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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171401/extended-testing-with-the-dot-probe-task-increases-test-retest-reliability-and-validity
#1
Jacob S Aday, Joshua M Carlson
The dot-probe task is used to measure attentional biases toward threat. However, the test-retest reliability and validity of the task have been called into question. No studies to date have included an extended number of testing sessions or tailored the task to individual participants by incorporating self-relevant stimuli-doing so may improve reliability. Here, participants provided 10 words that caused them anxiety and 10 neutral words which were incorporated into a dot-probe task for 6 sessions. The test-retest reliability of their bias indices was stronger in bottom-target trials relative to top-target trials and stronger among later relative to earlier sessions...
August 31, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094802/on-the-link-between-phenomenal-causality-and-personality-dominance
#2
Corinna S Martarelli
The present study investigated whether personality dominance is related to phenomenal causality. Recently, renewed attention has been given to dispositional theories, suggesting that the causal impression arises because people interpret collisions in terms of antagonistic action roles. Here, we examined the relation between personality dominance and the judgment of causality of ambiguous patterns of motion. The results revealed that dominance as a trait is associated with an increased tendency to infer causality in ambiguous displays...
August 9, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076514/no-environmental-context-dependent-effect-but-interference-of-physical-activity-on-object-location-memory
#3
Alexandra G Hammond, Erin M Murphy, Brian M Silverman, Ronan S Bernas, Daniele Nardi
Research on context-dependent memory has addressed many external and internal types of contexts. However, whether the physical activity engaged in at the time of encoding and recall can act as an environmental context cue has been systematically investigated only in one study. The purpose of the present study was to replicate this; furthermore, given the effect of physical activity/effort on the way space is represented, we sought to extend the findings to object location memory. Using a 1-list paradigm (Experiment 1) and a 2-list paradigm (Experiment 2), participants had to learn the locations of objects on a grid and then recall them, while standing or walking on a health walker...
August 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076513/human-inference-beyond-syllogisms-an-approach-using-external-graphical-representations
#4
Yuri Sato, Gem Stapleton, Mateja Jamnik, Zohreh Shams
Research in psychology about reasoning has often been restricted to relatively inexpressive statements involving quantifiers (e.g. syllogisms). This is limited to situations that typically do not arise in practical settings, like ontology engineering. In order to provide an analysis of inference, we focus on reasoning tasks presented in external graphic representations where statements correspond to those involving multiple quantifiers and unary and binary relations. Our experiment measured participants' performance when reasoning with two notations...
August 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051237/information-processing-under-high-and-low-distractions-using-eye-tracking
#5
Di Wu, He Huang, Na Liu, Danmin Miao
The previous studies found the differences of eye movements between systematic and heuristic processing were inconsistent. To bridge this gap, we manipulated both systematic and heuristic processings (using high vs. low distractions) and argument quality (using strong vs. weak), and measured both eye movements and self-reported attitude. The results suggested that low distraction induced larger differentiation of post-message attitude between strong and weak arguments compared to high distraction, indicating the successful operation of both processings...
July 26, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003367/the-influence-of-induced-mood-on-music-preference
#6
Chao Xue, Tian Li, Shufei Yin, Xinyi Zhu, Yuxin Tan
The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of different self-centered moods on music preference without listening to music. Participants' affective state (sad vs. happy vs. neutral) were experimentally manipulated through the mood induction procedure, and then their preferences for music were ascertained through self-reports. To understand participants' internal motivations for their choices, we also asked them to indicate how appropriate he/she felt it would be to select the different music types as well as why they made such choices...
July 12, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967959/functioning-of-cognitive-codes-in-autobiographical-memory-and-the-self-is-the-self-visual
#7
Paweł Błaszczyński
The main goal was to test the relationship between types of cognitive codes (perceptual-imaginative and verbal-propositional) and autobiographical memory. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there are independent processes serving the self, depending on separate cognitive codes. Sixty adult participants completed the NEO-FFI inventory using two kinds of procedure: perceptual-imaginative code or verbal-propositional code. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis. The study has shown the dynamic of the self, depending on two cognitive perspectives...
July 2, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959562/social-behaviour-and-social-cognition-in-high-functioning-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#8
Evelien M Barendse, Marc P H Hendriks, Geert Thoonen, Albert P Aldenkamp, Roy P C Kessels
Of the triad of symptoms found in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), that is, social impairments, communication difficulties and repetitive interests and behaviour, the social impairments are the most stable and common throughout the lifespan. They typically manifest themselves in abnormalities as reciprocal interactions and difficulties in the expression and recognition of emotions. Although peer interactions become especially important during adolescence, little is known about the mentalizing abilities of high-functioning adolescents with ASD...
June 29, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141090/spatial-cognition-in-a-multimedia-and-intercultural-world-proceedings-of-the-7th-international-conference-on-spatial-cognition-icsc-2018
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132084/space-time-and-memory-tales-from-a-long-road
#10
Alan Dix
Points, lines and surfaces are the basic elements of Euclidean geometry. In this paper, accompanying a keynote at ICSC 2018, we will explore how, in physics, cognition and our lived experience, it is often better to think in terms of interconnected threads than an evolving state of the world now. In physics 'now' is an illusion, merely a convenient construction, each particle and person is more like an independent strand in space-time, and similarly, in our minds, strands of memories from different roles and contexts flow almost independently...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123931/space-time-and-language
#11
Michael C Corballis
Cognition is heavily grounded in space. As animals that move in space, we travel both physically and mentally in space and time, reliving past events, imagining future ones, and even constructing imaginary scenarios that play out in stories. Mental exploration of space is extraordinarily flexible, allowing us to zoom, adopt different vantage points, mentally rotate, and attach objects and sense impressions to create events, whether remembered, planned, or simply invented. The properties of spatiotemporal cognition depend on a hippocampal-entorhinal circuit of place cells, grid cells and border cells, with combinations of grid-cell modules generating a vast number of potential spatial remappings...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094803/visual-attention-and-its-intimate-links-to-spatial-cognition
#12
John K Tsotsos, Iuliia Kotseruba, Amir Rasouli, Markus D Solbach
It is almost universal to regard attention as the facility that permits an agent, human or machine, to give priority processing resources to relevant stimuli while ignoring the irrelevant. The reality of how this might manifest itself throughout all the forms of perceptual and cognitive processes possessed by humans, however, is not as clear. Here, we examine this reality with a broad perspective in order to highlight the myriad ways that attentional processes impact both perception and cognition. The paper concludes by showing two real-world problems that exhibit sufficient complexity to illustrate the ways in which attention and cognition connect...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066144/what-is-space-a-media-ecology-approach
#13
Robert K Logan
We will explore the nature of space from a media ecology/Marshall McLuhan point of view. We will examine both space and time as the origin or etymology of the term 'space' includes both the notion of 3-space and time. We show how various media of communication influence how we perceive space and time from the origin of language to today's digital revolution.
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062668/east-of-west-west-of-east-a-matter-of-global-and-local-identity
#14
Ernst Pöppel
Research is a very personal matter. On the basis of experiences in different countries with researchers from different cultures over many years, some observations will be described. The conceptual frame of this attempt is to look for anthropological universals and cultural specifics. Much can be learned from spatial representations in the arts. Whereas in the West since Renaissance time the central perspective has become dominant in visual art, in Eastern landscape paintings the "floating view" is typical...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062667/how-visual-spatial-attention-alters-perception
#15
Marisa Carrasco
Visual attention is essential for visual perception. Spatial attention allows us to grant priority in processing and selectively process information at a given location. In this paper, I explain how two kinds of spatial attention: covert (allocated to the target location, without accompanying eye movements) and presaccadic (allocated to the location of the upcoming saccade's target) affect performance and alter appearance. First, I highlight some behavioral and neuroimaging research on covert attention, which alters performance and appearance in many basic visual tasks...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062666/cross-cultural-research-on-spatial-concept-development
#16
Pierre R Dasen
I will first review cross-cultural research in the area of culture and cognition, with particular focus on the development of spatial concepts. I propose that the formulation best covering all empirical data is in terms of «cognitive style», i.e., spatial cognitive processes are universally available to all humans, but there are preferences for some spatial frames of reference over others. These cultural differences are under the influence of a number of eco-cultural variables. The second part will illustrate this general conclusion by research on the development of the «geocentric» frame of spatial reference, initially studied by Levinson (Space in language and cognition: explorations in cognitive diversity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003)...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948428/laboratory-of-the-neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neurosciences-research-center-of-universidad-cat%C3%A3-lica-del-maule-chile
#17
Boris Lucero, Chiara Saracini, María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada, Pablo Mendez-Bustos, Marco Mora
The Laboratory of the Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neurosciences Research Center (CINPSI Neurocog), located in the "Technological Park" building of the Catholic University of Maule (Universidad Católica del Maule, UCM) campus in Talca, Chile, has been established as "Psychology Lab" recently in July, 2016. Our lines of work include basic and applied research. Among the basic research, we study executive functions, decision-making, and spatial cognition. In the applied field, we have studied neuropsychological and neurobehavioral effects of pesticides exposure, among other interests...
August 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779169/-keeping-in-mind-the-gender-stereotype-the-role-of-need-for-closure-in-the-retrieval-induced-forgetting-of-female-managers-qualities
#18
Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Valerio Pellegrini, Valeria De Cristofaro, Annamaria Giannini, Arie W Kruglanski
The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023557 ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.861 ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target...
August 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589189/older-adults-show-less-interference-from-task-irrelevant-social-categories-evidence-from-the-garner-paradigm
#19
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Kai-Li Zhang
Though age-related difference in most cognitive performance has been found, there was no previous research examining age difference in multiple social categorizations. Using faces as stimuli and Garner Selective Attention Paradigm, this study explored the different characteristics of implicit and explicit social categorization between young and older adults. The results showed that young perceivers explicitly categorized gender and age of the faces faster and more readily than older perceivers did. When young adults judged specific category (gender category in Experiment 1; age category in Experiment 2), they were interfered from the completing irrelative category; however, irrelative category could not capture older adults' attention...
August 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589188/spatial-visualization-ability-improves-with-and-without-studying-technical-drawing
#20
María José Contreras, Rebeca Escrig, Gerardo Prieto, M Rosa Elosúa
The results of several studies suggest that spatial ability can be improved through direct training with tasks similar to those integrated in the tests used to measure the ability. However, there is a greater interest in analyzing the effectiveness of indirect training such as games or of learning subjects that involve spatial processes to a certain extent. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze whether the indirect training in Technical Drawing improved the Spatial Visualization ability of Architecture students...
August 2018: Cognitive Processing
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