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Population Health Metrics

Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Ingrid S K Krishnadath, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Lenny M Nahar-van Venrooij, Jerry R Toelsie
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about the prevalence, ethnic disparities, and risk factors of hypertension within developing countries. We used data from a nationwide study on non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors to estimate, explore, and compare the prevalence of hypertension overall and in subgroups of risk factors among different ethnic groups in Suriname. METHOD: The Suriname Health Study used the World Health Organization Steps design to select respondents with a stratified multistage cluster sample of households...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Zoua M Vang
BACKGROUND: Adult immigrants in Canada have a survival advantage over their Canadian-born counterparts. It is unknown whether migrants are able to transmit their survival advantage to their Canadian-born children. METHODS: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality between the Canadian-born population and 12 immigrant subgroups were compared using 1990-2005 linked birth-infant death records. Age-at-death specific mortality rates and rate differences were calculated by nativity status and maternal birthplace...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Jing Zhang, Rohina Joshi, Jixin Sun, Samantha R Rosenthal, Miao Tong, Cong Li, Rasika Rampatige, Meghan Mooney, Alan Lopez, Lijing L Yan
BACKGROUND: Currently there are two main sources of mortality data with cause of death assignments in China. Both sources-the Ministry of Health-Vital Registration system and the Chinese Disease Surveillance Point system-present their own challenges. A new approach to cause of death assignment is a smartphone-based shortened version of a verbal autopsy survey. This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of this new method conducted by township health care providers (THP) and village doctors (VD) in rural China, where a large proportion of deaths occur in homes and cause of death data are inaccurate or lacking...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Shurong Lu, Jian Su, Quanyong Xiang, Jinyi Zhou, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Self-reported height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to estimate the prevalence of obesity, which has been increasing rapidly in China, but there is limited evidence for the accuracy of self-reported data and the determinants of self-report bias among the general adult Chinese population. METHODS: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 8399 residents aged 18 or above were interviewed in the Jiangsu Province of China. Information on self-reported height, weight, and WC, together with information on demographic factors and lifestyle behaviors, were collected through structured face-to-face interviews...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Sergey Timonin, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, Domantas Jasilionis, Pavel Grigoriev, Dmitry A Jdanov, David A Leon
BACKGROUND: Over the past half century the global tendency for improvements in longevity has been uneven across countries. This has resulted in widening of inter-country disparities in life expectancy. Moreover, the pattern of divergence appears to be driven in part by processes at the level of country groupings defined in geopolitical terms. A systematic quantitative analysis of this phenomenon has not been possible using demographic decomposition approaches as these have not been suitably adapted for this purpose...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Mongal Singh Gurung, Dorji Pelzom, Tandin Dorji, Wangchuk Drukpa, Chador Wangdi, Palanivel Chinnakali, Sonu Goel
BACKGROUND: Despite a comprehensive ban on cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of tobacco products since 2004, two nationwide surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013 reported high tobacco use in Bhutan. National Health Survey 2012 reported that 4 % of the population aged 15-75 years used smoked tobacco and about 48 % used smokeless tobacco. Similarly, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of Bhutan reported tobacco use prevalence of 30.3 % in 2013. However, factors associated with this high tobacco use were not systematically studied...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Ken Harada, Yoko Sugihara, Shizuko Yanagisawa, Masaya Shinmei
BACKGROUND: Differences in health resulting from differences in socioeconomic status (SES) have been identified around the world. Age, period, and cohort (A-P-C) differences in health are vital factors which are associated with disparities in SES. However, few studies have examined these differences simultaneously. Moreover, although self-rated health (SRH) has been frequently used as an indicator of health, biases in reporting SRH that depend on the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents have been scarcely adjusted in the previous studies...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Tony H Grubesic, Ran Wei, Alan T Murray, William Alex Pridemore
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to reduce harm. The aim of this study is to introduce both a gravity potential measure of access to alcohol outlets, comparing its strengths and weaknesses to other popular approaches, and an empirically-derived taxonomy of neighborhoods based on the type of alcohol access they exhibit...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Daniel Kreft, Gabriele Doblhammer
BACKGROUND: Studies state profound cross-country differences in healthy life years and its time trends, suggesting either the health scenario of expansion or compression of morbidity. A much-discussed question in public health research is whether the health scenarios are heterogeneous or homogeneous on the subnational level as well. Furthermore, the question arises whether the morbidity trends or the mortality trends are the decisive drivers of the care need-free life years (CFLY), the life years with care need (CLY), and, ultimately, the health scenarios...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Bochen Cao
BACKGROUND: In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Shaoman Yin, Rashid Njai, Lawrence Barker, Paul Z Siegel, Youlian Liao
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional concept commonly used to examine the impact of health status on quality of life. HRQOL is often measured by four core questions that asked about general health status and number of unhealthy days in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Use of these measures individually, however, may not provide a cohesive picture of overall HRQOL. To address this concern, this study developed and tested a method for combining these four measures into a summary score...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Luis Sordo, Gregorio Barrio, María J Bravo, Joan R Villalbí, Albert Espelt, Montserrat Neira, Enrique Regidor
BACKGROUND: National estimates on per capita alcohol consumption are provided regularly by various sources and may have validity problems, so corrections are needed for monitoring and assessment purposes. Our objectives were to compare different alcohol availability estimates for Spain, to build the best estimate (actual consumption), characterize its time trend during 2001-2011, and quantify the extent to which other estimates (coverage) approximated actual consumption. METHODS: Estimates were: alcohol availability from the Spanish Tax Agency (Tax Agency availability), World Health Organization (WHO availability) and other international agencies, self-reported purchases from the Spanish Food Consumption Panel, and self-reported consumption from population surveys...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Jochen Klenk, Ulrich Keil, Andrea Jaensch, Marcus C Christiansen, Gabriele Nagel
BACKGROUND: Changes of life expectancy over time serve as an interesting public health indicator for medical, social and economic developments within populations. The aim of this study was to quantify changes of life expectancy between 1950 and 2010 and relate these to main causes of death. METHODS: Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing life expectancy was applied to compare the contributions of different age- and disease-groups on life expectancy in 5-year intervals...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Cornelia Oberhauser, Somnath Chatterji, Carla Sabariego, Alarcos Cieza
BACKGROUND: The following minimal set of valid health domains for tracking the health of both clinical and general populations has recently been proposed: 1) energy and drive functions, 2) emotional functions, 3) sensation of pain, 4) carrying out daily routine, 5) walking and moving around, and 6) remunerative employment. This study investigates whether these domains can be integrated into a sound psychometric measure to adequately assess, compare, and monitor the health of populations...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Géraldine Duthé, Clémentine Rossier, Doris Bonnet, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Jamaica Corker
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Adam D M Briggs, Jane Wolstenholme, Tony Blakely, Peter Scarborough
Non-communicable diseases are the leading global causes of mortality and morbidity. Growing pressures on health services and on social care have led to increasing calls for a greater emphasis to be placed on prevention. In order for decisionmakers to make informed judgements about how to best spend finite public health resources, they must be able to quantify the anticipated costs, benefits, and opportunity costs of each prevention option available. This review presents a taxonomy of epidemiological model structures and applies it to the economic evaluation of public health interventions for non-communicable diseases...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Worawan Chandoevwit, Phasith Phatchana, Kanjana Sirigomon, Kunakorn Ieawsuwan, Jutatip Thungthong, Saray Ruangdej
BACKGROUND: Thailand uses cause of death records in civil registration to summarize maternal mortality statistics. A report by the Department of Health using the Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) reported that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in 1997 was approximately three to four times higher than MMR based on the civil registration cause of death records. Here, we used multiple data sources to systematically measure maternal mortality in Thailand and showed a disparity between age groups and regions...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Viviane Costa de Souza Buriol, Vânia Hirakata, Marcelo Zubaran Goldani, Clécio Homrich da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants in Brazilian state capitals between 1996 and 2011. We intended to determine which variables are associated with LBW during the period studied. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the National Information System of Live Births from 26 state capitals and Brasilia (the federal capital), divided into five geographical regions. The Average Annual Percentage of Change (AAPC) was used to assess the possible time trend in the low birth weight rates for considering all regions together and each region separately, according to each variable, and the Poisson regression was calculated in order to demonstrate time trends in low birth weight and the impact of variables (age and educational maternal level, antenatal visits, type of delivery, and gestational age) during the period...
2016: Population Health Metrics
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