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Health Research Policy and Systems

Malebogo Tlhajoane, Tidings Masoka, Edith Mpandaguta, Rebecca Rhead, Kathryn Church, Alison Wringe, Noah Kadzura, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Constance Nyamukapa, Nadine Schur, Owen Mugurungi, Morten Skovdal, Jeffrey W Eaton, Simon Gregson
BACKGROUND: In recent years, WHO has made major changes to its guidance on the provision of HIV care and treatment services. We conducted a longitudinal study from 2013 to 2015 to establish how these changes have been translated into national policy in Zimbabwe and to measure progress in implementation within local health facilities. METHODS: National HIV programme policy guidelines published between 2003 and 2013 (n = 9) and 2014 and 2015 (n = 5) were reviewed to assess adoption of WHO recommendations on HIV testing services, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
September 21, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Jo Cooke, Paolo Gardois, Andrew Booth
BACKGROUND: Research capacity development (RCD) is considered fundamental to closing the evidence-practice gap, thereby contributing to health, wealth and knowledge for practice. Numerous frameworks and models have been proposed for RCD, but there is little evidence of what works for whom and under what circumstances. There is a need to identify mechanisms by which candidate interventions or clusters of interventions might achieve RCD and contribute to societal impact, thereby proving meaningful to stakeholders...
September 21, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Hudson Pacifico Silva, Pascale Lehoux, Fiona Alice Miller, Jean-Louis Denis
The scholarship on responsible research and innovation (RRI) aims to align the processes and outcomes of innovation with societal values by involving a broad range of stakeholders from a very early stage. Though this scholarship offers a new lens to consider the challenges new health technologies raise for health systems around the world, there is a need to define the dimensions that specifically characterise responsible innovation in health (RIH). The present article aims to introduce an integrative RIH framework drawing on the RRI literature, the international literature on health systems as well as specific bodies of knowledge that shed light on key dimensions of health innovations...
September 10, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Farideh Mohtasham, Ashraf Velayati
It has been highlighted that the original article [1] contains a typesetting mistake in affiliation 2.
September 7, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Helen Elizabeth Denise Burchett, Laurence Blanchard, Dylan Kneale, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Public health interventions can be complicated, complex and context dependent, making the assessment of applicability challenging. Nevertheless, for them to be of use beyond the original study setting, they need to be generalisable to other settings and, crucially, research users need to be able to identify to which contexts it may be applicable. There are many tools with set criteria for assessing generalisability/applicability, yet few seem to be widely used and there is no consensus on which should be used, or when...
September 4, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Fiona Alice Miller, Sarah J Patton, Mark Dobrow, Deborah A Marshall, Whitney Berta
BACKGROUND: Interest in public involvement in health research projects has led to increased attention on the coordination of public involvement through research organisations, networks and whole systems. We draw on previous work using the 'health research system' framework to explore organisational actors and stewardship functions relevant to governance for public involvement. METHODS: To inform efforts in Ontario, Canada, to mobilise public involvement across the provincial health research enterprise, we conducted an exploratory, qualitative descriptive study of efforts in two jurisdictions (England, United Kingdom, and Alberta, Canada) where there were active policy efforts to support public involvement, alongside jurisdiction-wide efforts to mobilise health research...
August 30, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
E A Obuku, J N Lavis, A Kinengyere, R Ssenono, M Ocan, D K Mafigiri, F Ssengooba, C Karamagi, N K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: While several individual studies addressing research productivity of post-graduate students are available, a synthesis of effective strategies to increase productivity and the determinants of productivity in low-income countries has not been undertaken. Further, whether or not this research from post-graduate students' projects was applied in evidence-informed decision-making was unknown. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of literature to identify and assess the effectiveness of approaches that increase productivity (proportion published) or the application (proportion cited) of post-graduate students' research, as well as to assess the determinants of post-graduate students' research productivity and use...
August 28, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
David H Peters
Health policy and systems research (HPSR) has changed considerably over the last 20 years, but its main purpose remains to inform and influence health policies and systems. Whereas goals that underpin health systems have endured - such as a focus on health equity - contexts and priorities change, research methods progress, and health organisations continue to learn and adapt, in part by using HPSR. For HPSR to remain relevant, its practitioners need to re-think how health systems are conceptualised, to keep up with rapid changes in how we diagnose and manage disease and use information, and consider factors affecting people's health that go well beyond healthcare systems...
August 22, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Nicole Votruba, Alexandra Ziemann, Jonathan Grant, Graham Thornicroft
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between research evidence and policy-making are complex. Different theoretical frameworks exist to explain general evidence-policy interactions. One largely unexplored element of these interrelationships is how evidence interrelates with, and influences, policy/political agenda-setting. This review aims to identify the elements and processes of theories, frameworks and models on interrelationships of research evidence and health policy-making, with a focus on actionability and agenda-setting in the context of mental health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
August 22, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Elena Pallari, Grant Lewison, Chryso Th Pallari, George Samoutis, Mursheda Begum, Richard Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of disease burden and mortality at the European level and in Cyprus. This research was conducted to map the research activities of Cypriot institutions in five NCDs, namely oncology, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, mental health and respiratory conditions. METHODS: For the period 2002-2013, research in Cyprus was assessed on its biomedical outputs and compared to the rest of Europe relative to their GDP...
August 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Assem M Khamis, Lama Bou-Karroum, Maram B Hakoum, Mounir Al-Gibbawi, Joseph R Habib, Fadi El-Jardali, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Major research-reporting statements, such as PRISMA and CONSORT, require authors to provide information about funding. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the reporting of funding in health policy and systems research (HPSR) papers and (2) to assess the funding reporting policies of journals publishing on HPSR. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional surveys for papers published in 2016 addressing HPSR (both primary studies and systematic reviews) and for journals publishing on HPSR (both journals under the 'Health Policy and Services' (HPS) category in the Web of Science, and non-HPS journals that published on HPSR)...
August 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Mohsen Malekinejad, Hacsi Horvath, Harry Snyder, Claire D Brindis
BACKGROUND: There is often a discordance between health research evidence and public health policies implemented by the United States federal government. In the process of developing health policy, discordance can arise through subjective and objective factors that are unrelated to the value of the evidence itself, and can inhibit the use of research evidence. We explore two common types of discordance through four illustrative examples and then propose a potential means of addressing discordance...
August 16, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
A S George, J Campbell, A Ghaffar
Health workers are central to people-centred health systems, resilient economies and sustainable development. Given the rising importance of the health workforce, changing human resource for health (HRH) policy and practice and recent health policy and systems research (HPSR) advances, it is critical to reassess and reinvigorate the science behind HRH as part of health systems strengthening and social development more broadly. Building on the recently published Health Policy and Systems Research Reader on Human Resources for Health (the Reader), this commentary reflects on the added value of HPSR underpinning HRH...
August 14, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Fiona Alice Miller, Sarah J Patton, Mark Dobrow, Whitney Berta
BACKGROUND: Growing interest in public involvement in health research has led to organisational and policy change. Additionally, an emerging body of policy-oriented scholarship has begun to identify the organisational and network arrangements that shape public involvement activity. Such developments suggest the need to clearly conceptualise and characterise public involvement in health research in terms of governance. METHODS: We drew on an established health research system framework to analyse governance functions related to public involvement, adapting scoping review methods to identify evidence from a corpus of journal papers and policy reports...
August 6, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
E Akhnif, J A Kiendrebeogo, A Idrissi Azouzzi, Z Adam, C P Makoutode, S Mayaka Manitu, Z Njoumemi, A Gamble Kelley, B Meessen
BACKGROUND: If there is one universal recommendation to countries wanting to make progress towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), it is to develop the learning capacities that will enable them to 'find their own way' - this is especially true for countries struggling with fragmented health financing systems. This paper explores results from a multi-country study whose main aim was to assess the extent to which UHC systems and processes at country level operate as 'learning systems'...
August 6, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Karen S Palmer, Adalsteinn D Brown, Jenna M Evans, Husayn Marani, Kirstie K Russell, Danielle Martin, Noah M Ivers
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, the Government of Ontario, Canada, has phased in hospital funding reforms hoping to encourage standardised, evidence-based clinical care processes to both improve patient outcomes and reduce system costs. One aspect of the reform - quality-based procedures (QBPs) - replaced some of each hospital's global budget with a pre-set price per episode of care for patients with specific diagnoses or procedures. The QBP initiative included publication and dissemination of a handbook for each of these diagnoses or procedures, developed by an expert technical group...
August 3, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
E A Obuku, N K Sewankambo, D K Mafigiri, F Sengooba, C Karamagi, J N Lavis
BACKGROUND: World over, stakeholders are increasingly concerned about making research useful in public policy-making. However, there are hardly any reports linking production of research by students at institutions of higher learning to its application in society. We assessed whether and how post-graduate students' research was used in evidence-informed health policies. METHODS: This is a multiple case study of master's students' dissertations at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) produced between 1996 and 2010...
August 3, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah, Sombié Issiaka, Lokossou Virgil, Johnson Ermel
BACKGROUND: The paper carries out a situational analysis to examine the production, dissemination and utilisation of reproductive and child health-related evidence to inform policy formulation in Ghana's health sector. METHODS: The study used Wald's model of knowledge production, transfer and utilisation as a conceptual model to collect relevant data via interviews and administration of questionnaire to a network of persons who either previously or currently hold policy-relevant positions in Ghana's health sector...
August 3, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Augustina Koduah, Irene Akua Agyepong, Han van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Understanding decision-making processes that influence the fate of items on the health policy agenda at national level in low- and middle-income countries is important because of the implications for programmes and outcomes. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of these processes by asking how and why maternal health policy agenda items have fared in Ghana between 1963 and 2014. METHODS: The study design was a single case study of maternal health agenda evolution once on a decision pathway in Ghana, with three different agenda items as sub-units of analysis (fee exemptions for maternal health, free family planning and primary maternal health as part of a per capita provider payment system)...
August 3, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Clarke B Cole, Stine Trolle, Danny J Edwards
Major pharmaceutical companies contribute important expertise to health research and development (R&D), particularly in their ability to develop and bring pharmaceuticals to market. The Access to Medicine Index evaluates how 20 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies are directing R&D efforts towards the needs of people living in low- and middle-income countries. In dissemination of its findings, the Index stimulates pharmaceutical companies to expand R&D activities in this direction. The Index methodology is reviewed every 2 years, most recently for the 2018 Index, to ensure their R&D activity is benchmarked against current health R&D priorities as defined by the global health community...
August 2, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
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