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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224446/current-care-and-investigational-therapies-in-achondroplasia
#1
REVIEW
Sheila Unger, Luisa Bonafé, Elvire Gouze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to evaluate the management options for achondroplasia, the most common non-lethal skeletal dysplasia. This disease is characterized by short stature and a variety of complications, some of which can be quite severe. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite several attempts to standardize care, there is still no widely accepted consensus. This is in part due to absence of concrete data on the incidence of sudden unexplained death in infants with achondroplasia and the best investigation for ascertaining which individuals could benefit from foramen magnum decompression surgery...
February 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181064/sex-differences-in-skeletal-growth-and-aging
#2
REVIEW
Jeri W Nieves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been numerous published reports describing skeletal differences between males and females. The goal of this report is to describe recent findings to help elucidate remaining questions. RECENT FINDINGS: It is known that even in youth, there are sex differences in skeletal health. One recent report suggests these differences are evident at 6 years of age. With the availability of newer imaging techniques, specifically HRpQCT and microCT-3D, micro-architectural differences related to sex-differences have been studied...
February 8, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181063/connexin43-and-the-intercellular-signaling-network-regulating-skeletal-remodeling
#3
REVIEW
Megan C Moorer, Joseph P Stains
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments into how intercellular communication through connexin43 facilitates bone modeling and remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexin43 is required for both skeletal development and maintenance, particularly in cortical bone, where it carries out multiple functions, including preventing osteoclastogenesis, restraining osteoprogenitor proliferation, promoting osteoblast differentiation, coordinating organized collagen matrix deposition, and maintaining osteocyte survival...
February 8, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161871/the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-bone-muscle-crosstalk
#4
REVIEW
Jenna N Regan, Trupti Trivedi, Theresa A Guise, David L Waning
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of bone-derived factors in regulation of skeletal muscle function is an important emerging aspect of research into bone-muscle crosstalk. Implications for this area of research are far reaching and include understanding skeletal muscle weakness in cancer, osteoporosis, cachexia, rare diseases of bone, and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research shows that bone-derived factors can lead to changes in the skeletal muscle. These changes can either be anabolic or catabolic, and we focus this review on the role of TGFβ in driving oxidative stress and skeletal muscle weakness in the setting of osteolytic cancer in the bone...
February 4, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133707/physical-activity-for-strengthening-fracture-prone-regions-of-the-proximal-femur
#5
REVIEW
Robyn K Fuchs, Mariana E Kersh, Julio Carballido-Gamio, William R Thompson, Joyce H Keyak, Stuart J Warden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical activity improves proximal femoral bone health; however, it remains unclear whether changes translate into a reduction in fracture risk. To enhance any fracture-protective effects of physical activity, fracture prone regions within the proximal femur need to be targeted. RECENT FINDINGS: The proximal femur is designed to withstand forces in the weight-bearing direction, but less so forces associated with falls in a sideways direction...
January 30, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124261/genetic-disorders-of-dental-development-tales-from-the-bony-crypt
#6
REVIEW
Sylvia A Frazier-Bowers, Siddharth R Vora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ebb and flow of genetic influence relative to the understanding of craniofacial and dental disorders has evolved into a tacit acceptance of the current genetic paradigm. This review explores the science behind craniofacial and dental disorders through the lens of recent past and current findings and using tooth agenesis as a model of advances in craniofacial genetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary studies of craniofacial biology takes advantage of the technological resources stemming from the genomic and post-genomic eras...
January 26, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110469/is-diabetic-skeletal-fragility-associated-with-microvascular-complications-in-bone
#7
REVIEW
Roberto Jose Fajardo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this literature review is to determine whether there are indications that microvascular complications occur in diabetic bone. Evidence definitively linking diabetic skeletal fragility with microvascular complications in bone remains elusive. RECENT FINDINGS: Circumstantial evidence, some recent and some lost to time, suggests that atherosclerotic vascular diseases such as peripheral arterial disease cause poor blood perfusion of bone and subsequent hypoxia and contribute to low bone density and high cortical porosity, patterns similar to some recently observed in diabetic subjects...
January 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185216/clinical-evaluation-of-bone-strength-and-fracture-risk
#8
REVIEW
Chantal M J de Bakker, Wei-Ju Tseng, Yihan Li, Hongbo Zhao, X Sherry Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper seeks to evaluate and compare recent advances in the clinical assessment of the changes in bone mechanical properties that take place as a result of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases and their treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the standard of DXA-based areal bone mineral density (aBMD), a variety of methods, including imaging-based structural measurements, finite element analysis (FEA)-based techniques, and alternate methods including ultrasound, bone biopsy, reference point indentation, and statistical shape and density modeling, have been developed which allow for reliable prediction of bone strength and fracture risk...
February 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815807/in-situ-sensor-advancements-for-osteoporosis-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Luting Liu, Thomas J Webster
Osteoporosis is still a serious issue in healthcare, and will continue to increase due to the aging and growth of the population. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. The earlier the osteoporosis is diagnosed, the more quickly people can take action to stop bone deterioration. Motivated by this, researchers and companies have begun developing smart in situ bone sensors in order to dramatically help people to monitor their bone mass density (BMD), bone strain or bone turnover markers (BTMs); promptly track early signs of osteoporosis; and even monitor the healing process following surgery or antiresorptive therapy...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766484/bone-density-and-dental-external-apical-root-resorption
#10
REVIEW
Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Lorri Ann Morford, James Kennedy Hartsfield
When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744554/epidemiology-of-skeletal-health-in-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
David R Weber, George Schwartz
The skeleton is adversely affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients with T1D of both sexes have an increased risk of fracture that begins in childhood and extends across the entire lifespan. T1D is characterized by mild to modest deficits in bone density, structure, and microarchitecture. Current evidence suggests that the observed bone deficits in T1D are the result of impaired bone formation rather than increased bone resorption. There is emerging data that bone quality is impaired in T1D, which may explain the findings that fracture risk is elevated out of proportion to the degree of bone mineral deficit...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730452/emerging-targets-for-the-management-of-osteoarthritis-pain
#12
Anne-Marie Malfait, Richard J Miller
Worldwide, osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of chronic pain, for which adequate relief is not available. Ongoing peripheral input from the affected joint is a major factor in OA-associated pain. Therefore, this review focuses predominantly on peripheral targets emerging in the preclinical and clinical arena. Nerve growth factor is the most advanced of these targets, and its blockade has shown tremendous promise in clinical trials in knee OA. A number of different types of ion channels, including voltage-gated sodium channels and calcium channels, transient receptor potential channels, and acid-sensing ion channels, are important for neuronal excitability and play a role in pain genesis...
October 12, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714580/diabetes-and-bone-marrow-adiposity
#13
REVIEW
Tiffany Y Kim, Anne L Schafer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to describe bone marrow fat changes in diabetes and to discuss the potential role of marrow fat in skeletal fragility. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in non-invasive imaging have facilitated marrow fat research in humans. In contrast to animal studies which clearly demonstrate higher levels of marrow fat in diabetes, human studies have shown smaller and less certain differences. Marrow fat has been reported to correlate with A1c, and there may be a distinct marrow lipid saturation profile in diabetes...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709509/effects-of-incretin-based-therapies-and-sglt2-inhibitors-on-skeletal-health
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704396/advanced-glycation-end-products-diabetes-and-bone-strength
#15
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamamoto, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Diabetic patients have a higher fracture risk than expected by their bone mineral density (BMD). Poor bone quality is the most suitable and explainable cause for the elevated fracture risk in this population. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are diverse compounds generated via a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amine residues, physically affect the properties of the bone material, one of a component of bone quality, through their accumulation in the bone collagen fibers. On the other hand, these compounds biologically act as agonists for these receptors for AGEs (RAGE) and suppress bone metabolism...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704395/recent-tissue-engineering-advances-for-the-treatment-of-temporomandibular-joint-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Ashkan Aryaei, Natalia Vapniarsky, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are among the most common maxillofacial complaints and a major cause of orofacial pain. Although current treatments provide short- and long-term relief, alternative tissue engineering solutions are in great demand. Particularly, the development of strategies, providing long-term resolution of TMD to help patients regain normal function, is a high priority. An absolute prerequisite of tissue engineering is to understand normal structure and function. The current knowledge of anatomical, mechanical, and biochemical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated tissues will be discussed, followed by a brief description of current TMD treatments...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704394/bone-microarchitecture-in-type-1-diabetes-it-is-complicated
#17
REVIEW
Hillary A Keenan, Ernesto Maddaloni
Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) experience a disproportionate number of fractures for their bone mineral density (BMD). Differences in bone microarchitecture from those without the disease are thought to be responsible. However, the literature is inconclusive. New studies of the microarchitecture using three-dimensional imaging have the advantage of providing in vivo estimates of "bone quality," rather than examining areal BMD alone. There are drawbacks in that most studies have been done on those with less than a 30-year duration of T1DM, and the techniques used to measure vary as do the sites assessed...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704393/effects-of-type-1-diabetes-on-osteoblasts-osteocytes-and-osteoclasts
#18
REVIEW
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Iuliana Popescu, R Clay Bunn, John L Fowlkes, Kathryn M Thrailkill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the effects of type 1 diabetes on bone cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with low bone mineral density, increased risk of fractures, and poor fracture healing. Its effects on the skeleton were primarily attributed to impaired bone formation, but recent data suggests that bone remodeling and resorption are also compromised. The hyperglycemic and inflammatory environment associated with T1D impacts osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696284/osteoporosis-and-periodontitis
#19
REVIEW
Chin-Wei Jeff Wang, Laurie K McCauley
Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both diseases characterized by bone resorption. Osteoporosis features systemic degenerative bone loss that leads to loss of skeletal cancellous microstructure and subsequent fracture, whereas periodontitis involves local inflammatory bone loss, following an infectious breach of the alveolar cortical bone, and it may result in tooth loss. Most cross-sectional studies have confirmed the association of osteoporosis and periodontitis primarily on radiographic measurements and to a lesser degree on clinical parameters...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696144/lower-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-and-lumbar-spine-in-people-with-psychosis-versus-controls-a-comprehensive-review-and-skeletal-site-specific-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Lucia Gomez, Brendon Stubbs, Ayala Shirazi, Davy Vancampfort, Fiona Gaughran, John Lally
It remains unclear if differences in bone mineral density (BMD) exist at different skeletal sites between people with schizophrenia and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Major databases were searched from inception until February 2016 for studies measuring BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at any skeletal site in individuals with schizophrenia. Ten studies investigating 827 people with schizophrenia (55.4 % female, 33.8 ± 9.7 years) and 1379 HCs (58.7 % female, 34.7 ± 9...
December 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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