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Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E

Jonathan Karnon, Ainul Shakirah Shafie, Nneka Orji, Sofoora Kawsar Usman
OBJECTIVE: Zoledronic acid and denosumab were funded by the Australian government for the management of osteoporosis at an equivalent price to alendronate. The price of alendronate has declined by around 65 %, but the price of the other two therapies has remained stable. Using data published since the listing, this paper reports current estimates of the value of denosumab compared to alendronate from an Australian health system perspective. METHODS: A cohort-based state transition model was developed that predicted changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and calibrated fracture probabilities as a function of BMD, age and previous fracture to estimate differences in costs and QALYs gained over a 10-year time horizon...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Mieraf Taddesse Tolla, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Solomon Tessema Memirie, Senbeta Guteta Abdisa, Awel Ababulgu, Degu Jerene, Melanie Bertram, Kirsten Strand, Stéphane Verguet, Kjell Arne Johansson
BACKGROUND: The coverage of prevention and treatment strategies for ischemic heart disease and stroke is very low in Ethiopia. In view of Ethiopia's meager healthcare budget, it is important to identify the most cost-effective interventions for further scale-up. This paper's objective is to assess cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in an Ethiopian setting. METHODS: Fifteen single interventions and sixteen intervention packages were assessed from a healthcare provider perspective...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Neha Raykar, Aditi Nigam, Dan Chisholm
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia remains a priority condition in mental health policy and service development because of its early onset, severity and consequences for affected individuals and households. AIMS AND METHODS: This paper reports on an 'extended' cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) for schizophrenia treatment in India, which seeks to evaluate through a modeling approach not only the costs and health effects of intervention but also the consequences of a policy of universal public finance (UPF) on health and financial outcomes across income quintiles...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Ifeoma Blessing Umeh, Sunday Odunke Nduka, Obinna Ikechukwu Ekwunife
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in Nigeria will require substantial financing due to high cost of HPV vaccine and inexistence of structures to support adolescent vaccination. Alternative sources are needed to sustain the government funded HPV vaccination programme. This study assessed Nigerian mothers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for HPV vaccine. We also compared the difference between the average WTP and estimated costs of vaccinating a pre-adolescent girl (CVG). METHODS: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study in which 50 questionnaires were distributed to each of 10 secondary schools located in two rural and one urban city in Anambra state...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Georgia Kourlaba, John Relakis, Ronan Mahon, Maria Kalogeropoulou, Georgia Pantelopoulou, Olga Kousidou, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND: To conduct a cost-utility analysis of ranibizumab versus aflibercept for the treatment of patients with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME) in the Greek setting. METHODS: A Markov model was adapted to compare the use of ranibizumab 0.5 mg (pro re nata-PRN and treat and extend-T&E) to aflibercept 2 mg (every 8 weeks after five initial doses) in DME. Patients transitioned at a 3-month cycle among nine specified health states (including death) over a lifetime horizon...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Jeffrey D Voigt, Gene Barnett
BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to determine the value (incremental cost/increment benefit) of a brain LITT system versus employing current surgical options recommended by NCCN guidelines, specifically open resection (i.e. craniotomy) methods or biopsy (collectively termed CURRENT TREATMENTS) in patients where maximal safe resection may not be feasible. As has been demonstrated in the literature, extent of resection/ablation with minimal complications are independently related to overall survival...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Joan Rovira
The editors of Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 13 (2015).
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Effua Usuf, Grant Mackenzie, Sana Sambou, Deborah Atherly, Chutima Suraratdecha
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of child death. However, the economic burden of pneumococcal disease in low-income countries is poorly described. We aimed to estimate from a societal perspective, the costs incurred by health providers and families of children with pneumococcal diseases. METHODS: We recruited children less than 5 years of age with outpatient pneumonia, inpatient pneumonia, pneumococcal sepsis and bacterial meningitis at facilities in rural and urban Gambia...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Samer Hamidi
BACKGROUND: The Palestinian government has been under increasing pressure to improve provision of health services while seeking to effectively employ its scare resources. Governmental hospitals remain the leading costly units as they consume about 60 % of governmental health budget. A clearer understanding of the technical efficiency of hospitals is crucial to shape future health policy reforms. In this paper, we used stochastic frontier analysis to measure technical efficiency of governmental hospitals, the first of its kind nationally...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Mandy Maredza, Lumbwe Chola, Karen Hofman
BACKGROUND: Newborn mortality, comprising a third of all under-5 deaths, has hardly changed in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including South Africa over the past decade. To attain the MDG 4 target, greater emphasis must be placed on wide-scale implementation of proven, cost-effective interventions. This paper reviews economic evidence on effective neonatal health interventions in LMICs from 2000-2013; documents lessons for South African policy on neonatal health; and identifies gaps and areas for future research...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Tim Ensor, Sovannarith So, Sophie Witter
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has been reconstructing its economy and health sector since the end of conflict in the 1990s. There have been gains in life expectancy and increased health expenditure, but Cambodia still lags behind neighbours One factor which may contribute is the efficiency of public health services. This article aims to understand variations in efficiency and the extent to which changes in efficiency are associated with key health policies that have been introduced to strengthen access to health services over the past decade...
2016: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Robert Kaba Alhassan, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, James Akazili, Nicole Spieker, Daniel Kojo Arhinful, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in a number of health outcome indicators partly due to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), Ghana is unlikely to attain all its health-related millennium development goals before the end of 2015. Inefficient use of available limited resources has been cited as a contributory factor for this predicament. This study sought to explore efficiency levels of NHIS-accredited private and public health facilities; ascertain factors that account for differences in efficiency and determine the association between quality care and efficiency levels...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Yogesh Suresh Punekar, Graeme Roberts, Afisi Ismaila, Martin O'Leary
BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness of umeclidinium bromide-vilanterol (UMEC/VI) versus tiotropium monotherapy in the UK was assessed using a UMEC/VI treatment-specific economic model based on a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) disease-progression model. METHODS: The model was implemented as a linked-equation model to estimate COPD progression and associated health service costs, and its impact on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and survival. Statistical risk equations for clinical endpoints and resource use were derived from the ECLIPSE and TORCH studies, respectively...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Guvenc Kockaya, Akin Kose, Fatma Betul Yenilmez, Oktay Ozdemir, Ece Kucuksayrac
BACKGROUND: All international guidelines suggested that Tenofovir and Entecavir are the primary drugs at the first line therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, in Turkey these medications reimbursed at the second line therapy according to the Healthcare Implementation Notification. The aim of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of oral antiviral treatment strategies in CHB for Turkey using lamuvidine, telbuvidine, entecavir, and tenofovir as medications...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Kasaw Adane, Zenegnaw Abiy, Kassu Desta
BACKGROUND: The rapid and continuous growth of health care cost aggravates the frequently low priority and less attention given in financing laboratory services. The poorest countries have the highest out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of income. Higher charges might provide a greater potential for revenue. If fees raise quality sufficiently, it can enhance usage. Therefore, estimating the revenue generated from laboratory services could help in capacity building and improved quality service provision...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Julian Nam, Andrew Briggs, Jamie Layland, Keith G Oldroyd, Nick Curzen, Arvind Sood, Kanarath Balachandran, Raj Das, Shahid Junejo, Hany Eteiba, Mark C Petrie, Mitchell Lindsay, Stuart Watkins, Simon Corbett, Brian O'Rourke, Anna O'Donnell, Andrew Stewart, Andrew Hannah, Alex McConnachie, Robert Henderson, Colin Berry
BACKGROUND: In the Fractional flow reserve (FFR) versus angiography in guiding management to optimise outcomes in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (FAMOUS) clinical trial, FFR was shown to significantly reduce coronary revascularisation, compared to visual interpretation of standard coronary angiography without FFR. We estimated the cost-effectiveness from a UK National Health Service perspective, based on the results of FAMOUS. METHODS: A mixed trial- and model-based approach using decision and statistical modelling was used...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
An Tran-Duy, Annelies Boonen, Mart A F J van de Laar, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental CE of anti-TNF agents using a closed cohort while budget impact studies are mainly lacking. Notwithstanding, information on impact on total population health and societal budget as well as on actual incremental CE for a given decision time span are important for decision makers...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Jennifer M Poonsapaya, Michael Einodshofer, Heather S Kirkham, Pheophilus Glover, Janeen DuChane
BACKGROUND: In the US, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has surpassed the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with about 3.3 million people chronically infected with the disease. Given the aging of the Baby Boomer generation and the subsequent implementation of age-based screening recommendations, HCV diagnoses are expected to increase. Utilization of anti-viral pharmacotherapy is also expected to increase as more effective and tolerable all-oral therapies for HCV become available in the United States...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Daniel Cobos Muñoz, Kristian Schultz Hansen, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Fiona Cianci, José Enrique Pérez-Lu, Aldo Lama, Patricia J García
BACKGROUND: Prepaid contributory systems are increasingly being recognized as key mechanisms in achieving universal health coverage in low and middle-income countries. Peru created the Seguro Integral de Salud (SIS) to increase health service use amongst the poor by removing financial barriers. The SIS transfers funds on a fee-for-service basis to the regional health offices to cover recurrent cost (excluding salaries) of pre-specified packages of interventions. We aim to estimate the full cost of antenatal care (ANC) provision in the Ventanilla District (Callao-Peru) and to compare the actual cost to the reimbursement rates provided by SIS...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Paolo Pertile, Albino Poli, Lorenzo Dominioni, Nicola Rotolo, Elisa Nardecchia, Massimo Castiglioni, Massimo Paolucci, William Mantovani, Andrea Imperatori
BACKGROUND: After implementation of the PREDICA annual chest X-ray (CXR) screening program in smokers in the general practice setting of Varese-Italy a significant reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality (18 %) was observed. The objective of this study covering July 1997 through December 2006 was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: We examined detailed information on lung cancer (LC) cases that occurred among smokers invited to be screened in the PREDICA study (Invitation-to-screening Group, n = 5815 subjects) to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from LC diagnosis until death...
2015: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
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