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Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524748/an-unwanted-guest-neisseria-meningitides-carriage-risk-for-invasive-disease-and-the-impact-of-vaccination-with-insights-from-italy-incidence
#1
Elena Gianchecchi, Giulia Piccini, Alessandro Torelli, Rino Rappuoli, Emanuele Montomoli
Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a potentially life-threatening condition caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The disease is characterized by a case fatality rate of 5-10% whereas serious clinical sequelae can develop in survivors within 12-24 hours from the first symptoms. However, IMD infection only occurs rarely, in fact, most of the interactions established between N. meningitidis and the host are harmless, and an estimated 10% of the population asymptomatically carries the bacterium in the nasopharynx...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480779/use-of-human-immunoglobulins-as-an-anti-infective-treatment-the-experience-so-far-and-their-possible-re-emerging-role
#2
Jordi Bozzo, Juan I Jorquera
Pooled human immunoglobulins (IGs) are prepared from plasma obtained from healthy donors as a concentrated antibody-containing solution. In addition, high-titer IGs (hyperimmune) against a specific pathogen can be obtained from vaccinated or convalescing donors. Currently, IGs can be used for the treatment of a variety of infections for which no specific therapy exists or that remain difficult to treat. Moreover, the recent pathogen outbreaks for which there is no approved treatment have renewed attention to the role of convalescent plasma and IGs...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480775/drug-development-challenges-and-strategies-to-address-emerging-and-resistant-fungal-pathogens
#3
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive fungal infections represent an expanding threat to public health. The recent emergence of Candida auris, which is often resistant to existing antifungal agents and is associated with a high mortality rate, underscores the urgent need for novel drug development strategies. Areas covered: In this paper, we examine both challenges and opportunities associated with antifungal drug development and explore potential avenues to accelerate the development pipeline, including data sharing, surrogate endpoints, and the role of historical controls in clinical trials...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277820/influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-standardizing-disease-severity-in-surveillance-and-clinical-trials
#4
Barbara Rath, Tim Conrad, Puja Myles, Maren Alchikh, Xiaolin Ma, Christian Hoppe, Franziska Tief, Xi Chen, Patrick Obermeier, Bron Kisler, Brunhilde Schweiger
Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3...
May 12, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443391/atazanavir-sulfate-cobicistat-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#5
Francisco Antunes
During last two decades several drugs were developed to offer long-term benefits in terms of virologic efficacy, favourable tolerability and toxicity profiles in treatment of HIV infection. Pharmacokinetics boosting of protease inhibitor allows a higher genetic barrier, as few or no drug-resistant mutations are detected in patients with virologic failure. Areas covered: Atazanavir sulfate + cobicistat (ATV/c) was recently approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Bioequivalence between cobicistat (COBI) and ritonavir (RTV) as a pharmacoenhancer of ATV was established...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481651/the-alternate-effects-of-anti-tnfa-therapeutics-and-their-role-in-mycobacterial-granulomatous-infection-in-crohn-s-disease
#6
Ahmad Qasem, Abed Elrahman Naser, Saleh A Naser
Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that has been debated to be associated with bacterial triggers such as Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Standard treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) patients includes a family of immunomodulators and biologics such as Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (Anti-TNFa). This cytokine in particular has been known to play vital roles in fighting microbial infections through formation and maintenance of granulomas. Areas covered: This perspective is focused on elucidating the negative effects of using Anti-TNFa therapeutic agents as a treatment option in CD patients who are more likely suspected to have MAP infection, and the role of other immunomodulators in MAP infection...
May 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481638/impact-of-total-body-weight-on-30-day-mortality-in-patients-with-gram-negative-bacteremia
#7
Ronald G Hall, Eunice Yoo, Andrew Faust, Terri Smith, Edward Goodman, Eric M Mortensen, Steven Richardson, Carlos Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The impact of total body weight (TBW) on 30-day mortality associated with gram-negative bacteremia has not been previously evaluated. METHODS: The cohort included 323 patients >/=18 years old with gram-negative bacteremia (1/1/2008-8/31/2011) who received >/=48 hours of antibiotics. We compared 30-day mortality of TBW <70kg vs. >/=70kg with a multivariable stepwise logistic regression adjusting for age >/=70 years, cancer diagnosis, and Pitt bacteremia score of >/=4...
May 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440679/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-preventable-noncommunicable-disease
#8
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Thierry Prazuck, Thérèse Lethu, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-François Meye, Laurent Bélec
Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa...
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425828/compliance-to-guidelines-for-the-prescribing-of-antibiotics-in-acute-infections-at-namibia-s-national-referral-hospital-a-pilot-study-and-the-implications
#9
S Nakwatumbah, D Kibuule, B Godman, V Haakuria, F Kalemeera, A Baker, M Mubita
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal antibiotic prescribing remains a public health concern in Namibia. The objective was to determine the level and predictors of compliance to guidelines in the prescribing of antibiotics in acute infections at a national referral hospital in Namibia to improve future prescribing. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional survey design. The clinical records of patients receiving care were reviewed. Prescribing practices were assessed using a self- administered questionnaire with reference to Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines (NSTG)...
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395551/use-of-tigecycline-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#10
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Luisa Galli, Maurizio De Martino, Elena Chiappini
Tigecycline, a derivative of minocycline, is an extended-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has a restricted approval field in children and the experience of its adoption in clinical practice is reserved for cases of challenging infections. The aim of this review was to summarize evidence regarding the use of tigecycline in infants and children, focusing on the drug's clinical efficacy data and tolerability profile. Areas covered: We have conducted a literature search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases, from their inception through 5 January 2017, using the following terms: tigecycline, newborn, infant, child, pediatrics, adolescent, human, clinical trial, and case report...
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375030/aminoglycosides-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-critically-ill-the-pitfalls-of-aminoglycoside-susceptibility
#11
Alexandre P Zavascki, Brandon O Klee, Jürgen B Bulitta
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has brought aminoglycosides to the frontline since an aminoglycoside may be the only antimicrobial to which CRE isolates show in vitro susceptibility. The appropriateness of aminoglycoside-based therapies for severe infections by CRE is discussed considering the current breakpoints and recent pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in critically ill patients. Areas covered: Many aminoglycoside-susceptible CRE isolates present minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at or slightly below the breakpoint of amikacin or gentamicin...
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355493/pfmdr1-plasmodium-falciparum-multidrug-drug-resistance-gene-1-a-pivotal-factor-in-malaria-resistance-to-artemisinin-combination-therapies
#12
J Pedro Gil, S Krishna
Plasmodium falciparum, the deadly agent of malaria, is notorious for its capacity to develop drug resistance. Treatment failures of artemisinin therapy regimens (ACTc), the present mainstay, is emerging. The transporter coding pfmdr1 gene is a central node in this process, having been associated with in vitro and in vivo parasite response to a broad range of ACT antimalarials. Areas covered: The review covers the historical origins of the pfmdr1 discovery, followed by a detailed description of its sequence and expression characteristics, as well as the structural and functional characteristics of its coded transmembrane protein...
April 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343419/clinical-features-long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-west-china-a-multivariate-analysis-of-154-adults
#13
Kunyi Li, Hong Tang, Yi Yang, Qin Li, Yuchuan Zhou, Min Ren, Xianghua Long, Wenjing Shen, Rong Hu, Xuefeng Wang, Kebin Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is prevalent in China, which is the second greatest contributor to the global tuberculosis burden. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe disease form but few reports describe long-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors. Thus, we studied these features in Chinese TBM patients. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was used to collect clinical features and outcomes of adult TB meningitis at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2012 to August 2015...
April 7, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322062/sepsis-is-change-and-flows-ever-onwards
#14
Stavroula Ilia, George Briassoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322065/potential-role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-during-primary-hiv-1-infection
#15
Juan Ambrosioni, Mayte Coiras, José Alcamí, José M Miró
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317397/nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-preventing-hbv-reactivation-in-immunosuppressed-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-network-meta-analysis
#16
Min-Yue Zhang, Gui-Qi Zhu, Ji-Na Zheng, Zhang Cheng, Sven Van Poucke, Ke-Qing Shi, Hong-Hui Huang, Fang-Yuan Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), including lamivudine, entecavir, adefovir, telbivudine and tenofovir, for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and HBV-related complications in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by network meta-analysis. METHODS: The search identified 28 articles involving 5 different prophylactic regimens covering 1478 participants...
March 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306360/the-antibiotic-pipeline-reviving-research-and-development-and-speeding-drugs-to-market
#17
Katherine H Luepke, John F Mohr
The combination of growing antimicrobial resistance with a dry pipeline has resulted in infections that can no longer be treated. Specific reasons have led to companies' exit from the antibacterial space, however recent incentives are spurring interest to reinvigorate the pipeline. Areas covered: This article summarizes the available information on the discovery, developmental, and regulatory challenges in antibacterial development that have led to disinterest in the space, as well as ongoing incentives such as public-private partnerships and streamlined pathways to mend these challenges and bring new antibiotics to patients in need...
March 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286997/antiviral-activity-of-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs
#18
Cristiano Salata, Arianna Calistri, Cristina Parolin, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Emerging and reemerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277819/encouraging-postnatal-cytomegalovirus-cmv-screening-the-time-is-now-for-universal-screening
#19
Andrea Ronchi, Masako Shimamura, Prashant S Malhotra, Pablo J Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276942/probiotic-use-in-an-infectious-disease-setting
#20
Gregor Reid
The lethality of infectious diseases and deep concern over growing antimicrobial resistance make it essential that alternative or adjunct therapies be developed. Areas covered: Using papers published in PubMed, a case is presented to consider beneficial microbes as a means to improve management of infectious diseases. Clinical evidence is mounting that certain probiotic microbes can contribute to this armamentarium. These could have an immediate effect against necrotizing enterocolitis, pre- and post-surgical procedures, antibiotic-associated infections, urogenital infections in women and for reducing the severity and duration of respiratory infections...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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