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Health Research Policy and Systems

Zaheed Damani, Gail MacKean, Eric Bohm, Brie DeMone, Brock Wright, Tom Noseworthy, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Deborah A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Policy dialogues are critical for developing responsive, effective, sustainable, evidence-informed policy. Our multidisciplinary team, including researchers, physicians and senior decision-makers, comprehensively evaluated The Winnipeg Central Intake Service, a single-entry model in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to improve patient access to hip/knee replacement surgery. We used the evaluation findings to develop five evidence-informed policy directions to help improve access to scheduled clinical services across Manitoba...
October 18, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Suzanne Day, Robin Mason, Stephanie Lagosky, Paula A Rochon
Both sex (biological factors) and gender (socio-cultural factors) shape health. To produce the best possible health research evidence, it is essential to integrate sex and gender considerations throughout the research process. Despite growing recognition of the importance of these factors, progress towards sex and gender integration as standard practice has been both slow and uneven in health research. In this commentary, we examine the challenges of integrating sex and gender from the research perspective, as well as strategies that can be used by researchers, funders and journal editors to address these challenges...
October 10, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Janine Margarita Dizon, Karen Grimmer, Shingai Machingaidze, Pam McLaren, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Little is known about allied health (AH) clinical practice guideline (CPG) activity in South Africa, and particularly in relation to primary health care (PHC). This paper reports on a scoping study undertaken to establish a reference framework, from which a comprehensive maximum variation sample could be selected. This was required to underpin robust sampling for a qualitative study aimed at understanding South African primary care AH therapy CPG activities. This paper builds on findings from the South African Guidelines Evaluation (Project SAGE) Flagship grant...
October 10, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Dzintars Gotham, Jonathan Meldrum, Vaitehi Nageshwaran, Christopher Counts, Nina Kumari, Manuel Martin, Ben Beattie, Nathan Post
BACKGROUND: Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products...
October 10, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Mary E Northridge, Sara S Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Implementation science holds promise for better ensuring that research is translated into evidence-based policy and practice, but interventions often fail or even worsen the problems they are intended to solve due to a lack of understanding of real world structures and dynamic complexity. While systems science alone cannot possibly solve the major challenges in public health, systems-based approaches may contribute to changing the language and methods for conceptualising and acting within complex systems...
October 4, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Dana R Thomson, Muhammed Semakula, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Megan Murray, Vedaste Ndahindwa, Anatole Manzi, Assumpta Mukabutera, Corine Karema, Jeanine Condo, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier
BACKGROUND: To guide efficient investment of limited health resources in sub-Saharan Africa, local researchers need to be involved in, and guide, health system and policy research. While extensive survey and census data are available to health researchers and program officers in resource-limited countries, local involvement and leadership in research is limited due to inadequate experience, lack of dedicated research time and weak interagency connections, among other challenges. Many research-strengthening initiatives host prolonged fellowships out-of-country, yet their approaches have not been evaluated for effectiveness in involvement and development of local leadership in research...
September 29, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, William Ngosa, Busiku Hamainza, Lydia Kapiriri
BACKGROUND: Priority setting in health research is an emerging field. In Zambia, like many other African countries, various priority setting activities have been undertaken with a view to identify research activities to which the available resources can be targeted while at the same time maximising the health impact for resource allocation to support evidence-based decision-making. The aim of this paper is to document the key elements of the various priority setting activities that have been conducted since 1998, identifying the key lessons and providing recommendations to improve the process...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
L Freebairn, J Atkinson, P Kelly, G McDonnell, L Rychetnik
BACKGROUND: Evidence-informed decision-making is essential to ensure that health programs and services are effective and offer value for money; however, barriers to the use of evidence persist. Emerging systems science approaches and advances in technology are providing new methods and tools to facilitate evidence-based decision-making. Simulation modelling offers a unique tool for synthesising and leveraging existing evidence, data and expert local knowledge to examine, in a robust, low risk and low cost way, the likely impact of alternative policy and service provision scenarios...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Heather L Colquhoun, Dianne Lowe, Eftyhia Helis, Denis Belanger, Brendalynn Ens, Sophie Hill, Alain Mayhew, Michael Taylor, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal prescribing and medications use is a problem for health systems globally. Systematic reviews are a comprehensive resource that can help guide evidence-informed decision-making and implementation of interventions addressing such issues; however, a barrier to the use of systematic reviews is their inaccessibility (due to both dispersion across journals and inaccessibility of content). Publicly available databases, such as Rx for Change, provide quick access to summaries of appraised systematic reviews of professional and consumer-oriented interventions to improve prescribing behaviour and appropriate medication use, and may help maximise the use of evidence to inform decisions...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Holger Langhof, Jonas Lander, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: The European Union's (EU) Clinical Trials Directive was replaced by an EU-Regulation as of 2016. The policy revision process was subject to a formal impact assessment exercised by the European Commission (EC) from 2008 to 2014. Following the EU principles of Good Governance, deliberation with stakeholders was an integral part of this impact assessment and the policy formulation process. Hence, two public consultations (PCs) were held by the EC in 2009 and 2011, respectively...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Jennifer J Palmer, Alice Gilbert, Michelle Choy, Karl Blanchet
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contributions of faith-based organisations (FBOs) to health systems in Africa. In the specialist area of eye health, international and domestic Christian FBOs have been important contributors as service providers and donors, but they are also commonly critiqued as having developed eye health systems parallel to government structures which are unsustainable. METHODS: In this study, we use a health systems approach (quarterly interviews, a participatory sustainability analysis exercise and a social network analysis) to describe the strategies used by eye care practitioners in four hospitals of north-west Tanzania to navigate the government, church mission and donor rules that govern eye services delivery there...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Myroslava Protsiv, Senia Rosales-Klintz, Freddie Bwanga, Merrick Zwarenstein, Salla Atkins
BACKGROUND: Increased health research capacity is needed in low- and middle-income countries to respond to local health challenges. Technology-aided teaching approaches, such as blended learning (BL), can stimulate international education collaborations and connect skilled scientists who can jointly contribute to the efforts to address local shortages of high-level research capacity. The African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research (ARCADE HSSR) was a European Union-funded project implemented from 2011 to 2015...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Moriah E Ellen, John N Lavis, Joshua Shemer
BACKGROUND: All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Emily K Jenkins, Anita Kothari, Vicky Bungay, Joy L Johnson, John L Oliffe
BACKGROUND: Much of the research and theorising in the knowledge translation (KT) field has focused on clinical settings, providing little guidance to those working in community settings. In this study, we build on previous research in community-based KT by detailing the theory driven and empirically-informed CollaboraKTion framework. METHODS: A case study design and ethnographic methods were utilised to gain an in-depth understanding of the processes for conducting a community-based KT study as a means to distilling the CollaboraKTion framework...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Dinansha Varshney, Salla Atkins, Arindam Das, Vishal Diwan
BACKGROUND: Research capacity building and its impact on policy and international research partnership is increasingly seen as important. High income and low- and middle-income countries frequently engage in research collaborations. These can have a positive impact on research capacity building, provided such partnerships are long-term collaborations with a unified aim, but they can also have challenges. What are these challenges, which often result in a short term/ non viable collaboration? Does such collaboration results in capacity building? What are the requirements to make any collaboration sustainable? This study aimed to answer these and other research questions through examining an international collaboration in one multi-country research capacity building project ARCADE RSDH (Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health)...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Corrine E Munoz-Plaza, Carla Parry, Erin E Hahn, Tania Tang, Huong Q Nguyen, Michael K Gould, Michael H Kanter, Adam L Sharp
BACKGROUND: Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. METHODS: Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Ann Dadich, Hassan Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the channels through which evidence-based practices are communicated to healthcare professionals can shape the ways they engage with, and use, this information. For instance, there is evidence to suggest that information should be communicated via sources that are deemed to be credible, like government departments, professional bodies and peers. This article examines the contention that information should be communicated via credible sources. More specifically, the article examines the different communication channels through which primary care clinicians learnt of resources on evidence-based sexual healthcare - namely, clinical aides and online training programs...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Eliana M Moreno, Juan Antonio Moriana
BACKGROUND: There is now broad consensus regarding the importance of involving users in the process of implementing guidelines. Few studies, however, have addressed this issue, let alone the implementation of guidelines for common mental health disorders. The aim of this study is to compile and describe implementation strategies and resources related to common clinical mental health disorders targeted at service users. METHODS: The literature was reviewed and resources for the implementation of clinical guidelines were compiled using the PRISMA model...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Andrew Searles, Chris Doran, John Attia, Darryl Knight, John Wiggers, Simon Deeming, Joerg Mattes, Brad Webb, Steve Hannan, Rod Ling, Kim Edmunds, Penny Reeves, Michael Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Research translation, particularly in the biomedical area, is often discussed but there are few methods that are routinely used to measure it or its impact. Of the impact measurement methods that are used, most aim to provide accountability - to measure and explain what was generated as a consequence of funding research. This case study reports on the development of a novel, conceptual framework that goes beyond measurement. The Framework To Assess the Impact from Translational health research, or FAIT, is a platform designed to prospectively measure and encourage research translation and research impact...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Jason E Hickey, Steven Pryjmachuk, Heather Waterman
Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
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