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Cognitive Processing

Christina Bermeitinger, Ryan P Hackländer
How actions are chosen, and what they are influenced by, has been the focus of several research traditions. Influences on actions are often studied using compatibility paradigms, such as response priming. Here, a first stimulus (i.e., the prime) is presented shortly before a second stimulus (i.e., the target) which has to be classified. Reaction times to the target are often reduced when primes and targets are compatible compared to incompatible primes and targets-i.e., a positive compatibility effect (PCE)...
February 24, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Sven Thönes, Kurt Stocker, Peter Brugger, Heiko Hecht
Recent evidence has shown that the mental representation of time is "embodied"-time is expressed via the hands, the eyes, and the whole body. These findings suggest the existence of a manually reflected mental time line running (in Western culture) horizontally from left (past) to right (future) and an ocularly reflected mental time line running from left/down (past) to right/up (future). We addressed the question whether mental time is also reflected interpersonally and investigated whether an avatar's face orientation (left vs...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Giorgio Marchetti
In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory...
February 8, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Lisa G Guthrie, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau
Previous research indicates that interactive arithmetic tasks may alleviate the deleterious impact of maths anxiety on arithmetic performance. Our aim here was to further test the impact of interactivity on maths-anxious individuals and those with poorer numeracy skills. In the experiment reported here participants completed sums in two interactivity contexts. In a low-interactivity condition, sums were completed with hands down. In a second, high-interactivity condition, participants used moveable number tokens...
February 3, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Silke M Mueller, Johannes Schiebener, Margarete Delazer, Matthias Brand
Many decision situations in everyday life involve mathematical considerations. In decisions under objective risk, i.e., when explicit numeric information is available, executive functions and abilities to handle exact numbers and ratios are predictors of objectively advantageous choices. Although still debated, exact numeric abilities, e.g., normative calculation skills, are assumed to be related to approximate number processing skills. The current study investigates the effects of approximative numeric abilities on decision making under objective risk...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Francisco J Rodríguez-Lera, Vicente Matellán-Olivera, Miguel Á Conde-González, Francisco Martín-Rico
Generation of autonomous behavior for robots is a general unsolved problem. Users perceive robots as repetitive tools that do not respond to dynamic situations. This research deals with the generation of natural behaviors in assistive service robots for dynamic domestic environments, particularly, a motivational-oriented cognitive architecture to generate more natural behaviors in autonomous robots. The proposed architecture, called HiMoP, is based on three elements: a Hierarchy of needs to define robot drives; a set of Motivational variables connected to robot needs; and a Pool of finite-state machines to run robot behaviors...
January 6, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Jungang Qin, Zhenhao Shi, Yina Ma, Shihui Han
Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed decreased activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula for women during the implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues. Current work tested whether aforementioned activities are common for women and men and explored potential gender differences. We scanned twenty males while they performed a color-naming task on death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Whole-brain analysis showed increased left frontal activity and decreased activities in the ACC and bilateral insula to death-related versus negative-valence words for both men and women...
January 6, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Marco Fabbri, Matteo Frisoni, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti, Vincenzo Natale
The shared attention theory suggests that people devote greater cognitive resources to those features co-attended simultaneously with others, determining better performance in several types of tasks. When co-actors performed a go/no-go Navon task attending different features of target letters, the performance was impaired, reflecting a joint Navon effect (the representation of a co-actor's attentional focus made it more difficult to select and apply one's own focus of attention), probably due to asynchronous co-attention with a decrease in cognitive resources involved...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Y Groen, A B M Fuermaier, L I Tucha, J Koerts, O Tucha
Based on the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory, it was hypothesized that the underrepresentation of female students in the physical sciences and the underrepresentation of males in the social sciences relates to differences in E-S cognitive style between the sexes. This hypothesis was tested in 115 physical science students and 155 social science students from a university in the Netherlands. The students completed visuospatial tests and the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) as measures for systemizing, and a Cartoon Prediction test and the empathy quotient (EQ) as measures for empathizing...
February 2018: Cognitive Processing
Edward A Cranford, Jarrod Moss
In fast-paced, dynamic tasks, the ability to anticipate the future outcome of a sequence of events is crucial to quickly selecting an appropriate course of action among multiple alternative options. There are two classes of theories that describe how anticipation occurs. Serial theories assume options are generated and evaluated one at a time, in order of quality, whereas parallel theories assume simultaneous generation and evaluation. The present research examined the option evaluation process during a task designed to be analogous to prior anticipation tasks, but within the domain of narrative text comprehension...
December 23, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Valérie Dormal, Alexandre Heeren, Mauro Pesenti, Pierre Maurage
Distortions of duration perception provoked by emotion-induced arousal changes are explained by modifications of an internal clock pace. Yet, uncertainty still abounds regarding whether changes of arousal induced by physical exercise yield such temporal distortions. Here, we report two experiments aiming to test separately the impact of, on the one hand, a physical induction of arousal and, on the other hand, a task delay on duration categorisation. In Experiment 1, participants performed a duration categorisation task before and after heart-rate manipulation (increase, decrease, or no change)...
December 20, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Arianna Buttafuoco, Tiziana Pedale, Tony W Buchanan, Valerio Santangelo
Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Rosa Angela Fabio, Giulia Emma Towey
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Magdalena Razmus
Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Haitham Taha, Hanan Azaizah-Seh
The effect of vowelization signs on the process of visual word recognition in Arabic was investigated among 41 native Arab skilled readers with age average of 30.66 ± 9.09. The participants performed a lexical decision task using three types of words and pseudowords; full, partial and non-vowelized. The results showed that for both words and pseudowords, response times were shorter and accuracy levels were higher for the non-vowelized condition compared to the other conditions of vowelization. The results reinforce the argument that automatic lexical processes during word recognition in Arabic orthography might be disturbed by supplementary information such as vowelization...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Alberto Greco, Stefania Moretti
Category learning performance can be influenced by many contextual factors, but the effects of these factors are not the same for all learners. The present study suggests that these differences can be due to the different ways evidence is used, according to two main basic modalities of processing information, analytically or holistically. In order to test the impact of the information provided, an inductive rule-based task was designed, in which feature salience and comparison informativeness between examples of two categories were manipulated during the learning phases, by introducing and progressively reducing some perceptual biases...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
János Kállai, Péter Kincses, Beatrix Lábadi, Krisztina Dorn, Tibor Szolcsányi, Gergely Darnai, Ernő Hupuczi, József Janszky, Árpád Csathó
The aim of the present study was to compare junior and senior healthy participants for their multimodal integration capability. The instrument used for the investigation was the rubber hand illusion (RHI) where synchronous and asynchronous multimodal stimulation were applied. The study focused on assessing the rate of integration for visuo-tactile and visuo-proprioceptive stimuli. METHODS: From a large sample of right-handed volunteers, 50 senior employees (containing younger and middle age adults) and 51 senior retired (senior adults) participants were recruited...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
Sébastien Miravete, André Tricot, Slava Kalyuga, Franck Amadieu
Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective...
November 2017: Cognitive Processing
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