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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808977/skeletal-dysplasias-what-every-bone-health-clinician-needs-to-know
#1
REVIEW
Sarah M Nikkel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights how skeletal dysplasias are diagnosed and how our understanding of some of these conditions has now translated to treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of multigene panels, using next-generation sequence technology, has improved our ability to quickly identify the genetic etiology, which can impact management. There are successes with the use of growth hormone in individuals with SHOX deficiencies, asfotase alfa in hypophosphatasia, and some promising data for c-type natriuretic peptide for those with achondroplasia...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808956/erratum-to-nutritional-rickets-and-osteomalacia-in-the-twenty-first-century-revised-concepts-public-health-and-prevention-strategies
#2
Suma Uday, Wolfgang Högler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808893/epigenetics-and-bone-remodeling
#3
REVIEW
Ali Husain, Matlock A Jeffries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone remodeling is a diverse field of study with many direct clinical applications; past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue development and function and diseases of pathologic bone remodeling. The purpose of this article is to review the most important recent advances that link epigenetic changes to the bone remodeling field. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics describes three major phenomena: DNA modification via methylation, histone side chain modifications, and short non-coding RNA sequences which work in concert to regulate gene transcription in a heritable fashion...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808890/vitamin-d-activity-and-metabolism-in-bone
#4
REVIEW
Paul H Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to the actions of the endocrine hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in stimulating intestinal calcium absorption, the regulation of bone mineral metabolism by 1,25(OH)2D is also considered an important contributor to calcium homeostasis. However, recent evidence suggest that 1,25(OH)2D acting either via endocrine or autocrine pathways plays varied roles in bone, which suggests that vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of bone mineral in addition to its catabolic roles...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712007/erratum-to-microcephalic-osteodysplastic-primordial-dwarfism-type-ii-a-clinical-review
#5
Michael B Bober, Andrew P Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733953/response-to-loucks-et-al-s-comment-on-clinical-evaluation-of-bone-strength-and-fracture-risk
#6
REVIEW
X Sherry Liu, Chantal M J de Bakker, Wei-Ju Tseng, Yihan Li, Hongbo Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676968/melorheostosis-a-rare-sclerosing-bone-dysplasia
#7
REVIEW
Anupam Kotwal, Bart L Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia that affects both cortical bone and adjacent soft tissue structures in a sclerotomal distribution. In this review, we describe the natural history, radiological features, proposed pathogenesis, and management options for this debilitating condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Since its first description in 1922, about 400 cases of melorheostosis have been reported, either as single reports or in small case series...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667435/using-osteoporosis-therapies-in-combination
#8
REVIEW
Michael R McClung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to update evidence regarding the use of osteoporosis drugs in sequence or in combination to optimize increases in bone mass and strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Simultaneous use of denosumab plus teriparatide produces larger increases in BMD than does monotherapy. The use of bisphosphonates or denosumab after teriparatide results in progressive gains in BMD. When switching from bisphosphonates and especially denosumab to teriparatide, an overlap of 6-12 months may prevent the transient loss of BMD in cortical sites...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660374/response-to-clinical-evaluation-of-bone-strength-and-fracture-risk
#9
REVIEW
Anne B Loucks, Brian C Clark, Lyn Bowman
We read with great interest the recent review by de Bakker et al that summarized the state of several existing and emerging technologies for estimating bone strength and fracture risk in vivo. Much of their review focused on how well the measurements of selected technologies predicted experimental measurements of bone strength by ex vivo quasistatic mechanical testing (QMT) and on how well they tracked changes in mechanical properties of bone. The authors noted that the association of many common skeletal health measurements (e...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647888/osteoimmunology-in-bone-fracture-healing
#10
REVIEW
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the process of bone fracture healing, inflammation is thought to be an essential process that precedes bone formation and remodeling. We review recent studies on bone fracture healing from an osteoimmunological point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on previous observations that many types of immune cells infiltrate into the bone injury site and release a variety of molecules, recent studies have addressed the roles of specific immune cell subsets...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647887/connexins-and-pannexins-in-bone-and-skeletal-muscle
#11
REVIEW
Lilian I Plotkin, Hannah M Davis, Bruno A Cisterna, Juan C Sáez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge on the role of connexins and pannexins in the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins and pannexins are crucial for the development and maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle. In bone, the presence of connexin and more recently of pannexin channels in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes has been described and shown to be essential for normal skeletal development and bone adaptation. In skeletal muscles, connexins and pannexins play important roles during development and regeneration through coordinated regulation of metabolic functions via cell-to-cell communication...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647886/wnt-signaling-in-ewing-sarcoma-osteosarcoma-and-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Matthew G Pridgeon, Patrick J Grohar, Matthew R Steensma, Bart O Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a central role in development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is a common event in many types of human cancer. Here we explore in detail the contributions of Wnt signaling to the initiation and maintenance of three types of saroma: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review provides an overview of the Wnt signaling pathway and explores in detail the current knowledge about its role in the initiation or maintenance of three tumor types: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647885/osteomacs-and-bone-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646444/engineering-3d-models-of-tumors-and-bone-to-understand-tumor-induced-bone-disease-and-improve-treatments
#14
REVIEW
Kristin A Kwakwa, Joseph P Vanderburgh, Scott A Guelcher, Julie A Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone is a structurally unique microenvironment that presents many challenges for the development of 3D models for studying bone physiology and diseases, including cancer. As researchers continue to investigate the interactions within the bone microenvironment, the development of 3D models of bone has become critical. RECENT FINDINGS: 3D models have been developed that replicate some properties of bone, but have not fully reproduced the complex structural and cellular composition of the bone microenvironment...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646443/recent-discoveries-in-monogenic-disorders-of-childhood-bone-fragility
#15
REVIEW
Riikka E Mäkitie, Anders J Kämpe, Fulya Taylan, Outi Mäkitie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643220/denosumab-an-emerging-therapy-in-pediatric-bone-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Alison M Boyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Denosumab is an inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and has emerged as an important novel therapy for skeletal disorders. This article examines the use of denosumab in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Considerable safety and efficacy data exists for denosumab treatment of adults with osteoporosis, bone metastases, and giant cell tumors. Pediatric data is limited; however, evidence suggests denosumab may be beneficial in decreasing bone turnover, increasing bone density, and preventing growth of certain skeletal neoplasms in children...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639146/in-vivo-visualisation-and-quantification-of-bone-resorption-and-bone-formation-from-time-lapse-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Patrik Christen, Ralph Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanoregulation of bone cells was proposed over a century ago, but only now can we visualise and quantify bone resorption and bone formation and its mechanoregulation. In this review, we show how the newest advances in imaging and computational methods paved the way for this breakthrough. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-invasive in vivo assessment of bone resorption and bone formation was demonstrated by time-lapse micro-computed tomography in animals, and by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in humans...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634810/microrna-regulation-of-skeletal-development
#18
REVIEW
Steven R Sera, Nicole I Zur Nieden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis is a complex process involving the specification of multiple progenitor cells and their maturation and differentiation into matrix-secreting osteoblasts. Osteogenesis occurs not only during embryogenesis but also during growth, after an injury, and in normal homeostatic maintenance. While much is known about osteogenesis-associated regulatory genes, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are epigenetic regulators of protein expression, is just beginning to be explored...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620868/osteoporosis-in-children-with-chronic-illnesses-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Monica Grover, Laura K Bachrach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoporosis is an under-recognized complication of chronic illness in childhood. This review will summarize recent literature addressing the risk factors, evaluation, and treatment for early bone fragility. RECENT FINDINGS: Criteria for the diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis include the presence of low trauma vertebral fractures alone or the combination of low bone mineral density and several long bone fractures. Monitoring for bone health may include screening for vertebral fractures that are common but often asymptomatic...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620867/gut-microbiome-and-bone-to-build-destroy-or-both
#20
REVIEW
Jing Yan, Julia F Charles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota can be considered a hidden organ that plays essential roles in host homeostasis. Exploration of the effects of microbiota on bone has just begun. Complimentary studies using germ-free mice, antibiotic, and probiotic treatments reveal a complicated relationship between microbiota and bone. Here, we review recent reports addressing the effect of gut microbiota on bone health, discuss potential reasons for discrepant findings, and explore potential mechanisms for these effects...
August 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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