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Population Health Metrics

Antonio P Ramos, Robert E Weiss, Jody S Heymann
BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that there are multiple risk factors for early-life mortality. In practice most interventions to curb early-life mortality target births based on a single risk factor, such as poverty. However, most premature deaths are not from the targeted group. Thus interventions target many births that are at not at high risk and miss many births at high risk. METHODS: Using data from the second wave of Demographic and Health Surveys from India and a hierarchical Bayesian model, we estimate infant mortality risk for 73...
August 23, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Marc Martí-Pastor, Angels Pont, Mónica Ávila, Olatz Garin, Gemma Vilagut, Carlos G Forero, Yolanda Pardo, Ricard Tresserras, Antonia Medina-Bustos, Oriol Garcia-Codina, Juan Cabasés, Luis Rajmil, Jordi Alonso, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D has been frequently used in national health surveys. This study is a head-to-head comparison to assess how expanding the number of levels from three (EQ-5D-3L) to five in the new EQ-5D-5L version has improved its distribution, discriminatory power, and validity in the general population. METHODS: A representative sample (N = 7554) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2011-2012, aged ≥18, answered both EQ-5D versions, and we evaluated the response redistribution and inconsistencies between them...
August 16, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Ellen R Squires, Stephanie Teeple, Gloria Ikilezi, D Allen Roberts, Danny V Colombara, Sarah Katherine Allen, Stanley M Kamande, Nicholas Graetz, Abraham D Flaxman, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Kristjana Asbjornsdottir, Gilbert Asiimwe, Ângelo Augusto, Orvalho Augusto, Baltazar Chilundo, Caroline De Schacht, Sarah Gimbel, Carol Kamya, Faith Namugaya, Felix Masiye, Cremildo Mauieia, Yodé Miangotar, Honoré Mimche, Acácio Sabonete, Haribondhu Sarma, Kenneth Sherr, Moses Simuyemba, Aaron Chisha Sinyangwe, Jasim Uddin, Bradley H Wagenaar, Stephen S Lim
BACKGROUND: The under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) is an important metric of child health and survival. Country-level estimates of U5MR are readily available, but efforts to estimate U5MR subnationally have been limited, in part, due to spatial misalignment of available data sources (e.g., use of different administrative levels, or as a result of historical boundary changes). METHODS: We analyzed all available complete and summary birth history data in surveys and censuses in six countries (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia) at the finest geographic level available in each data source...
August 13, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Jack E Gibson, E Louise Ander, Mark Cave, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Anwar Musah, Jo Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: Long-term, low-level exposure to toxic elements in soil may be harmful to human health but large longitudinal cohort studies with sufficient follow-up time to study these effects are cost-prohibitive and impractical. Linkage of routinely collected medical outcome data to systematic surveys of soil quality may offer a viable alternative. METHODS: We used the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE), a systematic X-ray fluorescence survey of soil inorganic chemistry throughout England and Wales to obtain estimates of the concentrations of 15 elements in the soil contained within each English and Welsh postcode area...
July 16, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Sheila Isanaka, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Rebecca F Grais, Ben G S Allen
BACKGROUND: Many health programs can assess coverage using standardized cluster survey methods, but estimating the coverage of nutrition programs presents a special challenge due to low disease prevalence. Used since 2012, the Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC) employs both qualitative and quantitative methods to identify key barriers to access and estimate coverage of therapeutic feeding programs. While the tool has been increasingly used in programs, the validity of certain methodological elements has been the subject of debate...
July 3, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Riley H Hazard, Nurul Alam, Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury, Tim Adair, Saidul Alam, Peter Kim Streatfield, Ian Douglas Riley, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Deaths in developing countries often occur outside health facilities, making it extremely difficult to gather reliable cause of death (COD) information. Automated COD assignment using a verbal autopsy instrument (VAI) has been proposed as a reliable and cost-effective alternative to traditional physician-certified verbal autopsy, but its performance is still being evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the similarity of diagnosis by Medical Assistants (MA) in the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) with the SmartVA Analyze 1...
June 27, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Ji Lin, Theodore J Thompson, Yiling J Cheng, Xiaohui Zhuo, Ping Zhang, Edward Gregg, Deborah B Rolka
BACKGROUND: In the United States, diabetes has increased rapidly, exceeding prior predictions. Projections of the future diabetes burden need to reflect changes in incidence, mortality, and demographics. We applied the most recent data available to develop an updated projection through 2060. METHODS: A dynamic Markov model was used to project prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among US adults by age, sex, and race (white, black, other). Incidence and current prevalence were from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1985-2014...
June 15, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Hal Caswell, Virginia Zarulli
BACKGROUND: Increases in human longevity have made it critical to distinguish healthy longevity from longevity without regard to health. Current methods focus on expectations of healthy longevity, and are often limited to binary health outcomes (e.g., disabled vs. not disabled). We present a new matrix formulation for the statistics of healthy longevity, based on health prevalence data and Markov chain theory, applicable to any kind of health outcome and which provides variances and higher moments as well as expectations of healthy life...
June 7, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Carlo Lallo, Michele Raitano
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity...
April 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Rita Roquette, Baltazar Nunes, Marco Painho
BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of diseases is essential in public health in order to define strategies to improve the health of populations and quality of life. The present study aims to establish a methodology to choose a suitable geographic aggregation level of data and an appropriated method which allow us to analyze disease spatial patterns in mainland Portugal, avoiding the "small numbers problem." Malignant cancer mortality data for 2009-2013 was used as a case study...
March 27, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Charbel El Bcheraoui, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Erin B Palmisano, Claire R McNellan, Sima S Desai, Marielle C Gagnier, Annie Haakenstad, Casey Johanns, Alexandra Schaefer, Bernardo Hernandez, Emma Iriarte, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: To propose health system strategies to meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on HIV screening through antenatal care (ANC) services, we assessed predictors of HIV screening, and simulated the impact of changes in these predictors on the probability of HIV screening in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (State of Chiapas), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador. METHODS: We interviewed a representative sample of women of reproductive age from the poorest Mesoamerican areas on ANC services, including HIV screening...
March 20, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, María A Jiménez-Sousa, Dariela Micheloud, Ainhoa Sánchez-Lopez, María Heredia-Rodríguez, Eduardo Tamayo, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Sepsis has represented a substantial health care and economic burden worldwide during the previous several decades. Our aim was to analyze the epidemiological trends of hospital admissions, deaths, hospital resource expenditures, and associated costs related to sepsis during the twenty-first century in Spain. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all sepsis-related hospitalizations in Spanish public hospitals from 2000 to 2013. Data were obtained from records in the Minimum Basic Data Set...
February 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Abraham D Flaxman, Andrea Stewart, Jonathan C Joseph, Nurul Alam, Sayed Saidul Alam, Hafizur Chowdhury, Meghan D Mooney, Rasika Rampatige, Hazel Remolador, Diozele Sanvictores, Peter T Serina, Peter Kim Streatfield, Veronica Tallo, Christopher J L Murray, Bernardo Hernandez, Alan D Lopez, Ian Douglas Riley
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in using verbal autopsy to produce nationally representative population-level estimates of causes of death. However, the burden of processing a large quantity of surveys collected with paper and pencil has been a barrier to scaling up verbal autopsy surveillance. Direct electronic data capture has been used in other large-scale surveys and can be used in verbal autopsy as well, to reduce time and cost of going from collected data to actionable information...
February 1, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Jacob E Sunshine, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Alan Chen, Sam R Sharar, Erin B Palmisano, Eileen M Bulger, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-impaired driving remain significant public health problems, leading to considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly among younger populations. METHODS: Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we employed a small areas modeling strategy to estimate the county-level annual prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving in every United States county for the years 2002 through 2012, the latest year in which county identifiers were publicly available...
February 1, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Thomas O Talbot, Douglas H Done, Gwen D Babcock
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth (LE) has been calculated for states and counties. LE estimates at these levels mask health disparities in local communities. There are no nationwide estimates at the sub-county level. We present a stepwise approach for calculating LE using census tracts in New York state to identify health disparities. METHODS: Our study included 2751 census tracts in New York state, but excluded New York City. We used population data from the 2010 United States Census and 2008-2010 mortality data from the state health department...
January 26, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Heidi Moseson, Caitlin Gerdts, Christine Dehlendorf, Robert A Hiatt, Eric Vittinghoff
BACKGROUND: The list experiment is a promising measurement tool for eliciting truthful responses to stigmatized or sensitive health behaviors. However, investigators may be hesitant to adopt the method due to previously untestable assumptions and the perceived inability to conduct multivariable analysis. With a recently developed statistical test that can detect the presence of a design effect - the absence of which is a central assumption of the list experiment method - we sought to test the validity of a list experiment conducted on self-reported abortion in Liberia...
December 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
Elisabeth B França, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Bruce B Duncan, Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro, Mark D C Guimarães, Daisy M X Abreu, Ana Maria N Vasconcelos, Mariângela Carneiro, Renato Teixeira, Paulo Camargos, Ana Paula S Melo, Bernardo L Queiroz, Maria Inês Schmidt, Lenice Ishitani, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Otaliba L Morais-Neto, Maria Tereza Bustamante-Teixeira, Maximiliano R Guerra, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo, Meghan Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on cause of death (COD) are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states...
November 22, 2017: Population Health Metrics
Darren J Mayne, Geoffrey G Morgan, Bin B Jalaludin, Adrian E Bauman
BACKGROUND: Individual-level studies support a positive relation between walkable built environments and participation in moderate-intensity walking. However, the utility of this evidence for population-level planning is less clear as it is derived at much finer spatial scales than those used for regional programming. The aims of this study were to: evaluate if individual-level relations between walkability and walking to improve health manifest at population-level spatial scales; assess the specificity of area-level walkability for walking relative to other moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); describe geographic variation in walking and other MVPA; and quantify the contribution of walkability to this variation...
October 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
Jiaying Zhao, Edward Jow-Ching Tu, Chi-Kin Law
BACKGROUND: Valid and comparable cause of death (COD) statistics are crucial for health policy analyses. Variations in COD assignment across geographical areas are well-documented while socio-institutional factors may affect the process of COD and underlying cause of death (UCD) determination. This study examines the comparability of UCD statistics in Hong Kong and Shanghai, having two political systems within one country, and assesses how socio-institutional factors influence UCD comparability...
September 29, 2017: Population Health Metrics
Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: With rapid economy growth, the prevalence of obesity, and related chronic diseases, has increased greatly. Although this has been widely recognized, little attention has been paid to the influence of built environment and economic growth, particularly for developing countries. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and the built environment while considering the effects of socioeconomic change in China...
September 29, 2017: Population Health Metrics
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