are potentially devastating diseases. Updated information about the epidemiology, management and outcome of AHOM/SAHOM is needed to minimize the risk of complications and sequelae. METHODS: A multicenter study was performed to evaluate retrospectively the management and outcome of AHOM/SAHOM in Italy. Data from children aged>1 month, and hospitalized between 2010 and 2016, in 19 pediatric centers, were analyzed...
March 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543500/emerging-gram-negative-resistance-to-last-line-antimicrobial-agents-fosfomycin-colistin-and-ceftazidime-avibactam-epidemiology-laboratory-detection-and-treatment-implications
#8
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the 're-discovery' of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533103/treatment-of-chikungunya-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review
#9
Lusiele Guaraldo, Mayumi Duarte Wakimoto, Heloisa Ferreira, Clarisse Bressan, Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Geraldo Castelar Pinheiro, Andre Machado Siqueira, Patrícia Brasil
Chikungunya virus is amongst the fastest expanding vector transmissible diseases in recent years and has been causing massive epidemics in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite human infection by this virus being first described in the 1950s, there is a lack of adequate therapeutic evaluations to guide evidence-based recommendations. The current guidelines rely heavily in specialists' opinion and experience instead of using higher rated evidence. Areas covered: A systematic review of the literature was performed- not restricted to clinical trials - reporting the therapeutic response against this infection with the intent to gather the best evidence of the treatment options against musculoskeletal disorders following chikungunya fever...
April 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506418/hcv-in-egypt-prevention-treatment-and-key-barriers-to-elimination
#10
Mohamed El Kassas, Tamer Elbaz, Aisha Elsharkawy, Heba Omar, Gamal Esmat
Currently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are considered the ideal choice for the treatment of chronic HCV patients due to their proven efficacy (SVR> 90%), and minimal adverse effects. Egypt launched a large treatment program aimed at providing treatment coverage for Egyptian HCV- infected patients. Areas covered: This review covers the treatment and prevention efforts made by the Egyptian National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) with the available model of care for HCV patients in Egypt, in addition to the barriers that prevent elimination of HCV from Egypt...
March 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489420/syphilis-incidence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-comorbidity-and-the-importance-of-integrating-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-into-hiv-care
#11
Oliver N Refugio, Jeffrey D Klausner
Syphilis continues to be a growing epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly for those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2016, MSM accounted for 80% of primary and secondary syphilis diagnoses in men in the United States; almost half of who were also HIV-infected. The synergistic relationship between HIV and syphilis has significant implications not only for HIV patient management, but also for sexually transmitted infection (STI) control among MSM. Areas covered: We review the literature on STI screening and treatment barriers at the patient-, provider-, and health system-levels, and present strategies to incorporate STI prevention into HIV care settings...
March 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486136/non-traumatic-neurological-injury-and-hepatitis-e-infection
#12
Paolo Ripellino, Benjamin Norton, Jeroen van Eijk, Harry R Dalton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465259/latent-tuberculosis-in-childhood-tolerability-of-two-different-therapeutic-approaches
#13
Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Chiara Cordola, Paola Piccini, Leila Bianchi, Carlotta Montagnani, Sara Sollai, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid monotherapy for six or nine months and the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin for three or four months are the most used regimens for treating latent tuberculosis. The main aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the safety of latent tuberculosis treatment by analysing side effects in both regimens. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with latent tuberculosis and treated with isoniazid or isoniazid and rifampicin were included...
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451043/murepavadin-a-new-antibiotic-class-in-the-pipeline
#14
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Glenn E Dale, Antoni Torres
With the increase in multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobials with a novel mechanism of action are needed that can target these infections. Areas covered: Intravenous murepavadin is in Phase 3 development for the treatment of HABP/VABP due to P. aeruginosa. This paper summarizes the available information on the discovery, the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the clinical pharmacology of murepavadin to date. Expert commentary: P. aeruginosa has an intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics due to high cellular impermeability and efficient drug efflux mechanisms, and the recent increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant P...
February 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415586/what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know-about-perinatal-zika-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#15
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Irene Rivero-Calle, Eleni Nastouli, Maria Espiau, M A Frick, Ana Alarcon, Federico Martinón-Torres
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, risk factors, time of infection during pregnancy, newborn symptoms, treatment, and vaccines...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415584/management-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-in-the-hematological-patient
#16
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Emanuela Zappulo, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Infection with HBV and HCV represents a growing challenge in the management of patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, hepatitis E (HEV) was recognized as an endemic infection in developed countries and as an emerging health problem in immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We reviewed the current knowledge on the impact of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological setting. Epidemiological features, screening strategies and indications for treatment and monitoring have been explored and commented...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415569/the-adhesins-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#17
Karen L Osman, Johanna M Jefferies, Christopher H Woelk, David W Cleary, Stuart C Clarke
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract and the greatest contributor to invasive Haemophilus disease. Additionally, in children, NTHi is responsible for the majority of otitis media (OM) which can lead to chronic infection and hearing loss. In adults, NTHi infection in the lungs is responsible for the onset of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to protect against NTHi infections...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406800/rapid-molecular-diagnostics-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india
#18
Rajeswari Ramachandran, M Muniyandi
Rapid molecular diagnostic methods help in the detection of TB and Rifampicin resistance. These methods detect TB early, are accurate and play a crucial role in reducing the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis. Areas covered: This review analyses rapid molecular diagnostic tools used in the diagnosis of MDR-TB in India, such as the Line Probe Assay and GeneXpert. We have discussed the burden of MDR-TB and the impact of recent diagnostic tools on case detection and treatment outcomes. This review also discusses the costs involved in establishing these new techniques in India...
February 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493397/ceftolozane-tazobactam-place-in-therapy
#19
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Matteo Bassetti, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Valerio Del Bono, Paolo Antonio Grossi, Francesco Menichetti, Federico Pea, Gian Maria Rossolini, Mario Tumbarello, Pierluigi Viale, Claudio Viscoli
Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a new antibiotic resulting from the combination of a novel cephalosporin, structurally similar to ceftazidime, with tazobactam, a well-known beta-lactamase inhibitor. C/T remains active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, and has been recently approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). A trial on hospital-acquired pneumonia is ongoing...
April 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411659/safety-and-efficacy-of-miltefosine-monotherapy-and-pentoxifylline-associated-with-pentavalent-antimony-in-treating-mucosal-leishmaniasis
#20
Fernanda Ventin, Carolina Cincurá, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado
Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) is a difficult to treat and severe form of Leishmaniasis. In general, more than 40% of subjects with ML have therapeutic failure upon the use of pentavalent antimony (Sbv ) at 20mg/kg/day during 30 days. Additionally, Sbv is a toxic drug that requires parenteral administration, and many patients will need several courses to be cured. In cases that cannot be treated or cured by Sbv , the alternative is amphotericin B, another toxic and parenteral drug. As a consequence, many ML patients will be cured only after years of disease and may present several morbidities due to the aggressiveness of the disease or toxicity related to the treatment...
March 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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