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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

Edoardo Bruno Vicenzi, Simone Cesaro
INTRODUCTION: Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole widely used to prevent and treat invasive mycoses in adults. Since it received marketing authorization more than a decade ago, many authors have reported on its off-label use in pediatric patients, despite the fact that the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy in children have not been extensively investigated. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed pediatric studies published between 2010 and 2017 describing the prophylactic and therapeutic use of posaconazole, with special attention to the correlation between oral dose, plasma levels, safety, and effectiveness...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jacob Bodilsen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Henrik Nielsen, Diederik van de Beek
INTRODUCTION: Brain abscess is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening infection of the CNS that can be caused by a range of different pathogens including bacteria, fungi and parasites. A multidisciplinary approach is important and anti-infective treatment remains crucial. Here, we review anti-infective treatment of brain abscess. Areas covered: We used the terms '(Brain abscess[ti] AND (antibiotic* OR treatment)) NOT case report'), to conduct a search in the PubMed. Additional papers were identified by cross-reference checking and by browsing textbooks of infectious diseases and neurology...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Sophie Masmejan, David Baud, Didier Musso, Alice Panchaud
Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged as a global public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV is responsible for severe neurological complications in adults and infection during pregnancy can lead to congenital Zika syndrome. There is no licensed vaccine or drug to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to provide an overview and update of the progress of research on anti-ZIKV vaccine and medications until the end of 2017, with a special emphasis on drugs that can be used during pregnancy...
June 13, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Delia Goletti, Linda Petrone, Giuseppe Ippolito, Laura Niccoli, Carlotta Nannini, Fabrizio Cantini
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) accounts for almost a quarter of the world population, and, in 5-10% of the subjects with impaired immune-response against M. tuberculosis growth, it may progress to active tuberculosis (TB). In this review, we focus on the need to propose a screening for LTBI including preventive therapy offer in rheumatic patients undergoing therapy with biological drugs. Areas covered: We report on evidence that biologics are associated with an increased risk of active TB reactivation...
June 12, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Farnaz Zahedifard, Sima Rafati
Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases and is highly endemic in many countries. Currently, there is no adequate human vaccine and treatment to control the disease. Areas covered: As a result of the failure of chemotherapy and toxicity, it is necessary to find another approach for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Recently, anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), originating from natural resources have attracted much attention for their use as a new antibiotics for many infectious and non-infectious diseases...
June 11, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Yiyun Liu, Liu Jian-Hua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Céline Dard, Pierre Marty, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Cécile Garnaud, Hélène Fricker-Hidalgo, Hervé Pelloux, Christelle Pomares
Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The risk of toxoplasmosis in transplant patients mainly depends on the degree of immunosuppression, the tropism of Toxoplasma gondii for the grafted tissue, and the seroprevalence in the general population. Although transplant recipients with toxoplasmosis have a high mortality rate, there are neither well-defined recommendations nor a consensus for the management of this disease in these patients...
June 1, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Mark A T Blaskovich, Miranda E Pitt, Alysha G Elliott, Matthew A Cooper
The octapeptins are a family of cyclic lipopeptides first reported in the 1970s then largely ignored. At the time, their reported antibiotic activity against polymyxin-resistant bacteria was a curiosity. Today the advent of widespread drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has prompted their 'rediscovery'. The paucity of new antibiotics in the clinical pipeline is coupled with a global spread of increasing antibiotic resistance, particularly to meropenem and polymyxins B and E (colistin). Areas covered: We review the original discovery of octapeptins, their recent first chemical syntheses, and their mode of action, then discuss their potential as a new class of antibiotics to treat extensively drug resistant (XDR) Gram-negative infections, with direct comparisons to the closely related polymyxins...
May 31, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Jose María Aguado
The increasing number of transplants performed worldwide and the growing global mobility with migration and travel to and from developing countries and tropical areas are bringing new challenges for the management of transplant infectious diseases, previously less commonly seen, such as Leishmaniasis. However, in this scenario there is a lack of information and the current knowledge is based on a few studies. The selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on various factors, such as patient profile, Leishmania species, disease extent, drug availability, concomitant infections and previous treatments...
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Fabienne Marcellin, Hélène Fontaine, Lawrence Serfaty, Philippe Sogni, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Aiden J Plant, Alexander Dunn, Robert J Porter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Marco Cascella, Silvia Corcione, Arturo Cuomo, Salvatore Nappa, Guglielmo Borgia, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Ivan Gentile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Rachel Sacks-Davis, Alisa E Pedrana, Nick Scott, Joseph S Doyle, Margaret E Hellard
Broad availability of direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) raises the possibility that HCV prevalence and incidence can be reduced through scaling-up treatment, leading to the elimination of HCV. High rates of linkage to HIV care among HIV-infected gay and bisexual men may facilitate high uptake of HCV treatment, possibly making HCV elimination more achievable in this group. Areas covered: This review covers HCV elimination in HIV-infected gay and bisexual men, including epidemiology, spontaneous clearance and long term sequelae in the absence of direct-acting antiviral therapy; direct-acting antiviral therapy uptake and effectiveness in this group; HCV reinfection following successful treatment; and areas for further research...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ruth McNerney, Matteo Zignol, Taane G Clark
The threat of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is of global concern. Current efforts to monitor resistance rely on phenotypic testing where cultured bacteria are exposed to critical concentrations of the drugs. Capacity for such testing is low in TB endemic countries. Drug resistance is caused by mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and whole genome sequencing to detect these mutations offers an alternative means of assessing resistance. Areas covered: The challenges of assessing TB drug resistance are discussed...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Celda Tiroyakgosi, Matshediso Matome, Emily Summers, Yohana Mashalla, Bene Anand Paramadhas, Sajini Souda, Brighid Malone, Fatima Sinkala, Joyce Kgatlwane, Brian Godman, Keneilwe Mmopi, Amos Massele
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are ongoing initiatives in Botswana to enhance appropriate antibiotic use. The objective of this meeting was to discuss ongoing initiatives in Botswana since February 2016 to improve antibiotic use. Subsequently, use the findings to refine national and local action plans. METHOD: Presentation and review of ongoing initiatives. RESULTS: There was a high rate of antibiotic prescribing among ambulatory care patients in the public sector (42...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Sophie Amrane, Didier Raoult, Jean-Christophe Lagier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jason J Ong, Hongyun Fu, M Kumi Smith, Joseph D Tucker
Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI). Despite inexpensive and effective treatment, few key populations receive syphilis testing. Innovative strategies are needed to increase syphilis testing among key populations. Areas covered: This scoping review focused on strategies to increase syphilis testing in key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, people who use drugs, transgender people, and incarcerated individuals). Expert commentary: We identified many promising syphilis testing strategies, particularly among MSM...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Despite the essential role played by infectious diseases specialists in patient care, public health, cost-containment, and biomedical research, the field has a substantially higher percentage of vacant positions than other medicine sub-specialties. While much has been written about what this disturbing trend means for patient care, comparatively little attention has been focused on the dire implications for clinical research and the development of novel anti-infective therapy. Areas covered: We examine the ways that hospitalists and infectious disease specialists might collaborate to study emerging diagnostic platforms, novel antimicrobial agents, and strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programs to improve the delivery of high-quality health care...
May 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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