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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808826/use-of-evidence-in-a-categorization-task-analytic-and-holistic-processing-modes
#1
Alberto Greco, Stefania Moretti
Category learning performance can be influenced by many contextual factors, but the effects of these factors are not the same for all learners. The present study suggests that these differences can be due to the different ways evidence is used, according to two main basic modalities of processing information, analytically or holistically. In order to test the impact of the information provided, an inductive rule-based task was designed, in which feature salience and comparison informativeness between examples of two categories were manipulated during the learning phases, by introducing and progressively reducing some perceptual biases...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808825/integrating-planning-perception-and-action-for-informed-object-search
#2
Luis J Manso, Marco A Gutierrez, Pablo Bustos, Pilar Bachiller
This paper presents a method to reduce the time spent by a robot with cognitive abilities when looking for objects in unknown locations. It describes how machine learning techniques can be used to decide which places should be inspected first, based on images that the robot acquires passively. The proposal is composed of two concurrent processes. The first one uses the aforementioned images to generate a description of the types of objects found in each object container seen by the robot. This is done passively, regardless of the task being performed...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780698/multisensory-integration-and-age-dependent-sensitivity-to-body-representation-modification-induced-by-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#3
János Kállai, Péter Kincses, Beatrix Lábadi, Krisztina Dorn, Tibor Szolcsányi, Gergely Darnai, Ernő Hupuczi, József Janszky, Árpád Csathó
The aim of the present study was to compare junior and senior healthy participants for their multimodal integration capability. The instrument used for the investigation was the rubber hand illusion (RHI) where synchronous and asynchronous multimodal stimulation were applied. The study focused on assessing the rate of integration for visuo-tactile and visuo-proprioceptive stimuli. METHODS: From a large sample of right-handed volunteers, 50 senior employees (containing younger and middle age adults) and 51 senior retired (senior adults) participants were recruited...
August 5, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717829/configured-groups-hypothesis-fast-comparison-of-exact-large-quantities-without-counting
#4
Sébastien Miravete, André Tricot, Slava Kalyuga, Franck Amadieu
Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective...
July 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676906/tacit-to-explicit-knowledge-conversion
#5
Osvaldo Cairó Battistutti, Dominik Bork
The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation...
July 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647861/qualitative-spatial-logic-descriptors-from-3d-indoor-scenes-to-generate-explanations-in-natural-language
#6
Zoe Falomir, Thomas Kluth
The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene...
June 24, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#7
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603804/brain-activity-patterns-induced-by-interrupting-the-cognitive-processes-with-online-advertising
#8
Izabela Rejer, Jarosław Jankowski
As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires...
June 12, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#9
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597293/reducing-uncertainty-in-sustainable-interpersonal-service-relationships-the-role-of-aesthetics
#10
Ioannis Xenakis
Sustainable interpersonal service relationships (SISRs) are the outcome of a design process that supports situated meaningful interactions between those being served and those in service. Service design is not just directed to simply satisfy the ability to perceive the psychological state of others, but more importantly, it should aim at preserving these relationships in relation to the contextual requirements that they functionally need, in order to be or remain sustainable. However, SISRs are uncertain since they have many possibilities to be in error in the sense that the constructed, situated meanings may finally be proven unsuccessful for the anticipations and the goals of those people engaged in a SISR...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593440/multi-level-mental-representations-of-written-auditory-and-audiovisual-text-in-children-and-adults
#11
Wienke Wannagat, Gesine Waizenegger, Gerhild Nieding
We examined whether the comprehension of narrative texts differed between auditory, audiovisual, and written text presentations in a sample of 8- and 10-year-olds and adults. Based on multi-level theories of text comprehension that assume text comprehension to involve at least three levels of mental representation, we applied a sentence recognition task that enabled the separate assessment of the memory of the text surface, text base, and the situation model. Results indicate that 8-year-olds benefit from audiovisual and auditory text presentations in comparison with written text presentations in terms of their memory of situation model information...
June 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585090/intuitive-control-of-mobile-robots-an-architecture-for-autonomous-adaptive-dynamic-behaviour-integration
#12
Christos Melidis, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Davide Marocco
In this paper, we present a novel approach to human-robot control. Taking inspiration from behaviour-based robotics and self-organisation principles, we present an interfacing mechanism, with the ability to adapt both towards the user and the robotic morphology. The aim is for a transparent mechanism connecting user and robot, allowing for a seamless integration of control signals and robot behaviours. Instead of the user adapting to the interface and control paradigm, the proposed architecture allows the user to shape the control motifs in their way of preference, moving away from the case where the user has to read and understand an operation manual, or it has to learn to operate a specific device...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616664/erratum-to-the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#13
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474098/reasoning-and-mathematical-skills-contribute-to-normatively-superior-decision-making-under-risk-evidence-from-the-game-of-dice-task
#14
Marie-Theres Pertl, Laura Zamarian, Margarete Delazer
In this study, we assessed to what extent reasoning improves performance in decision making under risk in a laboratory gambling task (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D). We also investigated to what degree individuals with above average mathematical competence decide better than those with average mathematical competence. Eighty-five participants performed the GDT-D and several numerical tasks. Forty-two individuals were asked to calculate the probabilities and the outcomes associated with the different options of the GDT-D before performing it...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451913/eeg-microstates-during-different-phases-of-transcendental-meditation-practice
#15
Pascal L Faber, Frederick Travis, Patricia Milz, Niyazi Parim
Two phases of Transcendental Meditation (TM)-transcending and undirected mentation-were compared to each other and to task-free resting using multichannel EEG recorded from 20 TM practitioners. An EEG microstate analysis identified four classes of microstates which were labeled A, B, C and D, based on their similarity to previously published classes. For each class of microstates, mean duration, coverage and occurrence were computed. Resting and transcending differed from undirected mentation with decreased prominence of Class A and increased prominence of Class D microstates...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444522/the-movement-induced-self-reference-effect-enhancing-memorability-through-movement-toward-the-self
#16
Mark A Oakes, Serge V Onyper
Much evidence suggests that bodily actions affect cognitive states. In particular, pulling owned objects toward the self improves memory for those objects compared to memory for objects pushed away from the self. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of incidental joystick movement on static stimuli, hypothesizing that using the physical self (rather than a computer monitor) as a reference point would enhance memory for items categorized via a toward-the-self action but not toward-the-computer-monitor action...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434136/facial-expressions-and-speech-acts-experimental-evidences-on-the-role-of-the-upper-face-as-an-illocutionary-force-indicating-device-in-language-comprehension
#17
Filippo Domaneschi, Marcello Passarelli, Carlo Chiorri
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401360/the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#18
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is widely viewed as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous research has shown that sensorimotor gating can occur automatically and also can be influenced by selective attention. The present research investigated the relationship of the transient detection response (TDR) with automatic and attention-modulated PPI using a novel "multiphasic" prepulse stimulus. Experiment 1 compared discrete versus multiphasic prepulse types in a no-task PPI protocol to validate multiphasic prepulses as effective elicitors of automatic sensorimotor gating...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374126/finger-posing-primes-number-comprehension
#19
Elena Sixtus, Martin H Fischer, Oliver Lindemann
Canonical finger postures, as used in counting, activate number knowledge, but the exact mechanism for this priming effect is unclear. Here we dissociated effects of visual versus motor priming of number concepts. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed either to pictures of canonical finger postures (visual priming) or actively produced the same finger postures (motor priming) and then used foot responses to rapidly classify auditory numbers (targets) as smaller or larger than 5. Classification times revealed that manually adopted but not visually perceived postures primed magnitude classifications...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374125/edge-detection-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-neuron-model-simulation
#20
Hayat Yedjour, Boudjelal Meftah, Olivier Lézoray, Abdelkader Benyettou
In this paper, we propose a spiking neural network model for edge detection in images. The proposed model is biologically inspired by the mechanisms employed by natural vision systems, more specifically by the biologically fulfilled function of simple cells of the human primary visual cortex that are selective for orientation. Several aspects are studied in this model according to three characteristics: feedforward spiking neural structure; conductance-based model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and Gabor receptive fields structure...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
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