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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891009/aging-osteocytes-and-mechanotransduction
#1
REVIEW
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Astrid D Bakker, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, G Harry van Lenthe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bone is able to adapt its structure to mechanical signals via the bone remodeling process governed by mechanosensitive osteocytes. With aging, an imbalance in bone remodeling results in osteoporosis. In this review, we hypothesized that changes in lacunar morphology underlie the decreased bone mechanoresponsiveness to mechanical loading with aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have reported considerable variations in the shape of osteocytes and their lacunae with aging...
September 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889371/bone-marrow-stroma-and-vascular-contributions-to-myeloma-bone-homing
#2
REVIEW
Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Angelo Belotti, Rossella Ribolla, Marco Chiarini, Viviana Giustini, Diego Bertoli, Alessandra Sottini, Monica Valotti, Claudia Ghidini, Federico Serana, Michele Malagola, Luisa Imberti, Domenico Russo, Alessandro Montanelli, Giuseppe Rossi, Michaela R Reagan, Patricia Maiso, Bruno Paiva, Irene M Ghobrial, Aldo M Roccaro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Herein we dissect mechanisms behind the dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumor site to the bone marrow, which are necessary for metastasis development, with a specific focus on multiple myeloma. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability of tumor cells to invade vessels and reach the systemic circulation is a fundamental process for metastasis development; however, the interaction between clonal cells and the surrounding microenvironment is equally important for supporting colonization, survival, and growth in the secondary sites of dissemination...
September 9, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861842/myeloma-and-bone-disease
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Panaroni, Andrew J Yee, Noopur S Raje
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone disease is a defining characteristic of multiple myeloma (MM) and the major cause of morbidity. It manifests as lytic lesions or osteopenia and is often associated with severe pain, pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, vertebral collapse, and hypercalcemia. Here, we have reviewed recent data on understanding its biology and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The imbalance between bone regeneration and bone resorption underlies the pathogenesis of osteolytic bone disease...
August 31, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856575/muscle-bone-interactions-in-pediatric-bone-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Louis-Nicolas Veilleux, Frank Rauch
PURPOSE: Here, we review the skeletal effects of pediatric muscle disorders as well as muscle impairment in pediatric bone disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: When starting in utero, muscle disorders can lead to congenital multiple contractures. Pediatric-onset muscle weakness such as cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, or spina bifida typically are associated with small diameter of long-bone shafts, low density of metaphyseal bone, and increased fracture incidence in the lower extremities, in particular, the distal femur...
August 30, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842819/musculoskeletal-health-in-the-context-of-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Jillian M Clark, David M Findlay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assembles recent understanding of the profound loss of muscle and bone in spinal cord injury (SCI). It is important to try to understand these changes, and the context in which they occur, because of their impact on the wellbeing of SC-injured individuals, and the urgent need for viable preventative therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research provides new understanding of the effects of age and systemic factors on the response of bone to loading, of relevance to attempts to provide load therapy for bone in SCI...
August 25, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840444/effects-of-excessive-dietary-phosphorus-intake-on-bone-health
#6
REVIEW
Colby J Vorland, Elizabeth R Stremke, Ranjani N Moorthi, Kathleen M Hill Gallant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of dietary phosphorus, its sources, recommended intakes, and its absorption and metabolism in health and in chronic kidney disease and to discuss recent findings in this area with a focus on the effects of inorganic phosphate additives in bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings show that increasing dietary phosphorus through inorganic phosphate additives has detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism in humans and animals...
August 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831686/food-versus-pharmacy-assessment-of-nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-improve-bone-health-in-energy-deficient-exercising-women
#7
REVIEW
Emily A Southmayd, Adelaide C Hellmers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize our current knowledge surrounding treatment strategies aimed at recovery of bone mass in energy-deficient women suffering from the Female Athlete Triad. RECENT FINDINGS: The independent and interactive contributions of energy status versus estrogen status on bone density, geometry, and strength have recently been reported, highlighting the importance of addressing both energy and estrogen in treatment strategies for bone health...
August 22, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823022/long-term-bisphosphonate-therapy-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#8
REVIEW
A Biggin, C F Munns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone disorder resulting in bone fragility. It has a heterogeneous phenotype which typically includes reduced bone mass, multiple fractures, deformity, and chronic disability. Bisphosphonate treatment remains the first-line medical management, but there is still debate on aspects of its effectiveness. This review summarizes current knowledge about long-term bisphosphonate use in OI with recommendations on clinical application...
August 19, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808977/skeletal-dysplasias-what-every-bone-health-clinician-needs-to-know
#9
REVIEW
Sarah M Nikkel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights how skeletal dysplasias are diagnosed and how our understanding of some of these conditions has now translated to treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of multigene panels, using next-generation sequence technology, has improved our ability to quickly identify the genetic etiology, which can impact management. There are successes with the use of growth hormone in individuals with SHOX deficiencies, asfotase alfa in hypophosphatasia, and some promising data for c-type natriuretic peptide for those with achondroplasia...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808956/erratum-to-nutritional-rickets-and-osteomalacia-in-the-twenty-first-century-revised-concepts-public-health-and-prevention-strategies
#10
Suma Uday, Wolfgang Högler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808893/epigenetics-and-bone-remodeling
#11
REVIEW
Ali Husain, Matlock A Jeffries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone remodeling is a diverse field of study with many direct clinical applications; past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue development and function and diseases of pathologic bone remodeling. The purpose of this article is to review the most important recent advances that link epigenetic changes to the bone remodeling field. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics describes three major phenomena: DNA modification via methylation, histone side chain modifications, and short non-coding RNA sequences which work in concert to regulate gene transcription in a heritable fashion...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808890/vitamin-d-activity-and-metabolism-in-bone
#12
REVIEW
Paul H Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to the actions of the endocrine hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in stimulating intestinal calcium absorption, the regulation of bone mineral metabolism by 1,25(OH)2D is also considered an important contributor to calcium homeostasis. However, recent evidence suggest that 1,25(OH)2D acting either via endocrine or autocrine pathways plays varied roles in bone, which suggests that vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of bone mineral in addition to its catabolic roles...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712007/erratum-to-microcephalic-osteodysplastic-primordial-dwarfism-type-ii-a-clinical-review
#13
Michael B Bober, Andrew P Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733953/response-to-loucks-et-al-s-comment-on-clinical-evaluation-of-bone-strength-and-fracture-risk
#14
REVIEW
X Sherry Liu, Chantal M J de Bakker, Wei-Ju Tseng, Yihan Li, Hongbo Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676968/melorheostosis-a-rare-sclerosing-bone-dysplasia
#15
REVIEW
Anupam Kotwal, Bart L Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia that affects both cortical bone and adjacent soft tissue structures in a sclerotomal distribution. In this review, we describe the natural history, radiological features, proposed pathogenesis, and management options for this debilitating condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Since its first description in 1922, about 400 cases of melorheostosis have been reported, either as single reports or in small case series...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667435/using-osteoporosis-therapies-in-combination
#16
REVIEW
Michael R McClung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to update evidence regarding the use of osteoporosis drugs in sequence or in combination to optimize increases in bone mass and strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Simultaneous use of denosumab plus teriparatide produces larger increases in BMD than does monotherapy. The use of bisphosphonates or denosumab after teriparatide results in progressive gains in BMD. When switching from bisphosphonates and especially denosumab to teriparatide, an overlap of 6-12 months may prevent the transient loss of BMD in cortical sites...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660374/response-to-clinical-evaluation-of-bone-strength-and-fracture-risk
#17
REVIEW
Anne B Loucks, Brian C Clark, Lyn Bowman
We read with great interest the recent review by de Bakker et al that summarized the state of several existing and emerging technologies for estimating bone strength and fracture risk in vivo. Much of their review focused on how well the measurements of selected technologies predicted experimental measurements of bone strength by ex vivo quasistatic mechanical testing (QMT) and on how well they tracked changes in mechanical properties of bone. The authors noted that the association of many common skeletal health measurements (e...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647888/osteoimmunology-in-bone-fracture-healing
#18
REVIEW
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the process of bone fracture healing, inflammation is thought to be an essential process that precedes bone formation and remodeling. We review recent studies on bone fracture healing from an osteoimmunological point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on previous observations that many types of immune cells infiltrate into the bone injury site and release a variety of molecules, recent studies have addressed the roles of specific immune cell subsets...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647887/connexins-and-pannexins-in-bone-and-skeletal-muscle
#19
REVIEW
Lilian I Plotkin, Hannah M Davis, Bruno A Cisterna, Juan C Sáez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge on the role of connexins and pannexins in the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins and pannexins are crucial for the development and maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle. In bone, the presence of connexin and more recently of pannexin channels in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes has been described and shown to be essential for normal skeletal development and bone adaptation. In skeletal muscles, connexins and pannexins play important roles during development and regeneration through coordinated regulation of metabolic functions via cell-to-cell communication...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647886/wnt-signaling-in-ewing-sarcoma-osteosarcoma-and-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Matthew G Pridgeon, Patrick J Grohar, Matthew R Steensma, Bart O Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a central role in development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is a common event in many types of human cancer. Here we explore in detail the contributions of Wnt signaling to the initiation and maintenance of three types of saroma: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review provides an overview of the Wnt signaling pathway and explores in detail the current knowledge about its role in the initiation or maintenance of three tumor types: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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