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Cognitive Processing

Arnaud Badets, Thomas Michelet, Aymar de Rugy, François Osiurak
This article presents the first evidence for a functional link between tool use and the processing of abstract symbols like Arabic numbers. Participants were required to perform a tool-use task after the processing of an Arabic number. These numbers represented either a small (2 or 3) or a large magnitude (8 or 9). The tool-use task consisted in using inverse pliers for gripping either a small or a large object. The inverse pliers enable to dissociate the hand action from the tool action in relation to the object (i...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Suzanne E Welcome, Emma R Trammel
We examined relationships between individual differences in orthographic priming and a battery of measures assessing orthographic processing ability, reading history, current reading ability, and verbal intelligence in university students. Pronounceable and unpronounceable nonword primes preceded word and nonword targets. Individual differences in nonword reading skill and other measures of reading and spelling ability were associated with the degree of orthographic priming. Individuals with less phonological decoding skill benefited more from anagram primes for word targets preceded by unpronounceable primes and nonword targets preceded by pronounceable primes...
February 10, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ty W Boyer, Josita Maouene, Nitya Sethuraman
Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb...
February 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Germán Martín García, Mircea Pavel, Simone Frintrop
We present a computational framework for attention-guided visual scene exploration in sequences of RGB-D data. For this, we propose a visual object candidate generation method to produce object hypotheses about the objects in the scene. An attention system is used to prioritise the processing of visual information by (1) localising candidate objects, and (2) integrating an inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism grounded in spatial coordinates. This spatial IOR mechanism naturally copes with camera motions and inhibits objects that have already been the target of attention...
February 2, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ulrike Willinger, Andreas Hergovich, Michaela Schmoeger, Matthias Deckert, Susanne Stoettner, Iris Bunda, Andrea Witting, Melanie Seidler, Reinhilde Moser, Stefanie Kacena, David Jaeckle, Benjamin Loader, Christian Mueller, Eduard Auff
Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness...
January 18, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ceylan Z Balaban, Harun Karimpur, Florian Röser, Kai Hamburger
The present work investigated the impact of affect in landmark-based wayfinding. We assumed that affect-laden landmarks improve wayfinding performance and have an impact on later landmark recognition. To investigate our hypotheses, we ran two experiments in a virtual maze. In Experiment 1, we investigated how affect-laden landmarks influence wayfinding and recognition in comparison with neutral landmarks. The aim of Experiment 2 was to focus on the affective valence of a landmark. The memory tasks of both experiments were repeated after 1 week in order to assess memory consolidation...
January 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Gagan Deep Kaur
The design process in Kashmiri carpet weaving is distributed over a number of actors and artifacts and is mediated by a weaving notation called talim. The script encodes entire design in practice-specific symbols. This encoded script is decoded and interpreted via design-specific conventions by weavers to weave the design embedded in it. The cognitive properties of this notational system are described in the paper employing cognitive dimensions (CDs) framework of Green (People and computers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989) and Blackwell et al...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Lynn R Gilbertson, Robert A Lutfi, Susan Ellis Weismer
Research on children with autism spectrum disorders suggests differences from neurotypical children in the preference for 'social' versus 'nonsocial' sounds. Conclusions have been based largely on the use of head-turn methodology which has various limitations as a means of establishing auditory preference. In the present study, preference was assessed by measuring the frequency with which children pressed a button to hear different sounds using an interactive toy. Contrary to prior results, both groups displayed a strong preference for the highly social sounds...
December 21, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Marilyn Cyr, Derek E Nee, Eric Nelson, Thea Senger, John Jonides, Chara Malapani
Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Luciana Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano, Andrea Bobbio, Gabriele Mantovani
Humans typically exhibit a tendency to follow the gaze of conspecifics, a social attention behaviour known as gaze cueing. Here, we addressed whether episodically learned social knowledge about the behaviours performed by the individual bearing the gaze can influence this phenomenon. In a learning phase, different faces were systematically associated with either positive or negative behaviours. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cueing task. The results showed that faces associated with antisocial norm-violating behaviours triggered stronger gaze-cueing effects as compared to faces associated with sociable behaviours...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Joe Causer, Spencer J Hayes, James M Hooper, Simon J Bennett
An occlusion protocol was used to elucidate the respective roles of preprograming and online control during the quiet eye period of golf putting. Twenty-one novice golfers completed golf putts to 6-ft and 11-ft targets under full vision or with vision occluded on initiation of the backswing. Radial error (RE) was higher, and quiet eye was longer, when putting to the 11-ft versus 6-ft target, and in the occluded versus full vision condition. Quiet eye durations, as well as preprograming, online and dwell durations, were longer in low-RE compared to high-RE trials...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Liquan Liu, René Kager
This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants of 8-9 months participated in the study. All infants had Dutch as one of the first languages. The other first languages, varying among bilingual families, were not tone or pitch accent languages. In two experiments, infants were tested on the discrimination of a lexical (N = 42) or a violin (N = 48) pitch contrast via a visual habituation paradigm...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Yuting Liu, He Bai, Kaili Zhang
The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Matthias Hartmann
The spatial representation of ordinal sequences (numbers, time, tones) seems to be a fundamental cognitive property. While an automatic association between horizontal space and pitch height (left-low pitch, right-high pitch) is constantly reported in musicians, the evidence for such an association in non-musicians is mixed. In this study, 20 non-musicians performed a line bisection task while listening to irrelevant high- and low-pitched tones and white noise (control condition). While pitch height had no influence on the final bisection point, participants' movement trajectories showed systematic biases: When approaching the line and touching the line for the first time (initial bisection point), the mouse cursor was directed more rightward for high-pitched tones compared to low-pitched tones and noise...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Xiaohong Deng, Yuan Qu, Huihui Zheng, Yang Lu, Xin Zhong, Anne Ward, Zijun Li
Previous research has demonstrated metaphorical mappings between physical coldness-warmth and social distance-closeness. Since the concepts of interpersonal warmth are frequently expressed in terms of food-related words in Chinese, the present study sought to explore whether the concept of raw-cooked food could be unconsciously and automatically mapped onto strangeness-familiarity. After rating the nutritive value of raw or cooked foods, participants were presented with morphing movies in which their acquaintances gradually transformed into strangers or strangers gradually morphed into acquaintances, and were asked to stop the movies when the combined images became predominantly target faces...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Glenn Gunzelmann, Don R Lyon
Spatial memory and reasoning rely heavily on allocentric (often map-like) representations of spatial knowledge. While research has documented many ways in which spatial information can be represented in allocentric form, less is known about how such representations are constructed. For example: Are the very early, pre-attentive parts of the process hard-wired, or can they be altered by experience? We addressed this issue by presenting sub-saccadic (53 ms) masked stimuli consisting of a target among one to three reference features...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
Antonia Lonigro, Roberto Baiocco, Emma Baumgartner, Stefania Sette, Fiorenzo Laghi
The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
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