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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315969/time-takes-space-selective-effects-of-multitasking-on-concurrent-spatial-processing
#1
Timo Mäntylä, Valentina Coni, Veit Kubik, Ivo Todorov, Fabio Del Missier
Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing...
March 18, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314942/empathy-einf%C3%A3-hlung-and-aesthetic-experience-the-effect-of-emotion-contagion-on-appreciation-of-representational-and-abstract-art-using-femg-and-scr
#2
Gerger Gernot, Matthew Pelowski, Helmut Leder
Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285372/dysfunctional-personality-traits-in-adolescence-effects-on-alerting-orienting-and-executive-control-of-attention
#3
Maria Casagrande, Andrea Marotta, Valeria Canepone, Alfredo Spagna, Caterina Rosa, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Augusto Pasini
The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group < 10 and Group ≥ 10, according to the number of criteria they met at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions...
March 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238169/flow-and-quiet-eye-the-role-of-attentional-control-in-flow-experience
#4
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson
This report was designed to investigate the role of effective attention control in flow states, by developing an experimental approach to the study of flow. A challenge-skill balance manipulation was applied to self-paced netball and basketball shooting tasks, with point of gaze recorded through mobile eye tracking. Quiet eye was used to index optimal control of visual attention. While the experimental manipulation was found to have no effect, quiet eye was associated with the experience of flow. Furthermore, mediation revealed an indirect effect of quiet eye on performance through flow experience...
February 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238168/learning-representation-hierarchies-by-sharing-visual-features-a-computational-investigation-of-persian-character-recognition-with-unsupervised-deep-learning
#5
Zahra Sadeghi, Alberto Testolin
In humans, efficient recognition of written symbols is thought to rely on a hierarchical processing system, where simple features are progressively combined into more abstract, high-level representations. Here, we present a computational model of Persian character recognition based on deep belief networks, where increasingly more complex visual features emerge in a completely unsupervised manner by fitting a hierarchical generative model to the sensory data. Crucially, high-level internal representations emerging from unsupervised deep learning can be easily read out by a linear classifier, achieving state-of-the-art recognition accuracy...
February 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224314/creating-semantics-in-tool-use
#6
Arnaud Badets, Thomas Michelet, Aymar de Rugy, François Osiurak
This article presents the first evidence for a functional link between tool use and the processing of abstract symbols like Arabic numbers. Participants were required to perform a tool-use task after the processing of an Arabic number. These numbers represented either a small (2 or 3) or a large magnitude (8 or 9). The tool-use task consisted in using inverse pliers for gripping either a small or a large object. The inverse pliers enable to dissociate the hand action from the tool action in relation to the object (i...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188455/individual-differences-in-orthographic-priming-relate-to-phonological-decoding-skill-in-adults
#7
Suzanne E Welcome, Emma R Trammel
We examined relationships between individual differences in orthographic priming and a battery of measures assessing orthographic processing ability, reading history, current reading ability, and verbal intelligence in university students. Pronounceable and unpronounceable nonword primes preceded word and nonword targets. Individual differences in nonword reading skill and other measures of reading and spelling ability were associated with the degree of orthographic priming. Individuals with less phonological decoding skill benefited more from anagram primes for word targets preceded by unpronounceable primes and nonword targets preceded by pronounceable primes...
February 10, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185087/attention-to-body-parts-varies-with-visual-preference-and-verb-effector-associations
#8
Ty W Boyer, Josita Maouene, Nitya Sethuraman
Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb...
February 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154991/a-computational-framework-for-attentional-object-discovery-in-rgb-d-videos
#9
Germán Martín García, Mircea Pavel, Simone Frintrop
We present a computational framework for attention-guided visual scene exploration in sequences of RGB-D data. For this, we propose a visual object candidate generation method to produce object hypotheses about the objects in the scene. An attention system is used to prioritise the processing of visual information by (1) localising candidate objects, and (2) integrating an inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism grounded in spatial coordinates. This spatial IOR mechanism naturally copes with camera motions and inhibits objects that have already been the target of attention...
February 2, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101812/cognitive-and-emotional-demands-of-black-humour-processing-the-role-of-intelligence-aggressiveness-and-mood
#10
Ulrike Willinger, Andreas Hergovich, Michaela Schmoeger, Matthias Deckert, Susanne Stoettner, Iris Bunda, Andrea Witting, Melanie Seidler, Reinhilde Moser, Stefanie Kacena, David Jaeckle, Benjamin Loader, Christian Mueller, Eduard Auff
Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness...
January 18, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091761/on-the-origins-of-endogenous-thoughts
#11
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070686/turn-left-where-you-felt-unhappy-how-affect-influences-landmark-based-wayfinding
#12
Ceylan Z Balaban, Harun Karimpur, Florian Röser, Kai Hamburger
The present work investigated the impact of affect in landmark-based wayfinding. We assumed that affect-laden landmarks improve wayfinding performance and have an impact on later landmark recognition. To investigate our hypotheses, we ran two experiments in a virtual maze. In Experiment 1, we investigated how affect-laden landmarks influence wayfinding and recognition in comparison with neutral landmarks. The aim of Experiment 2 was to focus on the affective valence of a landmark. The memory tasks of both experiments were repeated after 1 week in order to assess memory consolidation...
January 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032252/cognitive-dimensions-of-talim-evaluating-weaving-notation-through-cognitive-dimensions-cds-framework
#13
Gagan Deep Kaur
The design process in Kashmiri carpet weaving is distributed over a number of actors and artifacts and is mediated by a weaving notation called talim. The script encodes entire design in practice-specific symbols. This encoded script is decoded and interpreted via design-specific conventions by weavers to weave the design embedded in it. The cognitive properties of this notational system are described in the paper employing cognitive dimensions (CDs) framework of Green (People and computers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989) and Blackwell et al...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838866/effects-of-proactive-interference-on-non-verbal-working-memory
#14
Marilyn Cyr, Derek E Nee, Eric Nelson, Thea Senger, John Jonides, Chara Malapani
Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837290/the-appeal-of-the-devil-s-eye-social-evaluation-affects-social-attention
#15
Luciana Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano, Andrea Bobbio, Gabriele Mantovani
Humans typically exhibit a tendency to follow the gaze of conspecifics, a social attention behaviour known as gaze cueing. Here, we addressed whether episodically learned social knowledge about the behaviours performed by the individual bearing the gaze can influence this phenomenon. In a learning phase, different faces were systematically associated with either positive or negative behaviours. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cueing task. The results showed that faces associated with antisocial norm-violating behaviours triggered stronger gaze-cueing effects as compared to faces associated with sociable behaviours...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822605/quiet-eye-facilitates-sensorimotor-preprograming-and-online-control-of-precision-aiming-in-golf-putting
#16
Joe Causer, Spencer J Hayes, James M Hooper, Simon J Bennett
An occlusion protocol was used to elucidate the respective roles of preprograming and online control during the quiet eye period of golf putting. Twenty-one novice golfers completed golf putts to 6-ft and 11-ft targets under full vision or with vision occluded on initiation of the backswing. Radial error (RE) was higher, and quiet eye was longer, when putting to the 11-ft versus 6-ft target, and in the occluded versus full vision condition. Quiet eye durations, as well as preprograming, online and dwell durations, were longer in low-RE compared to high-RE trials...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817073/enhanced-music-sensitivity-in-9-month-old-bilingual-infants
#17
Liquan Liu, René Kager
This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants of 8-9 months participated in the study. All infants had Dutch as one of the first languages. The other first languages, varying among bilingual families, were not tone or pitch accent languages. In two experiments, infants were tested on the discrimination of a lexical (N = 42) or a violin (N = 48) pitch contrast via a visual habituation paradigm...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783173/the-characteristics-of-social-categorization-based-on-the-unidimensional-variation-of-gender-versus-age
#18
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Yuting Liu, He Bai, Kaili Zhang
The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766491/does-finger-sense-really-have-a-delayed-effect-on-children-s-addition-performance-a-comment-of-newman-s-d-does-finger-sense-predict-addition-performance-cognitive-processing-17-2-2016-pp-139-146
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743143/scanpath-estimation-based-on-foveated-image-saliency
#20
Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
February 2017: Cognitive Processing
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