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Current Osteoporosis Reports

Claudia Schlundt, Christian H Bucher, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Hanna Schell, Georg N Duda, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impaired healing outcomes or even non-unions after bone injury are still a highly relevant problem in the daily clinical life. Especially within an aging population, the occurrence of bone fractures increases and thus novel treatment approaches to overcome compromised bone regeneration are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: The gold standard to treat delayed or non-healing bone injuries is still the use of autologous bone grafts to foster regeneration. Besides its successful treatment outcome, it also has disadvantages: a second surgery is needed in order to harvest the bone material and the material is highly limited...
March 13, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
David W Rowe, Douglas J Adams, Seung-Hyun Hong, Caibin Zhang, Dong-Guk Shin, C Renata Rydzik, Li Chen, Zhihua Wu, Gaven Garland, Dana A Godfrey, John P Sundberg, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The international mouse phenotyping consortium (IMPC) is producing defined gene knockout mouse lines. Here, a phenotyping program is presented that is based on micro-computed tomography (μCT) assessment of distal femur and vertebra. Lines with significant variation undergo a computer-based bone histomorphometric analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Of the 220 lines examined to date, approximately 15% have a significant variation (high or low) by μCT, most of which are not identified by the IMPC screen...
March 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Gurpreet S Baht, Linda Vi, Benjamin A Alman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone fracture healing is a complex physiological process relying on numerous cell types and signals. Inflammatory factors secreted by immune cells help to control recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells. Within this review we will discuss the functional role of immune cells as it pertains to bone fracture healing. In doing so, we will outline the cytokines secreted and their effects within the healing fracture callus...
March 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Matthew R Allen
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Bisphosphonates have well-established effects on suppressing bone resorption and slowing bone loss, yet the effects on bone mechanical properties are less clear. We review recent data from pre-clinical and clinical experiments that assessed mechanical properties of bisphosphonate-treated specimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Pre-clinical work has utilized new techniques to show reduced fatigue life and transfer of stress from the mineral to collagen...
March 1, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Russell T Turner, Stephen A Martin, Urszula T Iwaniec
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located in the bone marrow have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, including osteoblast and adipocyte. Adipocyte density within marrow is inversely associated with bone mass during aging and in some pathological conditions, contributing to the prevailing view that marrow adipocytes play a largely negative role in bone metabolism. However, a negative association between marrow adipocytes and bone balance is not universal...
February 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Pearlin, Sunita Nayak, Geetha Manivasagam, Dwaipayan Sen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To conduct a thorough appraisal of recent and inventive advances in the field of bone tissue engineering using biomaterials, cell-based research, along with the incorporation of biomimetic properties using surface modification of scaffolds. RECENT FINDINGS: This paper will provide an overview on different biomaterials and emerging techniques involved in the fabrication of scaffolds, brief description of signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, and the effect of surface modification on the fate of progenitor cells...
February 27, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Lakshman Singh, Sonia Tyagi, Damian Myers, Gustavo Duque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism...
February 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Vihitaben S Patel, M Ete Chan, Janet Rubin, Clinton T Rubin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, which accompany aging and obesity, including increased marrow adiposity, can compromise hematopoiesis. Here, we review deleterious shifts in molecular, cellular, and tissue activity and consider the potential of exercise to slow degenerative changes associated with aging and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: While bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are increased in frequency and myeloid-biased with age, the effect of obesity on HSC proliferation and differentiation remains controversial...
February 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Beata Lecka-Czernik, Sudipta Baroi, Lance A Stechschulte, Amit Sopan Chougule
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on marrow adipose tissue (MAT) function and to discuss the possibility of targeting MAT for therapeutic purposes. RECENT FINDINGS: MAT is characterized with high heterogeneity which may suggest both that marrow adipocytes originate from multiple different progenitors and/or their phenotype is determined by skeletal location and environmental cues. Close relationship to osteoblasts and heterogeneity suggests that MAT consists of cells representing spectrum of phenotypes ranging from lipid-filled adipocytes to pre-osteoblasts...
February 19, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Isabel R Dias, José A Camassa, João A Bordelo, Pedro S Babo, Carlos A Viegas, Nuno Dourado, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes research on the use of sheep and goats as large animal models of human osteoporosis for preclinical and translational studies. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequent osteoporotic sheep model used is the ovariectomized sheep with 12 months post-operatively or more and the combined treatment of ovariectomized sheep associated to calcium/vitamin D-deficient diet and glucocorticoid applications for 6 months, but other methods are also described, like pinealectomy or hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection in ovariectomized sheep...
February 19, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Joseph L Roberts, David N Paglia, Hicham Drissi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growing evidence supports the critical role of transcriptional mechanisms in promoting the spatial and temporal progression of bone healing. In this review, we evaluate and discuss new transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of secondary bone repair, along with emerging evidence for epigenetic regulation of fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the candidate gene approach has identified new roles for several transcription factors in mediating the reactive, reparative, and remodeling phases of fracture repair...
February 13, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Nicole C Aurigemma, Kristen J Koltun, Hannah VanEvery, Connie J Rogers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the anorexia nervosa-microbiota-bone relationship, offering a compilation of the relevant human and animal studies that may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of potential mechanisms involved. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have implicated fermentation by-products of the gut microbiota in bone metabolism. Compromised bone health often accompanies anorexia nervosa due to energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism...
February 7, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Liyun Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solute transport in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) plays important roles in osteocyte metabolism and cell-cell signaling. This review will summarize recent studies that establish pericellular matrix (PCM), discovered inside the LCS, as a crucial regulator of solute transport in bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Utilizing confocal imaging and mathematical modeling, recent studies successfully quantified molecular diffusion and convection in the LCS as well as the size-dependent sieving effects of the PCM, leading to the quantification of the effective PCM fiber spacing (10 to 17 nm) in murine adult bones...
January 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Gordon L Klein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Burn injury results in resorptive bone loss, failure to make new bone, and muscle protein breakdown resulting in cachexia. The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between bone loss and muscle atrophy in burn injury with a view to understanding the process at work and how it may apply to other conditions that have similar features. RECENT FINDINGS: We present data suggesting that the use of bisphosphonates in the first 10 days following the burn prevents not only the resorptive bone loss but also the muscle wasting...
January 17, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Eleonora Palagano, Ciro Menale, Cristina Sobacchi, Anna Villa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term osteopetrosis refers to a group of rare skeletal diseases sharing the hallmark of a generalized increase in bone density owing to a defect in bone resorption. Osteopetrosis is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and a precise molecular classification is relevant for prognosis and treatment. Here, we review recent data on the pathogenesis of this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel mutations in known genes as well as defects in new genes have been recently reported, further expanding the spectrum of molecular defects leading to osteopetrosis...
January 15, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Hanna Taipaleenmäki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of various physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this article is to review the important recent advances on the role of miRNAs in bone remodeling and metabolic bone disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In a physiological context, miRNAs regulate bone formation and bone resorption, thereby contributing to the maintenance of bone homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Emilie Frey Bendix, Eskild Johansen, Thomas Ringgaard, Martin Wolder, Jakob Starup-Linde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A systematic literature review was performed to evaluate diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and address factors that might contribute to the development of AAC in DM patients. RECENT FINDINGS: DM is an independent risk factor of AAC development. Bone metabolism along with lifestyle factors among DM patients makes them more prone to AAC. Hip and vertebral fractures, high phosphate, smoking, hypertension, and low osteocalcin could make DM patients prone to AAC...
February 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Adrienn Pethő, Yinghua Chen, Anne George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released by most cell types into the extracellular environment. The purpose of this article is to discuss the main morphological features and contents of bone-derived exosomes, as well as their major isolation and physical characterization techniques. Furthermore, we present various scenarios and discuss potential clinical applications of bone-derived exosomes in bone repair and regeneration. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes were believed to be nanosized vesicles derived from the multivesicular body...
February 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Dan Clark, Mary Nakamura, Ted Miclau, Ralph Marcucio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes research on the physiological changes that occur with aging and the resulting effects on fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS: Aging affects the inflammatory response during fracture healing through senescence of the immune response and increased systemic pro-inflammatory status. Important cells of the inflammatory response, macrophages, T cells, mesenchymal stem cells, have demonstrated intrinsic age-related changes that could impact fracture healing...
December 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sharon H Chou, Meryl S LeBoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture and result in functional decline and excess mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis to identify patients at risk for fragility fractures; however, advances in imaging have expanded the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: The utility of CT and MRI in the assessment of bone density is starting to gain traction, particularly when used opportunistically...
December 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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