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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067078/antiviral-therapy-for-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#1
Lokesh Shahani, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
Respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infections are evident, prognosis can be grave...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074660/optimizing-the-management-of-children-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#2
E Venturini, C Tersigni, E Chiappini, M de Martino, L Galli
The management of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) in children represents an important issue for paediatricians because of the disease burden, the lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis and the high annual risk of progression to active disease. Areas covered: A review of English language articles on LTBI in children, published between the 1(st) of January 2010 and the 1(st) of July 2016, was conducted using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in PubMed database. This review provides an updated overview of the available tests for LTBI diagnosis in children, management strategies and treatment options...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#3
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras-Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
January 2, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960597/ivermectin-a-complimentary-weapon-against-the-spread-of-malaria
#4
Haoues Alout, Brian D Foy
Ivermectin has transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases and led to incommensurable benefits to humans and animals. Ivermectin is effective in treating several neglected infectious diseases and recently it has been shown to reduce malaria parasite transmission. Areas covered: Malaria control strategies could benefit from the addition of ivermectin to interrupt the transmission cycle if it is a long lasting formulation or repeatedly administered. In turn, this will help also to control neglected infectious diseases where the elimination goal has been slower to achieve...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002979/antibiotic-stewardship-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Diego Viasus, Milly Vecino-Moreno, Juan M De La Hoz, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002969/consolidation-of-molecular-testing-in-clinical-virology
#6
Carolina Scagnolari, Ombretta Turriziani, Katia Monteleone, Alessandra Pierangeli, Guido Antonelli
The development of quantitative methods for the detection of viral nucleic acids have significantly improved our ability to manage disease progression and to assess the efficacy of antiviral treatment. Moreover, major advances in molecular technologies during the last decade have allowed the identification of new host genetic markers associated with antiviral drug response but have also strongly revolutionized the way we see and perform virus diagnostics in the coming years. Areas covered: In this review, we describe the history and development of virology diagnostic methods, dedicating particular emphasis on the gradual evolution and recent advances toward the introduction of multiparametric platforms for the syndromic diagnosis...
December 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937060/update-on-therapeutic-options-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov
#7
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an important emerging respiratory pathogen. MERS-CoV resulted in multiple hospital outbreaks within and outside the Arabian Peninsula. The disease has a high case fatality rate, with the need for a therapeutic option. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of the progress in the development of therapeutic strategies for MERS. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Google Scholar, using the following terms: 'MERS', 'MERS-CoV', 'Middle East respiratory syndrome' in combination with 'treatment' or 'therapy'...
December 24, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973923/prevention-and-control-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-new-threats-new-opportunities
#8
Stephen J Rogerson, Holger W Unger
Over 100 million women and their babies are at risk of malaria in pregnancy each year. Malaria prevention in pregnancy relies on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), and, in Africa, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only drug endorsed for IPTp, and increasing mosquito resistance to pyrethroids used in LLINs, threaten the efficacy of these proven strategies, while operational challenges restrict their implementation in areas of great need...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#9
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a 'low resistance potential,' is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915487/the-epidemiology-of-carbapenemases-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#10
Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Sergio Reyes, Sergio Gutiérrez, María Virginia Villegas
Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp. infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially due to the emergence and spread of β-lactamases. Carbapenemases, which are β-lactamases with the capacity to hydrolyze or inactivate carbapenems, have become a serious concern as they have the largest hydrolytic spectrum and therefore limit the utility of most β-lactam antibiotics. Areas covered: Here, we present an update of the current status of carbapenemases in Latin America and the Caribbean...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910715/how-do-we-measure-adherence-to-anti-tuberculosis-treatment
#11
Salome Valencia, Montserrat León, Irene Losada, Victor G Sequera, Manuel Fernández Quevedo, Alberto L García-Basteiro
Completion of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment is of paramount importance for TB patients, as well as for the global efforts of TB control. However, there is neither a gold-standard measure to monitor adherence to TB treatment nor a widely used definition for different levels of adherence. Areas covered: in this review we aim to describe the different methods used to measure patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment, identifying their main strengths and limitations, with a focus on low resource settings. Expert commentary: there is a need for continuing the quest for a low cost, reliable and acceptable measure of adherence to TB treatment...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927053/future-therapies-targeted-towards-eliminating-candida-biofilms-and-associated-infections
#12
H M H N Bandara, V H Matsubara, L P Samaranayake
Candida species are common human commensals and cause either superficial or invasive opportunistic infections. The biofilm form of candida as opposed to its suspended, planktonic form, is predominantly associated with these infections. Alternative or adjunctive therapies are urgently needed to manage Candida infections as the currently available short arsenal of antifungal drugs has been compromised due to their systemic toxicity, cross-reactivity with other drugs, and above all, by the emergence of drug-resistant Candida species due to irrational drug use...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910709/management-of-infections-associated-with-neurosurgical-implanted-devices
#13
Anna Conen, Christoph A Fux, Peter Vajkoczy, Andrej Trampuz
Neurosurgical devices are increasingly used. With it, neurosurgical device-related infections gain relevance. As biofilms are involved in implant-associated infections the diagnosis and treatment is challenging and requires specific anti-biofilm concepts and management algorithms. Areas covered: The literature concerning the management of neurosurgical device-associated infections is scarce and heterogeneous treatment concepts are discussed, but no standardized diagnostic and treatment procedures exist. Therefore, we emphasize extrapolating management strategies predominantly from orthopedic device-associated infections, where the concept is better established and clinically validated...
December 13, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885865/delivering-phage-therapy-per-os-benefits-and-barriers
#15
Susan Zelasko, Andrzej Gorski, Krystyna Dabrowska
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract pose a serious public health concern. High levels of antibiotic drug resistance, along with the potential for antibiotics to precipitate disease or alter the gut microbiome has prompted research into alternative treatment methods. Evidence suggests that bacteriophage therapy delivered per os may be well-suited to target such infections. Areas covered: Herein, we discuss the specific advantages and challenges of using orally administered phage therapy...
December 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894204/clinical-laboratory-assessments-for-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-a-high-prevalence-sexually-transmitted-infection-community-reveal-epidemiologic-dichotomies-with-trichomonas-vaginalis
#16
Erik Munson, Kimber L Munson, Ronald F Schell
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection and is responsible for clinically-significant genital tract disease in both females and males. Similar to scenarios recently experienced with the urogenital flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis, an evolving molecular diagnostic reference standard based on transcription-mediated amplification allows for accurate detection of the organism, plus additional insight into disease epidemiology. Areas covered. The basis for this article includes primary peer-reviewed literature plus compilations of data derived from routine clinical laboratory screening of females and males for agents of sexually-transmitted infection...
December 10, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858472/approaches-to-biofilm-associated-infections-the-need-for-standardized-and-relevant-biofilm-methods-for-clinical-applications
#17
Matthew Malone, Darla M Goeres, Iain Gosbell, Karen Vickery, Slade Jensen, Paul Stoodley
The concept of biofilms in human health and disease is now widely accepted as cause of chronic infection. Typically, biofilms show remarkable tolerance to many forms of treatments and the host immune response. This has led to vast increase in research to identify new (and sometimes old) anti-biofilm strategies that demonstrate effectiveness against these tolerant phenotypes. Areas covered: Unfortunately, a standardized methodological approach of biofilm models has not been adopted leading to a large disparity between testing conditions...
December 9, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885885/septic-encephalopathy-and-septic-encephalitis%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#18
Simone C Tauber, Helmut Eiffert, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau
During the last two decades, septic encephalopathy (SE) was recognized as a clinically relevant problem with a high prevalence in patients at admission and during their hospital stay. SE is a condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity such as long-term cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review illustrates the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis involving blood-brain-barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation caused by endothelial and microglial activation by endogenous or pathogen-derived compounds, hypoxia by impaired microvascular regulation and septic shock as well as imbalance of neurotransmitters...
December 5, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882822/a-protective-role-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-specific-humoral-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Simone Agostini, Roberta Mancuso, Francesca Baglio, Mario Clerici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828734/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-chf5633-on-ureaplasma-induced-cytokine-responses-in-human-monocytes
#20
Kirsten Glaser, Markus Fehrholz, Birgit Henrich, Heike Claus, Michael Papsdorf, Christian P Speer
BACKGROUND: Synthetic surfactants represent a promising alternative to animal-derived preparations in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. The synthetic surfactant CHF5633 has proven biophysical effectiveness and, moreover, demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated monocytes. With ureaplasmas being relevant pathogens in preterm lung inflammation, the present study addressed immunomodulatory features on Ureaplasma-induced monocyte cytokine responses. METHODS: Ureaplasma parvum-stimulated monocytes were exposed to CHF5633...
November 18, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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