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Cognitive Processing

Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
October 14, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Matthias Hartmann
The spatial representation of ordinal sequences (numbers, time, tones) seems to be a fundamental cognitive property. While an automatic association between horizontal space and pitch height (left-low pitch, right-high pitch) is constantly reported in musicians, the evidence for such an association in non-musicians is mixed. In this study, 20 non-musicians performed a line bisection task while listening to irrelevant high- and low-pitched tones and white noise (control condition). While pitch height had no influence on the final bisection point, participants' movement trajectories showed systematic biases: When approaching the line and touching the line for the first time (initial bisection point), the mouse cursor was directed more rightward for high-pitched tones compared to low-pitched tones and noise...
September 30, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Xiaohong Deng, Yuan Qu, Huihui Zheng, Yang Lu, Xin Zhong, Anne Ward, Zijun Li
Previous research has demonstrated metaphorical mappings between physical coldness-warmth and social distance-closeness. Since the concepts of interpersonal warmth are frequently expressed in terms of food-related words in Chinese, the present study sought to explore whether the concept of raw-cooked food could be unconsciously and automatically mapped onto strangeness-familiarity. After rating the nutritive value of raw or cooked foods, participants were presented with morphing movies in which their acquaintances gradually transformed into strangers or strangers gradually morphed into acquaintances, and were asked to stop the movies when the combined images became predominantly target faces...
September 26, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Yu-Ling Shih, Chia-Yen Lin
Action anticipation plays an important role in the successful performance of open skill sports, such as ball and combat sports. Evidence has shown that elite athletes of open sports excel in action anticipation. Most studies have targeted ball sports and agreed that information on body mechanics is one of the key determinants for successful action anticipation in open sports. However, less is known about combat sports, and whether facial emotions have an influence on athletes' action anticipation skill. It has been suggested that the understanding of intention in combat sports relies heavily on emotional context...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
M W Spratling
Previous work has shown that predictive coding can provide a detailed explanation of a very wide range of low-level perceptual processes. It is also widely believed that predictive coding can account for high-level, cognitive, abilities. This article provides support for this view by showing that predictive coding can simulate phenomena such as categorisation, the influence of abstract knowledge on perception, recall and reasoning about conceptual knowledge, context-dependent behavioural control, and naive physics...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Tanja Dackermann, Ursula Fischer, Stefan Huber, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Korbinian Moeller
The characteristics of effective numerical trainings are still under scientific debate. Given the importance of number line estimation due to the strong relation between task performance and arithmetic abilities, the current study aimed at training one important number line characteristic: the equidistant spacing of adjacent numbers. Following an embodied training approach, second-graders were trained using a randomized crossover design to divide a presented line into different numbers of equal segments by walking the line with equally spaced steps...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Jim Davies, Kourken Michaelian
This article argues for a task-based approach to identifying and individuating cognitive systems. The agent-based extended cognition approach faces a problem of cognitive bloat and has difficulty accommodating both sub-individual cognitive systems ("scaling down") and some supra-individual cognitive systems ("scaling up"). The standard distributed cognition approach can accommodate a wider variety of supra-individual systems but likewise has difficulties with sub-individual systems and faces the problem of cognitive bloat...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Amandine Van Rinsveld, Christine Schiltz, Karin Landerl, Martin Brunner, Sonja Ugen
Differences between languages in terms of number naming systems may lead to performance differences in number processing. The current study focused on differences concerning the order of decades and units in two-digit number words (i.e., unit-decade order in German but decade-unit order in French) and how they affect number magnitude judgments. Participants performed basic numerical tasks, namely two-digit number magnitude judgments, and we used the compatibility effect (Nuerk et al. in Cognition 82(1):B25-B33, 2001) as a hallmark of language influence on numbers...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Daniela Conti, Santo Di Nuovo, Angelo Cangelosi, Alessandro Di Nuovo
In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Michal Bialek, Sylvia Terbeck
In this article we will demonstrate how cognitive psychological research on reasoning and decision making could enhance discussions and theories of moral judgments. In the first part, we will present recent dual-process models of moral judgments and describe selected studies which support these approaches. However, we will also present data that contradict the model predictions, suggesting that approaches to moral judgment might be more complex. In the second part, we will show how cognitive psychological research on reasoning might be helpful in understanding moral judgments...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Wim T J L Pouw, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Tamara van Gog, Fred Paas
Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that gesturing is a means to spatially index mental simulations, thereby reducing the need for visually projecting the mental simulation onto the visual presentation of the task. If that hypothesis is correct, less eye movements should be made when participants gesture during problem solving than when they do not gesture...
August 2016: Cognitive Processing
Glenn Gunzelmann, Don R Lyon
Spatial memory and reasoning rely heavily on allocentric (often map-like) representations of spatial knowledge. While research has documented many ways in which spatial information can be represented in allocentric form, less is known about how such representations are constructed. For example: Are the very early, pre-attentive parts of the process hard-wired, or can they be altered by experience? We addressed this issue by presenting sub-saccadic (53 ms) masked stimuli consisting of a target among one to three reference features...
July 27, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Antonia Lonigro, Roberto Baiocco, Emma Baumgartner, Stefania Sette, Fiorenzo Laghi
The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees...
July 21, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Hirokazu Doi, Kazuyuki Shinohara
It is well established that emotional information influences perceived duration. On the basis of this together with the proposition of common magnitude estimation system, we hypothesized that the presentation of emotional faces can modulate the estimation of numerical quantity as well. The present study examined this hypothesis by investigating the effects of unconsciously presented emotional faces on numerosity estimation using number bisection task. We rendered the facial images invisible by continuous flash suppression methodology in order to measure the genuine effect of emotional information by reducing the influences of a conscious effort of emotional regulation...
July 15, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Bettina Gathmann, Matthias Brand, Johannes Schiebener
Monitoring is involved in many daily tasks and is described in several theoretical approaches of executive functioning. This study investigated the relative relationship of cognitive processes that are theoretically relevant to monitoring, such as concept formation, reasoning, working memory, and general cognitive control functions. Data from 699 participants who performed the Balanced Switching Task, aiming at capturing monitoring, were used. Subsamples also performed standard tasks assessing the processes assumed to be related to monitoring...
July 9, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Heiko C Bergmann, Sander M Daselaar, Guillén Fernández, Roy P C Kessels
Working memory (WM) tasks may involve brain activation actually implicated in long-term memory (LTM). In order to disentangle these two memory systems, we employed a combined WM/LTM task, using a spatial relational (object-location) memory paradigm and analyzed which brain areas were associated with successful performance for either task using fMRI. Critically, we corrected for the performance on the respective memory task when analyzing subsequent memory effects. The WM task consisted of a delayed-match-to-sample task assessed in an MRI scanner...
June 27, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Zhongqing Jiang, Yuhong Qu, Yanli Xiao, Qi Wu, Likun Xia, Wenhui Li, Ying Liu
Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms...
June 25, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Kyungil Kim, Arthur B Markman, Tae Hoon Kim
Research on causal reasoning has focused on the influence of covariation between candidate causes and effects on causal judgments. We suggest that the type of covariation information to which people attend is affected by the task being performed. For this, we manipulated the test questions for the evaluation of contingency information and observed its influence on both contingency learning and subsequent causal selections. When people select one cause related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the absence of alternative causes...
June 17, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Michele Miozzo, Bruno Laeng
It has long been observed that certain words induce multiple synesthetic colors, a phenomenon that has remained largely unexplored. We report here on the distinct synesthetic colors two synesthetes experienced with closed sets of concepts (digits, weekdays, months). For example, Saturday was associated with green, like other word starting with s; however, Saturday also had its specific color (red). Auditory priming and Visual Color Stroop tasks were used to understand the cognitive mechanisms supporting the distinct synesthetic colors...
June 15, 2016: Cognitive Processing
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