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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497213/bone-pain-and-muscle-weakness-in-cancer-patients
#1
REVIEW
Daniel P Milgrom, Neha L Lad, Leonidas G Koniaris, Teresa A Zimmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we will discuss the current understanding of bone pain and muscle weakness in cancer patients. We will describe the underlying physiology and mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) and cancer-induced muscle wasting (CIMW), as well as current methods of diagnosis and treatment. We will discuss future therapies and research directions to help patients with these problems. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several pharmacologic therapies that are currently in preclinical and clinical testing that appear to be promising adjuncts to current CIBP and CIMW therapies...
May 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497212/renal-osteodystrophy-or-kidney-induced-osteoporosis
#2
REVIEW
Sharon M Moe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects nearly 10% of the population. The incidence of fractures in population studies demonstrate an increase with worsening stages of kidney disease suggesting specific CKD related causes of fracture. RECENT FINDINGS: The increase in fractures with CKD most likely represents disordered bone quality due to the abnormal bone remodeling from renal osteodystrophy. There is also an increase in fractures with age in patients with CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD also have many fracture risk factors common to patients without known CKD...
May 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477234/tnf-and-bone-remodeling
#3
REVIEW
Baohong Zhao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms involved in the TNF-mediated deregulated bone remodeling are little appreciated. This review will discuss and summarize the impact of TNF, Notch, and RBP-J signaling on bone remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: The integrity of the adult skeleton undergoes constant and dynamic remodeling throughout life to maintain a proper bone homeostasis, which is achieved by the essential tight control of coupling between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation...
May 5, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474258/calcium-balance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Kathleen M Hill Gallant, David M Spiegel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events...
May 4, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466454/renal-osteodystrophy-time-for-common-nomenclature
#5
REVIEW
Susan M Ott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term renal osteodystrophy has been used to describe a wide variety of bone problems facing patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we review the history of the use of this term. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone disease resulting from CKD was first noticed in 1890. The term "renal osteodystrophy" was used to define the bone disease in 1942. Since then, important discoveries have increased our knowledge of the complexities of bone physiology in these patients...
May 2, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466453/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-new-insights-into-pathogenesis-clinical-complications-and-potential-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Maurizio Pacifici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a complex musculoskeletal pediatric disorder characterized by osteochondromas that form next to the growth plates of many skeletal elements, including long bones, ribs, and vertebrae. Due to its intricacies and unresolved issues, HME continues to pose major challenges to both clinicians and biomedical researchers. The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze recent advances in this field and point to possible targets and strategies for future biologically based therapeutic intervention...
May 2, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455644/treatment-of-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Mark R Hanudel, Isidro B Salusky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this paper, we review the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), especially as it relates to pediatric CKD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered regulation of bone and mineral metabolism in CKD may result in fractures, skeletal deformities, and poor growth, which is especially relevant for pediatric CKD patients. Moreover, CKD-MBD may result in extra-skeletal calcification and cardiovascular morbidity...
April 28, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447312/bone-quality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-definitions-and-diagnostics
#8
REVIEW
Erin M B McNerny, Thomas L Nickolas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this paper, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of fractures and renal osteodystrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of bone quality in the pathogenesis of fracture susceptibility in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is beginning to be elucidated. Bone quality refers to bone material properties, such as cortical and trabecular microarchitecture, mineralization, turnover, microdamage, and collagen content and structure. Recent data has added to our understanding of the effects of CKD on alterations to bone quality, emerging data on the role of abnormal collagen structure on bone strength, the potential of non-invasive methods to inform our knowledge of bone quality, and how we can use these methods to inform strategies that protect against bone loss and fractures...
April 26, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432597/t-regulatory-cells-in-bone-remodelling
#9
REVIEW
Aline Bozec, Mario M Zaiss
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we present the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in bone remodelling and bone-related disease such as osteoporosis or inflammatory bone loss. We also discuss the cellular and molecular mechanism how Treg cells regulate osteoclastogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Treg cells could regulate osteoclastogenesis by secreting TGF-β and IL-10 as well as IL-4 cytokines. Moreover, Treg cells can additionally regulate osteoclast differentiation, in a cell-to-cell contact via the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432596/exploiting-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-for-clinical-purposes
#10
REVIEW
Mark L Johnson, Robert R Recker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to evaluate critically the literature published over the past 3 years regarding the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt pathway was found to be involved in bone biology in 2001-2002 with the discovery of a (G171V) mutation in the lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) that resulted in high bone mass and another mutation that completely inactivated Lrp5 function and resulted in osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG). The molecular biology has been complex, and very interesting...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432595/what-animal-models-have-taught-us-about-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-bisphosphonates-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Matthew R Allen, Mohammad W Aref
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have long been the gold-standard anti-remodeling treatment for numerous metabolic bone diseases. Since these drugs are excreted unmetabolized through the kidney, they are not recommended for individuals with compromised kidney function due to concerns of kidney and bone toxicity. The goal of this paper is to summarize the preclinical BP work in models of kidney disease with particular focus on the bone, kidney, and vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: Summative data exists showing positive effects on bone and vascular calcifications with minimal evidence for bone or kidney toxicity in animal models...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432594/microrna-transfer-between-bone-marrow-adipose-and-multiple-myeloma-cells
#12
REVIEW
Luna Soley, Carolyne Falank, Michaela R Reagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, largely due to the tumor-supportive role of the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is one component of the fertile microenvironment which is believed to contribute to myeloma progression and drug resistance, as well as participate in a vicious cycle of osteolysis and tumor growth. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as instrumental regulators of cellular processes that enable the development and dissemination of cancer...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429254/biomarkers-predicting-bone-turnover-in-the-setting-of-ckd
#13
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Etienne Cavalier, Patrick C D'Haese
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Impaired bone quality contributes to the increased fracture risk in chronic kidney disease patients. Both low and high turnover bone disease may compromise bone quality. The question arises whether bone biomarkers may be additive or replace bone histormorphometry for diagnosing the extremes of bone turnover. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies exploring the performance of established and emerging bone biomarkers against histomorphometric assessment of bone turnover are limited and overall yield inconclusive results as to their diagnostic utility...
April 20, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421466/parathyroid-diseases-and-t-cells
#14
REVIEW
M Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes studies into the permissive role of T cells in the bone catabolic effects of hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid hormone (PTH). RECENT FINDINGS: Work in animals combined with recent translational studies in humans now highlight the potent amplificatory action of T cells on PTH-induced bone resorption. Mechanistic animal studies reveal a complex pathway by which PTH exploits natural self-renewal functions of CD4(+) T cells, to drive TNFα production that promotes formation of IL-17A secreting Th17 T cells...
April 18, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421465/the-role-of-the-molecular-clock-in-skeletal-muscle-and-what-it-is-teaching-us-about-muscle-bone-crosstalk
#15
REVIEW
Lance A Riley, Karyn A Esser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes what has been learned about the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone from mouse models in which BMAL1, a core molecular clock protein has been deleted. Additionally, we highlight several genes which change following loss of BMAL1. The protein products from these genes are secreted from muscle and have a known effect on bone homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Circadian rhythms have been implicated in regulating systems homeostasis through a series of transcriptional-translational feedback loops termed the molecular clock...
April 18, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409412/microcephalic-osteodysplastic-primordial-dwarfism-type-ii-a-clinical-review
#16
REVIEW
Michael B Bober, Andrew P Jackson
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review will provide an overview of the microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) class of disorders and provide the reader comprehensive clinical review with suggested care guidelines for patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPDII). RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last 15 years, significant strides have been made in the diagnosis, natural history, and management of MOPDII. MOPDII is the most common and well described form of MPD...
April 13, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258372/fracture-burden-what-two-and-a-half-decades-of-dubbo-osteoporosis-epidemiology-study-data-reveal-about-clinical-outcomes-of-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Jacqueline R Center
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to highlight important clinical findings from the over 25 year-long Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study particularly focusing on outcomes post fracture. RECENT FINDINGS: Every low trauma fracture in the elderly is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent fracture, with a higher risk in men than women. All major or proximal fractures and even minor fractures in the very elderly or minor fractures that are then followed by re-fracture are associated with premature mortality, greatest in the first 5 years post fracture...
March 3, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303448/parathyroid-hormone-and-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-analogs-in-osteoporosis-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin Z Leder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review the efficacy and optimal use of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein analogs in osteoporosis treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The parathyroid hormone analog teriparatide, a potent stimulator of bone remodeling, increases hip and spine bone mineral density and reduces the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The parathyroid hormone-related protein analog, abaloparatide, also reduces fracture incidence but has pharmacological effects that differ from teriparatide, particularly in cortical bone...
April 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236036/functional-diversity-of-ciliary-proteins-in-bone-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Masaru Kaku, Yoshihiro Komatsu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based organelle that senses a diverse range of extracellular signals. While recent studies highlight the importance of ciliary-dependent developmental signals, including Hedgehog, Wnt, and platelet-derived growth factor, it is not well understood whether and how bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, a key regulator of skeletogenesis, is involved in cilia-related bone developmental aspects and in the etiology of skeletal disorders...
February 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236035/osteoporosis-treat-to-target
#20
REVIEW
E Michael Lewiecki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treat-to-target (goal-directed therapy) has been proposed as a strategy to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate initial treatment for osteoporosis and guiding subsequent decisions to continue, change, or stop treatment. This is a review of the current medical evidence regarding treatment targets and potential clinical applications in managing patients with osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials of approved agents to treat osteoporosis have generally shown that larger increases in bone mineral density are associated with greater reduction in fracture risk...
February 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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