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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091761/on-the-origins-of-endogenous-thoughts
#1
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070686/turn-left-where-you-felt-unhappy-how-affect-influences-landmark-based-wayfinding
#2
Ceylan Z Balaban, Harun Karimpur, Florian Röser, Kai Hamburger
The present work investigated the impact of affect in landmark-based wayfinding. We assumed that affect-laden landmarks improve wayfinding performance and have an impact on later landmark recognition. To investigate our hypotheses, we ran two experiments in a virtual maze. In Experiment 1, we investigated how affect-laden landmarks influence wayfinding and recognition in comparison with neutral landmarks. The aim of Experiment 2 was to focus on the affective valence of a landmark. The memory tasks of both experiments were repeated after 1 week in order to assess memory consolidation...
January 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032252/cognitive-dimensions-of-talim-evaluating-weaving-notation-through-cognitive-dimensions-cds-framework
#3
Gagan Deep Kaur
The design process in Kashmiri carpet weaving is distributed over a number of actors and artifacts and is mediated by a weaving notation called talim. The script encodes entire design in practice-specific symbols. This encoded script is decoded and interpreted via design-specific conventions by weavers to weave the design embedded in it. The cognitive properties of this notational system are described in the paper employing cognitive dimensions (CDs) framework of Green (People and computers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989) and Blackwell et al...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004222/auditory-preference-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Lynn R Gilbertson, Robert A Lutfi, Susan Ellis Weismer
Research on children with autism spectrum disorders suggests differences from neurotypical children in the preference for 'social' versus 'nonsocial' sounds. Conclusions have been based largely on the use of head-turn methodology which has various limitations as a means of establishing auditory preference. In the present study, preference was assessed by measuring the frequency with which children pressed a button to hear different sounds using an interactive toy. Contrary to prior results, both groups displayed a strong preference for the highly social sounds...
December 21, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838866/effects-of-proactive-interference-on-non-verbal-working-memory
#5
Marilyn Cyr, Derek E Nee, Eric Nelson, Thea Senger, John Jonides, Chara Malapani
Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain...
November 12, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837290/the-appeal-of-the-devil-s-eye-social-evaluation-affects-social-attention
#6
Luciana Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano, Andrea Bobbio, Gabriele Mantovani
Humans typically exhibit a tendency to follow the gaze of conspecifics, a social attention behaviour known as gaze cueing. Here, we addressed whether episodically learned social knowledge about the behaviours performed by the individual bearing the gaze can influence this phenomenon. In a learning phase, different faces were systematically associated with either positive or negative behaviours. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cueing task. The results showed that faces associated with antisocial norm-violating behaviours triggered stronger gaze-cueing effects as compared to faces associated with sociable behaviours...
November 11, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822605/quiet-eye-facilitates-sensorimotor-preprograming-and-online-control-of-precision-aiming-in-golf-putting
#7
Joe Causer, Spencer J Hayes, James M Hooper, Simon J Bennett
An occlusion protocol was used to elucidate the respective roles of preprograming and online control during the quiet eye period of golf putting. Twenty-one novice golfers completed golf putts to 6-ft and 11-ft targets under full vision or with vision occluded on initiation of the backswing. Radial error (RE) was higher, and quiet eye was longer, when putting to the 11-ft versus 6-ft target, and in the occluded versus full vision condition. Quiet eye durations, as well as preprograming, online and dwell durations, were longer in low-RE compared to high-RE trials...
November 7, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817073/enhanced-music-sensitivity-in-9-month-old-bilingual-infants
#8
Liquan Liu, René Kager
This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants of 8-9 months participated in the study. All infants had Dutch as one of the first languages. The other first languages, varying among bilingual families, were not tone or pitch accent languages. In two experiments, infants were tested on the discrimination of a lexical (N = 42) or a violin (N = 48) pitch contrast via a visual habituation paradigm...
November 5, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783173/the-characteristics-of-social-categorization-based-on-the-unidimensional-variation-of-gender-versus-age
#9
Pei Wang, Qin Zhang, Yuting Liu, He Bai, Kaili Zhang
The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically...
October 25, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421269/emotional-faces-influence-numerosity-estimation-without-awareness
#10
Hirokazu Doi, Kazuyuki Shinohara
It is well established that emotional information influences perceived duration. On the basis of this together with the proposition of common magnitude estimation system, we hypothesized that the presentation of emotional faces can modulate the estimation of numerical quantity as well. The present study examined this hypothesis by investigating the effects of unconsciously presented emotional faces on numerosity estimation using number bisection task. We rendered the facial images invisible by continuous flash suppression methodology in order to measure the genuine effect of emotional information by reducing the influences of a conscious effort of emotional regulation...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350001/neural-substrates-of-successful-working-memory-and-long-term-memory-formation-in-a-relational-spatial-memory-task
#11
Heiko C Bergmann, Sander M Daselaar, Guillén Fernández, Roy P C Kessels
Working memory (WM) tasks may involve brain activation actually implicated in long-term memory (LTM). In order to disentangle these two memory systems, we employed a combined WM/LTM task, using a spatial relational (object-location) memory paradigm and analyzed which brain areas were associated with successful performance for either task using fMRI. Critically, we corrected for the performance on the respective memory task when analyzing subsequent memory effects. The WM task consisted of a delayed-match-to-sample task assessed in an MRI scanner...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342411/comparison-of-affective-and-semantic-priming-in-different-soa
#12
Zhongqing Jiang, Yuhong Qu, Yanli Xiao, Qi Wu, Likun Xia, Wenhui Li, Ying Liu
Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312597/the-influence-of-the-number-of-relevant-causes-on-the-processing-of-covariation-information-in-causal-reasoning
#13
Kyungil Kim, Arthur B Markman, Tae Hoon Kim
Research on causal reasoning has focused on the influence of covariation between candidate causes and effects on causal judgments. We suggest that the type of covariation information to which people attend is affected by the task being performed. For this, we manipulated the test questions for the evaluation of contingency information and observed its influence on both contingency learning and subsequent causal selections. When people select one cause related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the absence of alternative causes...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306654/why-saturday-could-be-both-green-and-red-in-synesthesia
#14
Michele Miozzo, Bruno Laeng
It has long been observed that certain words induce multiple synesthetic colors, a phenomenon that has remained largely unexplored. We report here on the distinct synesthetic colors two synesthetes experienced with closed sets of concepts (digits, weekdays, months). For example, Saturday was associated with green, like other word starting with s; however, Saturday also had its specific color (red). Auditory priming and Visual Color Stroop tasks were used to understand the cognitive mechanisms supporting the distinct synesthetic colors...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271684/ovariectomy-increases-the-age-induced-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-at-hippocampal-ca1
#15
O Picazo, J Espinosa-Raya, A Briones-Aranda, M Cerbón
One of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease includes the neurofibrillary tangles formation produced by hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, whose expression is putatively regulated by the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. Hippocampus is a brain region that participates in many functions related to learning and memory; in addition, it is abundant in both estradiol and progesterone receptors. In this study, we explore the expression of Tau hyperphosphorylation at hippocampus and the performance of rats in an autoshaping learning task at 5, 10 and 15 months after the ovaries removal...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165697/modelling-human-problem-solving-with-data-from-an-online-game
#16
Tim Rach, Alexandra Kirsch
Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130564/neurophysiologic-markers-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-laryngeal-muscles-and-premotor-cortex-in-caudal-opercular-part-of-inferior-frontal-gyrus-investigated-in-motor-speech-disorder-a-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-study
#17
Maja Rogić Vidaković, Ana Jerković, Tomislav Jurić, Igor Vujović, Joško Šoda, Nikola Erceg, Andreja Bubić, Marina Zmajević Schönwald, Pantelis Lioumis, Dragan Gabelica, Zoran Đogaš
Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have so far reported the results of mapping the primary motor cortex (M1) for hand and tongue muscles in stuttering disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for locating the M1 for laryngeal muscle and premotor cortical area in the caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, corresponding to Broca's area in stuttering subjects by applying new methodology for mapping these motor speech areas...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766491/does-finger-sense-really-have-a-delayed-effect-on-children-s-addition-performance-a-comment-of-newman-s-d-does-finger-sense-predict-addition-performance-cognitive-processing-17-2-2016-pp-139-146
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743143/scanpath-estimation-based-on-foveated-image-saliency
#19
Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
October 14, 2016: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696101/non-musicians-also-have-a-piano-in-the-head-evidence-for-spatial-musical-associations-from-line-bisection-tracking
#20
Matthias Hartmann
The spatial representation of ordinal sequences (numbers, time, tones) seems to be a fundamental cognitive property. While an automatic association between horizontal space and pitch height (left-low pitch, right-high pitch) is constantly reported in musicians, the evidence for such an association in non-musicians is mixed. In this study, 20 non-musicians performed a line bisection task while listening to irrelevant high- and low-pitched tones and white noise (control condition). While pitch height had no influence on the final bisection point, participants' movement trajectories showed systematic biases: When approaching the line and touching the line for the first time (initial bisection point), the mouse cursor was directed more rightward for high-pitched tones compared to low-pitched tones and noise...
September 30, 2016: Cognitive Processing
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