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Population Health Metrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927430/estimating-the-contribution-of-mortality-selection-to-the-east-west-german-mortality-convergence
#1
Tobias C Vogt, Trifon I Missov
BACKGROUND: Before German reunification, old-age mortality was considerably higher in East Germany than West Germany but converged quickly afterward. Previous studies attributed this rapid catch-up to improved living conditions. We add to this discussion by quantifying for the first time the impact of mortality selection. METHODS: We use a gamma-Gompertz mortality model to estimate the contribution of selection to the East-West German mortality convergence before and after reunification...
September 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854976/increases-in-united-states-life-expectancy-through-reductions-in-injury-related-death
#2
REVIEW
Scott R Kegler, Grant T Baldwin, Rose A Rudd, Michael F Ballesteros
BACKGROUND: During the previous century the average lifespan in the United States (US) increased by over 30 years, with much of this increase attributed to public health initiatives. This report examines further gains that might be achieved through reduced occurrence of injury-related death. METHODS: US life tables and injury death rate data were used to estimate potential increases in life expectancy assuming various reductions in the rate of fatal injuries. Corresponding numbers of deaths potentially averted annually were also estimated; unit (per death) medical and lifetime work loss costs were employed to estimate total costs potentially averted annually...
August 30, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818074/erratum-to-on-the-plausibility-of-socioeconomic-mortality-estimates-derived-from-linked-data-a-demographic-approach
#3
Mathias Lerch, Adrian Spoerri, Domantas Jasilionis, Francisco Viciana Fernandèz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778203/erratum-to-evolution-of-the-fourth-stage-of-epidemiologic-transition-in-people-aged-80%C3%A2-years-and-over-population-based-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#4
Nisha C Hazra, Martin Gulliford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732542/national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-257-diseases-and-injuries-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#5
Awoke Misganaw, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Kebede Deribe, Semaw Ferede Abera, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Tilahun N Haregu, Azmeraw T Amare, Molla Gedefaw, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Kristopher J Krohn, Yibeltal Assefa, Mahlet Kifle, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) provide a summary measure of health and can be a critical input to guide health systems, investments, and priority-setting in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the leading causes of premature mortality and disability using DALYs and describe the relative burden of disease and injuries in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for non-fatal disease burden, cause-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality to derive age-standardized DALYs by sex for Ethiopia for each year...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732536/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#6
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716042/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#7
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
July 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705165/on-the-plausibility-of-socioeconomic-mortality-estimates-derived-from-linked-data-a-demographic-approach
#8
Mathias Lerch, Adrian Spoerri, Domantas Jasilionis, Francisco Viciana Fernandèz
BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status...
July 14, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676119/mortality-trends-in-australian-aboriginal-peoples-and-new-zealand-m%C3%A4-ori
#9
Bronwen Phillips, John Daniels, Alistair Woodward, Tony Blakely, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell
BACKGROUND: The health status of Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand (NZ) Māori manifests as life expectancies substantially lower than the total population. Accurate assessment of time trends in mortality and life expectancy allows evaluation of progress in reduction of health inequalities compared to the national or non-Indigenous population. METHODS: Age-specific mortality and life expectancy (at birth) (LE) for Indigenous populations (Australia from 1990 and NZ from 1950); and all Australia and non-Māori NZ (from 1890), males (M) and females (F), were obtained from published sources and national statistical agency reports...
July 4, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673318/choice-of-relative-or-cause-specific-approach-to-cancer-survival-analysis-impacts-estimates-differentially-by-cancer-type-population-and-application-evidence-from-a-canadian-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Diana R Withrow, Jason D Pole, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Cause-specific (CS) and net survival in a relative survival framework (RS) are two of the most common methods for estimating cancer survival. In this paper, we assess the differences in results produced by two permutations of cause-specific and relative survival applied to estimating cancer survival and disparities in cancer survival, using data from First Nations and non-Aboriginal populations in Canada. METHODS: Subjects were members of the 1991 Canadian Census Mortality Cohort, a population-based cohort of adult respondents to the 1991 Long Form Census who have been followed up for incident cancers and death through linkage to administrative databases...
July 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668081/comparing-trends-in-mortality-from-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-in-the-united-kingdom-1983-2013-joinpoint-regression-analysis
#11
Lauren Wilson, Prachi Bhatnagar, Nick Townsend
BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the time trends underlying a change from cardiovascular disease (CVD) to cancer as the most common cause of age-standardized mortality in the UK between 1983 and 2013. METHODS: A retrospective trend analysis of the World Health Organization mortality database for mortality from all cancers, all CVDs, and their three most common types, by sex and age. Age-standardized mortality rates were adjusted to the 2013 European Standard Population and analyzed using joinpoint regression analysis for annual percent changes...
July 1, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666480/trend-and-causes-of-adult-mortality-in-kersa-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-kersa-hdss-eastern-ethiopia-verbal-autopsy-method
#12
Wondimye Ashenafi, Frehywot Eshetu, Nega Assefa, Lemessa Oljira, Melkamu Dedefo, Desalew Zelalem, Negga Baraki, Melake Demena
BACKGROUND: The health problems of adults have been neglected in many developing countries, yet many studies in these countries show high rates of premature mortality in adults. Measuring adult mortality and its cause through verbal autopsy (VA) methods is becoming an important process for mortality estimates and is a good indicator of the overall mortality rates in resource-limited settings. The objective of this analysis is to describe the levels, distribution, and trends of adult mortality over time (2008-2013) and causes of adult deaths using VA in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS)...
July 1, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576122/impact-of-rural-family-physician-program-on-child-mortality-rates-in-iran-a-time-series-study
#13
Shohreh Naderimagham, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Alireza Khajavi, Farhad Pishgar, Ali Ardam, Bagher Larijani, Zohreh Mahmoudi, Alireza Jeddian, Hamid Reza Bahrami-Taghanaki, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: The rural family physician program and social protection scheme were started in Iran about 10 years ago, and no comprehensive study has been carried out to investigate the effects of this program on mortality-related health indicators yet. The present study aims to examine the impacts of implementation of the family physician program and rural insurance program, which was launched in June 2005, on neonatal (NMR), infant (IMR), and under-5-year (U5MR) mortality rates in rural areas of Iran between 1995 and 2011, using a time-series analysis...
June 2, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545449/quantifying-the-global-contribution-of-alcohol-consumption-to-cardiomyopathy
#14
Jakob Manthey, Sameer Imtiaz, Maria Neufeld, Margaret Rylett, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: The global impact of alcohol consumption on deaths due to cardiomyopathy (CM) has not been quantified to date, even though CM contains a subcategory for alcoholic CM with an effect of heavy drinking over time as the postulated underlying causal mechanism. In this feasibility study, a model to estimate the alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of CM deaths based on alcohol exposure measures is proposed. METHODS: A two-step model was developed based on aggregate-level data from 95 countries, including the most populous (data from 2013 or last available year)...
May 25, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521797/multiple-cause-of-death-data-among-people-with-aids-in-italy-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#15
Enrico Grande, Antonella Zucchetto, Barbara Suligoi, Francesco Grippo, Marilena Pappagallo, Saverio Virdone, Laura Camoni, Martina Taborelli, Vincenza Regine, Diego Serraino, Luisa Frova
BACKGROUND: Multiple cause-of-death (MCOD) data allow analyzing the contribution to mortality of conditions reported on the death certificate that are not selected as the underlying cause of death. Using MCOD data, this study aimed to fully describe the cause-specific mortality of people with AIDS (PWA) compared to people without AIDS. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide investigation based on death certificates of 2,515 Italian PWA and 123,224 people without AIDS who had died between 2006 and 2010...
May 18, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499387/evolution-of-the-fourth-stage-of-epidemiologic-transition-in-people-aged-80%C3%A2-years-and-over-population-based-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#16
Nisha C Hazra, Martin Gulliford
BACKGROUND: In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over...
May 12, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468625/adult-mortality-of-diseases-and-injuries-attributable-to-selected-metabolic-lifestyle-environmental-and-infectious-risk-factors-in-taiwan-a-comparative-risk-assessment
#17
Wei-Cheng Lo, Chu-Chang Ku, Shu-Ti Chiou, Chang-Chuan Chan, Chi-Ling Chen, Mei-Shu Lai, Hsien-Ho Lin
BACKGROUND: To facilitate priority-setting in health policymaking, we compiled the best available information to estimate the adult mortality (>30 years) burden attributable to 13 metabolic, lifestyle, infectious, and environmental risk factors in Taiwan. METHODS: We obtained data on risk factor exposure from nationally representative health surveys, cause-specific mortality from the National Death Registry, and relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses...
May 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446238/changing-ethnic-inequalities-in-mortality-in-new-zealand-over-30%C3%A2-years-linked-cohort-studies-with-68-9-million-person-years-of-follow-up
#18
George Disney, Andrea Teng, June Atkinson, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Internationally, ethnic inequalities in mortality within countries are increasingly recognized as a public health concern. But few countries have data to monitor such inequalities. We aimed to provide a detailed description of ethnic inequalities (Māori [indigenous], Pacific, and European/Other) in mortality for a country with high quality ethnicity data, using both standard and novel visualization methods. METHODS: Cohort studies of the entire New Zealand population were conducted, using probabilistically-linked Census and mortality data from 1981 to 2011 (68...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446196/self-reported-general-health-physical-distress-mental-distress-and-activity-limitation-by-us-county-1995-2012
#19
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Johan P Mackenbach, Frank J van Lenthe, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Metrics based on self-reports of health status have been proposed for tracking population health and making comparisons among different populations. While these metrics have been used in the US to explore disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position, less is known about how self-reported health varies geographically. This study aimed to describe county-level trends in the prevalence of poor self-reported health and to assess the face validity of these estimates...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381284/an-analysis-of-secular-trends-in-method-specific-suicides-in-japan-1950-1975
#20
Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuaki Saijo, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, a dramatic rise in suicide rates was observed in the 1950s, especially among the younger population, and then the rate decreased rapidly again in the 1960s. The aim of this study was to assess secular trends in method-specific suicides by gender and age in Japan between 1950 and 1975. We paid special attention to suicides by poisoning (solid and liquid substances), and their contribution to dramatic swings in the overall suicide rate in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s...
April 5, 2017: Population Health Metrics
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