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Cognitive Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717829/configured-groups-hypothesis-fast-comparison-of-exact-large-quantities-without-counting
#1
Sébastien Miravete, André Tricot, Slava Kalyuga, Franck Amadieu
Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective...
July 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676906/tacit-to-explicit-knowledge-conversion
#2
Osvaldo Cairó Battistutti, Dominik Bork
The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation...
July 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647861/qualitative-spatial-logic-descriptors-from-3d-indoor-scenes-to-generate-explanations-in-natural-language
#3
Zoe Falomir, Thomas Kluth
The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene...
June 24, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616664/erratum-to-the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#4
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612081/betting-on-transitivity-in-probabilistic-causal-chains
#5
Dennis Hebbelmann, Momme von Sydow
Causal reasoning is crucial to people's decision making in probabilistic environments. It may rely directly on data about covariation between variables (correspondence) or on inferences based on reasonable constraints if larger causal models are constructed based on local relations (coherence). For causal chains an often assumed constraint is transitivity. For probabilistic causal relations, mismatches between such transitive inferences and direct empirical evidence may lead to distortions of empirical evidence...
June 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603804/brain-activity-patterns-induced-by-interrupting-the-cognitive-processes-with-online-advertising
#6
Izabela Rejer, Jarosław Jankowski
As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires...
June 12, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597324/gender-differences-in-moral-judgment-and-the-evaluation-of-gender-specified-moral-agents
#7
Valerio Capraro, Jonathan Sippel
Whether, and if so, how exactly gender differences are manifested in moral judgment has recently been at the center of much research on moral decision making. Previous research suggests that women are more deontological than men in personal, but not impersonal, moral dilemmas. However, typical personal and impersonal moral dilemmas differ along two dimensions: Personal dilemmas are more emotionally salient than impersonal ones and involve a violation of Kant's practical imperative that humans must never be used as a mere means, but only as ends...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597293/reducing-uncertainty-in-sustainable-interpersonal-service-relationships-the-role-of-aesthetics
#8
Ioannis Xenakis
Sustainable interpersonal service relationships (SISRs) are the outcome of a design process that supports situated meaningful interactions between those being served and those in service. Service design is not just directed to simply satisfy the ability to perceive the psychological state of others, but more importantly, it should aim at preserving these relationships in relation to the contextual requirements that they functionally need, in order to be or remain sustainable. However, SISRs are uncertain since they have many possibilities to be in error in the sense that the constructed, situated meanings may finally be proven unsuccessful for the anticipations and the goals of those people engaged in a SISR...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593440/multi-level-mental-representations-of-written-auditory-and-audiovisual-text-in-children-and-adults
#9
Wienke Wannagat, Gesine Waizenegger, Gerhild Nieding
We examined whether the comprehension of narrative texts differed between auditory, audiovisual, and written text presentations in a sample of 8- and 10-year-olds and adults. Based on multi-level theories of text comprehension that assume text comprehension to involve at least three levels of mental representation, we applied a sentence recognition task that enabled the separate assessment of the memory of the text surface, text base, and the situation model. Results indicate that 8-year-olds benefit from audiovisual and auditory text presentations in comparison with written text presentations in terms of their memory of situation model information...
June 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585090/intuitive-control-of-mobile-robots-an-architecture-for-autonomous-adaptive-dynamic-behaviour-integration
#10
Christos Melidis, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Davide Marocco
In this paper, we present a novel approach to human-robot control. Taking inspiration from behaviour-based robotics and self-organisation principles, we present an interfacing mechanism, with the ability to adapt both towards the user and the robotic morphology. The aim is for a transparent mechanism connecting user and robot, allowing for a seamless integration of control signals and robot behaviours. Instead of the user adapting to the interface and control paradigm, the proposed architecture allows the user to shape the control motifs in their way of preference, moving away from the case where the user has to read and understand an operation manual, or it has to learn to operate a specific device...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516394/linguistic-asymmetry-egocentric-anchoring-and-sensory-modality-as-factors-for-the-observed-association-between-time-and-space-perception
#11
Eunice E Hang Choy, Him Cheung
Temporal and spatial representations have been consistently shown to be inextricably intertwined. However, the exact nature of time-space mapping remains unknown. On the one hand, the conceptual metaphor theory postulates unilateral, asymmetric mapping of time onto space, that is, time is perceived in spatial terms but the perception of space is relatively independent of time. On the other hand, a theory of magnitude assumes bilateral and symmetric interactions between temporal and spatial perceptions. In the present paper, we argue that the concepts of linguistic asymmetry, egocentric anchoring, and sensory modality provide potential explanations for why evidences favoring both asymmetry and symmetry have been obtained...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509117/the-theory-of-multiple-stupidities-education-technology-and-organisation-in-arabia
#12
Abdulrahman Essa Al Lily, Ahmed Ali Alhazmi, Saleh Alzahrani
Traditional perspectives have envisaged intelligence as one entity dominated by a single set of abilities (i.e. cognitive abilities), whereas modern perspectives have defined intelligence in various shapes (e.g. linguistic, musical and interpersonal intelligences). By the same token, traditional perspectives have examined stupidity as one set of inabilities (i.e. cognitive inabilities). However, it is not clear whether modern perspectives have discussed whether stupidity exists in various forms-in the same way as they have envisaged intelligence...
May 16, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488053/the-spatial-representation-of-power-in-children
#13
Lifeng Lu, Thomas W Schubert, Lei Zhu
Previous evidence demonstrates that power is mentally represented as vertical space by adults. However, little is known about how power is mentally represented in children. The current research examines such representations. The influence of vertical information (motor cues) was tested in both an explicit power evaluation task (judge whether labels refer to powerless or powerful groups) and an incidental task (judge whether labels refer to people or animals). The results showed that when power was explicitly evaluated, vertical motor responses interfered with responding in children and adults, i...
May 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474098/reasoning-and-mathematical-skills-contribute-to-normatively-superior-decision-making-under-risk-evidence-from-the-game-of-dice-task
#14
Marie-Theres Pertl, Laura Zamarian, Margarete Delazer
In this study, we assessed to what extent reasoning improves performance in decision making under risk in a laboratory gambling task (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D). We also investigated to what degree individuals with above average mathematical competence decide better than those with average mathematical competence. Eighty-five participants performed the GDT-D and several numerical tasks. Forty-two individuals were asked to calculate the probabilities and the outcomes associated with the different options of the GDT-D before performing it...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451913/eeg-microstates-during-different-phases-of-transcendental-meditation-practice
#15
Pascal L Faber, Frederick Travis, Patricia Milz, Niyazi Parim
Two phases of Transcendental Meditation (TM)-transcending and undirected mentation-were compared to each other and to task-free resting using multichannel EEG recorded from 20 TM practitioners. An EEG microstate analysis identified four classes of microstates which were labeled A, B, C and D, based on their similarity to previously published classes. For each class of microstates, mean duration, coverage and occurrence were computed. Resting and transcending differed from undirected mentation with decreased prominence of Class A and increased prominence of Class D microstates...
April 27, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447242/testing-the-online-reading-effects-of-emotionality-on-relative-clause-attachment
#16
Javier García-Orza, José Manuel Gavilán, Isabel Fraga, Pilar Ferré
Previous research has shown the impact of the emotional dimension of nouns (i.e., valence and arousal) on the completion of relative clauses (RC) that are preceded by a double antecedent [e.g.,: Someone shot the servant (the first noun phrase, NP1) of the actress (the second noun phrase, NP2) who was on the balcony] (Fraga et al. in Q J Exp Psychol 65:1740-1759, 2012). The present study explored for the first time the role of emotional valence, specifically emotional positive nouns, on RC disambiguation in a self-paced reading experiment...
April 26, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444522/the-movement-induced-self-reference-effect-enhancing-memorability-through-movement-toward-the-self
#17
Mark A Oakes, Serge V Onyper
Much evidence suggests that bodily actions affect cognitive states. In particular, pulling owned objects toward the self improves memory for those objects compared to memory for objects pushed away from the self. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of incidental joystick movement on static stimuli, hypothesizing that using the physical self (rather than a computer monitor) as a reference point would enhance memory for items categorized via a toward-the-self action but not toward-the-computer-monitor action...
April 25, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434136/facial-expressions-and-speech-acts-experimental-evidences-on-the-role-of-the-upper-face-as-an-illocutionary-force-indicating-device-in-language-comprehension
#18
Filippo Domaneschi, Marcello Passarelli, Carlo Chiorri
Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders...
April 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285372/dysfunctional-personality-traits-in-adolescence-effects-on-alerting-orienting-and-executive-control-of-attention
#19
Maria Casagrande, Andrea Marotta, Valeria Canepone, Alfredo Spagna, Caterina Rosa, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Augusto Pasini
The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group < 10 and Group ≥ 10, according to the number of criteria they met at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions...
May 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224314/creating-semantics-in-tool-use
#20
Arnaud Badets, Thomas Michelet, Aymar de Rugy, François Osiurak
This article presents the first evidence for a functional link between tool use and the processing of abstract symbols like Arabic numbers. Participants were required to perform a tool-use task after the processing of an Arabic number. These numbers represented either a small (2 or 3) or a large magnitude (8 or 9). The tool-use task consisted in using inverse pliers for gripping either a small or a large object. The inverse pliers enable to dissociate the hand action from the tool action in relation to the object (i...
May 2017: Cognitive Processing
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