Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Osteoporosis Reports

Chris C H Chang, Joshua S Y Lin, H Y Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evaluate management of challenging malocclusions conservatively (no extractions or orthognathic surgery). RECENT FINDINGS: Most malocclusions have a predominately environmental etiology. Optimal esthetics and function are restored by aligning the dentition over the apical base of bone at the appropriate vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Extra-alveolar (E-A) anchorage is achieved at three intraoral sites: mandibular buccal shelf (MBS), infrazygomatic crest (IZC), and anterior ramus...
June 30, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Beth C Bragdon, Chelsea S Bahney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The identity and functional roles of stem cell population(s) that contribute to fracture repair remains unclear. This review provides a brief history of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) and provides an updated view of the many stem/progenitor cell populations contributing to fracture repair. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional studies show MSCs are not the multipotential stem cell population that form cartilage and bone during fracture repair. Rather, multiple studies have confirmed the periosteum is the primary source of stem/progenitor cells for fracture repair...
June 29, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jessica Starr, Yu Kwang Donovan Tay, Elizabeth Shane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize reports published since the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force Report on atypical femoral fractures (AFF). RECENT FINDINGS: The absolute incidence of AFFs remains low. AFFs are primarily associated with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) exposure, but have also been reported in unexposed patients and those receiving denosumab for osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Asians may be more susceptible to AFFs...
June 27, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
W Eugene Roberts, David L Stocum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Elucidate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development and pathophysiology relative to regeneration, degeneration, and adaption. RECENT FINDINGS: The pharyngeal arch produces a highly conserved stomatognathic system that supports airway and masticatory function. An induced subperiosteal layer of fibrocartilage cushions TMJ functional and parafunctional loads. If the fibrocartilage disc is present, a fractured mandibular condyle (MC) regenerates near the eminence of the fossa via a blastema emanating from the medial periosteal surface of the ramus...
June 26, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mark Henry Pitcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical activity is increasingly recommended for chronic pain. In this review, we briefly survey recent, high-quality meta-analyses on the effects of exercise in human chronic pain populations, followed by a critical discussion of the rodent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Most meta-analytical studies on the effects of exercise in human chronic pain populations describe moderate improvements in various types of chronic pain, despite substantial variability in the outcomes reported in the primary literature...
June 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Marco Viceconti, Muhammad Qasim, Pinaki Bhattacharya, Xinshan Li
The original version "Are CT-Based Finite Element Model Predictions of Femoral Bone Strengthening Clinically Useful?"
June 22, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sarah L Dallas, Yixia Xie, Lora A Shiflett, Yasuyoshi Ueki
PURPOSE: Transgenic Cre lines are a valuable tool for conditionally inactivating or activating genes to understand their function. Here, we provide an overview of Cre transgenic models used for studying gene function in bone cells and discuss their advantages and limitations, with particular emphasis on Cre lines used for studying osteocyte and osteoclast function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that many bone cell-targeted Cre models are not as specific as originally thought...
June 22, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Michael L Kuntz, Ryan Vadori, M Ibraheem Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gentle and continuous loads are preferred for optimum orthodontic tooth movement. Nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium developed for the aerospace industry, found its first clinical applications in orthodontics because it has ideal load-deflection behavior. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the criteria for effective orthodontic mechanics relative to emerging Nitinol technology. The specialized materials with variable stiffness that were originally developed for orthodontics are increasingly attractive for in the temporomandibular joint, orthognathic surgery, and orthopedics...
June 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stacyann Bailey, Deepak Vashishth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanical integrity of bone is determined by the direct measurement of bone mechanical properties. This article presents an overview of the current, most common, and new and upcoming experimental approaches for the mechanical characterization of bone. The key outcome variables of mechanical testing, as well as interpretations of the results in the context of bone structure and biology are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Quasi-static tests are the most commonly used for determining the resistance to structural failure by a single load at the organ (whole bone) level...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Graeme R Paul, Angad Malhotra, Ralph Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Connecting organ-scale loads to cellular signals in their local in vivo environment is a current challenge in the field of bone (re)modelling. Understanding this critical missing link would greatly improve our ability to anticipate mechanotransduction during different modes of stimuli and the resultant cellular responses. This review characterises computational approaches that could enable coupling links across the multiple scales of bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Current approaches using strain and fluid shear stress concepts have begun to link organ-scale loads to cellular signals; however, these approaches fail to capture localised micro-structural heterogeneities...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Geoffrey W Siegel, J Sybil Biermann, Anda-Alexandra Calinescu, Daniel E Spratt, Nicholas J Szerlip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to examine the recent changes in the surgical treatment of bone metastases and how the treatment paradigm has shifted with the improvement of adjuvant therapies. How surgery fits into the local and systemic treatment was reviewed for bone metastases in different areas. RECENT FINDINGS: The more common use of targeted chemotherapies and focused high-dose radiation have altered the treatment paradigm of bone metastases...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Vito Guarnieri, Marco Castori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current evidence on the links between joint hypermobility (JH) and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), with pain and reduced bone mass; to illustrate an updated approach to JH and EDS. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2017, a novel classification for EDS and JH has been published. Increasing data demonstrate that pain is a major disability determinator in JH and EDS. Recent findings confirm a complex pathogenesis for pain in JH and EDS and suggest a potential role for joint instability, central sensitization and small fiber neuropathy...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Galina Shapiro, Raphael Lieber, Dan Gazit, Gadi Pelled
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in gene therapy as a treatment for bone regeneration. While most fractures heal spontaneously, patients who present with fracture nonunion suffer from prolonged pain, disability, and often require additional operations to regain musculoskeletal function. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, BMP gene delivery by means of electroporation and sonoporation resulted in repair of nonunion bone defects in mice, rats, and minipigs...
June 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Charlotte L Phillips, Youngjae Jeong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder of skeletal fragility and more recently muscle weakness. This review highlights our current knowledge of the impact of compromised OI muscle function on muscle-bone interactions and skeletal strength in OI. RECENT FINDINGS: The ramifications of inherent muscle weakness in OI muscle-bone interactions are just beginning to be elucidated. Studies in patients and in OI mouse models implicate altered mechanosensing, energy metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and paracrine/endocrine crosstalk in the pathogenesis of OI...
June 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
David L Stocum, W Eugene Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigate the developmental physiology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a unique articulation between the cranium and the mandible. RECENT FINDINGS: Principal regulatory factors for TMJ and disc development are Indian hedgehog (IHH) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The mechanism is closely associated with ear morphogenesis. Secondary condylar cartilage emerges as a subperiosteal blastema on the medial surface of the posterior mandible...
June 9, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Shanmugam Muruganandan, Rajgopal Govindarajan, Christopher J Sinal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and discuss recent progress and novel signaling mechanisms relevant to bone marrow adipocyte formation and its physiological/pathophysiological implications for bone remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Skeletal remodeling is a coordinated process entailing removal of old bone and formation of new bone. Several bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis are commonly associated with increased bone marrow adipose tissue. Experimental and clinical evidence supports that a reduction in osteoblastogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells at the expense of adipogenesis, as well as the deleterious effects of adipocyte-derived signaling, contributes to the etiology of osteoporosis as well as bone loss associated with aging, diabetes mellitus, post-menopause, and chronic drug therapy...
May 31, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Fjola Johannesdottir, Brett Allaire, Mary L Bouxsein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review critiques the ability of CT-based methods to predict incident hip and vertebral fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: CT-based techniques with concurrent calibration all show strong associations with incident hip and vertebral fracture, predicting hip and vertebral fractures as well as, and sometimes better than, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry areal biomass density (DXA aBMD). There is growing evidence for use of routine CT scans for bone health assessment...
May 30, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Charles A O'Brien, Roy Morello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to highlight some of the considerations involved in creating animal models to study rare bone diseases and then to compare and contrast approaches to creating such models, focusing on the advantages and novel opportunities offered by the CRISPR-Cas system. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene editing after creation of double-stranded breaks in chromosomal DNA is increasingly being used to modify animal genomes. Multiple tools can be used to create such breaks, with the newest ones being based on the bacterial adaptive immune system known as CRISPR/Cas...
May 25, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stefanie A T Mitchell, Lisa A Majuta, Patrick W Mantyh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper describes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that drive fracture pain and how these findings are helping develop new therapies to treat fracture pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Immediately following fracture, mechanosensitive nerve fibers that innervate bone are mechanically distorted. This results in these nerve fibers rapidly discharging and signaling the initial sharp fracture pain to the brain. Within minutes to hours, a host of neurotransmitters, cytokines, and nerve growth factor are released by cells at the fracture site...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jonathan D Diedrich, Mackenzie K Herroon, Erandi Rajagurubandara, Izabela Podgorski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow adipocytes have emerged in recent years as key contributors to metastatic progression in bone. In this review, we focus specifically on their role as the suppliers of lipids and discuss pro-survival pathways that are closely linked to lipid metabolism, affected by the adipocyte-tumor cell interactions, and likely impacting the ability of the tumor cell to thrive in bone marrow space and evade therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The combined in silico, pre-clinical, and clinical evidence shows that in adipocyte-rich tissues such as bone marrow, tumor cells rely on exogenous lipids for regulation of cellular energetics and adaptation to harsh metabolic conditions of the metastatic niche...
August 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"