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Population Health Metrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905972/a-new-parametric-model-to-assess-delay-and-compression-of-mortality
#1
Joop de Beer, Fanny Janssen
BACKGROUND: A decrease in mortality across all ages causes a shift of the age pattern of mortality, or mortality delay, while differences in the rate of decrease across ages cause a change in the shape of the age-at-death distribution, mortality compression or expansion. Evidence exists for both compression and delay of mortality. Existing parametric models to describe the full age pattern of mortality are not able to capture mortality delay versus mortality compression. More recent models that assess delay versus compression mostly focused on the adult or old ages alone and did not distinguish mortality compression below and above the modal age at death, although they represent different mechanisms...
December 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906004/a-quantitative-evidence-base-for-population-health-applying-utilization-based-cluster-analysis-to-segment-a-patient-population
#2
Sabine I Vuik, Erik Mayer, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: To improve population health it is crucial to understand the different care needs within a population. Traditional population groups are often based on characteristics such as age or morbidities. However, this does not take into account specific care needs across care settings and tends to focus on high-needs patients only. This paper explores the potential of using utilization-based cluster analysis to segment a general patient population into homogenous groups. METHODS: Administrative datasets covering primary and secondary care were used to construct a database of 300,000 patients, which included socio-demographic variables, morbidities, care utilization, and cost...
November 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905979/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-fiji
#3
Stephen Morrell, Sophia Lin, Isimeli Tukana, Christine Linhart, Richard Taylor, Penina Vatucawaqa, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). METHODS: T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness...
November 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905996/type-2-diabetes-detection-and-management-among-insured-adults
#4
Timothy M Dall, Weyna Yang, Pragna Halder, Jerry Franz, Erin Byrne, April P Semilla, Ritashree Chakrabarti, Bruce Stuart
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 28.9 million adults had diabetes in 2012 in the US, though many patients are undiagnosed or not managing their condition. This study provides US national and state estimates of insured adults with type 2 diabetes who are diagnosed, receiving exams and medication, managing glycemic levels, with diabetes complications, and their health expenditures. Such information can be used for benchmarking and to identify gaps in diabetes detection and management...
November 21, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#5
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905968/monitoring-the-prevalence-of-thyroid-disorders-in-the-adult-population-of-northeast-germany
#6
Rehman Mehmood Khattak, Till Ittermann, Matthias Nauck, Harald Below, Henry Völzke
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies like ours have investigated the effect of long-term stable iodine supply on thyroid disorders in a historically iodine-deficient population, but not with a long follow-up time of 10 years. METHODS: Data were derived from two independent population-based cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0 [1997-2001] and SHIP-TREND [2008-2012]) comprising 4308 and 4420 subjects, respectively. Diagnosed thyroid disorders were assessed...
November 8, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905988/a-population-study-on-the-time-trend-of-cigarette-smoking-cessation-and-exposure-to-secondhand-smoking-from-2001-to-2013-in-taiwan
#7
Chi-Yung Chiang, Hsing-Yi Chang
BACKGROUND: In 2001, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) commenced in Taiwan. This survey, conducted on a sample of the whole Taiwanese population, is nationally representative and has a high response rate (>80 %). As a result, the four already completed surveys from 2001 to 2013 can be used to investigate the time trend of smoking prevalence, the rate of cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking. METHODS: There were 72918 adults combined from the 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS)...
November 5, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905967/alzheimer-s-and-other-dementias-in-canada-2011-to-2031-a-microsimulation-population-health-modeling-pohem-study-of-projected-prevalence-health-burden-health-services-and-caregiving-use
#8
Douglas G Manuel, Rochelle Garner, Philippe Finès, Christina Bancej, William Flanagan, Karen Tu, Kim Reimer, Larry W Chambers, Julie Bernier
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is concern that increases in the prevalence of dementia will result in large demands for caregivers and supportive services that will be challenging to address. Previous dementia projections have either been simple extrapolations of prevalence or macrosimulations based on dementia incidence. METHODS: A population-based microsimulation model of Alzheimer's and related dementias (POHEM:Neurological) was created using Canadian demographic data, estimates of dementia incidence, health status (health-related quality of life and mortality risk), health care costs and informal caregiving use...
November 3, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905990/oral-dental-items-in-the-resident-assessment-instrument-minimum-data-set-2-0-lack-validity-results-of-a-retrospective-longitudinal-validation-study
#9
Matthias Hoben, Jeffrey W Poss, Peter G Norton, Carole A Estabrooks
BACKGROUND: Oral health in nursing home residents is poor. Robust, mandated assessment tools such as the Resident Assessment Instrument - Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) 2.0 are key to monitoring and improving quality of oral health care in nursing homes. However, psychometric properties of RAI-MDS 2.0 oral/dental items have been challenged and criterion validity of these items has never been assessed. METHODS: We used 73,829 RAI-MDS 2.0 records (13,118 residents), collected in a stratified random sample of 30 urban nursing homes in Western Canada (2007-2012)...
October 21, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905973/the-paradox-of-verbal-autopsy-in-cause-of-death-assignment-symptom-question-unreliability-but-predictive-accuracy
#10
Peter Serina, Ian Riley, Bernardo Hernandez, Abraham D Flaxman, Devarsetty Praveen, Veronica Tallo, Rohina Joshi, Diozele Sanvictores, Andrea Stewart, Meghan D Mooney, Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: We believe that it is important that governments understand the reliability of the mortality data which they have at their disposable to guide policy debates. In many instances, verbal autopsy (VA) will be the only source of mortality data for populations, yet little is known about how the accuracy of VA diagnoses is affected by the reliability of the symptom responses. We previously described the effect of the duration of time between death and VA administration on VA validity...
October 18, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905964/what-is-the-optimal-recall-period-for-verbal-autopsies-validation-study-based-on-repeat-interviews-in-three-populations
#11
Peter Serina, Ian Riley, Bernardo Hernandez, Abraham D Flaxman, Devarsetty Praveen, Veronica Tallo, Rohina Joshi, Diozele Sanvictores, Andrea Stewart, Meghan D Mooney, Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: One key contextual feature in Verbal Autopsy (VA) is the time between death and survey administration, or recall period. This study quantified the effect of recall period on VA performance by using a paired dataset in which two VAs were administered for a single decedent. METHODS: This study used information from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) Study, which collected VAs for "gold standard" cases where cause of death (COD) was supported by clinical criteria...
October 18, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905974/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#12
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
October 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905982/the-use-of-a-lot-quality-assurance-sampling-methodology-to-assess-and-manage-primary-health-interventions-in-conflict-affected-west-darfur-sudan
#13
Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
October 6, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905991/ethnic-differences-in-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-hypertension-in-the-suriname-health-study-a-cross-sectional-population-study
#14
Ingrid S K Krishnadath, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Lenny M Nahar-van Venrooij, Jerry R Toelsie
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about the prevalence, ethnic disparities, and risk factors of hypertension within developing countries. We used data from a nationwide study on non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors to estimate, explore, and compare the prevalence of hypertension overall and in subgroups of risk factors among different ethnic groups in Suriname. METHOD: The Suriname Health Study used the World Health Organization Steps design to select respondents with a stratified multistage cluster sample of households...
September 17, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905970/a-feasibility-study-on-using-smartphones-to-conduct-short-version-verbal-autopsies-in-rural-china
#15
Jing Zhang, Rohina Joshi, Jixin Sun, Samantha R Rosenthal, Miao Tong, Cong Li, Rasika Rampatige, Meghan Mooney, Alan Lopez, Lijing L Yan
BACKGROUND: Currently there are two main sources of mortality data with cause of death assignments in China. Both sources-the Ministry of Health-Vital Registration system and the Chinese Disease Surveillance Point system-present their own challenges. A new approach to cause of death assignment is a smartphone-based shortened version of a verbal autopsy survey. This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of this new method conducted by township health care providers (THP) and village doctors (VD) in rural China, where a large proportion of deaths occur in homes and cause of death data are inaccurate or lacking...
August 20, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905969/disparities-in-length-of-life-across-developed-countries-measuring-and-decomposing-changes-over-time-within-and-between-country-groups
#16
Sergey Timonin, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, Domantas Jasilionis, Pavel Grigoriev, Dmitry A Jdanov, David A Leon
BACKGROUND: Over the past half century the global tendency for improvements in longevity has been uneven across countries. This has resulted in widening of inter-country disparities in life expectancy. Moreover, the pattern of divergence appears to be driven in part by processes at the level of country groupings defined in geopolitical terms. A systematic quantitative analysis of this phenomenon has not been possible using demographic decomposition approaches as these have not been suitably adapted for this purpose...
August 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905963/accuracy-of-self-reported-height-weight-and-waist-circumference-in-a-general-adult-chinese-population
#17
Shurong Lu, Jian Su, Quanyong Xiang, Jinyi Zhou, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Self-reported height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to estimate the prevalence of obesity, which has been increasing rapidly in China, but there is limited evidence for the accuracy of self-reported data and the determinants of self-report bias among the general adult Chinese population. METHODS: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 8399 residents aged 18 or above were interviewed in the Jiangsu Province of China. Information on self-reported height, weight, and WC, together with information on demographic factors and lifestyle behaviors, were collected through structured face-to-face interviews...
August 11, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905983/current-tobacco-use-and-its-associated-factors-among-adults-in-a-country-with-comprehensive-ban-on-tobacco-findings-from-the-nationally-representative-steps-survey-bhutan-2014
#18
Mongal Singh Gurung, Dorji Pelzom, Tandin Dorji, Wangchuk Drukpa, Chador Wangdi, Palanivel Chinnakali, Sonu Goel
BACKGROUND: Despite a comprehensive ban on cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of tobacco products since 2004, two nationwide surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013 reported high tobacco use in Bhutan. National Health Survey 2012 reported that 4 % of the population aged 15-75 years used smoked tobacco and about 48 % used smokeless tobacco. Similarly, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of Bhutan reported tobacco use prevalence of 30.3 % in 2013. However, factors associated with this high tobacco use were not systematically studied...
August 8, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905976/comparative-approaches-for-assessing-access-to-alcohol-outlets-exploring-the-utility-of-a-gravity-potential-approach
#19
Tony H Grubesic, Ran Wei, Alan T Murray, William Alex Pridemore
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to reduce harm. The aim of this study is to introduce both a gravity potential measure of access to alcohol outlets, comparing its strengths and weaknesses to other popular approaches, and an empirically-derived taxonomy of neighborhoods based on the type of alcohol access they exhibit...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905966/rapid-assessment-of-disability-in-the-philippines-understanding-prevalence-well-being-and-access-to-the-community-for-people-with-disabilities-to-inform-the-w-dare-project
#20
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
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