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Health Research Policy and Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157288/development-of-a-framework-to-improve-the-utilisation-of-malaria-research-for-policy-development-in-malawi
#1
Chikondi Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Kamija Phiri, Clifford M Mutero
BACKGROUND: The existing gap between research evidence and public health practice has attributed to the unmet Millennium Development Goals in Africa and consequently, has stimulated the development of frameworks to enhance knowledge translation. These efforts aim at maximising health research utilisation in policy and practice to address the world's disease burdens, including malaria. This study aimed at developing a contextual framework to improve the utilisation of malaria research for policy development in Malawi...
November 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132436/towards-fair-and-effective-north-south-collaboration-realising-a-programme-for-demand-driven-and-locally-led-research
#2
Maarten Olivier Kok, John Owusu Gyapong, Ivan Wolffers, David Ofori-Adjei, Elis Joost Ruitenberg
BACKGROUND: At the turn of the 90s, studies showed that health research contributed little to health and development in low- and middle-income countries because it was oriented towards international priorities and dominated by researchers from the North. A new approach to North-South collaboration was required that would support demand-driven and locally led research in the South. The aim of this study was to analyse the development and functioning of a programme for demand-driven and locally led research in Ghana that was supported by a North-South collaboration...
November 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126423/the-many-meanings-of-evidence-a-comparative-analysis-of-the-forms-and-roles-of-evidence-within-three-health-policy-processes-in-cambodia
#3
Helen Walls, Marco Liverani, Kannarath Chheng, Justin Parkhurst
BACKGROUND: Discussions within the health community routinely emphasise the importance of evidence in informing policy formulation and implementation. Much of the support for the evidence-based policy movement draws from concern that policy decisions are often based on inadequate engagement with high-quality evidence. In many such discussions, evidence is treated as differing only in quality, and assumed to improve decisions if it can only be used more. In contrast, political science scholars have described this as an overly simplistic view of the policy-making process, noting that research 'use' can mean a variety of things and relies on nuanced aspects of political systems...
November 10, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121959/why-european-and-united-states-drug-regulators-are-not-speaking-with-one-voice-on-anti-influenza-drugs-regulatory-review-methodologies-and-the-importance-of-deep-product-reviews
#4
Shai Mulinari, Courtney Davis
BACKGROUND: Relenza represents the first neuraminidase inhibitor (NI), a class of drugs that also includes the drug Tamiflu. Although heralded as breakthrough treatments in influenza, NI efficacy has remained highly controversial. A key unsettled question is why the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more cautious efficacy statements in labelling than European regulators for both drugs. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of United States and European Union regulatory appraisals for Relenza to investigate the reasons for divergent regulatory interpretations, pertaining to Relenza's capacity to alleviate symptoms and reduce frequency of complications of influenza...
November 9, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121958/institutional-capacity-to-generate-and-use-evidence-in-lmics-current-state-and-opportunities-for-hpsr
#5
Zubin Cyrus Shroff, Dena Javadi, Lucy Gilson, Rockie Kang, Abdul Ghaffar
BACKGROUND: Evidence-informed decision-making for health is far from the norm, particularly in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Health policy and systems research (HPSR) has an important role in providing the context-sensitive and -relevant evidence that is needed. However, there remain significant challenges both on the supply side, in terms of capacity for generation of policy-relevant knowledge such as HPSR, and on the demand side in terms of the demand for and use of evidence for policy decisions...
November 9, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065894/a-grantathon-model-to-mentor-new-investigators-in-mental-health-research
#6
LETTER
Mary Hawk, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Triptish Bhatia, Jaspreet S Brar, Wafaa Abdelhakim Elbahaey, James E Egan, Prasad Konasale, Supriya Kumar, Margaret C McDonald, Ravinder Singh, Soumya Swaminathan, Joel Wood, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: There is a critical gap between needs and available resources for mental health treatment across the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In countries committed to increasing resources to address these needs it is important to conduct research, not only to assess the depth of mental health needs and the current provision of public and private mental health services, but also to examine implementation methods and evaluate mental health approaches to determine which methods are most effective in local contexts...
October 24, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061155/building-capacity-for-medical-education-research-in-family-medicine-the-program-for-innovation-in-medical-education-pime
#7
Douglas Archibald, William Hogg, Jacques Lemelin, Simone Dahrouge, Mireille St Jean, François Boucher
BACKGROUND: Despite the apparent benefits to teaching, many faculty members are reluctant to participate in medical education research (MER) for a variety of reasons. In addition to the further demand on their time, physicians often lack the confidence to initiate MER projects and require more support in the form of funding, structure and guidance. These obstacles have contributed to a decline in physician participation in MER as well as to a perceived decay in its quality. As a countermeasure to encourage physicians to undertake research, the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa implemented a programme in which physicians receive the funding, coaching and support staff necessary to complete a 2-year research project...
October 23, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047381/a-critical-appraisal-of-guidelines-used-for-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-south-africa-s-referral-system
#8
Faith Nankasa Mambulu-Chikankheni, John Eyles, Ejemai Amaize Eboreime, Prudence Ditlopo
BACKGROUND: Focusing on healthcare referral processes for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa, this paper discusses the comprehensiveness of documents (global and national) that guide the country's SAM healthcare. This research is relevant because South African studies on SAM mostly examine the implementation of WHO guidelines in hospitals, making their technical relevance to the country's lower level and referral healthcare system under-explored. METHODS: To add to both literature and methods for studying SAM healthcare, we critically appraised four child healthcare guidelines (global and national) and conducted complementary expert interviews (n = 5)...
October 18, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041939/evidence-based-decision-making-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-methods-the-changing-landscape-of-assessment-approaches-in-germany
#9
Britta Olberg, Sabine Fuchs, Katja Matthias, Alexandra Nolting, Matthias Perleth, Reinhard Busse
This article examines the current status and most important changes over time to the legislative framework on the health technology assessment-informed decision-making process on diagnostic and therapeutic 'methods' in Germany. The relevant information was obtained through documentary analysis covering the period 1990 to 2017. The findings show that, even if the outpatient care sector appears to be much more regulated than the inpatient sector (based on a strict separation of the two care settings), developments in Germany have led to a more tightened assessment framework, making the use of evidence a firm component in the decision-making process...
October 17, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020991/building-a-bright-evidence-informed-future-a-conversation-starter-from-the-incoming-editors
#10
EDITORIAL
Tari Turner, Fadi El-Jardali
Health Research and Policy Systems (HARPS) has gone from strength to strength since it was established in 2003. As new Editors-in-Chief, we look forward to a bright future for HARPS, and we would like to start a conversation with you, HARPS readers, authors, editors and others, about how HARPS can best support ongoing progress and debate on evidence-informed health research policy and systems, particularly in developing countries. As a starting point for discussion, we would like to highlight three areas that we are passionate about, namely supporting an integrated community of researchers and policy-makers; building a focus on how health research and policy systems can support achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals; and strengthening our commitment to communicating and disseminating the work published in HARPS...
October 11, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992810/identifying-research-priorities-for-public-health-research-to-address-health-inequalities-use-of-delphi-like-survey-methods
#11
S Turner, E Ollerhead, A Cook
BACKGROUND: In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise...
October 9, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969713/generating-demand-for-and-use-of-evaluation-evidence-in-government-health-ministries-lessons-from-a-pilot-programme-in-uganda-and-zambia
#12
Sophie Witter, Andrew Kardan, Molly Scott, Lucie Moore, Louise Shaxson
BACKGROUND: The Demand-Driven Evaluations for Decisions (3DE) programme was piloted in Zambia and Uganda in 2012-2015. It aimed to answer evaluative questions raised by policymakers in Ministries of Health, rapidly and with limited resources. The aim of our evaluation was to assess whether the 3DE model was successful in supporting and increasing evidence-based policymaking, building capacity and changing behaviour of Ministry staff. METHODS: Using mixed methods, we compared the ex-ante theory of change with what had happened in practice, why and with what results (intended and unintended), including a qualitative assessment of 3DE's contribution...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969680/non-communicable-diseases-mapping-research-funding-organisations-funding-mechanisms-and-research-practices-in-italy-and-germany
#13
Victor Stephani, Silvia Sommariva, Anne Spranger, Oriana Ciani
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that territorial borders continue to have an impact on research collaboration in Europe. Knowledge of national research structural contexts is therefore crucial to the promotion of Europe-wide policies for research funding. Nevertheless, studies assessing and comparing research systems remain scarce. This paper aims to further the knowledge on national research landscapes in Europe, focusing on non-communicable disease (NCD) research in Italy and Germany. METHODS: To capture the architecture of country-specific research funding systems, a three-fold strategy was adopted...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969650/how-do-we-define-the-policy-impact-of-public-health-research-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Kristel Alla, Wayne D Hall, Harvey A Whiteford, Brian W Head, Carla S Meurk
BACKGROUND: In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. METHOD: Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969642/knowledge-mobilisation-for-policy-development-implementing-systems-approaches-through-participatory-dynamic-simulation-modelling
#15
Louise Freebairn, Lucie Rychetnik, Jo-An Atkinson, Paul Kelly, Geoff McDonnell, Nick Roberts, Christine Whittall, Sally Redman
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based decision-making is an important foundation for health policy and service planning decisions, yet there remain challenges in ensuring that the many forms of available evidence are considered when decisions are being made. Mobilising knowledge for policy and practice is an emergent process, and one that is highly relational, often messy and profoundly context dependent. Systems approaches, such as dynamic simulation modelling can be used to examine both complex health issues and the context in which they are embedded, and to develop decision support tools...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965493/-knowledge-for-better-health-revisited-the-increasing-significance-of-health-research-systems-a-review-by-departing-editors-in-chief
#16
EDITORIAL
Stephen R Hanney, Miguel A González-Block
How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946911/ethical-challenges-for-international-collaborative-research-partnerships-in-the-context-of-the-zika-outbreak-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-case-study
#17
Julio Arturo Canario Guzmán, Roberto Espinal, Jeannette Báez, Ricardo Elias Melgen, Patricia Antonia Pérez Rosario, Eddys Rafael Mendoza
BACKGROUND: The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications...
September 25, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927424/requirements-of-health-policy-and-services-journals-for-authors-to-disclose-financial-and-non-financial-conflicts-of-interest-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Assem M Khamis, Maram B Hakoum, Lama Bou-Karroum, Joseph R Habib, Ahmed Ali, Gordon Guyatt, Fadi El-Jardali, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: The requirements of the health policy and services journals for authors to report their financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) are unclear. The present article aims to assess the requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose their financial and non-financial COIs. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of journals listed by the Web of Science under the category of 'Health Policy and Services'. We reviewed the 'Instructions for Authors' on the journals' websites and then simulated the submission of a manuscript to obtain any additional relevant information made available during that step...
September 19, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915890/barriers-and-enablers-for-the-development-and-implementation-of-allied-health-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-south-african-primary-healthcare-settings-a-qualitative-study
#19
J M Dizon, K Grimmer, Q Louw, S Machingaidze, H Parker, H Pillen
BACKGROUND: The South African allied health (AH) primary healthcare (PHC) workforce is challenged with the complex rehabilitation needs of escalating patient numbers. The application of evidence-based care using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is one way to make efficient and effective use of resources. Although CPGs are common for AH in high-income countries, there is limited understanding of how to do this in low- to middle-income countries. This paper describes barriers and enablers for AH CPG uptake in South African PHC...
September 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874160/preterm-birth-the-role-of-knowledge-transfer-and-exchange
#20
Hacsi Horvath, Claire D Brindis, E Michael Reyes, Gavin Yamey, Linda Franck
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of death in children under age five. Healthcare policy and other decision-making relevant to PTB may rely on obsolete, incomplete or inapplicable research evidence, leading to worsened outcomes. Appropriate knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) strategies are an important component of efforts to reduce the global PTB burden. We sought to develop a 'landscape' analysis of KTE strategies currently used in PTB and related contexts, and to make recommendations for optimising programmatic implementation and for future research...
September 6, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
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