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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305760/himop-a-three-component-architecture-to-create-more-human-acceptable-social-assistive-robots-motivational-architecture-for-assistive-robots
#1
Francisco J Rodríguez-Lera, Vicente Matellán-Olivera, Miguel Á Conde-González, Francisco Martín-Rico
Generation of autonomous behavior for robots is a general unsolved problem. Users perceive robots as repetitive tools that do not respond to dynamic situations. This research deals with the generation of natural behaviors in assistive service robots for dynamic domestic environments, particularly, a motivational-oriented cognitive architecture to generate more natural behaviors in autonomous robots. The proposed architecture, called HiMoP, is based on three elements: a Hierarchy of needs to define robot drives; a set of Motivational variables connected to robot needs; and a Pool of finite-state machines to run robot behaviors...
January 6, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305759/gender-and-neural-substrates-subserving-implicit-processing-of-death-related-linguistic-cues
#2
Jungang Qin, Zhenhao Shi, Yina Ma, Shihui Han
Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed decreased activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula for women during the implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues. Current work tested whether aforementioned activities are common for women and men and explored potential gender differences. We scanned twenty males while they performed a color-naming task on death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Whole-brain analysis showed increased left frontal activity and decreased activities in the ACC and bilateral insula to death-related versus negative-valence words for both men and women...
January 6, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275439/mouse-tracking-evidence-for-parallel-anticipatory-option-evaluation
#3
Edward A Cranford, Jarrod Moss
In fast-paced, dynamic tasks, the ability to anticipate the future outcome of a sequence of events is crucial to quickly selecting an appropriate course of action among multiple alternative options. There are two classes of theories that describe how anticipation occurs. Serial theories assume options are generated and evaluated one at a time, in order of quality, whereas parallel theories assume simultaneous generation and evaluation. The present research examined the option evaluation process during a task designed to be analogous to prior anticipation tasks, but within the domain of narrative text comprehension...
December 23, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#4
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260437/time-perception-is-not-for-the-faint-hearted-physiological-arousal-does-not-influence-duration-categorisation
#5
Valérie Dormal, Alexandre Heeren, Mauro Pesenti, Pierre Maurage
Distortions of duration perception provoked by emotion-induced arousal changes are explained by modifications of an internal clock pace. Yet, uncertainty still abounds regarding whether changes of arousal induced by physical exercise yield such temporal distortions. Here, we report two experiments aiming to test separately the impact of, on the one hand, a physical induction of arousal and, on the other hand, a task delay on duration categorisation. In Experiment 1, participants performed a duration categorisation task before and after heart-rate manipulation (increase, decrease, or no change)...
December 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185170/influence-of-time-of-day-on-joint-navon-effect
#6
Marco Fabbri, Matteo Frisoni, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti, Vincenzo Natale
The shared attention theory suggests that people devote greater cognitive resources to those features co-attended simultaneously with others, determining better performance in several types of tasks. When co-actors performed a go/no-go Navon task attending different features of target letters, the performance was impaired, reflecting a joint Navon effect (the representation of a co-actor's attentional focus made it more difficult to select and apply one's own focus of attention), probably due to asynchronous co-attention with a decrease in cognitive resources involved...
November 28, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185169/how-predictive-are-sex-and-empathizing-systemizing-cognitive-style-for-entry-into-the-academic-areas-of-social-or-physical-sciences
#7
Y Groen, A B M Fuermaier, L I Tucha, J Koerts, O Tucha
Based on the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory, it was hypothesized that the underrepresentation of female students in the physical sciences and the underrepresentation of males in the social sciences relates to differences in E-S cognitive style between the sexes. This hypothesis was tested in 115 physical science students and 155 social science students from a university in the Netherlands. The students completed visuospatial tests and the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) as measures for systemizing, and a Cartoon Prediction test and the empathy quotient (EQ) as measures for empathizing...
November 28, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147817/only-efficient-emotional-stimuli-affect-the-content-of-working-memory-during-free-recollection-from-natural-scenes
#8
Arianna Buttafuoco, Tiziana Pedale, Tony W Buchanan, Valerio Santangelo
Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116472/creativity-and-intelligence-in-brains-and-machines-from-individuals-to-societies-post-event-report-about-the-gk-sponsored-interdisciplinary-college-2017-ik2017
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110263/long-term-meditation-the-relationship-between-cognitive-processes-thinking-styles-and-mindfulness
#10
Rosa Angela Fabio, Giulia Emma Towey
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071485/on-the-learning-difficulty-of-visual-and-auditory-modal-concepts-evidence-for-a-single-processing-system
#11
Ronaldo Vigo, Karina-Mikayla C Doan, Charles A Doan, Shannon Pinegar
The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli...
October 26, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063423/examining-the-response-programming-function-of-the-quiet-eye-do-tougher-shots-need-a-quieter-eye
#12
Rosanna Walters-Symons, Mark Wilson, Andre Klostermann, Samuel Vine
Support for the proposition that the Quiet Eye (QE) duration reflects a period of response programming (including task parameterisation) has come from research showing that an increase in task difficulty is associated with increases in QE duration. Here, we build on previous research by manipulating three elements of task difficulty that correspond with different parameters of golf-putting performance; force production, impact quality and target line. Longer QE durations were found for more complex iterations of the task and furthermore, more sensitive analyses of the QE duration suggest that the early QE proportion (prior to movement initiation) is closely related to force production and impact quality...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840361/visual-word-recognition-and-vowelization-in-arabic-new-evidence-from-lexical-decision-task-performances
#13
Haitham Taha, Hanan Azaizah-Seh
The effect of vowelization signs on the process of visual word recognition in Arabic was investigated among 41 native Arab skilled readers with age average of 30.66 ± 9.09. The participants performed a lexical decision task using three types of words and pseudowords; full, partial and non-vowelized. The results showed that for both words and pseudowords, response times were shorter and accuracy levels were higher for the non-vowelized condition compared to the other conditions of vowelization. The results reinforce the argument that automatic lexical processes during word recognition in Arabic orthography might be disturbed by supplementary information such as vowelization...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808826/use-of-evidence-in-a-categorization-task-analytic-and-holistic-processing-modes
#14
Alberto Greco, Stefania Moretti
Category learning performance can be influenced by many contextual factors, but the effects of these factors are not the same for all learners. The present study suggests that these differences can be due to the different ways evidence is used, according to two main basic modalities of processing information, analytically or holistically. In order to test the impact of the information provided, an inductive rule-based task was designed, in which feature salience and comparison informativeness between examples of two categories were manipulated during the learning phases, by introducing and progressively reducing some perceptual biases...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780698/multisensory-integration-and-age-dependent-sensitivity-to-body-representation-modification-induced-by-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#15
János Kállai, Péter Kincses, Beatrix Lábadi, Krisztina Dorn, Tibor Szolcsányi, Gergely Darnai, Ernő Hupuczi, József Janszky, Árpád Csathó
The aim of the present study was to compare junior and senior healthy participants for their multimodal integration capability. The instrument used for the investigation was the rubber hand illusion (RHI) where synchronous and asynchronous multimodal stimulation were applied. The study focused on assessing the rate of integration for visuo-tactile and visuo-proprioceptive stimuli. METHODS: From a large sample of right-handed volunteers, 50 senior employees (containing younger and middle age adults) and 51 senior retired (senior adults) participants were recruited...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717829/configured-groups-hypothesis-fast-comparison-of-exact-large-quantities-without-counting
#16
Sébastien Miravete, André Tricot, Slava Kalyuga, Franck Amadieu
Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#17
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#18
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593440/multi-level-mental-representations-of-written-auditory-and-audiovisual-text-in-children-and-adults
#19
Wienke Wannagat, Gesine Waizenegger, Gerhild Nieding
We examined whether the comprehension of narrative texts differed between auditory, audiovisual, and written text presentations in a sample of 8- and 10-year-olds and adults. Based on multi-level theories of text comprehension that assume text comprehension to involve at least three levels of mental representation, we applied a sentence recognition task that enabled the separate assessment of the memory of the text surface, text base, and the situation model. Results indicate that 8-year-olds benefit from audiovisual and auditory text presentations in comparison with written text presentations in terms of their memory of situation model information...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516394/linguistic-asymmetry-egocentric-anchoring-and-sensory-modality-as-factors-for-the-observed-association-between-time-and-space-perception
#20
Eunice E Hang Choy, Him Cheung
Temporal and spatial representations have been consistently shown to be inextricably intertwined. However, the exact nature of time-space mapping remains unknown. On the one hand, the conceptual metaphor theory postulates unilateral, asymmetric mapping of time onto space, that is, time is perceived in spatial terms but the perception of space is relatively independent of time. On the other hand, a theory of magnitude assumes bilateral and symmetric interactions between temporal and spatial perceptions. In the present paper, we argue that the concepts of linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality provide potential explanations for why evidences favoring both asymmetry and symmetry have been obtained...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
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