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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322067/the-future-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection
#1
Ayşe Elif Özdener, Tae Eun Park, Julie Kalabalik, Rachna Gupta
People at high risk for HIV acquisition should be offered pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) is currently the only medication recommended for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in people at high risk for HIV transmission. This article will review medications currently under investigation and the future landscape of PrEP therapy. Areas covered: This article will review clinical trials that have investigated nontraditional regimens of TDF/FTC, antiretroviral agents from different drug classes such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) as potential PrEP therapies...
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322065/potential-role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-during-primary-hiv-1-infection
#2
Juan Ambrosioni, Mayte Coiras, José Alcamí, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322062/sepsis-is-change-and-flows-ever-onwards
#3
Stavroula Ilia, George Briassoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317397/nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-preventing-hbv-reactivation-in-immunosuppressed-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Min-Yue Zhang, Gui-Qi Zhu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Sven Van Poucke, Ke-Qing Shi, Hong-Hui Huang, Fang-Yuan Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
Abstracts Background: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), including lamivudine, entecavir, adefovir, telbivudine and tenofovir, for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and HBV-related complications in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by network meta-analysis. METHODS: The search identified 28 articles involving 5 different prophylactic regimens covering 1478 participants...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306360/the-antibiotic-pipeline-reviving-research-and-development-and-speeding-drugs-to-market
#5
Katherine H Luepke, John F Mohr
The combination of growing antimicrobial resistance with a dry pipeline has resulted in infections that can no longer be treated. Specific reasons have led to companies' exit from the antibacterial space, however recent incentives are spurring interest to reinvigorate the pipeline. Areas Covered: This article summarizes the available information on the discovery, developmental, and regulatory challenges in antibacterial development that have led to disinterest in the space, as well as ongoing incentives such as public-private partnerships and streamlined pathways to mend these challenges and bring new antibiotics to patients in need...
March 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#6
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas Covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286997/antiviral-activity-of-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs
#7
Cristiano Salata, Arianna Calistri, Cristina Parolin, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277819/encouraging-postnatal-cytomegalovirus-cmv-screening-the-time-is-now-for-universal-screening
#8
Andrea Ronchi, Masako Shimamura, Prashant S Malhotra, Pablo J Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276942/probiotic-use-in-an-infectious-disease-setting
#9
Gregor Reid
The lethality of infectious diseases and deep concern over growing antimicrobial resistance make it essential that alternative or adjunct therapies be developed. Areas covered: Using papers published in PubMed, a case is presented to consider beneficial microbes as a means to improve management of infectious diseases. Clinical evidence is mounting that certain probiotic microbes can contribute to this armamentarium. These could have an immediate effect against necrotizing enterocolitis, pre- and post-surgical procedures, antibiotic-associated infections, urogenital infections in women and for reducing the severity and duration of respiratory infections...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276943/sleep-disruption-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Robert P Schleimer, Ali Keshavarzian
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS...
February 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277820/influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-standardizing-disease-severity-in-surveillance-and-clinical-trials
#11
Barbara Rath, Tim Conrad, Puja Myles, Maren Alchikh, Xiaolin Ma, Christian Hoppe, Franziska Tief, Xi Chen, Patrick Obermeier, Bron Kisler, Brunhilde Schweiger
Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3...
February 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117596/factors-affecting-onchocerciasis-transmission-lessons-for-infection-control
#12
Robert A Cheke
Onchocerca volvulus infects in excess of 15 million people. The vectors are Simulium blackflies, varieties of which differ in their ecologies, behavior and vectorial abilities. Control of the vectors and mass administrations of ivermectin have succeeded in reducing prevalences with elimination achieved in some foci, particularly in Central and southern America. In Africa, progress towards elimination has been less successful. Areas covered: Even with community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), control has been difficult in African areas with initial prevalences in excess of 55%, especially if only annual treatments are dispensed...
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152317/candida-albicans-morphology-still-in-focus
#13
Ilse D Jacobsen, Bernhard Hube
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118759/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#14
Matthew P Schreiber, Andrew F Shorr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132566/long-term-comparative-pharmacovigilance-of-orally-transmitted-chagas-disease-first-report
#15
Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya, Raiza Ruiz-Guevara, Oscar Noya, Julio Castro, John Ossenkopp, Zoraida Díaz-Bello, Cecilia Colmenares, José Antonio Suárez, Oscar Noya-Alarcón, Laura Naranjo, Humberto Gutiérrez, Giuseppa Quinci, Jaime Torres
BACKGROUND: Two old drugs are the only choice against Trypanosoma cruzi and little is known about their secondary effects in the acute stage of oral-transmitted Chagas disease (ChD). METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical surveillance study was conducted in a sizable cohort of patients seen during the largest acute foodborne ChD microepidemic registered so far. Individuals were treated with benznidazole (BNZ) or nifurtimox (NFX). "Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events" was assessed to categorize side effects according to severity...
January 30, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117609/letter-to-the-editor-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#16
Mark Metersky, Andre Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117606/tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine-elvitegravir-and-cobicistat-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#17
Arkaitz Imaz, Daniel Podzamczer
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir. TAF has been co-formulated with emtricitabine (FTC), elvitegravir (EVG) and the EVG metabolic enhancer, cobicistat (COBI) as a single-tablet regimen being the first TAF-containing antiretroviral combination available. Areas covered: This article summarizes the available information on the pharmacology of the novel compound TAF and overviews TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI use for HIV-1 infected patients, with specific focus on clinical efficacy and safety data...
January 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111998/recent-advances-in-aids-related-cryptococcal-meningitis-treatment-with-an-emphasis-on-resource-limited-settings
#18
Sarah Lofgren, Mahsa Abassi, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware
Recent advances in the treatment and prevention of cryptococcal meningitis have the potential to decrease AIDS-related deaths. Areas covered. Targeted screening for asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia in persons with AIDS is a cost effective method for reducing early mortality in patients on antiretroviral therapy. For persons with symptomatic cryptococcal meningitis, optimal initial management with amphotericin and flucytosine improves survival compared to alternative therapies; however, amphotericin is difficult to administer and flucytosine has not been available in middle or low income countries, where cryptococcal meningitis is most prevalent...
January 23, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074660/optimizing-the-management-of-children-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#19
E Venturini, C Tersigni, E Chiappini, M de Martino, L Galli
The management of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) in children represents an important issue for paediatricians because of the disease burden, the lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis and the high annual risk of progression to active disease. Areas covered: A review of English language articles on LTBI in children, published between the 1st of January 2010 and the 1st of July 2016, was conducted using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in PubMed database. This review provides an updated overview of the available tests for LTBI diagnosis in children, management strategies and treatment options...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067078/antiviral-therapy-for-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#20
Lokesh Shahani, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
Respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infections are evident, prognosis can be grave...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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