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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232586/micro-finite-element-analysis-of-the-proximal-femur-on-the-basis-of-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-images
#1
REVIEW
Chamith S Rajapakse, Gregory Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hip fractures have catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided finite element analysis (FEA) of the hip as a means to determine subject-specific bone strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the ability of DXA to predict hip fracture, the majority of fractures occur in patients who do not have BMD T scores less than - 2.5. Therefore, without other detection methods, these individuals go undetected and untreated...
September 19, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229522/contributions-of-the-bone-microenvironment-to-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Beatriz Gámez, Claire M Edwards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by a moderate increase in serum monoclonal protein (≤ 3 g/dL), an increase in bone marrow plasma cell infiltration (≤ 10%) and the absence of any end-organ damage. Although MGUS is considered a benign condition, evidence for clinical consequences is increasing. In this review, we examine the most recent evidence regarding MGUS manifestations and risks and present an overview of MGUS population studies as related to bone disease...
September 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225627/targeting-the-muscle-bone-unit-filling-two-needs-with-one-deed-in-the-treatment-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
REVIEW
Antoine Boulanger Piette, Dounia Hamoudi, Laetitia Marcadet, Françoise Morin, Anteneh Argaw, Leanne Ward, Jérôme Frenette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction and degeneration is accompanied by low bone mineral density and bone fragility. Glucocorticoids, which remain the standard of care for patients with DMD, increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. The scope of this review emphasizes the mutual cohesion and common signaling pathways between bone and skeletal muscle in DMD. RECENT FINDINGS: The muscle-bone interactions involve bone-derived osteokines, muscle-derived myokines, and dual-origin cytokines that trigger common signaling pathways leading to fibrosis, inflammation, or protein synthesis/degradation...
September 17, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203251/osteoblastic-factors-in-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#4
REVIEW
Song-Chang Lin, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, Sue-Hwa Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer bone metastasis is the lethal progression of the disease. The disease frequently presents with osteoblastic lesions in bone. The tumor-induced bone can cause complications that significantly hamper the quality of life of patients. A better understanding of how prostate cancer induces aberrant bone formation and how the aberrant bone affects the progression and treatment of the disease may improve the therapies for this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Prostate cancer-induced bone was shown to enhance tumor growth and confer therapeutic resistance in bone metastasis...
September 10, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203250/carbon-nanomaterials-for-treating-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures
#5
REVIEW
Jancineide Oliveira de Carvalho, Francilio de Carvalho Oliveira, Sérgio Antonio Pereira Freitas, Liana Martha Soares, Rita de Cássia Barros Lima, Licia de Sousa Gonçalves, Thomas Jay Webster, Fernanda Roberta Marciano, Anderson Oliveira Lobo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify the use of carbon nanomaterials in bone regeneration and present new data on the regenerative capacity of bone tissue in osteopenic rats treated with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). RECENT FINDINGS: The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials are suitable for the fabrication of scaffolds intended for bone regeneration. The in vitro tests suggested a non-toxicity of the GNRs as well as improved biocompatibility and bone mineralization activity...
September 10, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203249/using-mendelian-randomization-to-decipher-mechanisms-of-bone-disease
#6
REVIEW
Katerina Trajanoska, Fernando Rivadeneira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the basic principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) and provides evidence for the causal effect of multiple modifiable factors on bone outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies using MR approach have provided support for the causal effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD). Strikingly, studies have failed to prove a causal association between elevated 25(OH) D concentrations and higher BMD in community-dwelling individuals...
September 10, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187285/the-influence-of-cortical-porosity-on-the-strength-of-bone-during-growth-and-advancing-age
#7
REVIEW
Sabashini K Ramchand, Ego Seeman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone densitometry provides a two-dimensional projected areal apparent bone mineral density that fails to capture the heterogeneity of bone's material composition and macro-, micro-, and nano-structures critical to its material and structural strength. Assessment of the structural basis of bone fragility has focused largely on trabecular bone based on the common occurrence of fragility fractures at sites with substantial amounts of trabecular bone. This review focuses on the contribution of cortical bone to bone fragility throughout life...
September 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155845/mechanisms-of-osteoarthritis-oa-pain
#8
REVIEW
Terence W O'Neill, David T Felson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is, however, a relatively poor correlation between the severity of OA based on plain radiograph changes and symptoms. In this review, we consider the mechanisms of pain in OA. RECENT FINDINGS: It is now widely recognised that OA is a disease of the whole joint. Data from large observational studies which have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggest that pain in OA is associated with a number of structural factors including the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and also synovitis...
August 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155844/current-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-of-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#9
REVIEW
J Chang, A E Hakam, L K McCauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare and severe necrotic bone disease reflecting a compromise in the body's osseous healing mechanisms and unique to the craniofacial region. Antiresorptive and antiangiogenic medications have been suggested to be associated with the occurrence of ONJ; yet, the pathophysiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. This article raises the current theories underlying the pathophysiology of ONJ. RECENT FINDINGS: The proposed mechanisms highlight the unique localization of ONJ...
August 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155843/cortical-bone-mapping-measurement-and-statistical-analysis-of-localised-skeletal-changes
#10
REVIEW
Graham Treece, Andrew Gee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cortical bone mapping (CBM) is a technique for measuring localised skeletal changes from computed tomography (CT) images. It can provide measurements with accuracy surpassing the underlying imaging resolution. CBM can detect changes in several properties of the cortex, with no prior assumptions about the likely location of said changes. This paper summarises the theory behind CBM, discusses its strengths and limitations, and reviews some studies in which it has been applied...
August 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128836/mechanisms-for-joint-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-ra-from-cytokines-to-central-sensitization
#11
REVIEW
Angela Zhang, Yvonne C Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be due to different etiologies, ranging from peripheral inflammation to dysregulation of central nervous system (CNS) processing. This review evaluates relevant literature published on RA pain mechanisms in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite successes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), pain persists for many RA patients. Studies involving patient-reported outcomes, quantitative sensory testing, and neuroimaging indicate that, in addition to joint inflammation, abnormalities in CNS pain processing may contribute to pain...
August 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128835/interactions-between-disseminated-tumor-cells-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-regulate-tumor-dormancy
#12
REVIEW
D Brooke Widner, Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Yusuke Shiozawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To succinctly summarize recent findings concerning dormancy regulating interactions between bone marrow stromal cells and disseminated tumor cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have highlighted roles of the bone marrow microenviroment, including osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and endothelial cells, in inducing or maintaining cancer cell dormancy. Key pathways of interest include: osteoblast-induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 signaling, transfer of MSC-derived exosomes containing dormancy inducing microRNA, cancer cell cannibalism of MSCs, and endothelial cell secretion of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1)...
August 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116976/the-effects-of-homocysteine-on-the-skeleton
#13
REVIEW
Mitsuru Saito, Keishi Marumo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Homocystinuria is a congenital metabolic disorder in which cystathionine β-synthase deficiency results in a prominent increase in homocysteine (serum levels > 100 μM), causing mental retardation, atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, and osteoporosis accompanied by fragility fractures. Encountering a case with excessive homocysteinemia such as that seen in hereditary homocystinuria is unlikely during usual medical examinations. However, in individuals who have vitamin B or folate deficiency, serum homocysteine concentrations are known to increase...
August 17, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116975/vertebral-fracture-identification-as-part-of-a-comprehensive-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-osteoporosis
#14
REVIEW
John T Schousboe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current evidence regarding the vertebral fracture prevalence, the accuracy of vertebral fracture identification on current imaging technologies, and the potential impact of vertebral fracture identification on fracture risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Important new studies have clarified the features of prevalent vertebral fracture that most strongly predict incident fractures. Age- and sex-stratified estimates of vertebral fracture prevalence on densitometric lateral spine images in the US population are now available...
August 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959724/extra-alveolar-bone-screws-for-conservative-correction-of-severe-malocclusion-without-extractions-or-orthognathic-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Chris C H Chang, Joshua S Y Lin, H Y Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evaluate management of challenging malocclusions conservatively (no extractions or orthognathic surgery). RECENT FINDINGS: Most malocclusions have a predominately environmental etiology. Optimal esthetics and function are restored by aligning the dentition over the apical base of bone at the appropriate vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Extra-alveolar (E-A) anchorage is achieved at three intraoral sites: mandibular buccal shelf (MBS), infrazygomatic crest (IZC), and anterior ramus...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959723/origin-of-reparative-stem-cells-in-fracture-healing
#16
REVIEW
Beth C Bragdon, Chelsea S Bahney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The identity and functional roles of stem cell population(s) that contribute to fracture repair remains unclear. This review provides a brief history of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) and provides an updated view of the many stem/progenitor cell populations contributing to fracture repair. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional studies show MSCs are not the multipotential stem cell population that form cartilage and bone during fracture repair. Rather, multiple studies have confirmed the periosteum is the primary source of stem/progenitor cells for fracture repair...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951870/current-understanding-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-management-of-atypical-femur-fractures
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Starr, Yu Kwang Donovan Tay, Elizabeth Shane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize reports published since the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force Report on atypical femoral fractures (AFF). RECENT FINDINGS: The absolute incidence of AFFs remains low. AFFs are primarily associated with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) exposure, but have also been reported in unexposed patients and those receiving denosumab for osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Asians may be more susceptible to AFFs...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948821/part-i-development-and-physiology-of-the-temporomandibular-joint
#18
REVIEW
David L Stocum, W Eugene Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigate the developmental physiology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a unique articulation between the cranium and the mandible. RECENT FINDINGS: Principal regulatory factors for TMJ and disc development are Indian hedgehog (IHH) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The mechanism is closely associated with ear morphogenesis. Secondary condylar cartilage emerges as a subperiosteal blastema on the medial surface of the posterior mandible...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948820/new-insights-in-understanding-and-treating-bone-fracture-pain
#19
REVIEW
Stefanie A T Mitchell, Lisa A Majuta, Patrick W Mantyh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper describes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that drive fracture pain and how these findings are helping develop new therapies to treat fracture pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Immediately following fracture, mechanosensitive nerve fibers that innervate bone are mechanically distorted. This results in these nerve fibers rapidly discharging and signaling the initial sharp fracture pain to the brain. Within minutes to hours, a host of neurotransmitters, cytokines, and nerve growth factor are released by cells at the fracture site...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943316/part-ii-temporomandibular-joint-tmj-regeneration-degeneration-and-adaptation
#20
REVIEW
W Eugene Roberts, David L Stocum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elucidate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development and pathophysiology relative to regeneration, degeneration, and adaption. RECENT FINDINGS: The pharyngeal arch produces a highly conserved stomatognathic system that supports airway and masticatory function. An induced subperiosteal layer of fibrocartilage cushions TMJ functional and parafunctional loads. If the fibrocartilage disc is present, a fractured mandibular condyle (MC) regenerates near the eminence of the fossa via a blastema emanating from the medial periosteal surface of the ramus...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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