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Current Osteoporosis Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647888/osteoimmunology-in-bone-fracture-healing
#1
REVIEW
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the process of bone fracture healing, inflammation is thought to be an essential process that precedes bone formation and remodeling. We review recent studies on bone fracture healing from an osteoimmunological point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on previous observations that many types of immune cells infiltrate into the bone injury site and release a variety of molecules, recent studies have addressed the roles of specific immune cell subsets...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647887/connexins-and-pannexins-in-bone-and-skeletal-muscle
#2
REVIEW
Lilian I Plotkin, Hannah M Davis, Bruno A Cisterna, Juan C Sáez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge on the role of connexins and pannexins in the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins and pannexins are crucial for the development and maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle. In bone, the presence of connexin and more recently of pannexin channels in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes has been described and shown to be essential for normal skeletal development and bone adaptation. In skeletal muscles, connexins and pannexins play important roles during development and regeneration through coordinated regulation of metabolic functions via cell-to-cell communication...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647886/wnt-signaling-in-ewing-sarcoma-osteosarcoma-and-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Matthew G Pridgeon, Patrick J Grohar, Matthew R Steensma, Bart O Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a central role in development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is a common event in many types of human cancer. Here we explore in detail the contributions of Wnt signaling to the initiation and maintenance of three types of saroma: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review provides an overview of the Wnt signaling pathway and explores in detail the current knowledge about its role in the initiation or maintenance of three tumor types: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647885/osteomacs-and-bone-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646444/engineering-3d-models-of-tumors-and-bone-to-understand-tumor-induced-bone-disease-and-improve-treatments
#5
REVIEW
Kristin A Kwakwa, Joseph P Vanderburgh, Scott A Guelcher, Julie A Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone is a structurally unique microenvironment that presents many challenges for the development of 3D models for studying bone physiology and diseases, including cancer. As researchers continue to investigate the interactions within the bone microenvironment, the development of 3D models of bone has become critical. RECENT FINDINGS: 3D models have been developed that replicate some properties of bone, but have not fully reproduced the complex structural and cellular composition of the bone microenvironment...
June 23, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646443/recent-discoveries-in-monogenic-disorders-of-childhood-bone-fragility
#6
REVIEW
Riikka E Mäkitie, Anders J Kämpe, Fulya Taylan, Outi Mäkitie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function...
June 23, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643220/denosumab-an-emerging-therapy-in-pediatric-bone-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Alison M Boyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Denosumab is an inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and has emerged as an important novel therapy for skeletal disorders. This article examines the use of denosumab in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Considerable safety and efficacy data exists for denosumab treatment of adults with osteoporosis, bone metastases, and giant cell tumors. Pediatric data is limited; however, evidence suggests denosumab may be beneficial in decreasing bone turnover, increasing bone density, and preventing growth of certain skeletal neoplasms in children...
June 22, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639146/in-vivo-visualisation-and-quantification-of-bone-resorption-and-bone-formation-from-time-lapse-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Patrik Christen, Ralph Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanoregulation of bone cells was proposed over a century ago, but only now can we visualise and quantify bone resorption and bone formation and its mechanoregulation. In this review, we show how the newest advances in imaging and computational methods paved the way for this breakthrough. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-invasive in vivo assessment of bone resorption and bone formation was demonstrated by time-lapse micro-computed tomography in animals, and by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in humans...
June 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634810/microrna-regulation-of-skeletal-development
#9
REVIEW
Steven R Sera, Nicole I Zur Nieden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis is a complex process involving the specification of multiple progenitor cells and their maturation and differentiation into matrix-secreting osteoblasts. Osteogenesis occurs not only during embryogenesis but also during growth, after an injury, and in normal homeostatic maintenance. While much is known about osteogenesis-associated regulatory genes, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are epigenetic regulators of protein expression, is just beginning to be explored...
June 20, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620868/osteoporosis-in-children-with-chronic-illnesses-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Monica Grover, Laura K Bachrach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoporosis is an under-recognized complication of chronic illness in childhood. This review will summarize recent literature addressing the risk factors, evaluation, and treatment for early bone fragility. RECENT FINDINGS: Criteria for the diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis include the presence of low trauma vertebral fractures alone or the combination of low bone mineral density and several long bone fractures. Monitoring for bone health may include screening for vertebral fractures that are common but often asymptomatic...
June 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620867/gut-microbiome-and-bone-to-build-destroy-or-both
#11
REVIEW
Jing Yan, Julia F Charles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota can be considered a hidden organ that plays essential roles in host homeostasis. Exploration of the effects of microbiota on bone has just begun. Complimentary studies using germ-free mice, antibiotic, and probiotic treatments reveal a complicated relationship between microbiota and bone. Here, we review recent reports addressing the effect of gut microbiota on bone health, discuss potential reasons for discrepant findings, and explore potential mechanisms for these effects...
June 15, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612339/osteocyte-mechanobiology
#12
REVIEW
Yuhei Uda, Ehab Azab, Ningyuan Sun, Chao Shi, Paola Divieti Pajevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, osteocytes have emerged as mechano-sensors of bone and master regulators of bone homeostasis. This article summarizes latest research and progress made in understanding osteocyte mechanobiology and critically reviews tools currently available to study these cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Whereas increased mechanical forces promote bone formation, decrease loading is always associated with bone loss and skeletal fragility. Recent studies identified cilia, integrins, calcium channels, and G-protein coupled receptors as important sensors of mechanical forces and Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling as key effectors...
June 13, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612338/nutritional-rickets-and-osteomalacia-in-the-twenty-first-century-revised-concepts-public-health-and-prevention-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Suma Uday, Wolfgang Högler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia are common in dark-skinned and migrant populations. Their global incidence is rising due to changing population demographics, failing prevention policies and missing implementation strategies. The calcium deprivation spectrum has hypocalcaemic (seizures, tetany and dilated cardiomyopathy) and late hypophosphataemic (rickets, osteomalacia and muscle weakness) complications. This article reviews sustainable prevention strategies and identifies areas for future research...
June 13, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597139/hypoxia-and-bone-metastatic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Miranda E Sowder, Amato J Giaccia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights our current knowledge of oxygen tensions in the bone marrow, and how low oxygen tensions (hypoxia) regulate tumor metastasis to and colonization of the bone marrow. RECENT FINDINGS: The bone marrow is a relatively hypoxic microenvironment, but oxygen tensions fluctuate throughout the marrow cavity and across the endosteal and periosteal surfaces. Recent advances in imaging have made it possible to better characterize these fluctuations in bone oxygenation, but technical challenges remain...
June 8, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585220/inherited-arterial-calcification-syndromes-etiologies-and-treatment-concepts
#15
REVIEW
Yvonne Nitschke, Frank Rutsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We give an update on the etiology and potential treatment options of rare inherited monogenic disorders associated with arterial calcification and calcific cardiac valve disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic studies of rare inherited syndromes have identified key regulators of ectopic calcification. Based on the pathogenic principles causing the diseases, these can be classified into three groups: (1) disorders of an increased extracellular inorganic phosphate/inorganic pyrophosphate ratio (generalized arterial calcification of infancy, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, arterial calcification and distal joint calcification, progeria, idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, and hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis; (2) interferonopathies (Singleton-Merten syndrome); and (3) others, including Keutel syndrome and Gaucher disease type IIIC...
June 5, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497212/renal-osteodystrophy-or-kidney-induced-osteoporosis
#16
REVIEW
Sharon M Moe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects nearly 10% of the population. The incidence of fractures in population studies demonstrate an increase with worsening stages of kidney disease suggesting specific CKD related causes of fracture. RECENT FINDINGS: The increase in fractures with CKD most likely represents disordered bone quality due to the abnormal bone remodeling from renal osteodystrophy. There is also an increase in fractures with age in patients with CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD also have many fracture risk factors common to patients without known CKD...
May 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477234/tnf-and-bone-remodeling
#17
REVIEW
Baohong Zhao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms involved in the TNF-mediated deregulated bone remodeling are little appreciated. This review will discuss and summarize the impact of TNF, Notch, and RBP-J signaling on bone remodeling. RECENT FINDINGS: The integrity of the adult skeleton undergoes constant and dynamic remodeling throughout life to maintain a proper bone homeostasis, which is achieved by the essential tight control of coupling between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation...
May 5, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466454/renal-osteodystrophy-time-for-common-nomenclature
#18
REVIEW
Susan M Ott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term renal osteodystrophy has been used to describe a wide variety of bone problems facing patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we review the history of the use of this term. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone disease resulting from CKD was first noticed in 1890. The term "renal osteodystrophy" was used to define the bone disease in 1942. Since then, important discoveries have increased our knowledge of the complexities of bone physiology in these patients...
May 2, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455644/treatment-of-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Mark R Hanudel, Isidro B Salusky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this paper, we review the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), especially as it relates to pediatric CKD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered regulation of bone and mineral metabolism in CKD may result in fractures, skeletal deformities, and poor growth, which is especially relevant for pediatric CKD patients. Moreover, CKD-MBD may result in extra-skeletal calcification and cardiovascular morbidity...
April 28, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447312/bone-quality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-definitions-and-diagnostics
#20
REVIEW
Erin M B McNerny, Thomas L Nickolas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this paper, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of fractures and renal osteodystrophy. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of bone quality in the pathogenesis of fracture susceptibility in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is beginning to be elucidated. Bone quality refers to bone material properties, such as cortical and trabecular microarchitecture, mineralization, turnover, microdamage, and collagen content and structure. Recent data has added to our understanding of the effects of CKD on alterations to bone quality, emerging data on the role of abnormal collagen structure on bone strength, the potential of non-invasive methods to inform our knowledge of bone quality, and how we can use these methods to inform strategies that protect against bone loss and fractures...
April 26, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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