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Rural and Remote Health

Holly M LeDrew, Pamela Moores, Trudy Read, Moira O'Regan-Hogan
Introduction Employment-related mobility (ERM) is a complex phenomenon that impacts family life. New mothers who have partners working away from home for intermittent and extended periods of time are particularly affected. As these families transition to parenting roles they are further challenged with the expectation that the mother manages sole responsibility for family and home life while her partner works away. METHODS: A hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to explore the experiences of new mothers on the island portion of rural Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, whose partners participated in ERM...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Genevieve Marsh-Feiley, Leila Eadie, Philip Wilson
INTRODUCTION: During remotely supported prehospital ultrasound (RSPU), an ultrasound operator performs a scan and sends images to a remote expert for interpretation. This novel technology has been undergoing investigation in the randomised controlled SatCare trial, which seeks to assess the capability of RSPU to improve patient outcomes and standard of prehospital care in the Highlands of Scotland. This study aimed to explore the views of emergency medicine physicians and paramedics prior to starting the trial...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Akiteru Takamura, Takeshi Morimoto
INTRODUCTION: A uniform certified basic training program for interns started in Japan in 2004. Following this change, more interns chose to train in community settings, including in rural areas. Patients' experiences of and attitudes toward interns' practice might vary across communities. To examine the geographic and demographic variations linked to the new training system, a nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted and analyzed. METHODS: Two years after the start of the new certified basic program, 2400 adults were randomly selected from all areas of Japan...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Shinji Otani, Abir Majbauddin, Youichi Kurozawa, Masato Shinoda
INTRODUCTION: Many countries face the need to address medical resource shortages following various disasters. The dzud is a winter disaster that occurs in Mongolia following drought in dryland areas, and it leads to high livestock mortality. Affected provinces suffer increased mortality rates for children aged under 5 years. Using various factors, including medical resources, the present study aimed to evaluate the health risks for children during the dzud. METHODS: Data from all of Mongolia's 21 provinces and the capital of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Kecheng Liu, Runtong Zhang, Ling Yin, Lily Sun, Xue Pan, Lei Hou, Xiaopu Shang, Xiaoyu Yang
CONTEXT: Medical care in rural China has long suffered because of a concentration of medical resources in major hospitals in cities. The patients in rural areas thus do not have affordable access to quality medical services. To tackle such issues, a tiered medical scheme (TMS) was promoted by the Chinese State Council in 2015. It divides hospitals into three tiers and encourages collaborations among different tiers within a region in order to provide better accessibility to medical care for patients in rural areas...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Robriane Prosdocimi Menegat, Regina R Witt
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify primary health care nurses' competencies when responding to hydrological disasters in rural areas. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was developed. The Critical Incidents Technique was adopted. Twenty public health nurses who worked during the flood season in the years 2014 and 2015 in a rural area in southern Brazil were interviewed. Critical incidents and requirements identified in the data gave rise to the development of the competencies...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Catherine Cosgrave, Myfanwy Maple, Rafat Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Rural health workforce shortages are a global phenomenon. Countries like Australia, with industrialised economies, large land masses and broadly dispersed populations, face unique rural health challenges in providing adequate services and addressing workforce shortages. This article focuses on retention of early-career nursing and allied health professionals working in rural and remote Australia. Some of Australia's most severe and protracted rural workforce shortages, particularly among early-career health professionals, are in public sector community mental health (CMH), a multidisciplinary workforce staffed primarily by nurses and allied health professionals...
September 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Ying-Xiu Dai, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Yun-Ting Chang
INTRODUCTION: Shortages and maldistribution of dermatology services have negative impacts on the quality of care for patients with skin problems. Only a limited amount of literature is available regarding the current state of dermatologic services in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to examine the urban-rural distribution of dermatologists and office-based dermatology services in Taiwan. METHODS: Data regarding dermatology workforce and their geographic distribution were collected from the Taiwan Medical Association, Taiwan Dermatological Association, and Department of Household Registration, Ministry of the Interior, while data on the locations and opening hours of dermatologic clinics were sourced from the National Health Insurance Administration...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Carl Heslop, Sharyn Burns, Roanna Lobo
Rural clinicians in small communities face the pressure of always being 'on duty', and the ethical challenges of overlapping relationships with members of the community and duality of roles. The lead author of this commentary has experience as an insider researcher living within a small rural community, and has navigated the ethical challenges and community pressures of conducting qualitative research within an interconnected network. With appropriate measures and planning, insider research can be conducted rigorously, while maintaining ongoing relationships, confidentiality and anonymity...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Linda Sweet, Louise Young, Sinead Kado
In the past 5 years there has been a rapid rise in numbers of foreign-trained medical graduates returning to their countries to work as interns across the Western Pacific. These graduates were found to have a varied and different level of clinical knowledge and skill from that previously experienced in the region. This change in workforce profile led to an urgent need for upskilling clinicians as educators and supervisors. A team of clinical education facilitators were invited to design and deliver context-specific professional education workshops to address this need...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Andrew Szabo, Sam Curtin, Lee Anne Gray, David Paul, Denese Playford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Ellie Darcey, Renee N Carey, Alison Reid, Tim Driscoll, Deborah C Glass, Geza P Benke, Susan Peters, Lin Fritschi
INTRODUCTION: Farmers experience a range of carcinogenic exposures, including some pesticides, fuels, engine exhausts, metals, some organic solvents, silica, wood dusts and solar radiation. However many studies investigating the risk of cancer in farmers focus on pesticide exposure alone. The aim of this study was to determine which carcinogens Australian farmers are exposed to, the prevalence and circumstances of those exposures, and the use of protective equipment. METHODS: The study used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES) a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 that investigated the prevalence of carcinogen exposure among Australian workers...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Jenny May, Matthew R McGrail, Judi Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Brittney Russell, David E Fred, Cary Brown
End-of-life (EOL) care involves not just the final few days of a person's life but also living with a terminal illness over an extended period of time. Importantly, in addition to medical care and relief of physical suffering, it focuses on quality of life, honoring personal healthcare treatment decisions, supporting the family, and psychological, cultural and spiritual concerns for dying people and their families. The goal of this commentary is to raise rehabilitation therapists' awareness of the need for culturally safe EOL care services for First Nations persons who live on reserve and to identify strategies to help resolve this unmet need...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Jeremiah W Acharibasam, Rolf Wynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Timothy Robinson, Luke Wakely, Jodie Marquez, Kym Rae
INTRODUCTION: Preliminary research suggests that rurally residing children with a disability seldom participate in the recommended 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and face multiple barriers to participation. The purpose of this study was to explore parents' perceptions of physical activity participation of rurally residing children with a disability, including barriers and any factors that may facilitate their participation. METHODS: Participants were parents or carers of a school-aged child with a disability residing in a rural or remote area of the state of New South Wales, Australia...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Annetta Smith, Ashley Shepherd, Leah Macaden, Karen L Macleod
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of sensory impairment that includes sight and/or hearing impairment is projected to rise worldwide given the strong correlation between sensory impairment, older age and the demographic structure of the global population. Sensory impairment and associated disability is thus a significant global health concern. The prevalence rates for sensory impairment in Scotland are significant: as more people live into older age and as the age distribution in rural areas is markedly different with a higher proportion of older people, the extent of sensory impairment in the rural population will increase proportionally...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Frances Reed, Les Fitzgerald, Melanie R Bish
INTRODUCTION: Rural healthcare resource limitations can affect the choices people make and their quality of life during its end stages. In rural regions of Australia, district nurses (DNs) working in generalist community roles provide access to care by visiting people in their homes. They may be well positioned to improve the quality of the end-of-life experience by advocating for choice and person-centred end-of-life goals; however, knowledge about care in this context is limited. Initial findings from an exploratory qualitative study describing how rural DNs are able to successfully advocate for the end-of-life choices and goals of people living at home need to be confirmed and further developed to inform clinical practice...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Gigil Daniel Marme
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in many countries. There is a greater threat of exposure to TB in congregate settings including healthcare facilities, prisons and households where health workers treat patients with TB. In healthcare facilities, the key areas of risk of infection include settings where people with undiagnosed TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, congregate, such as outpatient waiting areas, pathology waiting areas, radiology departments and pharmacies, and wards where untreated patients await investigation results...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Peter O'Meara, Gary Wingrove, Michael Nolan
INTRODUCTION: For the past 50 years paramedic services and paramedic roles in high-income nations have evolved in response to changes in community needs and expectations. The aim of this article is to review paramedic models of service delivery, with an emphasis on models that have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of frontier and remote populations. METHODS: Paramedic models of relevance to rural and frontier settings were identified from searches of CINHAL and Medline, while key paramedic-specific journals were individualy searched in the event that they were not indexed...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
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