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Population Health Metrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381284/an-analysis-of-secular-trends-in-method-specific-suicides-in-japan-1950-1975
#1
Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuaki Saijo, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, a dramatic rise in suicide rates was observed in the 1950s, especially among the younger population, and then the rate decreased rapidly again in the 1960s. The aim of this study was to assess secular trends in method-specific suicides by gender and age in Japan between 1950 and 1975. We paid special attention to suicides by poisoning (solid and liquid substances), and their contribution to dramatic swings in the overall suicide rate in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s...
April 5, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381229/estimating-incidence-and-prevalence-rates-of-chronic-diseases-using-disease-modeling
#2
Hendrike C Boshuizen, Marinus J J C Poos, Marjan van den Akker, Kees van Boven, Joke C Korevaar, Margot W M de Waal, Marion C J Biermans, Nancy Hoeymans
BACKGROUND: Morbidity estimates between different GP registration networks show large, unexplained variations. This research explores the potential of modeling differences between networks in distinguishing new (incident) cases from existing (prevalent) cases in obtaining more reliable estimates. METHODS: Data from five Dutch GP registration networks and data on four chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], diabetes, heart failure, and osteoarthritis of the knee) were used...
April 5, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356159/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-anemia-severity-and-type-in-malawian-men-and-women-urban-and-rural-differences
#3
Aishatu L Adamu, Amelia Crampin, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Alemayehu Amberbir, Olivier Koole, Amos Phiri, Moffat Nyirenda, Paul Fine
BACKGROUND: The global burden of anemia is large especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV is common and lifestyles are changing rapidly with urbanization. The effects of these changes are unknown. Studies of anemia usually focus on pregnant women or children, among whom the burden is greatest. We describe prevalence and risk factors for anemia among rural and urban men and women of all ages in Malawi. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-wide cross-sectional survey of adults conducted in two sites, Karonga (rural) and Lilongwe (urban), commencing in May 2013...
March 29, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351425/assessing-the-psychometric-and-ecometric-properties-of-neighborhood-scales-using-adolescent-survey-data-from-urban-and-rural-scotland
#4
Gina Martin, Joanna Inchley, Gerry Humphris, Candace Currie
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis...
March 28, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288648/assessment-of-pre-injury-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Annemieke C Scholten, Juanita A Haagsma, Ewout W Steyerberg, Ed F van Beeck, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Insight into the change from pre- to post-injury health-related quality of life (HRQL) of trauma patients is important to derive estimates of the impact of injury on HRQL. Prospectively collected pre-injury HRQL data are, however, often not available due to the difficulty to collect these data before the injury. We performed a systematic review on the current methods used to assess pre-injury health status and to estimate the change from pre- to post-injury HRQL due to an injury...
March 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270157/evidence-based-design-recommendations-for-prevalence-studies-on-multimorbidity-improving-comparability-of-estimates
#6
Barbara M Holzer, Klarissa Siebenhuener, Matthias Bopp, Christoph E Minder
BACKGROUND: In aging populations, multimorbidity causes a disease burden of growing importance and cost. However, estimates of the prevalence of multimorbidity (prevMM) vary widely across studies, impeding valid comparisons and interpretation of differences. With this study we pursued two research objectives: (1) to identify a set of study design and demographic factors related to prevMM, and (2) based on (1), to formulate design recommendations for future studies with improved comparability of prevalence estimates...
March 7, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259148/establishing-disability-weights-for-congenital-pediatric-surgical-conditions-a-multi-modal-approach
#7
D Poenaru, J Pemberton, C Frankfurter, B H Cameron, E Stolk
BACKGROUND: Burden of disease (BoD) as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) is one of the criteria for priority-setting in health care resource allocation. DALYs incorporate disability weights (DWs), which are currently expert-derived estimates or non-existent for most pediatric surgical conditions. The objective of this study is to establish DWs for a subset of key pediatric congenital anomalies using a range of health valuation metrics with caregivers in both high- and low-resource settings...
March 4, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212688/incidence-and-survival-of-end-stage-kidney-disease-due-to-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-australia-and-new-zealand-1963-2014
#8
Mangalee R Fernando, Hannah Dent, Stephen P McDonald, Gopala K Rangan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence and survival of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has changed in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Data for all PKD patients who developed ESKD and commenced renal replacement therapy (RRT) was assessed using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry from 1963 to 2014. RESULTS: A total 4678 patients with ESKD due to PKD received RRT during the study period...
February 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193285/the-share-of-ultra-processed-foods-and-the-overall-nutritional-quality-of-diets-in-the-us-evidence-from-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#9
Euridice Martínez Steele, Barry M Popkin, Boyd Swinburn, Carlos A Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Recent population dietary studies indicate that diets rich in ultra-processed foods, increasingly frequent worldwide, are grossly nutritionally unbalanced, suggesting that the dietary contribution of these foods largely determines the overall nutritional quality of contemporaneous diets. Yet, these studies have focused on individual nutrients (one at a time) rather than the overall nutritional quality of the diets. Here we investigate the relationship between the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in the US diet and its content of critical nutrients, individually and overall...
February 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193279/change-in-life-expectancy-with-type-2-diabetes-a-study-using-claims-data-from-lower-saxony-germany
#10
Denise Muschik, Juliane Tetzlaff, Karin Lange, Jelena Epping, Sveja Eberhard, Siegfried Geyer
BACKGROUND: This study estimates life expectancy with and without type 2 diabetes for individuals in Lower Saxony, Germany in order to detect a trend in population health. METHODS: Morbidity and mortality data derived from German administrative claims data (statutory health insurance, AOK Niedersachsen, N = 2,900,065) were used covering 10 years from 2005 to 2014. Life table analysis was applied for calculating life expectancy, life expectancy free of type 2 diabetes, life expectancy with type 2 diabetes, and the proportion of life expectancy free of diabetes to total life expectancy using the Sullivan method...
February 13, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183309/does-alcohol-use-have-a-causal-effect-on-hiv-incidence-and-disease-progression-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-modeling-strategy-for-quantifying-the-effect
#11
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Charlotte Probst, Kevin D Shield, Paul A Shuper
In the first part of this review, the nature of the associations between alcohol use and HIV/AIDS is discussed. Alcohol use has been found to be strongly associated with incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, but the extent to which this association is causal has traditionally remained in question. Experiments where alcohol use has been manipulated as the independent variable have since helped establish a causal effect of alcohol use on the intention to engage in condomless sex. As the intention to engage in condomless sex is a surrogate measure of actual condom use behavior, which itself is linked to HIV incidence and re-infection, the causal chain has been corroborated...
February 10, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183307/development-and-validation-of-an-early-childhood-development-scale-for-use-in-low-resourced-settings
#12
Dana Charles McCoy, Christopher R Sudfeld, David C Bellinger, Alfa Muhihi, Geofrey Ashery, Taylor E Weary, Wafaie Fawzi, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. METHODS: We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania...
February 9, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103940/methodological-choices-affect-cancer-incidence-rates-a-cohort-study
#13
Hannah L Brooke, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting, Rickard Ljung
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. METHODS: All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions of the study population: persons resident in Sweden 1) based on general population statistics; 2) with no previous subtype-specific cancer diagnosis; 3) with no previous cancer diagnosis except non-melanoma skin cancer; and 4) with no previous cancer diagnosis of any type...
January 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095862/different-survival-analysis-methods-for-measuring-long-term-outcomes-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-australian-cancer-patients-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-competing-risks
#14
Vincent Y F He, John R Condon, Peter D Baade, Xiaohua Zhang, Yuejen Zhao
BACKGROUND: Net survival is the most common measure of cancer prognosis and has been used to study differentials in cancer survival between ethnic or racial population subgroups. However, net survival ignores competing risks of deaths and so provides incomplete prognostic information for cancer patients, and when comparing survival between populations with different all-cause mortality. Another prognosis measure, "crude probability of death", which takes competing risk of death into account, overcomes this limitation...
January 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360823/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-anemia-severity-and-type-in-malawian-men-and-women-urban-and-rural-differences
#15
Aishatu L Adamu, Amelia Crampin, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Alemayehu Amberbir, Olivier Koole, Amos Phiri, Moffat Nyirenda, Paul Fine
BACKGROUND: The global burden of anemia is large especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV is common and lifestyles are changing rapidly with urbanization. The effects of these changes are unknown. Studies of anemia usually focus on pregnant women or children, among whom the burden is greatest. We describe prevalence and risk factors for anemia among rural and urban men and women of all ages in Malawi. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-wide cross-sectional survey of adults conducted in two sites, Karonga (rural) and Lilongwe (urban), commencing in May 2013...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978825/using-multi-year-national-survey-cohorts-for-period-estimates-an-application-of-weighted-discrete-poisson-regression-for-assessing-annual-national-mortality-in-us-adults-with-and-without-diabetes-2000-2006
#16
Yiling J Cheng, Edward W Gregg, Deborah B Rolka, Theodore J Thompson
BACKGROUND: Monitoring national mortality among persons with a disease is important to guide and evaluate progress in disease control and prevention. However, a method to estimate nationally representative annual mortality among persons with and without diabetes in the United States does not currently exist. The aim of this study is to demonstrate use of weighted discrete Poisson regression on national survey mortality follow-up data to estimate annual mortality rates among adults with diabetes...
December 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931225/the-impact-of-individual-level-heterogeneity-on-estimated-infectious-disease-burden-a-simulation-study
#17
Scott A McDonald, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Jacco Wallinga
BACKGROUND: Disease burden is not evenly distributed within a population; this uneven distribution can be due to individual heterogeneity in progression rates between disease stages. Composite measures of disease burden that are based on disease progression models, such as the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), are widely used to quantify the current and future burden of infectious diseases. Our goal was to investigate to what extent ignoring the presence of heterogeneity could bias DALY computation...
December 8, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905972/a-new-parametric-model-to-assess-delay-and-compression-of-mortality
#18
Joop de Beer, Fanny Janssen
BACKGROUND: A decrease in mortality across all ages causes a shift of the age pattern of mortality, or mortality delay, while differences in the rate of decrease across ages cause a change in the shape of the age-at-death distribution, mortality compression or expansion. Evidence exists for both compression and delay of mortality. Existing parametric models to describe the full age pattern of mortality are not able to capture mortality delay versus mortality compression. More recent models that assess delay versus compression mostly focused on the adult or old ages alone and did not distinguish mortality compression below and above the modal age at death, although they represent different mechanisms...
December 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906004/a-quantitative-evidence-base-for-population-health-applying-utilization-based-cluster-analysis-to-segment-a-patient-population
#19
Sabine I Vuik, Erik Mayer, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: To improve population health it is crucial to understand the different care needs within a population. Traditional population groups are often based on characteristics such as age or morbidities. However, this does not take into account specific care needs across care settings and tends to focus on high-needs patients only. This paper explores the potential of using utilization-based cluster analysis to segment a general patient population into homogenous groups. METHODS: Administrative datasets covering primary and secondary care were used to construct a database of 300,000 patients, which included socio-demographic variables, morbidities, care utilization, and cost...
November 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905979/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-fiji
#20
Stephen Morrell, Sophia Lin, Isimeli Tukana, Christine Linhart, Richard Taylor, Penina Vatucawaqa, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). METHODS: T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness...
November 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
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