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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434136/facial-expressions-and-speech-acts-experimental-evidences-on-the-role-of-the-upper-face-as-an-illocutionary-force-indicating-device-in-language-comprehension
#1
Filippo Domaneschi, Marcello Passarelli, Carlo Chiorri
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders...
April 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401361/erratum-to-empathy-einf%C3%A3-hlung-and-aesthetic-experience-the-effect-of-emotion-contagion-on-appreciation-of-representational-and-abstract-art-using-femg-and-scr
#2
Gernot Gerger, Matthew Pelowski, Helmut Leder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401360/the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#3
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is widely viewed as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous research has shown that sensorimotor gating can occur automatically and also can be influenced by selective attention. The present research investigated the relationship of the transient detection response (TDR) with automatic and attention-modulated PPI using a novel "multiphasic" prepulse stimulus. Experiment 1 compared discrete versus multiphasic prepulse types in a no-task PPI protocol to validate multiphasic prepulses as effective elicitors of automatic sensorimotor gating...
April 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391411/empathy-engagement-entrainment-the-interaction-dynamics-of-aesthetic-experience
#4
Ingar Brinck
A recent version of the view that aesthetic experience is based in empathy as inner imitation explains aesthetic experience as the automatic simulation of actions, emotions, and bodily sensations depicted in an artwork by motor neurons in the brain. Criticizing the simulation theory for committing to an erroneous concept of empathy and failing to distinguish regular from aesthetic experiences of art, I advance an alternative, dynamic approach and claim that aesthetic experience is enacted and skillful, based in the recognition of others' experiences as distinct from one's own...
April 8, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374126/finger-posing-primes-number-comprehension
#5
Elena Sixtus, Martin H Fischer, Oliver Lindemann
Canonical finger postures, as used in counting, activate number knowledge, but the exact mechanism for this priming effect is unclear. Here we dissociated effects of visual versus motor priming of number concepts. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed either to pictures of canonical finger postures (visual priming) or actively produced the same finger postures (motor priming) and then used foot responses to rapidly classify auditory numbers (targets) as smaller or larger than 5. Classification times revealed that manually adopted but not visually perceived postures primed magnitude classifications...
April 3, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374125/edge-detection-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-neuron-model-simulation
#6
Hayat Yedjour, Boudjelal Meftah, Olivier Lézoray, Abdelkader Benyettou
In this paper, we propose a spiking neural network model for edge detection in images. The proposed model is biologically inspired by the mechanisms employed by natural vision systems, more specifically by the biologically fulfilled function of simple cells of the human primary visual cortex that are selective for orientation. Several aspects are studied in this model according to three characteristics: feedforward spiking neural structure; conductance-based model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and Gabor receptive fields structure...
April 3, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365902/sex-differences-in-verbal-fluency-the-role-of-strategies-and-instructions
#7
Andrea Scheuringer, Ramona Wittig, Belinda Pletzer
Sex differences in verbal fluency performance and strategies are highly controversial, nevertheless suggesting a slight female advantage at least for phonemic fluency. A tendency of increased clustering of words into phonemic and semantic subcategories in men and increased switching between those categories in women has been suggested. In spatial tasks, it has been demonstrated that changes in instructions favoring a certain cognitive strategy can alter sex differences in performance. Such an approach has, however, not been attempted previously with verbal tasks...
April 1, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364341/the-role-of-stimulus-predictability-in-the-allocation-of-attentional-resources-an-eye-tracking-study
#8
Magdalena Król, Magdalena Kilan-Banach, Renata Strzelecka
By allocating less attention to predictable events we are able to focus on novel, unpredictable and unexpected events that require more extensive processing. This strategy should result in improved performance by optimizing the use of brain's limited resources. Participants' task was to look at two types of stimuli presented simultaneously at the opposite sides of a computer screen: "static" stimuli, i.e. emotionally neutral photographs; and "dynamic" stimuli, i.e. video clips presenting a moving dot. The dot moved along a predictable, semi-predictable or random trajectory...
March 31, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357622/the-attribution-of-intentionality-the-role-of-skill-and-morality
#9
Raffaella Nori, Elisa Gambetti, Fabio Marinello, Stefano Canestrari, Fiorella Giusberti
The present study contributes to the discussion on the different components which constitute the intentionality concept about an undesired side effect, focusing on the morality and the skill. Two hundred and forty participants were asked to read a brief story about a car accident, in which it was explained the motivation of the high speed and objective and subjective skill of the agent to drive the car, and to fill in six questions about intentionality, objective risk, mental representation of risk, risk acceptance and blameworthiness for the outcome...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349249/lost-in-space-multisensory-conflict-yields-adaptation-in-spatial-representations-across-frames-of-reference
#10
Johannes Lohmann, Martin V Butz
According to embodied cognition, bodily interactions with our environment shape the perception and representation of our body and the surrounding space, that is, peripersonal space. To investigate the adaptive nature of these spatial representations, we introduced a multisensory conflict between vision and proprioception in an immersive virtual reality. During individual bimanual interaction trials, we gradually shifted the visual hand representation. As a result, participants unknowingly shifted their actual hands to compensate for the visual shift...
March 27, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315969/time-takes-space-selective-effects-of-multitasking-on-concurrent-spatial-processing
#11
Timo Mäntylä, Valentina Coni, Veit Kubik, Ivo Todorov, Fabio Del Missier
Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing...
March 18, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314942/empathy-einf%C3%A3-hlung-and-aesthetic-experience-the-effect-of-emotion-contagion-on-appreciation-of-representational-and-abstract-art-using-femg-and-scr
#12
Gerger Gernot, Matthew Pelowski, Helmut Leder
Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285372/dysfunctional-personality-traits-in-adolescence-effects-on-alerting-orienting-and-executive-control-of-attention
#13
Maria Casagrande, Andrea Marotta, Valeria Canepone, Alfredo Spagna, Caterina Rosa, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Augusto Pasini
The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group < 10 and Group ≥ 10, according to the number of criteria they met at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions...
March 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238169/flow-and-quiet-eye-the-role-of-attentional-control-in-flow-experience
#14
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson
This report was designed to investigate the role of effective attention control in flow states, by developing an experimental approach to the study of flow. A challenge-skill balance manipulation was applied to self-paced netball and basketball shooting tasks, with point of gaze recorded through mobile eye tracking. Quiet eye was used to index optimal control of visual attention. While the experimental manipulation was found to have no effect, quiet eye was associated with the experience of flow. Furthermore, mediation revealed an indirect effect of quiet eye on performance through flow experience...
February 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238168/learning-representation-hierarchies-by-sharing-visual-features-a-computational-investigation-of-persian-character-recognition-with-unsupervised-deep-learning
#15
Zahra Sadeghi, Alberto Testolin
In humans, efficient recognition of written symbols is thought to rely on a hierarchical processing system, where simple features are progressively combined into more abstract, high-level representations. Here, we present a computational model of Persian character recognition based on deep belief networks, where increasingly more complex visual features emerge in a completely unsupervised manner by fitting a hierarchical generative model to the sensory data. Crucially, high-level internal representations emerging from unsupervised deep learning can be easily read out by a linear classifier, achieving state-of-the-art recognition accuracy...
February 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224314/creating-semantics-in-tool-use
#16
Arnaud Badets, Thomas Michelet, Aymar de Rugy, François Osiurak
This article presents the first evidence for a functional link between tool use and the processing of abstract symbols like Arabic numbers. Participants were required to perform a tool-use task after the processing of an Arabic number. These numbers represented either a small (2 or 3) or a large magnitude (8 or 9). The tool-use task consisted in using inverse pliers for gripping either a small or a large object. The inverse pliers enable to dissociate the hand action from the tool action in relation to the object (i...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188455/individual-differences-in-orthographic-priming-relate-to-phonological-decoding-skill-in-adults
#17
Suzanne E Welcome, Emma R Trammel
We examined relationships between individual differences in orthographic priming and a battery of measures assessing orthographic processing ability, reading history, current reading ability, and verbal intelligence in university students. Pronounceable and unpronounceable nonword primes preceded word and nonword targets. Individual differences in nonword reading skill and other measures of reading and spelling ability were associated with the degree of orthographic priming. Individuals with less phonological decoding skill benefited more from anagram primes for word targets preceded by unpronounceable primes and nonword targets preceded by pronounceable primes...
February 10, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185087/attention-to-body-parts-varies-with-visual-preference-and-verb-effector-associations
#18
Ty W Boyer, Josita Maouene, Nitya Sethuraman
Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb...
February 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154991/a-computational-framework-for-attentional-object-discovery-in-rgb-d-videos
#19
Germán Martín García, Mircea Pavel, Simone Frintrop
We present a computational framework for attention-guided visual scene exploration in sequences of RGB-D data. For this, we propose a visual object candidate generation method to produce object hypotheses about the objects in the scene. An attention system is used to prioritise the processing of visual information by (1) localising candidate objects, and (2) integrating an inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism grounded in spatial coordinates. This spatial IOR mechanism naturally copes with camera motions and inhibits objects that have already been the target of attention...
February 2, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101812/cognitive-and-emotional-demands-of-black-humour-processing-the-role-of-intelligence-aggressiveness-and-mood
#20
Ulrike Willinger, Andreas Hergovich, Michaela Schmoeger, Matthias Deckert, Susanne Stoettner, Iris Bunda, Andrea Witting, Melanie Seidler, Reinhilde Moser, Stefanie Kacena, David Jaeckle, Benjamin Loader, Christian Mueller, Eduard Auff
Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness...
May 2017: Cognitive Processing
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