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Journal of Oleo Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924089/synthesis-of-chirally-pure-enantiomers-by-lipase
#1
Kamal Kumar Bhardwaj, Reena Gupta
Pure enantiomers can be produced by chemical and enzymatic methods. Enzymatic methods to produce pure enantiomers are more advantageous. High enantiomeric excess is the advantage of enzymatic method, resulting from the inherent selectivity of the enzyme. Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) enzymes are widely used for the synthesis of chirally pure enantiomers because of their stereoselectivities which can satisfy the growing demand for obtaining optically active compounds. Various methods are used for the synthesis of chirally pure enantiomers, however kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis are more common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924088/docosapentaenoic-acid-22-5n-3-downregulates-mrna-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-factors-inlps-activated-murine-macrophage-like-raw264-7-cells
#2
Yanzhu Tian, Ami Katsuki, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller, Serean L Adams, Kazuo Miyashita, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, n-3 DPA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil, and has been reported to have health benefits. This study investigated conversion of n-3 DPA, and examined the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 DPA on activated macrophages. Murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were incubated in culture media containing n-3 DPA for 72 h. The level of n-3 DPA in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were higher in treated cells than in control cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924087/menhaden-oil-rich-diet-and-experimental-renal-damage-due-to-ischemia-reperfusion
#3
Georgina P Ossani, Ariel R Marcotegui, Ana M Uceda, Alberto J Monserrat, Nestor R Lago, Juan C Perazzo
Renal necrosis can be induced in weanling rats due to choline deficient diet. Menhaden oil has a protective effect against the development of renal necrosis in choline deficient weanling rats. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of menhaden oil in a model of acute kidney injury due to ischemia reperfusion. Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed vegetable oils or menhaden oil as lipids. Unilateral renal ischemia was performed for 30 minutes and animals were sacrificed 48 hours later. Histopathological examination showed no significant differences between groups...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924086/ultrasound-assisted-synthesis-of-hydroxylated-soybean-lecithin-from-crude-soybean-lecithin-as-an-emulsifier
#4
Pranali P Chiplunkar, Amit P Pratap
Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#5
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924084/comparison-of-the-effect-of-trans-fatty-acid-isomers-on-apolipoprotein-a1-and-b-secretion-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Koji Nagao, Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Toshiharu Nagai, Hoyo Mizobe, Akihiko Yoshida, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
Intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) is believed to change the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in blood, which leads to cardiovascular disease. In this study, thirteen types of TFA including monoene type TFA (trans-octadecenoic fatty acid isomers, t-18:1 isomers), diene type TFA (t9,t12-18:2), and triene type TFA (t-18:3) were added to cultured HepG2 cells to compare the amount of apolipoprotein A1 and B (those relating to levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol in blood, respectively) being secreted...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924083/characterization-of-o-w-emulsions-prepared-by-peg-diisostearate-amphiphilic-random-copolymer
#7
Megumi Kaji, Sari Fujiwara, Kenichi Sakai, Hideki Sakai
We have characterized an emulsion system stabilized by an amphiphilic random copolymer, methoxy polyethylene glycol-23 methacrylate/glyceryl diisostearate methacrylate copolymer (MPM-GDM). The combined results of the static surface tension and transmission electron microscopy with freeze-fracture technique (FF-TEM) suggested that this copolymer forms aggregates in aqueous solutions. The membrane emulsification method produced an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion in the mixture of squalane, water, and MPM-GDM, where the squalane concentration was set at 10 - 60 wt% and the MPM-GDM concentration was either 1 or 5 wt%...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924082/analysis-of-cleaning-process-for-several-kinds-of-soil-by-probability-density-functional-method
#8
Akihiro Fujimoto, Terumasa Tanaka, Masaru Oya
A method of analyzing the detergency of various soils by assuming normal distributions for the soil adhesion and soil removal forces was developed by considering the relationship between the soil type and the distribution profile of the soil removal force. The effect of the agitation speed on the soil removal was also analyzed by this method. Washing test samples were prepared by soiling fabrics with individual soils such as particulate soils, oily dyes, and water-soluble dyes. Washing tests were conducted using a Terg-O-Tometer and four repetitive washing cycles of 5 min each...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924081/comparative-antileukemic-activity-of-a-tetranorditerpene-isolated-from-polyalthia-longifolia-leaves-and-the-derivative-against-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#9
Saheed Afolabi, Olufunke Olorundare, Masayuki Ninomiya, Abiola Babatunde, Hasan Mukhtar, Mamoru Koketsu
The discovery of potent cytotoxic isolates from botanicals provides an opportunity to explore this viable tool for cancer chemoprevention. The antileukemic potential of clerodane diterpene from Polyalthia longifolia leaves has already been established. However, in this present study, utilizing chromatographic techniques we report for the first time, the isolation of a rare tetranorditerpene (compound 1) from P. longifolia. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated and confirmed by spectrophotometric data. UPLC-MS analysis was conducted on the methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and isolated tetranorditerpene showed that the tetranorditerpene is one of the major constituents of the plant with a retention time of 30...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924080/active-cooling-of-oil-after-deep-frying
#10
Nagao Totani, Naoko Yasaki, Rena Doi, Etsuko Hasegawa
Oil used for deep-frying is often left to stand after cooking. A major concern is oxidation during standing that might be avoidable, especially in the case of oil used repeatedly for commercial deep-frying as this involves large volumes that are difficult to cool in a conventional fryer. This paper describes a method to minimize oil oxidation. French fries were deep-fried and the oil temperature decreased in a manner typical for a commercial deep-fryer. The concentration of polar compounds generated from thermally oxidized oil remarkably increased at temperature higher than 100°C but little oxidation occurred below 60°C...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924079/dynamic-surface-tension-of-heterogemini-surfactants-with-quaternary-ammonium-salt-and-gluconamide-or-sulfobetaine-headgroups
#11
Tomokazu Yoshimura, Kanae Nyuta
Dynamic surface tensions of two types of heterogemini surfactants with nonidentical hydrophilic headgroups consisting of a quaternary ammonium salt (cationic) and a gluconamide (nonionic) or sulfobetaine (zwitterionic) group were measured using the maximum bubble pressure method. For these compounds, effects of alkyl chain length, structure of the hydrophilic groups, and surfactant concentration were investigated using diffusion coefficients and parameter x. The parameter x is related to the difference between the energies of adsorption and desorption of the surfactant...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924078/partial-hydrogenation-of-sunflower-oil-derived-fames-catalyzed-by-the-efficient-and-recyclable-palladium-nanoparticles-in-polyethylene-glycol
#12
Wei Liu, Guanghui Lu
One approach to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesel is the partial hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds. In the current work, an efficient catalytic system using Pd(OAc)2 dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG) which in situ generates palladium nanoparticles was developed in order to promote a selective partial hydrogenation reaction of sunflower oil FAMEs into mono-hydrogenated products avoiding the formation of saturated compounds or trans-isomers. High content of methyl oleate (85.0±1.4%) was obtained by hydrogenation of sunflower oil biodiesel with only 7...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794317/high-resolution-kendrick-mass-defect-analysis-of-poly-ethylene-oxide-based-non-ionic-surfactants-and-their-degradation-products
#13
Thierry Fouquet, Haruo Shimada, Katsuyuki Maeno, Kanako Ito, Yuka Ozeki, Shinya Kitagawa, Hajime Ohtani, Hiroaki Sato
Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and the recently introduced high-resolution Kendrick mass defect (HRKMD) analysis are combined to thoroughly characterize non-ionic surfactants made of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) core capped by esters of fatty acids. A PEO monostearate surfactant is first analyzed as a proof of principle of the HRKMD analysis conducted with a fraction of EO as the base unit (EO/X with X being an integer) in lieu of EO for a regular KMD analysis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794316/highly-viscoelastic-reverse-wormlike-micellar-systems-from-a-mixture-of-lecithin-polyglycerol-fatty-acid-monoesters-and-an-oil
#14
Kaname Hashizaki, Miko Imai, Shuhei Yako, Hitomi Tsusaka, Yuichi Sakanishi, Yoshihiro Saito, Makiko Fujii
We report new lecithin reverse wormlike micelles with high viscoelasticity formed using lecithin/polyglycerol fatty acid monoester (PGLFA)/oil systems. In this study, the influence of the amphiphilicity (i.e., hydrophile-lipophile balance, HLB) of PGLFA on the phase behavior and rheological properties of reverse wormlike micelles was investigated in detail. PGLFAs with degrees of polymerization of polyglycerol varying between 6-40 and constituent fatty acids with chains between 6-18 carbon atoms long were used...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794315/offline-solid-phase-extraction-large-volume-injection-gas-chromatography-for-the-analysis-of-mineral-oil-saturated-hydrocarbons-in-commercial-vegetable-oils
#15
Lingling Liu, Hua Huang, Yanwen Wu, Bingning Li, Jie Ouyang
An offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) approach combined with a large-volume injection (LVI)-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (LVI-GC-FID) is improved for routine analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in vegetable oils. The key procedure of the method consists in using offline SPE columns for MOSH purification. The SPE column packed with 1% Ag-activated silica gel was used to separate MOSH from triglycerides and olefins in variety of vegetable oils. The eluent of MOSH fraction was only 3 mL and the concentration step was quick with little evaporation loss...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794314/geographical-discrimination-of-virgin-olive-oils-from-the-tunisian-coasts-by-combining-fatty-acids-and-phenolic-acids-profiles-within-a-multivariate-analysis
#16
Hajer Ben Hlima, Rayda Ben Ayed, Karim Ennouri, Slim Smaoui
Virgin olive oils extracted from three principal Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali, Chetoui and Zarrazi) and coming from four different regions (Sfax, Beja, Gabes and Medenine) along the Tunisian costs were analysed. The quality indices as well as fatty acids and phenolic acids content of oil samples were examined using univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The finding demonstrated that significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in quality indices between the different cultivars and that fatty acid content is the most informative in discriminating olive oils from production sites that are different by geographical and climatic parameters...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794313/comparative-studies-between-conventional-and-microwave-assisted-extraction-for-rice-bran-oil
#17
Himanshu S Shukla, Amit Pratap
The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794312/lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine-by-direct-esterification-in-solvent-free-medium-without-water-removal
#18
Taha Mnasri, Françoise Ergan, Josiane Herault, Gaëlle Pencreac'h
In this work, the synthesis of oleoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and free oleic acid in a reaction medium without solvent is presented. The complete solubilisation of GPC, which is a crucial issue in non-polar liquids such as melted free fatty acids, was reached by heating the GPC/oleic acid mixture at high temperature during a short time. The immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM-IM) was shown to catalyze the reaction more efficiently than the immobilized lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794311/functional-oil-from-black-seed-differentially-inhibits-aldose-reductase-and-ectonucleotidase-activities-by-up-regulating-cellular-energy-in-haloperidol-induced-hepatic-toxicity-in-rat-liver
#19
Akintunde Jacob Kehinde
In this study, the effect of rate-limiting enzymes involved in degradation of hepatic adenosine and intracellular sorbitol was investigated in rats exposed to haloperidol (HAL) and treated with functional oil (FO), containing principal active phytochemicals from black seed. Animals were divided into six groups (n=10): Distilled water, HAL 15 mg/kg, pre-administration/HAL 15 mg/kg, co-administration/HAL 15 mg/kg, post-administration/HAL 15 mg/kg, FO 150 mg/kg. The results of this study revealed that the activities of ectonucleotidase and aldose-reductase were significantly increased in HAL-treated rats when compared with the control (p < 0...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794310/structured-mono-and-diacylglycerols-with-a-high-content-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids
#20
Alaina A Esperón-Rojas, R Baeza-Jiménez, Cynthia Cano-Sarmiento, Hugo S García
In the present work, direct enzyme-catalysed esterification of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) from three different sources (Medium chain triacylglycerols, MCT; saponified MCT and a mixture of free MCFA) was evaluated to obtain structured mono- and diacylglycerols. The esterifications were carried out mixing the different sources of MCFA with glycerol at two weight ratios (1:1 and 4:1, w/w), using three immobilized lipases: Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM; different reaction times (t = 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 min); enzyme loadings (5, 10 or 15% with respect to the total weight of substrates)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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