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Population Health Metrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576122/impact-of-rural-family-physician-program-on-child-mortality-rates-in-iran-a-time-series-study
#1
Shohreh Naderimagham, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Alireza Khajavi, Farhad Pishgar, Ali Ardam, Bagher Larijani, Zohreh Mahmoudi, Alireza Jeddian, Hamid Reza Bahrami-Taghanaki, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: The rural family physician program and social protection scheme were started in Iran about 10 years ago, and no comprehensive study has been carried out to investigate the effects of this program on mortality-related health indicators yet. The present study aims to examine the impacts of implementation of the family physician program and rural insurance program, which was launched in June 2005, on neonatal (NMR), infant (IMR), and under-5-year (U5MR) mortality rates in rural areas of Iran between 1995 and 2011, using a time-series analysis...
June 2, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545449/quantifying-the-global-contribution-of-alcohol-consumption-to-cardiomyopathy
#2
Jakob Manthey, Sameer Imtiaz, Maria Neufeld, Margaret Rylett, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: The global impact of alcohol consumption on deaths due to cardiomyopathy (CM) has not been quantified to date, even though CM contains a subcategory for alcoholic CM with an effect of heavy drinking over time as the postulated underlying causal mechanism. In this feasibility study, a model to estimate the alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of CM deaths based on alcohol exposure measures is proposed. METHODS: A two-step model was developed based on aggregate-level data from 95 countries, including the most populous (data from 2013 or last available year)...
May 25, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521797/multiple-cause-of-death-data-among-people-with-aids-in-italy-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#3
Enrico Grande, Antonella Zucchetto, Barbara Suligoi, Francesco Grippo, Marilena Pappagallo, Saverio Virdone, Laura Camoni, Martina Taborelli, Vincenza Regine, Diego Serraino, Luisa Frova
BACKGROUND: Multiple cause-of-death (MCOD) data allow analyzing the contribution to mortality of conditions reported on the death certificate that are not selected as the underlying cause of death. Using MCOD data, this study aimed to fully describe the cause-specific mortality of people with AIDS (PWA) compared to people without AIDS. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide investigation based on death certificates of 2,515 Italian PWA and 123,224 people without AIDS who had died between 2006 and 2010...
May 18, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499387/evolution-of-the-fourth-stage-of-epidemiologic-transition-in-people-aged-80%C3%A2-years-and-over-population-based-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#4
Nisha C Hazra, Martin Gulliford
BACKGROUND: In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over...
May 12, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468625/adult-mortality-of-diseases-and-injuries-attributable-to-selected-metabolic-lifestyle-environmental-and-infectious-risk-factors-in-taiwan-a-comparative-risk-assessment
#5
Wei-Cheng Lo, Chu-Chang Ku, Shu-Ti Chiou, Chang-Chuan Chan, Chi-Ling Chen, Mei-Shu Lai, Hsien-Ho Lin
BACKGROUND: To facilitate priority-setting in health policymaking, we compiled the best available information to estimate the adult mortality (>30 years) burden attributable to 13 metabolic, lifestyle, infectious, and environmental risk factors in Taiwan. METHODS: We obtained data on risk factor exposure from nationally representative health surveys, cause-specific mortality from the National Death Registry, and relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses...
May 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446238/changing-ethnic-inequalities-in-mortality-in-new-zealand-over-30%C3%A2-years-linked-cohort-studies-with-68-9-million-person-years-of-follow-up
#6
George Disney, Andrea Teng, June Atkinson, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Internationally, ethnic inequalities in mortality within countries are increasingly recognized as a public health concern. But few countries have data to monitor such inequalities. We aimed to provide a detailed description of ethnic inequalities (Māori [indigenous], Pacific, and European/Other) in mortality for a country with high quality ethnicity data, using both standard and novel visualization methods. METHODS: Cohort studies of the entire New Zealand population were conducted, using probabilistically-linked Census and mortality data from 1981 to 2011 (68...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446196/self-reported-general-health-physical-distress-mental-distress-and-activity-limitation-by-us-county-1995-2012
#7
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Johan P Mackenbach, Frank J van Lenthe, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Metrics based on self-reports of health status have been proposed for tracking population health and making comparisons among different populations. While these metrics have been used in the US to explore disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position, less is known about how self-reported health varies geographically. This study aimed to describe county-level trends in the prevalence of poor self-reported health and to assess the face validity of these estimates...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381284/an-analysis-of-secular-trends-in-method-specific-suicides-in-japan-1950-1975
#8
Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuaki Saijo, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, a dramatic rise in suicide rates was observed in the 1950s, especially among the younger population, and then the rate decreased rapidly again in the 1960s. The aim of this study was to assess secular trends in method-specific suicides by gender and age in Japan between 1950 and 1975. We paid special attention to suicides by poisoning (solid and liquid substances), and their contribution to dramatic swings in the overall suicide rate in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s...
April 5, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381229/estimating-incidence-and-prevalence-rates-of-chronic-diseases-using-disease-modeling
#9
Hendrike C Boshuizen, Marinus J J C Poos, Marjan van den Akker, Kees van Boven, Joke C Korevaar, Margot W M de Waal, Marion C J Biermans, Nancy Hoeymans
BACKGROUND: Morbidity estimates between different GP registration networks show large, unexplained variations. This research explores the potential of modeling differences between networks in distinguishing new (incident) cases from existing (prevalent) cases in obtaining more reliable estimates. METHODS: Data from five Dutch GP registration networks and data on four chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], diabetes, heart failure, and osteoarthritis of the knee) were used...
April 5, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356159/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-anemia-severity-and-type-in-malawian-men-and-women-urban-and-rural-differences
#10
Aishatu L Adamu, Amelia Crampin, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Alemayehu Amberbir, Olivier Koole, Amos Phiri, Moffat Nyirenda, Paul Fine
BACKGROUND: The global burden of anemia is large especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV is common and lifestyles are changing rapidly with urbanization. The effects of these changes are unknown. Studies of anemia usually focus on pregnant women or children, among whom the burden is greatest. We describe prevalence and risk factors for anemia among rural and urban men and women of all ages in Malawi. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-wide cross-sectional survey of adults conducted in two sites, Karonga (rural) and Lilongwe (urban), commencing in May 2013...
March 29, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351425/assessing-the-psychometric-and-ecometric-properties-of-neighborhood-scales-using-adolescent-survey-data-from-urban-and-rural-scotland
#11
Gina Martin, Joanna Inchley, Gerry Humphris, Candace Currie
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis...
March 28, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288648/assessment-of-pre-injury-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Annemieke C Scholten, Juanita A Haagsma, Ewout W Steyerberg, Ed F van Beeck, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Insight into the change from pre- to post-injury health-related quality of life (HRQL) of trauma patients is important to derive estimates of the impact of injury on HRQL. Prospectively collected pre-injury HRQL data are, however, often not available due to the difficulty to collect these data before the injury. We performed a systematic review on the current methods used to assess pre-injury health status and to estimate the change from pre- to post-injury HRQL due to an injury...
March 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270157/evidence-based-design-recommendations-for-prevalence-studies-on-multimorbidity-improving-comparability-of-estimates
#13
Barbara M Holzer, Klarissa Siebenhuener, Matthias Bopp, Christoph E Minder
BACKGROUND: In aging populations, multimorbidity causes a disease burden of growing importance and cost. However, estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity (prevMM) vary widely across studies, impeding valid comparisons and interpretation of differences. With this study we pursued two research objectives: (1) to identify a set of study design and demographic factors related to prevMM, and (2) based on (1), to formulate design recommendations for future studies with improved comparability of prevalence estimates...
March 7, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259148/establishing-disability-weights-for-congenital-pediatric-surgical-conditions-a-multi-modal-approach
#14
D Poenaru, J Pemberton, C Frankfurter, B H Cameron, E Stolk
BACKGROUND: Burden of disease (BoD) as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) is one of the criteria for priority-setting in health care resource allocation. DALYs incorporate disability weights (DWs), which are currently expert-derived estimates or non-existent for most pediatric surgical conditions. The objective of this study is to establish DWs for a subset of key pediatric congenital anomalies using a range of health valuation metrics with caregivers in both high- and low-resource settings...
March 4, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212688/incidence-and-survival-of-end-stage-kidney-disease-due-to-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-australia-and-new-zealand-1963-2014
#15
Mangalee R Fernando, Hannah Dent, Stephen P McDonald, Gopala K Rangan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence and survival of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has changed in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Data for all PKD patients who developed ESKD and commenced renal replacement therapy (RRT) was assessed using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry from 1963 to 2014. RESULTS: A total 4678 patients with ESKD due to PKD received RRT during the study period...
February 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193285/the-share-of-ultra-processed-foods-and-the-overall-nutritional-quality-of-diets-in-the-us-evidence-from-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#16
Euridice Martínez Steele, Barry M Popkin, Boyd Swinburn, Carlos A Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Recent population dietary studies indicate that diets rich in ultra-processed foods, increasingly frequent worldwide, are grossly nutritionally unbalanced, suggesting that the dietary contribution of these foods largely determines the overall nutritional quality of contemporaneous diets. Yet, these studies have focused on individual nutrients (one at a time) rather than the overall nutritional quality of the diets. Here we investigate the relationship between the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in the US diet and its content of critical nutrients, individually and overall...
February 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193279/change-in-life-expectancy-with-type-2-diabetes-a-study-using-claims-data-from-lower-saxony-germany
#17
Denise Muschik, Juliane Tetzlaff, Karin Lange, Jelena Epping, Sveja Eberhard, Siegfried Geyer
BACKGROUND: This study estimates life expectancy with and without type 2 diabetes for individuals in Lower Saxony, Germany in order to detect a trend in population health. METHODS: Morbidity and mortality data derived from German administrative claims data (statutory health insurance, AOK Niedersachsen, N = 2,900,065) were used covering 10 years from 2005 to 2014. Life table analysis was applied for calculating life expectancy, life expectancy free of type 2 diabetes, life expectancy with type 2 diabetes, and the proportion of life expectancy free of diabetes to total life expectancy using the Sullivan method...
February 13, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183309/does-alcohol-use-have-a-causal-effect-on-hiv-incidence-and-disease-progression-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-modeling-strategy-for-quantifying-the-effect
#18
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Charlotte Probst, Kevin D Shield, Paul A Shuper
In the first part of this review, the nature of the associations between alcohol use and HIV/AIDS is discussed. Alcohol use has been found to be strongly associated with incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, but the extent to which this association is causal has traditionally remained in question. Experiments where alcohol use has been manipulated as the independent variable have since helped establish a causal effect of alcohol use on the intention to engage in condomless sex. As the intention to engage in condomless sex is a surrogate measure of actual condom use behavior, which itself is linked to HIV incidence and re-infection, the causal chain has been corroborated...
February 10, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183307/development-and-validation-of-an-early-childhood-development-scale-for-use-in-low-resourced-settings
#19
Dana Charles McCoy, Christopher R Sudfeld, David C Bellinger, Alfa Muhihi, Geofrey Ashery, Taylor E Weary, Wafaie Fawzi, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. METHODS: We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania...
February 9, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103940/methodological-choices-affect-cancer-incidence-rates-a-cohort-study
#20
Hannah L Brooke, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting, Rickard Ljung
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. METHODS: All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions of the study population: persons resident in Sweden 1) based on general population statistics; 2) with no previous subtype-specific cancer diagnosis; 3) with no previous cancer diagnosis except non-melanoma skin cancer; and 4) with no previous cancer diagnosis of any type...
January 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
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