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Current Osteoporosis Reports

Alejandro Iglesias-Linares, Lorri Ann Morford, James Kennedy Hartsfield
When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors, and disease status all can influence a patients' overall health and bone density...
October 20, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
David R Weber, George Schwartz
The skeleton is adversely affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients with T1D of both sexes have an increased risk of fracture that begins in childhood and extends across the entire lifespan. T1D is characterized by mild to modest deficits in bone density, structure, and microarchitecture. Current evidence suggests that the observed bone deficits in T1D are the result of impaired bone formation rather than increased bone resorption. There is emerging data that bone quality is impaired in T1D, which may explain the findings that fracture risk is elevated out of proportion to the degree of bone mineral deficit...
October 15, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Daniele Bellavia, Viviana Costa, Angela De Luca, Melania Maglio, Stefania Pagani, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
Vitamin D is a key molecule in calcium and phosphate homeostasis; however, increasing evidence has recently shown that it also plays a crucial role in the immune system, both innate and adaptive. A deregulation of vitamin D levels, due also to mutations and polymorphisms in the genes of the vitamin D pathway, determines severe alterations in the homeostasis of the organism, resulting in a higher risk of onset of some diseases, including osteoporosis. This review gives an overview of the influence of vitamin D levels on the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, between bone homeostasis and immune system...
October 13, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Anne-Marie Malfait, Richard J Miller
Worldwide, osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of chronic pain, for which adequate relief is not available. Ongoing peripheral input from the affected joint is a major factor in OA-associated pain. Therefore, this review focuses predominantly on peripheral targets emerging in the preclinical and clinical arena. Nerve growth factor is the most advanced of these targets, and its blockade has shown tremendous promise in clinical trials in knee OA. A number of different types of ion channels, including voltage-gated sodium channels and calcium channels, transient receptor potential channels, and acid-sensing ion channels, are important for neuronal excitability and play a role in pain genesis...
October 12, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Dieter H Pahr, Philippe K Zysset
Beyond bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality designates the mechanical integrity of bone tissue. In vivo images based on X-ray attenuation, such as CT reconstructions, provide size, shape, and local BMD distribution and may be exploited as input for finite element analysis (FEA) to assess bone fragility. Further key input parameters of FEA are the material properties of bone tissue. This review discusses the main determinants of bone mechanical properties and emphasizes the added value, as well as the important assumptions underlying finite element analysis...
October 6, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Tiffany Y Kim, Anne L Schafer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to describe bone marrow fat changes in diabetes and to discuss the potential role of marrow fat in skeletal fragility. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in non-invasive imaging have facilitated marrow fat research in humans. In contrast to animal studies which clearly demonstrate higher levels of marrow fat in diabetes, human studies have shown smaller and less certain differences. Marrow fat has been reported to correlate with A1c, and there may be a distinct marrow lipid saturation profile in diabetes...
October 6, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
October 5, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Masahiro Yamamoto, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Diabetic patients have a higher fracture risk than expected by their bone mineral density (BMD). Poor bone quality is the most suitable and explainable cause for the elevated fracture risk in this population. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are diverse compounds generated via a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amine residues, physically affect the properties of the bone material, one of a component of bone quality, through their accumulation in the bone collagen fibers. On the other hand, these compounds biologically act as agonists for these receptors for AGEs (RAGE) and suppress bone metabolism...
October 4, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Ashkan Aryaei, Natalia Vapniarsky, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are among the most common maxillofacial complaints and a major cause of orofacial pain. Although current treatments provide short- and long-term relief, alternative tissue engineering solutions are in great demand. Particularly, the development of strategies, providing long-term resolution of TMD to help patients regain normal function, is a high priority. An absolute prerequisite of tissue engineering is to understand normal structure and function. The current knowledge of anatomical, mechanical, and biochemical characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated tissues will be discussed, followed by a brief description of current TMD treatments...
October 4, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hillary A Keenan, Ernesto Maddaloni
Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) experience a disproportionate number of fractures for their bone mineral density (BMD). Differences in bone microarchitecture from those without the disease are thought to be responsible. However, the literature is inconclusive. New studies of the microarchitecture using three-dimensional imaging have the advantage of providing in vivo estimates of "bone quality," rather than examining areal BMD alone. There are drawbacks in that most studies have been done on those with less than a 30-year duration of T1DM, and the techniques used to measure vary as do the sites assessed...
October 4, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Iuliana Popescu, R Clay Bunn, John L Fowlkes, Kathryn M Thrailkill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the effects of type 1 diabetes on bone cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with low bone mineral density, increased risk of fractures, and poor fracture healing. Its effects on the skeleton were primarily attributed to impaired bone formation, but recent data suggests that bone remodeling and resorption are also compromised. The hyperglycemic and inflammatory environment associated with T1D impacts osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts...
October 4, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Lucia Gomez, Brendon Stubbs, Ayala Shirazi, Davy Vancampfort, Fiona Gaughran, John Lally
It remains unclear if differences in bone mineral density (BMD) exist at different skeletal sites between people with schizophrenia and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Major databases were searched from inception until February 2016 for studies measuring BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at any skeletal site in individuals with schizophrenia. Ten studies investigating 827 people with schizophrenia (55.4 % female, 33.8 ± 9.7 years) and 1379 HCs (58.7 % female, 34.7 ± 9...
October 1, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Chin-Wei Jeff Wang, Laurie K McCauley
Osteoporosis and periodontitis are both diseases characterized by bone resorption. Osteoporosis features systemic degenerative bone loss that leads to loss of skeletal cancellous microstructure and subsequent fracture, whereas periodontitis involves local inflammatory bone loss, following an infectious breach of the alveolar cortical bone, and it may result in tooth loss. Most cross-sectional studies have confirmed the association of osteoporosis and periodontitis primarily on radiographic measurements and to a lesser degree on clinical parameters...
September 30, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Eliane Hermes Dutra, Ravindra Nanda, Sumit Yadav
The tooth-periodontal ligament-alveolar bone complex acts symbiotically to dissipate the mechanical loads incurred during mastication and/or orthodontic tooth movement. The periodontal ligament functions both in the tension and compression. At the molecular and celleular levels, the loads in the periodontal ligament trigger mechanobiological events in the alveolar bone, which leads to bone modeling and remodeling. The current review focuses on the bone response to mechanical loading of the periodontal ligament on the tension and pressure sides...
September 28, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
D M L Cooper, C E Kawalilak, K Harrison, B D Johnston, J D Johnston
There is growing recognition of the role of micro-architecture in osteoporotic bone loss and fragility. This trend has been driven by advances in imaging technology, which have enabled a transition from measures of mass to micro-architecture. Imaging trabecular bone has been a key research focus, but advances in resolution have also enabled the detection of cortical bone micro-architecture, particularly the network of vascular canals, commonly referred to as 'cortical porosity.' This review aims to provide an overview of what this level of porosity is, why it is important, and how it can be characterized by imaging...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Christina J Turner, Claire M Edwards
The bone is a common site for metastasis in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma, and provides a 'fertile' milieu which stimulates tumour growth and associated bone disease. For years, the concept of treatment strategies has remained targeting the tumour itself; however, the occurrence of chemoresistance remains a challenge now more than ever. The attraction of targeting the bone microenvironment in order to disrupt tumour localisation and proliferation stems from the idea that stromal cells are superiorly stable at a genetic level, thus decreasing the risk of resistance manifestation...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Donglei Wei, Jinsuh Jung, Huilin Yang, David A Stout, Lei Yang
Unfortunately, osteoporosis, as a worldwide disease, is challenging human health with treatment only available for the symptoms of osteoporosis without managing the disease itself. Osteoporosis can be linked as the common cause of fractures and increased mortality among post-menopausal women, men, and the elderly. Regrettably, due to osteoporosis, incidents of fractures are more frequent among the presented populations and can be afflictive for carrying out everyday life activities. Current treatments of osteoporosis encompass changing lifestyles, taking orthopedic drugs, and invasive surgeries...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
S Binks, R Dobson
Metabolic bone disease is a major public health concern, especially when it manifests as hip fracture which carries significant morbidity and mortality. Individuals with neurological disease are at higher risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and fragility fracture compared to age-matched controls, yet this is under-appreciated by these patients. Clinician attention to this topic is therefore of importance and should address the bone health of men as well as women, a group in whom it may be an under-recognised problem...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
T A Asafo-Adjei, A J Chen, A Najarzadeh, D A Puleo
Osteoporosis, which is characterized by resorption of bone exceeding formation, remains a significant human health concern, and the impact of this condition will only increase with the "graying" of the worldwide population. This review focuses on current and emerging approaches for delivering therapeutic agents to restore bone remodeling homeostasis. Well-known antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as estrogen, estrogen analogs, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone, along with newer modulators and antibodies, are primarily administered orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stuart J Warden, Robyn K Fuchs
Recent meta-analyses report a 70 % increase in fracture risk in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) users compared to non-users; however, included studies were observational and limited in their ability to establish causality. Here, we use the Bradford Hill criteria to explore causality between SSRIs and fractures. We found a strong, consistent, and temporal relationship between SSRIs and fractures, which appears to follow a biological gradient. However, specificity and biological plausibility remain concerns...
October 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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