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Cognitive Processing

Gennaro Pica, Antonio Pierro, Valerio Pellegrini, Valeria De Cristofaro, Annamaria Giannini, Arie W Kruglanski
The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target...
May 19, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Laxmi Shaw, Aurobinda Routray
Due to the presence of nonlinearity and volume conduction in electroencephalography (EEG), sometimes it's challenging to find out the actual brain network from neurodynamical alteration. In this paper, two well-known time-frequency brain connectivity measures, namely partial directed coherence (PDC) and directed transfer function (DTF), have been applied to evaluate the performance analysis of EEG signals obtained during meditation. These measures are implemented to the multichannel meditation EEG data to get the directed neural information flow...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
L Y Lo, W O Li, L P Lee, P S Yeung
Emotion can be conceptualized by the dimensional account of emotion with the dimensions of valence and arousal. There is little discussion of the difference in discriminability across the dimensions. The present study hypothesized that any pair of emotional expressions differing in the polarity of both valence and arousal dimensions would be easier to distinguish than a pair differing in only one dimension. The results indicate that the difference in the dimensions did not affect participants' reaction time...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Maria Montefinese, Carlo Semenza
It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Joanna Ganczarek, Thomas Hünefeldt, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli
Is there a relationship between aesthetic and interpersonal experience? This question is motivated not only by the fact that historically experiences of both kinds have often been accounted for in terms of "empathy", the English translation of the German term "Einfühlung", but also by the fact that some contemporary theories refer to mechanisms underlying both aesthetic and interpersonal experience. In this Editorial introducing the special section titled "From 'Einfühlung' to empathy: exploring the relationship between aesthetic and interpersonal experience", we briefly sketch these two motivations and the relationship between the different mechanisms that have been associated with both aesthetic and interpersonal experience...
May 15, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Sverker Sikström, Johan Hellman, Mats Dahl, Georg Stenberg, Marcus Johansson
We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied...
April 20, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Antonio Bandera, Jorge Dias, Markus Vincze, Luis J Manso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Kai-Li Zhang
Though age-related difference in most cognitive performance has been found, there was no previous research examining age difference in multiple social categorizations. Using faces as stimuli and Garner Selective Attention Paradigm, this study explored the different characteristics of implicit and explicit social categorization between young and older adults. The results showed that young perceivers explicitly categorized gender and age of the faces faster and more readily than older perceivers did. When young adults judged specific category (gender category in Experiment 1; age category in Experiment 2), they were interfered from the completing irrelative category; however, irrelative category could not capture older adults' attention...
March 28, 2018: Cognitive Processing
María José Contreras, Rebeca Escrig, Gerardo Prieto, M Rosa Elosúa
The results of several studies suggest that spatial ability can be improved through direct training with tasks similar to those integrated in the tests used to measure the ability. However, there is a greater interest in analyzing the effectiveness of indirect training such as games or of learning subjects that involve spatial processes to a certain extent. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze whether the indirect training in Technical Drawing improved the Spatial Visualization ability of Architecture students...
March 27, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Jaclynn V Sullivan, Jenna M Potvin, Stephen D Christman
Involving the body in learning increases the impact information has on memory (Johnson-Glenberg et al. in Front Psychol 7(1819):1-22, 2016), especially when that information is self-relevant (Truong et al. in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 42(3):375-385, 2016). Yet, prior research has only examined the effect of self-relevant movement (i.e., toward the self or away from the self) on memory through passive joystick flexion or extension (Oakes and Onyper in Cognit Process 18:325-333, 2017). Therefore, the current research sought to replicate the "toward: remember" and "away: forget" motor-induced self-reference effects on memory with actual body movement...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Christina Bermeitinger, Ryan P Hackländer
How actions are chosen, and what they are influenced by, has been the focus of several research traditions. Influences on actions are often studied using compatibility paradigms, such as response priming. Here, a first stimulus (i.e., the prime) is presented shortly before a second stimulus (i.e., the target) which has to be classified. Reaction times to the target are often reduced when primes and targets are compatible compared to incompatible primes and targets-i.e., a positive compatibility effect (PCE)...
February 24, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Sven Thönes, Kurt Stocker, Peter Brugger, Heiko Hecht
Recent evidence has shown that the mental representation of time is "embodied"-time is expressed via the hands, the eyes, and the whole body. These findings suggest the existence of a manually reflected mental time line running (in Western culture) horizontally from left (past) to right (future) and an ocularly reflected mental time line running from left/down (past) to right/up (future). We addressed the question whether mental time is also reflected interpersonally and investigated whether an avatar's face orientation (left vs...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Giorgio Marchetti
In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory...
February 8, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Lisa G Guthrie, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau
Previous research indicates that interactive arithmetic tasks may alleviate the deleterious impact of maths anxiety on arithmetic performance. Our aim here was to further test the impact of interactivity on maths-anxious individuals and those with poorer numeracy skills. In the experiment reported here participants completed sums in two interactivity contexts. In a low-interactivity condition, sums were completed with hands down. In a second, high-interactivity condition, participants used moveable number tokens...
February 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Jungang Qin, Zhenhao Shi, Yina Ma, Shihui Han
Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed decreased activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula for women during the implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues. Current work tested whether aforementioned activities are common for women and men and explored potential gender differences. We scanned twenty males while they performed a color-naming task on death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Whole-brain analysis showed increased left frontal activity and decreased activities in the ACC and bilateral insula to death-related versus negative-valence words for both men and women...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Marco Fabbri, Matteo Frisoni, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti, Vincenzo Natale
The shared attention theory suggests that people devote greater cognitive resources to those features co-attended simultaneously with others, determining better performance in several types of tasks. When co-actors performed a go/no-go Navon task attending different features of target letters, the performance was impaired, reflecting a joint Navon effect (the representation of a co-actor's attentional focus made it more difficult to select and apply one's own focus of attention), probably due to asynchronous co-attention with a decrease in cognitive resources involved...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Y Groen, A B M Fuermaier, L I Tucha, J Koerts, O Tucha
Based on the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory, it was hypothesized that the underrepresentation of female students in the physical sciences and the underrepresentation of males in the social sciences relates to differences in E-S cognitive style between the sexes. This hypothesis was tested in 115 physical science students and 155 social science students from a university in the Netherlands. The students completed visuospatial tests and the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) as measures for systemizing, and a Cartoon Prediction test and the empathy quotient (EQ) as measures for empathizing...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Arianna Buttafuoco, Tiziana Pedale, Tony W Buchanan, Valerio Santangelo
Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Rosa Angela Fabio, Giulia Emma Towey
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Ronaldo Vigo, Karina-Mikayla C Doan, Charles A Doan, Shannon Pinegar
The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
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