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Cognitive Processing

Arianna Buttafuoco, Tiziana Pedale, Tony W Buchanan, Valerio Santangelo
Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Rosa Angela Fabio, Giulia Emma Towey
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ronaldo Vigo, Karina-Mikayla C Doan, Charles A Doan, Shannon Pinegar
The logic operators (e.g., "and," "or," "if, then") play a fundamental role in concept formation, syntactic construction, semantic expression, and deductive reasoning. In spite of this very general and basic role, there are relatively few studies in the literature that focus on their conceptual nature. In the current investigation, we examine, for the first time, the learning difficulty experienced by observers in classifying members belonging to these primitive "modal concepts" instantiated with sets of acoustic and visual stimuli...
October 26, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Rosanna Walters-Symons, Mark Wilson, Andre Klostermann, Samuel Vine
Support for the proposition that the Quiet Eye (QE) duration reflects a period of response programming (including task parameterisation) has come from research showing that an increase in task difficulty is associated with increases in QE duration. Here, we build on previous research by manipulating three elements of task difficulty that correspond with different parameters of golf-putting performance; force production, impact quality and target line. Longer QE durations were found for more complex iterations of the task and furthermore, more sensitive analyses of the QE duration suggest that the early QE proportion (prior to movement initiation) is closely related to force production and impact quality...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Processing
F Ferretti, A Chiera, S Nicchiarelli, I Adornetti, R Magni, S Vicari, G Valeri, A Marini
The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341-361. doi:10.1016/j...
October 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Jinfan Zhang, Taoxi Yang, Yan Bao, Hui Li, Ernst Pöppel, Sarita Silveira
Previous studies have shown that music is a powerful means to convey affective states, but it remains unclear whether and how social context shape the intensity and quality of emotions perceived in music. Using a within-subject design, we studied this question in two experimental settings, i.e. when subjects were alone versus in company of others without direct social interaction or feedback. Non-vocal musical excerpts of the emotional qualities happiness or sadness were rated on arousal and valence dimensions...
October 6, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ellen J Esrock
Robert Vischer's concept of Einfühlung, feeling-into, translated as empathy, serves as the departure point for a proposal about viewing art using the body for a non-imitative form of empathy termed a transomatization and for other embodied operations. A transomatization occurs when viewers reinterpret a component or process of their own bodies to serve as a non-imitative stand-in, or correlate, for something outside of the self, specifically, some quality of an art work or its production. This creates an overlap of the self and other that might be experienced subjectively as a feeling of projection, an operation characteristic of empathy...
September 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Elmira Beirami, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Neurocognitive impairment in response to methamphetamine (MA) has been proven in a variety of experimental and clinical studies. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of MA-induced cognitive deficits and finding preventive/therapeutic approaches need best-suited animal models. In modeling repeated MA exposure, while some believes that escalating doses simulate drug abuse conditions, others believe this regimen confers a preconditioning protection. The present study aimed to compare the effects of three different regimens of repeated MA administration on memory and cognitive function of adult rats...
September 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Despina Stamatopoulou
In this article I will argue for the affective-motivation (background affective attitude or orientation) hypothesis that incubates the aesthetic experience and sets the deep frame of our engagement with art. For this, I look at these microgenetic-early passages of (a) affective perception as mapped into the early emergence of tertiary qualities that underlie a sensorimotor synchronization-a coupling of action, emotion and perception via mirroring that result in dynamic embodied anticipatory control and a feeling of proximity/connectedness and (b) developmental passages that are characterized by spatiotemporal coordination and proximity of the self-other/interactive object and thus structure intentionality, shape experience, in an engaging world of action potentialities forming a background affective attitude...
September 21, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Azam Sabayee
Due to the limited capacity of working memory (WM), efficient suppression of no longer relevant memory contents (inhibition) and revising the current contents of the memory (updating) are crucial factors in memorizing. However, not every individual is able to do so; among them are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients who seem to have trouble forgetting trauma-related materials, making their memory overloaded with irrelevant information. The present study assumes that the inability to forget in PTSD patients is due to the impaired updating function of WM and, therefore, suggests that these individuals have inferior WM function for both emotional and unemotional materials...
September 19, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Weiping Yang, Yanna Ren
Numerous studies have focused on the diversity of audiovisual integration between younger and older adults. However, consecutive trends in audiovisual integration throughout life are still unclear. In the present study, to clarify audiovisual integration characteristics in middle-aged adults, we instructed younger and middle-aged adults to conduct an auditory/visual stimuli discrimination experiment. Randomized streams of unimodal auditory (A), unimodal visual (V) or audiovisual stimuli were presented on the left or right hemispace of the central fixation point, and subjects were instructed to respond to the target stimuli rapidly and accurately...
September 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Suk Won Han
It is well known that a match between working memory contents and a visual stimulus creates attentional bias toward the memory-matching stimulus. The present study investigated whether this memory-driven attentional bias exerts similar effects with conventional, spatial attention driven by a cue stimulus. Specifically, we examined how the effect of a distracting, task-irrelevant stimulus is modulated when attention was oriented toward the distractor in memory- and stimulus-driven manners. The results showed that significant interference by a distractor decreased when attention was allocated to the distractor in a memory-driven manner, whereas the distracter captured attention in a stimulus-driven manner exerted increased interference...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Ineke J M van der Ham, Jantina Brummelman, Marie Elise Aerts, Alyanne M de Haan, H Chris Dijkerman
Lateralized pointing has been shown to cause not only a shift in visuo-motor midline, but also a shift in non-lateralized spatial attention. Non-lateralized cognitive consequences of lateralized pointing have been reported for local and global visuospatial processing. Here, we evaluate these findings and examine this effect for categorical and coordinate spatial relation processing, for which the attentional processes are thought to be highly similar to local and global visuospatial processing, respectively...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Magdalena Razmus
Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation...
August 29, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Haitham Taha, Hanan Azaizah-Seh
The effect of vowelization signs on the process of visual word recognition in Arabic was investigated among 41 native Arab skilled readers with age average of 30.66 ± 9.09. The participants performed a lexical decision task using three types of words and pseudowords; full, partial and non-vowelized. The results showed that for both words and pseudowords, response times were shorter and accuracy levels were higher for the non-vowelized condition compared to the other conditions of vowelization. The results reinforce the argument that automatic lexical processes during word recognition in Arabic orthography might be disturbed by supplementary information such as vowelization...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Alberto Greco, Stefania Moretti
Category learning performance can be influenced by many contextual factors, but the effects of these factors are not the same for all learners. The present study suggests that these differences can be due to the different ways evidence is used, according to two main basic modalities of processing information, analytically or holistically. In order to test the impact of the information provided, an inductive rule-based task was designed, in which feature salience and comparison informativeness between examples of two categories were manipulated during the learning phases, by introducing and progressively reducing some perceptual biases...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
János Kállai, Péter Kincses, Beatrix Lábadi, Krisztina Dorn, Tibor Szolcsányi, Gergely Darnai, Ernő Hupuczi, József Janszky, Árpád Csathó
The aim of the present study was to compare junior and senior healthy participants for their multimodal integration capability. The instrument used for the investigation was the rubber hand illusion (RHI) where synchronous and asynchronous multimodal stimulation were applied. The study focused on assessing the rate of integration for visuo-tactile and visuo-proprioceptive stimuli. METHODS: From a large sample of right-handed volunteers, 50 senior employees (containing younger and middle age adults) and 51 senior retired (senior adults) participants were recruited...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Sébastien Miravete, André Tricot, Slava Kalyuga, Franck Amadieu
Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
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