Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Osteoporosis Reports

Paul M Schneider, Margarita Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review brings a major, previously under-recognized dental and general health problem to the attention of the medical and scientific community. The goals are to help clinicians make early diagnoses, thereby improving treatment outcomes, and to stimulate increasing research efforts to understand the etiology and ultimately prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two recent systematic reviews of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). One reveals the global burden of the condition; mean global prevalence is 13% with 878 million people affected, with 4...
May 4, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Scott J Roberts, Hua Zhu Ke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of therapeutics that target anabolic pathways involved in skeletogenesis is of great importance with regard to disease resulting in bone loss, or in cases of impaired bone repair. This review aims to summarize recent developments in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: A greater understanding of how drugs that modulate signaling pathways involved in skeletogenesis exert their efficacy, and the molecular mechanisms resulting in bone formation has led to novel pharmacological bone repair strategies...
May 3, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Divya Rani Bijukumar, Clay McGeehan, Mathew T Mathew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, significant progress has been made in the research related to regenerative medicine. At the same time, biomedical implants in orthopedics and dentistry are facing many challenges and posing clinical concerns. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the clinical applications of current regenerative strategies to the fields of dentistry and orthopedic surgery. The main research question in this review is: What are the major advancement strategies in regenerative medicine that can be used for implant research? RECENT FINDINGS: The implant surfaces can be modified through patient-specific stem cells and plasma coatings, which may provide methods to improve osseointegration and sustainability of the implant...
April 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Christian Kruse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current practices and technologies within the scope of "Big Data" that can further our understanding of diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis from large volumes of data. "Big Data" techniques involving supervised machine learning, unsupervised machine learning, and deep learning image analysis are presented with examples of current literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Supervised machine learning can allow us to better predict diabetes-induced osteoporosis and understand relative predictor importance of diabetes-affected bone tissue...
April 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mamatha M Pillai, J Gopinathan, R Selvakumar, Amitava Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lack of vascularity in the human knee meniscus often leads to surgical removal (total or partial meniscectomy) in the case of severe meniscal damage. However, complete recovery is in question after such removal as the meniscus plays an important role in knee stability. Thus, meniscus tissue regeneration strategies are of intense research interest in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: The structural complexity and inhomogeneity of the meniscus have been addressed with processing technologies for precisely controlled three dimensional (3D) complex porous scaffold architectures, the use of biomolecules and nanomaterials...
April 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Marco Viceconti, Muhammad Qasim, Pinaki Bhattacharya, Xinshan Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the available literature to compare the accuracy of areal bone mineral density derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-aBMD) and of subject-specific finite element models derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT-SSFE) in predicting bone strength measured experimentally on cadaver bones, as well as their clinical accuracy both in terms of discrimination and prediction. Based on this information, some basic cost-effectiveness calculations are performed to explore the use of QCT-SSFE instead of DXA-aBMD in (a) clinical studies with femoral strength as endpoint, (b) predictor of the risk of hip fracture in low bone mass patients...
April 14, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Raphaël De Ridder, Eveline Boudin, Geert Mortier, Wim Van Hul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The group of sclerosing bone disorders encompasses a variety of disorders all marked by increased bone mass. In this review, we give an overview of the genetic causes of this heterogeneous group of disorders and briefly touch upon the value of these findings for the development of novel therapeutic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in the next-generation sequencing technologies are accelerating the molecular dissection of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying skeletal dysplasias...
April 14, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Achint Utreja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the evidence in support of light continuous forces for enhancing bone adaptation (modeling and remodeling) in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical evidence suggests that light continuous orthodontic force can achieve physiologic expansion of the maxillary arch, but the long-term stability and the biological effects of the procedure are unclear. Compared to conventional orthodontic appliances that deliver heavy interrupted forces for tooth movement, the application of low-magnitude forces in animal models leads to anabolic modeling and remodeling of the alveolar bone in the path of orthodontic tooth movement...
April 11, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Adam Z Khan, Richard D Rames, Anna N Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent literature regarding the clinical management of fragility fractures, provides insight into new practice patterns, and discusses controversies in current management. RECENT FINDINGS: There are declining rates of osteoporosis management following initial fragility fracture. Management of osteoporotic fractures via a multidisciplinary team reduces secondary fracture incidence and improves overall osteoporotic care. Anabolic agents (abaloparatide and teriparatide) are effective adjuvants to fracture repair, and have shown positive results in cases of re-fracture in spite of medical management (i...
April 10, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Mustafa Unal, Amy Creecy, Jeffry S Nyman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While thinning of the cortices or trabeculae weakens bone, age-related changes in matrix composition also lower fracture resistance. This review summarizes how the organic matrix, mineral phase, and water compartments influence the mechanical behavior of bone, thereby identifying characteristics important to fracture risk. RECENT FINDINGS: In the synthesis of the organic matrix, tropocollagen experiences various post-translational modifications that facilitate a highly organized fibril of collagen I with a preferred orientation giving bone extensibility and several toughening mechanisms...
April 3, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Leanne M Ward, Frank Rauch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous forms of osteoporosis in childhood are characterized by low bone turnover (for example, osteoporosis due to neuromuscular disorders and glucocorticoid exposure). Anti-resorptive therapy, traditionally used to treat osteoporosis in the young, is associated with further reductions in bone turnover, raising concerns about the long-term safety and efficacy of such therapy. These observations have led to increasing interest in the role of anabolic therapy to treat pediatric osteoporosis...
March 27, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Alvaro Del Real, Leyre Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Laura López-Delgado, José A Riancho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic mechanisms modify gene activity in a stable manner without altering DNA sequence. They participate in the adaptation to the environment, as well as in the pathogenesis of common complex disorders. We provide an overview of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in bone biology and pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive evidence supports the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histone tails, and non-coding RNAs) in the differentiation of bone cells and mechanotransduction...
March 24, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jillian Cornish, Tao Wang, Jian-Ming Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to gain a better understanding of marrow adipocyte development, its regulation of energy, and its characterization responsible for bone homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite major advances in uncovering the complex association of bone-fat in the marrow, the underlying basic biological process of adipose tissue development, as well as its interaction with bone homeostasis in pathophysiological conditions, is still not well understood...
March 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Claudia Schlundt, Christian H Bucher, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Hanna Schell, Georg N Duda, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impaired healing outcomes or even non-unions after bone injury are still a highly relevant problem in the daily clinical life. Especially within an aging population, the occurrence of bone fractures increases and thus novel treatment approaches to overcome compromised bone regeneration are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: The gold standard to treat delayed or non-healing bone injuries is still the use of autologous bone grafts to foster regeneration. Besides its successful treatment outcome, it also has disadvantages: a second surgery is needed in order to harvest the bone material and the material is highly limited...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
David W Rowe, Douglas J Adams, Seung-Hyun Hong, Caibin Zhang, Dong-Guk Shin, C Renata Rydzik, Li Chen, Zhihua Wu, Gaven Garland, Dana A Godfrey, John P Sundberg, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The international mouse phenotyping consortium (IMPC) is producing defined gene knockout mouse lines. Here, a phenotyping program is presented that is based on micro-computed tomography (μCT) assessment of distal femur and vertebra. Lines with significant variation undergo a computer-based bone histomorphometric analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Of the 220 lines examined to date, approximately 15% have a significant variation (high or low) by μCT, most of which are not identified by the IMPC screen...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Gurpreet S Baht, Linda Vi, Benjamin A Alman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone fracture healing is a complex physiological process relying on numerous cell types and signals. Inflammatory factors secreted by immune cells help to control recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells. Within this review we will discuss the functional role of immune cells as it pertains to bone fracture healing. In doing so, we will outline the cytokines secreted and their effects within the healing fracture callus...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Matthew R Allen
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Bisphosphonates have well-established effects on suppressing bone resorption and slowing bone loss, yet the effects on bone mechanical properties are less clear. We review recent data from pre-clinical and clinical experiments that assessed mechanical properties of bisphosphonate-treated specimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Pre-clinical work has utilized new techniques to show reduced fatigue life and transfer of stress from the mineral to collagen...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Russell T Turner, Stephen A Martin, Urszula T Iwaniec
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located in the bone marrow have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, including osteoblast and adipocyte. Adipocyte density within marrow is inversely associated with bone mass during aging and in some pathological conditions, contributing to the prevailing view that marrow adipocytes play a largely negative role in bone metabolism. However, a negative association between marrow adipocytes and bone balance is not universal...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Pearlin, Sunita Nayak, Geetha Manivasagam, Dwaipayan Sen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To conduct a thorough appraisal of recent and inventive advances in the field of bone tissue engineering using biomaterials, cell-based research, along with the incorporation of biomimetic properties using surface modification of scaffolds. RECENT FINDINGS: This paper will provide an overview on different biomaterials and emerging techniques involved in the fabrication of scaffolds, brief description of signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, and the effect of surface modification on the fate of progenitor cells...
April 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"