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Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212658/c-met-expression-and-activity-in-urogenital-cancers-novel-aspects-of-signal-transduction-and-medical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ralf Hass, Susanne Jennek, Yuanyuan Yang, Karlheinz Friedrich
C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy...
February 17, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143584/translationally-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-is-induced-early-in-human-colorectal-tumours-and-contributes-to-the-resistance-of-hct116-colon-cancer-cells-to-5-fu-and-oxaliplatin
#2
Ulrich-Axel Bommer, Kara L Vine, Prianka Puri, Martin Engel, Lisa Belfiore, Karen Fildes, Marijka Batterham, Alistair Lochhead, Morteza Aghmesheh
BACKGROUND: Translationally controlled tumour protein TCTP is an anti-apoptotic protein frequently overexpressed in cancers, where high levels are often associated with poor patient outcome. TCTP may be involved in protecting cancer cells against the cytotoxic action of anti-cancer drugs. Here we study the early increase of TCTP levels in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the regulation of TCTP expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells, in response to treatment with the anti-cancer drugs 5-FU and oxaliplatin...
February 1, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122581/acute-myeloid-leukemia-strategies-and-challenges-for-targeting-oncogenic-hedgehog-gli-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Fritz Aberger, Evelyn Hutterer, Christina Sternberg, Pedro J Del Burgo, Tanja N Hartmann
Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive and heterogeneous hematological malignancy, remains a challenge. Despite advances in our understanding of the complex genetics and biology of AML pathophysiology, these findings have been translated to the clinic with only limited success, and poor outcomes persist for the majority of patients. Thus, novel treatment strategies are clearly needed for achieving deeper and prolonged remissions and for avoiding the development of resistance. Due to its profound role in (cancer) stem cell biology and differentiation, the Hedgehog (HH)/Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog (GLI) signaling pathway may be an attractive novel therapeutic target in AML...
January 25, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122577/the-id-protein-family-in-developmental-and-cancer-associated-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Cornelia Roschger, Chiara Cabrele
Inhibitors of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are members of the large family of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, but they lack any DNA-binding motif. During development, the Id proteins play a key role in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and cell differentiation by modulating different cell-cycle regulators both by direct and indirect mechanisms. Several Id-protein interacting partners have been identified thus far, which belong to structurally and functionally unrelated families, including, among others, the class I and II bHLH transcription factors, the retinoblastoma protein and related pocket proteins, the paired-box transcription factors, and the S5a subunit of the 26 S proteasome...
January 25, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103956/unraveling-the-regulation-of-mtorc2-using-logical-modeling
#5
Kirsten Thobe, Christine Sers, Heike Siebert
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptosis working through two distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although much is known about the activation and inactivation of mTORC1, the processes controlling mTORC2 remain poorly characterized. Experimental and modeling studies have attempted to explain the regulation of mTORC2 but have yielded several conflicting hypotheses. More specifically, the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was shown to be involved in this process, but the identity of the kinase interacting with and regulating mTORC2 remains to be determined (Cybulski and Hall, Trends Biochem Sci 34:620-7, 2009)...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100240/reactivation-of-dormant-anti-tumor-immunity-a-clinical-perspective-of-therapeutic-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#6
REVIEW
Richard Greil, Evelyn Hutterer, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer
In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Recent data suggest that genetic instability and immunoediting are not necessarily disparate processes. Increasing mutational load may be associated with multiple neoepitopes expressed by the tumor cells and thus increased chances for the immune system to recognize and combat these cells...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069057/bacterial-serine-protease-htra-as-a-promising-new-target-for-antimicrobial-therapy
#7
EDITORIAL
Silja Wessler, Gisbert Schneider, Steffen Backert
Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. HtrA activity enhances bacterial survival under stress conditions, but also has direct effects on functions of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin and proteoglycans. Although HtrA cannot be considered as a pathogenic factor per se, it exhibits favorable characteristics making HtrA a potentially attractive drug target to combat various bacterial infections...
January 10, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073378/hectd1-controls-the-protein-level-of-iqgap1-to-regulate-the-dynamics-of-adhesive-structures
#8
Xiaoli Shen, Zanhui Jia, Donato D'Alonzo, Xinggang Wang, Elisabeth Bruder, Fabienne Hélène Emch, Christian De Geyter, Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cell migration including collective cell movement and individual cell migration are crucial factors in embryogenesis. During the spreading/migration of cells, several types of adhesive structures physically interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM) or with another cell have been described and the formation and maturation of adhesion structures are coordinated, however the molecular pathways involved are still not fully understood. RESULTS: We generated a mouse embryonic fibroblast line (MEF) from homozygous mutant (Hectd1 (R/R) , Hectd1 (Gt(RRC200)) ) mouse of the E3 ubiquitin ligase for inhibin B receptor (Hectd1)...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073373/t-cell-exhaustion-from-pathophysiological-basics-to-tumor-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Kemal Catakovic, Eckhard Klieser, Daniel Neureiter, Roland Geisberger
The immune system is capable of distinguishing between danger- and non-danger signals, thus inducing either an appropriate immune response against pathogens and cancer or inducing self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity and immunopathology. One of the mechanisms that have evolved to prevent destruction by the immune system, is to functionally silence effector T cells, termed T cell exhaustion, which is also exploited by viruses and cancers for immune escape In this review, we discuss some of the phenotypic markers associated with T cell exhaustion and we summarize current strategies to reinvigorate exhausted T cells by blocking these surface marker using monoclonal antibodies...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057038/aldose-reductase-mediates-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-induced-by-high-uric-acid-concentrations
#10
Zhiyong Huang, Quan Hong, Xueguang Zhang, Wenzhen Xiao, Liyuan Wang, Shaoyuan Cui, Zhe Feng, Yang Lv, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Di Wu
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant found in human serum. However, high UA levels may also have pro-oxidant functions. According to previous research, aldose reductase (AR) plays a vital role in the oxidative stress-related complications of diabetes. We sought to determine the mechanism by which UA becomes deleterious at high concentrations as well as the effect of AR in this process. METHOD: Endothelial cells were divided into three groups cultured without UA or with 300 μM or 600 μM UA...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978828/integrin-fak-signaling-rapidly-and-potently-promotes-mitochondrial-function-through-stat3
#11
Nishant P Visavadiya, Matthew P Keasey, Vladislav Razskazovskiy, Kalpita Banerjee, Cuihong Jia, Chiharu Lovins, Gary L Wright, Theo Hagg
BACKGROUND: STAT3 is increasingly becoming known for its non-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function upon activation of its S727 residue (S727-STAT3). Lengthy mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to cell death. We tested whether an integrin-FAK-STAT3 signaling pathway we recently discovered regulates mitochondrial function and cell survival, and treatments thereof. METHODS: Cultured mouse brain bEnd5 endothelial cells were treated with integrin, FAK or STAT3 inhibitors, FAK siRNA, as well as integrin and STAT3 activators...
December 15, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955674/attenuation-of-chemokine-receptor-function-and-surface-expression-as-an-immunomodulatory-strategy-employed-by-human-cytomegalovirus-is-linked-to-vgpcr-us28
#12
Theresa Frank, Anna Reichel, Olav Larsen, Anne-Charlotte Stilp, Mette M Rosenkilde, Thomas Stamminger, Takeaki Ozawa, Nuska Tschammer
BACKGROUND: Some herpesviruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encode viral G protein-coupled receptors that cause reprogramming of cell signaling to facilitate dissemination of the virus, prevent immune surveillance and establish life-long latency. Human GPCRs are known to function in complex signaling networks involving direct physical interactions as well as indirect crosstalk of orthogonal signaling networks. The human chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, leukocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells, which are infected by HCMV or display reservoirs of latency...
December 12, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931258/htra-mediated-e-cadherin-cleavage-is-limited-to-degp-and-degq-homologs-expressed-by-gram-negative-pathogens
#13
Carmen M Abfalter, Maria Schubert, Camilla Götz, Thomas P Schmidt, Gernot Posselt, Silja Wessler
BACKGROUND: The serine proteases HtrA/DegP secreted by the human gastrointestinal pathogens Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) cleave the mammalian cell adhesion protein E-cadherin to open intercellular adhesions. A wide range of bacteria also expresses the HtrA/DegP homologs DegQ and/or DegS, which significantly differ in structure and function. METHODS: E-cadherin shedding was investigated in infection experiments with the Gram-negative pathogens H...
December 8, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905994/the-role-of-il-10-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection
#14
REVIEW
Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871329/high-expression-of-epb41l5-an-integral-component-of-the-arf6-driven-mesenchymal-program-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tongue
#15
Yutaro Otsuka, Hiroki Sato, Tsukasa Oikawa, Yasuhito Onodera, Jin-Min Nam, Ari Hashimoto, Kiyoshi Fukunaga, Kanako C Hatanaka, Yutaka Hatanaka, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Satoshi Fukuda, Hisataka Sabe
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (tongue SCC) is a major subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is an intractable cancer under current therapeutics. ARF6 and its effector AMAP1 are often overexpressed in different types of cancers, such as breast cancer and renal cancer, and in these cancers, AMAP1 binds to EPB41L5 to promote invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. EPB41L5 is a mesenchymal-specific protein, normally induced during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote focal adhesion dynamics...
November 21, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814736/e-cadherin-roles-in-animal-biology-a-perspective-on-thyroid-hormone-influence
#16
REVIEW
María Fernanda Izaguirre, Victor Hugo Casco
The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function...
November 4, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784296/-inverse-signaling-of-the-transmembrane-chemokine-cxcl16-contributes-to-proliferative-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-cultured-human-meningioma-cells
#17
Kirsten Hattermann, Kareen Bartsch, Henrike H Gebhardt, H Maximilian Mehdorn, Michael Synowitz, Anne Dorothée Schmitt, Rolf Mentlein, Janka Held-Feindt
BACKGROUND: Chemokines and their receptors play a decisive role in tumor progression and metastasis. We recently found a new signaling mechanism in malignant glioma cells mediated by transmembrane chemokines that we termed "inverse signaling". According to this hypothesis, soluble (s)-CXCL16 binds to the surface-expressed transmembrane (tm) -CXCL16, and induces signaling and different biological effects in the stimulated cells, so that the transmembrane ligand itself acts as a receptor for its soluble counterpart...
October 27, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765041/lack-of-interaction-between-erbb2-and-insulin-receptor-substrate-signaling-in-breast-cancer
#18
Susan M Farabaugh, Bonita T Chan, Xiaojiang Cui, Robert K Dearth, Adrian V Lee
BACKGROUND: ErbB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ErbB2, HER2/Neu) is amplified in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Growing evidence suggests interplay between ErbB2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. For example, ErbB2 inhibitors can block IGF-induced signaling while, conversely, IGF1R inhibitors can inhibit ErbB2 action. ErbB receptors can bind and phosphorylate insulin receptor substrates (IRS) and this may be critical for ErbB-mediated anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer...
October 21, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677261/hunting-for-the-ultimate-liquid-cancer-biopsy-let-the-tep-dance-begin
#19
EDITORIAL
Stephan M Feller, Marc Lewitzky
Non-protein coding RNAs in different flavors (miRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, lncRNAs, SHOT-RNAs), exosomes, large oncosomes, exoDNA and now tumor-educated platelets (TEPs) have emerged as crucial signal transmitting, transporting and regulating devices of cells in the last two decades. They are also establishing themselves increasingly in the realm of tumor research. We are currently witnessing a mushrooming of candidate entities for diagnostic and prognostic cancer detection and characterization tests that could have a major impact on how this diverse group of diseases is initially spotted and subsequently treated in the near future...
September 27, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659207/neurogenin-3-is-regulated-by-neurotrophic-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-type-2-trkb-signaling-in-the-adult-human-exocrine-pancreas
#20
Michael J Shamblott, Marci L O'Driscoll, Danielle L Gomez, Dustin L McGuire
BACKGROUND: Reports of exocrine-to-endocrine reprogramming through expression or stabilization of the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NGN3) have generated renewed interest in harnessing pancreatic plasticity for therapeutic applications. NGN3 is expressed by a population of endocrine progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within pancreatic islets and is necessary and sufficient for endocrine differentiation during development. In the adult human pancreas, NGN3 is expressed by dedifferentiating exocrine cells with a phenotype resembling endocrine progenitor cells and the capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro...
September 22, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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