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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443391/atazanavir-sulfate-cobicistat-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#1
Francisco Antunes
The life expectancy of patients living with HIV has increased significantly in the last two decades, as a result of the great progress in treatment of HIV infection. During this time, several drugs were developed to offer long-term benefits in terms of virologic efficacy, favourable tolerability and toxicity profiles. Pharmacokinetic boosting of protease inhibitors allows a higher genetic barrier, as few or no drug-resistant mutations are detected in patients with virologic failure. Areas covered: Atazanavir sulfate + cobicistat (ATV/c) was recently approved in the United States of America and in the European Union for the treatment of HIV-1 infection...
April 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440679/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-preventable-noncommunicable-disease
#2
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Thierry Prazuck, Thérèse Lethu, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-François Meye, Laurent Bélec
Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa...
April 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425828/compliance-to-guidelines-for-the-prescribing-of-antibiotics-in-acute-infections-at-namibia-s-national-referral-hospital-a-pilot-study-and-the-implications
#3
S Nakwatumbah, D Kibuule, B Godman, V Haakuria, F Kalemeera, A Baker, M Mwangana
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal antibiotic prescribing remains a public health concern in Namibia. The objective is to determine the level and predictors of compliance to guidelines in the prescribing of antibiotics in acute infections at a national referral hospital in Namibia to improve future prescribing. METHODS: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study. The clinical records of patients receiving care were reviewed. Prescribing practices were assessed using a self- administered questionnaire with reference to Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines (NSTG)...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375030/aminoglycosides-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-critically-ill-the-pitfalls-of-aminoglycoside-susceptibility
#4
Alexandre P Zavascki, Brandon O Klee, Jürgen B Bulitta
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has brought aminoglycosides to the frontline since an aminoglycoside may be the only antimicrobial to which CRE isolates show in vitro susceptibility. The appropriateness of aminoglycoside-based therapies for severe infections by CRE is discussed considering the current breakpoints and recent pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in critically ill patients. Areas covered: Many aminoglycoside-susceptible CRE isolates present minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at or slightly below the breakpoint of amikacin or gentamicin...
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395551/use-of-tigecycline-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#5
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: Tigecycline, a derivative of minocycline, is an extended-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has a restricted approval field in children and the experience of its adoption in clinical practice is reserved for cases of challenging infections. The aim of this review was to summarize evidence regarding the use of tigecycline in infants and children, focusing on the drug's clinical efficacy data and tolerability profile. AREAS COVERED: We have conducted a literature search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases, from their inception through January 5, 2017, using the following terms: tigecycline, newborn, infant, child, pediatrics, adolescent, human, clinical trial, and case report...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355493/pfmdr1-plasmodium-falciparum-multidrug-drug-resistance-gene-1-a-pivotal-factor-in-malaria-resistance-to-artemisinin-combination-therapies
#6
J Pedro Gil, S Krishna
Plasmodium falciparum, the deadly agent of malaria, is notorious for its capacity to develop drug resistance. Treatment failures of artemisinin therapy regimens (ACTc), the present mainstay, is emerging. The transporter coding pfmdr1 gene is a central node in this process, having been associated with in vitro and in vivo parasite response to a broad range of ACT antimalarials. Areas covered: The review covers the historical origins of the pfmdr1 discovery, followed by a detailed description of its sequence and expression characteristics, as well as the structural and functional characteristics of its coded transmembrane protein...
April 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322065/potential-role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-during-primary-hiv-1-infection
#7
Juan Ambrosioni, Mayte Coiras, José Alcamí, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317397/nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-preventing-hbv-reactivation-in-immunosuppressed-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-network-meta-analysis
#8
Min-Yue Zhang, Gui-Qi Zhu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Sven Van Poucke, Ke-Qing Shi, Hong-Hui Huang, Fang-Yuan Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), including lamivudine, entecavir, adefovir, telbivudine and tenofovir, for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and HBV-related complications in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by network meta-analysis. METHODS: The search identified 28 articles involving 5 different prophylactic regimens covering 1478 participants...
March 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306360/the-antibiotic-pipeline-reviving-research-and-development-and-speeding-drugs-to-market
#9
Katherine H Luepke, John F Mohr
The combination of growing antimicrobial resistance with a dry pipeline has resulted in infections that can no longer be treated. Specific reasons have led to companies' exit from the antibacterial space, however recent incentives are spurring interest to reinvigorate the pipeline. Areas covered: This article summarizes the available information on the discovery, developmental, and regulatory challenges in antibacterial development that have led to disinterest in the space, as well as ongoing incentives such as public-private partnerships and streamlined pathways to mend these challenges and bring new antibiotics to patients in need...
March 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343419/clinical-features-long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-west-china-a-multivariate-analysis-of-154-adults
#10
Kunyi Li, Hong Tang, Yi Yang, Qin Li, Yuchuan Zhou, Min Ren, Xianghua Long, Wenjing Shen, Rong Hu, Xue-Feng Wang, Kebin Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is prevalent in China, which is the second greatest contributor to the global tuberculosis burden. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe disease form but few reports describe long-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors. Thus, we studied these features in Chinese TBM patients. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was used to collect clinical features and outcomes of adult TB meningitis at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2012 to August 2015...
March 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335642/voriconazole-for-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
David I Marks, Qifa Liu, Monica Slavin
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) are associated with a high mortality, and accordingly most alloHSCT recipients receive prophylaxis with antifungal agents. Despite some improvement in outcomes of IFIs over time, they continue to represent substantial clinical risk, mortality, and financial burden. Areas covered: We review the main pathogens responsible for IFIs in recipients of alloHSCT, current treatment recommendations, and discuss clinical and economic considerations associated with voriconazole prophylaxis of IFIs in these patients...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322062/sepsis-is-change-and-flows-ever-onwards
#12
Stavroula Ilia, George Briassoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#13
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286997/antiviral-activity-of-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs
#14
Cristiano Salata, Arianna Calistri, Cristina Parolin, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Emerging and reemerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277819/encouraging-postnatal-cytomegalovirus-cmv-screening-the-time-is-now-for-universal-screening
#15
Andrea Ronchi, Masako Shimamura, Prashant S Malhotra, Pablo J Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276942/probiotic-use-in-an-infectious-disease-setting
#16
Gregor Reid
The lethality of infectious diseases and deep concern over growing antimicrobial resistance make it essential that alternative or adjunct therapies be developed. Areas covered: Using papers published in PubMed, a case is presented to consider beneficial microbes as a means to improve management of infectious diseases. Clinical evidence is mounting that certain probiotic microbes can contribute to this armamentarium. These could have an immediate effect against necrotizing enterocolitis, pre- and post-surgical procedures, antibiotic-associated infections, urogenital infections in women and for reducing the severity and duration of respiratory infections...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276943/sleep-disruption-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#17
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Robert P Schleimer, Ali Keshavarzian
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS...
February 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277820/influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-standardizing-disease-severity-in-surveillance-and-clinical-trials
#18
Barbara Rath, Tim Conrad, Puja Myles, Maren Alchikh, Xiaolin Ma, Christian Hoppe, Franziska Tief, Xi Chen, Patrick Obermeier, Bron Kisler, Brunhilde Schweiger
Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3...
February 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117596/factors-affecting-onchocerciasis-transmission-lessons-for-infection-control
#19
Robert A Cheke
Onchocerca volvulus infects in excess of 15 million people. The vectors are Simulium blackflies, varieties of which differ in their ecologies, behavior and vectorial abilities. Control of the vectors and mass administrations of ivermectin have succeeded in reducing prevalences with elimination achieved in some foci, particularly in Central and southern America. In Africa, progress towards elimination has been less successful. Areas covered: Even with community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), control has been difficult in African areas with initial prevalences in excess of 55%, especially if only annual treatments are dispensed...
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118759/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#20
Matthew P Schreiber, Andrew F Shorr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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