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Current Osteoporosis Reports

Paige V Hinton, Susan M Rackard, Oran D Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical loading is an essential stimulus for skeletal tissues. Osteocytes are primarily responsible for sensing mechanical stimuli in bone and for orchestrating subsequent responses. This is critical for maintaining homeostasis, and responding to injury/disease. The osteocyte mechanotransduction pathway, and the downstream effects it mediates, is highly complex. In vivo models have proved invaluable in understanding this process. This review summarizes the commonly used models, as well as more recently developed ones, and describes how they are used to address emerging questions in the field...
November 8, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
J Rittweger, A Ireland, S Lüscher, L M Nocciolino, N Pilot, L Pisani, G R Cointry, J L Ferretti, R F Capozza
The human fibula responds to its mechanical environment differently from the tibia accordingly with foot usage. Fibula structure is unaffected by disuse, and is stronger concerning lateral bending in soccer players (who evert and rotate the foot) and weaker in long-distance runners (who jump while running) with respect to untrained controls, along the insertion region of peroneus muscles. These features, strikingly associated to the abilities of the fibulae of predator and prey quadrupeds to manage uneven surfaces and to store elastic energy to jump, respectively, suggest that bone mechanostat would control bone properties with high selective connotations beyond structural strength...
November 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Ariella M Altman, Stuart M Sprague
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite metabolic improvements following kidney transplantation, transplant recipients still often suffer from complex mineral and bone disease after transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathophysiology of post-transplant disease is unique, secondary to underlying pre-transplant mineral and bone disease, immunosuppression, and changing kidney function. Changes in modern immunosuppression regimens continue to alter the clinical picture. Modern management includes reducing cumulative steroid exposure and correcting the biochemical abnormalities in mineral metabolism...
November 3, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Stuart Silverman, Deborah T Gold
Patients at high risk of fracture often do not take medication for osteoporosis. Recent literature may give us some insights into why patients at high risk of fracture do not take medications for osteoporosis.
October 29, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Joshua Havelin, Tamara King
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide a broad overview of the current understanding of mechanisms underlying bone and joint pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone or joint pathology is generally accompanied by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and neurotransmitters that activate and sensitize sensory nerves resulting in an amplified pain signal. Modulation of the pain signal within the spinal cord and brain that result in net increased facilitation is proposed to contribute to the development of chronic pain...
October 29, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Amanda D Schnell, Jeffrey R Curtis, Kenneth G Saag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the importance of recent fracture as a predictor of imminent fracture risk, review the importance of prior fracture type and timing, and identify risk factors for recurrent osteoporotic fracture. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior fracture type and timing impact risk of subsequent fracture that is largely independent of bone mineral density. Site of re-fracture is similar to original major osteoporotic fracture. Incidence of recurrent major osteoporotic fracture is greatest within the first year...
October 27, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Pascale Khairallah, Thomas L Nickolas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of the underlying pathogenesis of CKD-associated osteoporosis, and a summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2017, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Committee on Bone Quality updated their guidelines to include screening for osteoporosis and fracture risk by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with CKD...
October 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mark R Hanudel, Marciana Laster, Isidro B Salusky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will review non-renal-related mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: FGF23 production and metabolism may be affected by many bone, mineral, and kidney factors. However, it has recently been demonstrated that other factors, such as iron status, erythropoietin, and inflammation, also affect FGF23 production and metabolism. As these non-mineral factors are especially relevant in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD), they may represent emerging determinants of CKD-associated elevated FGF23 levels...
October 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Haley M Zylberberg, Benjamin Lebwohl, Peter H R Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the current literature on the association of musculoskeletal disorders and celiac disease that is a common disorder, affecting about 1% of the population. Extra-intestinal symptoms and presentations predominate. RECENT FINDINGS: While the literature supports an association with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk and celiac disease, there is little evidence supporting associations with other rheumatological conditions...
October 22, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Toshiyuki Yoneda, Masahiro Hiasa, Tatsuo Okui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensory nerves (SNs) richly innervate bone and are a component of bone microenvironment. Cancer metastasis in bone, which is under the control of the crosstalk with bone microenvironment, induces bone pain via excitation of SNs innervating bone. However, little is known whether excited SNs in turn affect bone metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cells colonizing bone promote neo-neurogenesis of SNs and excite SNs via activation of the acid-sensing nociceptors by creating pathological acidosis in bone, evoking bone pain...
October 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jasna Aleksova, Alexander J Rodriguez, Robert McLachlan, Peter Kerr, Frances Milat, Peter R Ebeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a greatly increased fracture risk compared with the general population. Gonadal hormones have an important influence on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, and hormone therapies can significantly improve these outcomes. Gonadal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with CKD; yet, little is known about the impact of gonadal hormones in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone health in patients with CKD...
October 17, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Rosilene Motta Elias, Maria Aparecida Dalboni, Ana Carolina E Coelho, Rosa M A Moysés
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although we have seen tremendous advances in the comprehension of CKD-MBD pathophysiology during the last few years, this was not accompanied by a significant change in mortality rate and quality of life. This review will address the traditional and updated pathophysiology of CKD-MBD along with the therapeutic limitations that affect CKD-MBD and proposed alternative treatment targets. RECENT FINDINGS: An innovative concept brings the osteocyte to the center of CKD-MBD pathophysiology, in contrast to the traditional view of the skeleton as a target organ for disturbances in calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D...
October 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
James S Yoder, Feliks Kogan, Garry E Gold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article attempts to summarize the current state and applications of the hybrid imaging modality of PET-MRI to metabolic bone diseases. The advances of PET and MRI are also discussed for metabolic bone diseases as potentially applied via PET-MRI. RECENT FINDINGS: Etiologies and mechanisms of metabolic bone disease can be complex where molecular changes precede structural changes. Although PET-MRI has yet to be applied directly to metabolic bone disease, possible applications exist since PET, specifically 18 F-NaF PET, can quantitatively track changes in bone metabolism and is useful for assessing treatment, while MRI can give detailed information on bone water concentration, porosity, and architecture through novel techniques such as UTE and ZTE MRI...
October 4, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Peggy M Cawthon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent progress in sarcopenia research and to highlight controversies in the field particularly around reaching consensus on a definition of sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Accordingly, this review begins with a discussion of the increasing awareness of this condition; briefly describes evolving definitions of sarcopenia; suggests a framework for consistent terminology for sarcopenia; discusses outstanding issues in the definition of sarcopenia; and reviews the association between sarcopenia and adverse outcome in older adults...
October 3, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Chamith S Rajapakse, Gregory Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hip fractures have catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided finite element analysis (FEA) of the hip as a means to determine subject-specific bone strength. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the ability of DXA to predict hip fracture, the majority of fractures occur in patients who do not have BMD T scores less than - 2.5. Therefore, without other detection methods, these individuals go undetected and untreated...
September 19, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Beatriz Gámez, Claire M Edwards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by a moderate increase in serum monoclonal protein (≤ 3 g/dL), an increase in bone marrow plasma cell infiltration (≤ 10%) and the absence of any end-organ damage. Although MGUS is considered a benign condition, evidence for clinical consequences is increasing. In this review, we examine the most recent evidence regarding MGUS manifestations and risks and present an overview of MGUS population studies as related to bone disease...
September 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Song-Chang Lin, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, Sue-Hwa Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer bone metastasis is the lethal progression of the disease. The disease frequently presents with osteoblastic lesions in bone. The tumor-induced bone can cause complications that significantly hamper the quality of life of patients. A better understanding of how prostate cancer induces aberrant bone formation and how the aberrant bone affects the progression and treatment of the disease may improve the therapies for this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Prostate cancer-induced bone was shown to enhance tumor growth and confer therapeutic resistance in bone metastasis...
September 10, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Antoine Boulanger Piette, Dounia Hamoudi, Laetitia Marcadet, Françoise Morin, Anteneh Argaw, Leanne Ward, Jérôme Frenette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction and degeneration is accompanied by low bone mineral density and bone fragility. Glucocorticoids, which remain the standard of care for patients with DMD, increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. The scope of this review emphasizes the mutual cohesion and common signaling pathways between bone and skeletal muscle in DMD. RECENT FINDINGS: The muscle-bone interactions involve bone-derived osteokines, muscle-derived myokines, and dual-origin cytokines that trigger common signaling pathways leading to fibrosis, inflammation, or protein synthesis/degradation...
October 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jancineide Oliveira de Carvalho, Francilio de Carvalho Oliveira, Sérgio Antonio Pereira Freitas, Liana Martha Soares, Rita de Cássia Barros Lima, Licia de Sousa Gonçalves, Thomas Jay Webster, Fernanda Roberta Marciano, Anderson Oliveira Lobo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify the use of carbon nanomaterials in bone regeneration and present new data on the regenerative capacity of bone tissue in osteopenic rats treated with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). RECENT FINDINGS: The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials are suitable for the fabrication of scaffolds intended for bone regeneration. The in vitro tests suggested a non-toxicity of the GNRs as well as improved biocompatibility and bone mineralization activity...
October 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Katerina Trajanoska, Fernando Rivadeneira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the basic principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) and provides evidence for the causal effect of multiple modifiable factors on bone outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies using MR approach have provided support for the causal effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD). Strikingly, studies have failed to prove a causal association between elevated 25(OH) D concentrations and higher BMD in community-dwelling individuals...
October 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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