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Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS

Lian-Cheng Zhang, Yong Shao, Li-Hua Gao, Jin Liu, Yong-Yi Xi, Yin Xu, Chutse Wu, Wei Chen, Hui-Peng Chen, You-Liang Wang, Hai-Feng Duan, Xian-Wen Hu
BACKGROUND: TEM8 is a cell membrane protein predominantly expressed in tumor endothelium, which serves as a receptor for the protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin. However, the physiological ligands for TEM8 remain unknown. RESULTS: Here we identified uPA as an interacting partner of TEM8. Binding of uPA stimulated the phosphorylation of TEM8 and augmented phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2. Finally, TEM8-Fc, a recombinant fusion protein comprising the extracellular domain of human TEM8 linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, efficiently abrogated the interaction between uPA and TEM8, blocked uPA-induced migration of HepG2 cells in vitro and inhibited the growth and metastasis of human MCF-7 xenografts in vivo...
September 21, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Claudia R Oliva, Brian Halloran, Anita B Hjelmeland, Ana Vazquez, Shannon M Bailey, Jann N Sarkaria, Corinne E Griguer
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most common and most lethal of the primary brain tumors, are characterized by marked intra-tumor heterogeneity. Several studies have suggested that within these tumors a restricted population of chemoresistant glioma cells is responsible for recurrence. However, the gene expression patterns underlying chemoresistance are largely unknown. Numerous efforts have been made to block IGF-1R signaling pathway in GBM. However, those therapies have been repeatedly unsuccessful...
September 19, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Keri Callegari, Shinji Maegawa, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Vidya Gopalakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Current problems in the clinic include metastasis, recurrence, and treatment-related sequelae that highlight the need for targeted therapies. Epigenetic perturbations are an established hallmark of human MB and expression of Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) is elevated in MBs compared to normal tissue, suggesting that LSD1 inhibitors may have efficacy against human MB tumors. METHODS: Expression of LSD1 was examined across a publicly-available database and correlated with patient outcomes...
September 18, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yan Wu, Liu Liu, Chunxiang Bian, Qingchun Diao, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Xuemei Jiang, Jörg W Bartsch, Maojiao Zhong, Xiangyu Hu, Julia Li Zhong
BACKGROUND: The extensive involvement of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathophysiology of psoriasis is well documented. However, in order for this information to be useful in therapeutic manipulation of miRNA levels, it is essential that detailed functional mechanisms are elucidated. This study aimed to explore the effects of IL-6 targeting by let-7b and ERK1/2 mediated signaling on keratinocyte differentiation in psoriasis. METHODS: Following imiquimod cream (IMQ) application to let-7bTG (keratinocyte-specific let-7b overexpression mouse) and control mice for 7 days, we analyzed erythema, scaling and thickening of skin...
September 15, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Mariam Bagher, Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt, Oskar Rosmark, Oskar Hallgren, Leif Bjermer, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson
BACKGROUND: Mast cells may activate fibroblasts and contribute to remodeling processes in the lung. However, the mechanism behind these actions needs to be further investigated. Fibroblasts are major regulators of on-going remodeling processes. Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) expressed by fibroblasts may be activated by serine proteases, such as the mast cell mediator tryptase. The objective in this study was to investigate the effects of mast cells and specifically mast cell tryptase on fibroblast migration and the role of PAR2 activation...
September 15, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Guo-Bin Liao, Xin-Zhe Li, Shuo Zeng, Cheng Liu, Shi-Ming Yang, Li Yang, Chang-Jiang Hu, Jian-Ying Bai
FOXM1 (forkhead box protein M1) is a critical proliferation-associated transcription factor that is widely spatiotemporally expressed during the cell cycle. It is closely involved with the processes of cell proliferation, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis. In most human cancers, FOXM1 is overexpressed, and this indicates a poor prognosis for cancer patients. FOXM1 maintains cancer hallmarks by regulating the expression of target genes at the transcriptional level. Due to its potential role as molecular target in cancer therapy, FOXM1 was named the Molecule of the Year in 2010...
September 12, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Changsun Yu, Bok-Seok Kim, Minyoung Park, Yun-Ju Do, Young-Yun Kong, Eunhee Kim
BACKGROUND: Aberrant cell death induced by ischemic stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic diseases. Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) has been identified as a death-promoting protein. This study demonstrates that FAF1 functions in death signaling triggered by ischemic insult. METHODS: The expression changes of FAF1 and phophorylated JNK1 were detected by Western blotting. Immunoprecipitation was employed to investigate protein-protein interaction. We determined the cell death using flow cytometry and lactate dehydrogenase release measurement...
September 10, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Mulugeta M Zegeye, Madelene Lindkvist, Knut Fälker, Ashok K Kumawat, Geena Paramel, Magnus Grenegård, Allan Sirsjö, Liza U Ljungberg
BACKGROUND: IL-6 classic signaling is linked to anti-inflammatory functions while the trans-signaling is associated with pro-inflammatory responses. Classic signaling is induced via membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) whereas trans-signaling requires prior binding of IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R. In both cases, association with the signal transducing gp130 receptor is compulsory. However, differences in the downstream signaling mechanisms of IL-6 classic- versus trans-signaling remains largely elusive...
September 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Rui Feng, Yuji Morine, Tetsuya Ikemoto, Satoru Imura, Shuichi Iwahashi, Yu Saito, Mitsuo Shimada
BACKGROUND: The M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) inhibits the anti-tumor inflammation, increases angiogenesis and promotes tumor progression. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor (erythroid-derived 2)-Like 2 (Nrf2) not only modulates the angiogenesis but also plays the anti-inflammatory role through inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines expression; however, the role of Nrf2 in the cancer cell and macrophages interaction is not clear. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2 and Huh 7) and pancreatic cancer cells (SUIT2 and Panc-1) were co-cultured with monocytes cells (THP-1) or peripheral blood monocytes derived macrophages, then the phenotype changes of macrophages and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells were detected...
September 4, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yajie Wang, Hua Sun, Zhiyan Xiao, Gang Zhang, Dan Zhang, Xiuqi Bao, Fangfang Li, Shaoyu Wu, Yuanchao Gao, Ning Wei
BACKGROUND: Targeting TopoisomeraseII (TopoII) and generate enzyme mediated DNA damage is an effective strategy for treatment of breast cancer. TopoII is known as a validated target for drug discovery and cancer chemotherapy. METHODS: XWL-1-48, a new orally podophyllotoxin derivative, was designed and synthesized. The effect of XWL-1-48 on TopoII binding and activity was determined by molecular docking software and kDNA-decatenation assay, respectively. In vitro and in vivo breast cancer models were used to document the antitumor activity of XWL-1-48...
September 3, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Lu Zhang, Xiaojie Li, Yulin Chao, Ruiping He, Junqiang Liu, Yi Yuan, Wenzhi Zhao, Chuanchun Han, Xishuang Song
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic insensitivity remains a big challenge in prostate cancer treatment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that KLF4 plays a key role in prostate cancer. However, the potential biological role of KLF4 in Chemotherapeutic insensitivity of prostate cancer is still unknown. METHODS: The role of KLF4 in cisplatin-induced apoptosis was detected by western blotting and a cell counting kit (CCK8). The potential molecular mechanism of KLF4 in regulating prostate cancer chemosensitivity was investigated by RNA sequencing analysis, q-RT-PCR, western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)...
September 3, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Balint Csoboz, Imre Gombos, Eniko Tatrai, Jozsef Tovari, Anna L Kiss, Ibolya Horvath, Laszlo Vigh
BACKGROUND: The outcome of cancer therapy is greatly defined by the ability of a tumor cell to evade treatment and re-establish its bulk mass after medical interventions. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the characterization of molecules affecting tumor reoccurrence. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) protein was recently emerged among the targets that could affect such a phenomenon. METHODS: The expression induction of PRL3 in melanoma cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents was assessed by western blotting...
August 29, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yue Kuai, Xin Gong, Liya Ding, Fang Li, Lizhen Lei, Yuqi Gong, Qingmeng Liu, Huajiao Tan, Xinxia Zhang, Dongyu Liu, Guoping Ren, Hongyang Pan, Yaoyao Shi, Friederike Berberich-Siebelt, Zhengrong Mao, Ren Zhou
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) is a nuclear protein, which is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues. Furthermore, in various types of malignancies WTAP is overexpressed and plays a role as an oncogene. The function of WTAP in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however, remains unclear. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was applied to evaluate the levels of WTAP expression in DLBCL tissues and normal lymphoid tissues. Overexpression and knock-down of WTAP in DLBCL cell lines, verified on mRNA and protein level served to analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines by flow cytometry...
August 24, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Ichiro Murakami, Noriko Wada, Junko Nakashima, Mitsuko Iguchi, Makoto Toi, Yumiko Hashida, Tomonori Higuchi, Masanori Daibata, Michiko Matsushita, Takeshi Iwasaki, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Yasushi Horie, Keiko Nagata, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Takashi Oka, Tadashi Yoshino, Toshihiko Imamura, Akira Morimoto, Shinsaku Imashuku, Jean Gogusev, Francis Jaubert
BACKGROUND: The relationship between various external agents such as pollen, food, and infectious agents and human sensitivity exists and is variable depending upon individual's health conditions. For example, we believe that the pathogenetic potential of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the resident virus in skin, is variable and depends from the degree of individual's reactivity. MCPyV as well as Epstein-Barr virus, which are normally connected with humans under the form of subclinical infection, are thought to be involved at various degrees in several neoplastic and inflammatory diseases...
August 22, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Lili Wu, Chenwei Pan, Xin Wei, Yifen Shi, Jianjian Zheng, Xiangyang Lin, Liang Shi
BACKGROUND: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely applied to treat various types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, primary or acquired 5-FU resistance prevents the clinical application of this drug in cancer therapy. Herein, our study is the first to demonstrate that lower expression of KRAL, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), mediates 5-FU resistance in HCC via the miR-141/Keap1 axis. METHODS: Cell proliferation assays, western blot analysis, qRT-PCR, the dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate the mechanisms by which KRAL mediates 5-fluorouracil resistance in HCC cell lines...
August 17, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Samir Tivari, Haiyan Lu, Tanya Dasgupta, Mariana S De Lorenzo, Robert Wieder
BACKGROUND: Dormant estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer micrometastases in the bone marrow survive adjuvant chemotherapy and recur stochastically for more than 20 years. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines produced by stromal injury can re-awaken dormant breast cancer cells. METHODS: We used an established in vitro dormancy model of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells incubated at clonogenic density on fibronectin-coated plates to determine the effects of inflammatory cytokines on reactivation of dormant ER+ breast cancer cells...
August 17, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
E Besray Unal, Christina Kiel, Hannah Benisty, Andrew Campbell, Karen Pickering, Nils Blüthgen, Owen J Sansom, Luis Serrano
BACKGROUND: Proteins of the ubiquitously expressed core proteome are quantitatively correlated across multiple eukaryotic species. In addition, it was found that many protein paralogues exhibit expression anticorrelation, suggesting that the total level of protein with a given functionality must be kept constant. METHODS: We performed Spearman's rank correlation analyses of gene expression levels for the RAS GTPase subfamily and their regulatory GEF and GAP proteins across tissues and across individuals for each tissue...
August 15, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
José Ignacio Veytia-Bucheli, Juana María Jiménez-Vargas, Erika Isabel Melchy-Pérez, Monserrat Alba Sandoval-Hernández, Lourival Domingos Possani, Yvonne Rosenstein
BACKGROUND: In T cells, the Kv 1.3 and the KCa 3.1 potassium channels regulate the membrane potential and calcium homeostasis. Notably, during TEM cell activation, the number of Kv 1.3 channels on the cell membrane dramatically increases. Kv 1.3 blockade results in inhibition of Ca2+ signaling in TEM cells, thus eliciting an immunomodulatory effect. Among the naturally occurring peptides, the Vm24 toxin from the Mexican scorpion Vaejovis mexicanus is the most potent and selective Kv 1...
August 14, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Zhihong Li, Rui Fang, Jia Fang, Shasha He, Tang Liu
BACKGROUND: The Rab27 family of small GTPases promotes the progression of breast cancer, melanoma, and other human cancers. In this review, we discuss the role of Rab27 GTPases in cancer progression and the potential applications of these targets in cancer treatment. MAIN BODY: Elevated expression of Rab27 GTPases is associated with poor prognosis and cancer metastasis. Moreover, these GTPases govern a variety of oncogenic functions, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and chemosensitivity...
August 6, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Ying Xing, Yuechao Liu, Tianbo Liu, Qingwei Meng, Hailing Lu, Wei Liu, Jing Hu, Chunhong Li, Mengru Cao, Shi Yan, Jian Huang, Ting Wang, Li Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly refractory nature of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemotherapeutic drugs is an important factor resulting in its poor prognosis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is involved in various biological and pathological processes of cells, but their underlying mechanisms in processes ranging from cancer development to drug resistance have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: TNFAIP8 expression in clinical NSCLC samples was examined through immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
July 31, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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