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Cognitive Processing

Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Reuven Babai, Ruth Stavy
Students experience difficulties in comparison tasks that may stem from interference of the tasks' salient irrelevant variables. Here, we focus on the comparison of perimeters task, in which the area is the irrelevant salient variable. Studies have shown that in congruent trials (when there is no interference), accuracy is higher and reaction time is shorter than in incongruent trials (when the area variable interferes). Brain-imaging and behavioral studies suggested that interventions of either activating inhibitory control mechanisms or increasing the level of salience of the relevant perimeter variable could improve students' success...
November 15, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Trond A Tjøstheim, Christian Balkenius
We show how a multi-resolution network can model the development of acuity and coarse-to-fine processing in the mammalian visual cortex. The network adapts to input statistics in an unsupervised manner, and learns a coarse-to-fine representation by using cumulative inhibition of nodes within a network layer. We show that a system of such layers can represent input by hierarchically composing larger parts from smaller components. It can also model aspects of top-down processes, such as image regeneration.
November 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Yuuki Mizusaki, Sachi Ikudome, Yasumitsu Ishii, Satoshi Unenaka, Taishi Funo, Tatsuya Takeuchi, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori, Hiroki Nakamoto
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Quiet Eye (QE) acquired over time is associated with motor preparation processes by using movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs). Eighteen male, right-handed college students voluntarily participated in this study. Participants performed a dart throw while wearing an eye-tracking system and electrode cap to measure electroencephalogram waveforms (EEG). After performing the dart task, participants were randomly assigned to a Quiet Eye training group (QET) or control training group (CT)...
November 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Markus Martini, Laura Zamarian, Pierre Sachse, Caroline Martini, Margarete Delazer
Studies indicate that a brief period of wakeful rest after learning supports memory retention, whereas distraction weakens it. It is open for investigation whether advanced age has a significant effect on the impact of post-learning wakeful rest on memory retention for verbal information when compared to a cognitively demanding distraction task. In this study, we examined (1) whether post-learning rest promotes verbal memory retention in younger and older adults and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age...
October 30, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Guangzheng Li, Lijuan Wang, Ying Han
Memories of simple action phrases are retained better following subject-performed tasks (SPT) than verbal tasks (VT), and this superior memory performance of SPT over VT is referred to as the SPT effect. Although research has been conducted on the SPT effect for more than 30 years, how well participants recognize whether they recalled the items successfully and the relationship between item-specific processing encoding and automatic retrieval have not been addressed. The present study used a 2 (instruction: with or without pleasantness rating) × 2 (type of encoding: SPT or VT) between-subject design and applied a "recall-recognition" paradigm to explore the above issues...
October 26, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Christoph Naefgen, Markus Janczyk
In dual-task situations, mutual interference phenomena are often observed. One particularly interesting example of such phenomena is that even Task 1 performance is improved if Task 2 requires a compatible (e.g., both responses are given on the left side) instead of an incompatible response (e.g., one response is given on the right side, and the other on the left side). This is called the compatibility-based backward crosstalk effect (BCE). In a previous paper, we observed support for a critical role of stimulus-response (S-R) links in causing this effect: The BCE was smaller when one of the two tasks was a free choice task...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Jacob S Aday, Joshua M Carlson
The dot-probe task is used to measure attentional biases toward threat. However, the test-retest reliability and validity of the task have been called into question. No studies to date have included an extended number of testing sessions or tailored the task to individual participants by incorporating self-relevant stimuli-doing so may improve reliability. Here, participants provided 10 words that caused them anxiety and 10 neutral words which were incorporated into a dot-probe task for 6 sessions. The test-retest reliability of their bias indices was stronger in bottom-target trials relative to top-target trials and stronger among later relative to earlier sessions...
August 31, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Paweł Błaszczyński
The main goal was to test the relationship between types of cognitive codes (perceptual-imaginative and verbal-propositional) and autobiographical memory. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there are independent processes serving the self, depending on separate cognitive codes. Sixty adult participants completed the NEO-FFI inventory using two kinds of procedure: perceptual-imaginative code or verbal-propositional code. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis. The study has shown the dynamic of the self, depending on two cognitive perspectives...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Evelien M Barendse, Marc P H Hendriks, Geert Thoonen, Albert P Aldenkamp, Roy P C Kessels
Of the triad of symptoms found in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), that is, social impairments, communication difficulties and repetitive interests and behaviour, the social impairments are the most stable and common throughout the lifespan. They typically manifest themselves in abnormalities as reciprocal interactions and difficulties in the expression and recognition of emotions. Although peer interactions become especially important during adolescence, little is known about the mentalizing abilities of high-functioning adolescents with ASD...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Judith Meessen, Stefan Sütterlin, Siegfried Gauggel, Thomas Forkmann
Metacognitive awareness and resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) as a physiological trait marker of cognitive inhibitory control capacities are both associated with better well-being and seem to share a common neural basis. Executive functioning which is considered a prerequisite for delivering prospective metacognitive judgments has been found to be correlated with HRV. This pilot study addresses the question, whether metacognitive awareness and resting vagally mediated HRV are positively associated...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Laxmi Shaw, Aurobinda Routray
Due to the presence of nonlinearity and volume conduction in electroencephalography (EEG), sometimes it's challenging to find out the actual brain network from neurodynamical alteration. In this paper, two well-known time-frequency brain connectivity measures, namely partial directed coherence (PDC) and directed transfer function (DTF), have been applied to evaluate the performance analysis of EEG signals obtained during meditation. These measures are implemented to the multichannel meditation EEG data to get the directed neural information flow...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
L Y Lo, W O Li, L P Lee, P S Yeung
Emotion can be conceptualized by the dimensional account of emotion with the dimensions of valence and arousal. There is little discussion of the difference in discriminability across the dimensions. The present study hypothesized that any pair of emotional expressions differing in the polarity of both valence and arousal dimensions would be easier to distinguish than a pair differing in only one dimension. The results indicate that the difference in the dimensions did not affect participants' reaction time...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Maria Montefinese, Carlo Semenza
It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
Sverker Sikström, Johan Hellman, Mats Dahl, Georg Stenberg, Marcus Johansson
We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied...
November 2018: Cognitive Processing
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
Alan Dix
Points, lines and surfaces are the basic elements of Euclidean geometry. In this paper, accompanying a keynote at ICSC 2018, we will explore how, in physics, cognition and our lived experience, it is often better to think in terms of interconnected threads than an evolving state of the world now. In physics 'now' is an illusion, merely a convenient construction, each particle and person is more like an independent strand in space-time, and similarly, in our minds, strands of memories from different roles and contexts flow almost independently...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
Michael C Corballis
Cognition is heavily grounded in space. As animals that move in space, we travel both physically and mentally in space and time, reliving past events, imagining future ones, and even constructing imaginary scenarios that play out in stories. Mental exploration of space is extraordinarily flexible, allowing us to zoom, adopt different vantage points, mentally rotate, and attach objects and sense impressions to create events, whether remembered, planned, or simply invented. The properties of spatiotemporal cognition depend on a hippocampal-entorhinal circuit of place cells, grid cells and border cells, with combinations of grid-cell modules generating a vast number of potential spatial remappings...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
John K Tsotsos, Iuliia Kotseruba, Amir Rasouli, Markus D Solbach
It is almost universal to regard attention as the facility that permits an agent, human or machine, to give priority processing resources to relevant stimuli while ignoring the irrelevant. The reality of how this might manifest itself throughout all the forms of perceptual and cognitive processes possessed by humans, however, is not as clear. Here, we examine this reality with a broad perspective in order to highlight the myriad ways that attentional processes impact both perception and cognition. The paper concludes by showing two real-world problems that exhibit sufficient complexity to illustrate the ways in which attention and cognition connect...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
Robert K Logan
We will explore the nature of space from a media ecology/Marshall McLuhan point of view. We will examine both space and time as the origin or etymology of the term 'space' includes both the notion of 3-space and time. We show how various media of communication influence how we perceive space and time from the origin of language to today's digital revolution.
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
Ernst Pöppel
Research is a very personal matter. On the basis of experiences in different countries with researchers from different cultures over many years, some observations will be described. The conceptual frame of this attempt is to look for anthropological universals and cultural specifics. Much can be learned from spatial representations in the arts. Whereas in the West since Renaissance time the central perspective has become dominant in visual art, in Eastern landscape paintings the "floating view" is typical...
September 2018: Cognitive Processing
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