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Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069057/bacterial-serine-protease-htra-as-a-promising-new-target-for-antimicrobial-therapy
#1
EDITORIAL
Silja Wessler, Gisbert Schneider, Steffen Backert
Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. HtrA activity enhances bacterial survival under stress conditions, but also has direct effects on functions of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin and proteoglycans. Although HtrA cannot be considered as a pathogenic factor per se, it exhibits favorable characteristics making HtrA a potentially attractive drug target to combat various bacterial infections...
January 10, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073378/hectd1-controls-the-protein-level-of-iqgap1-to-regulate-the-dynamics-of-adhesive-structures
#2
Xiaoli Shen, Zanhui Jia, Donato D'Alonzo, Xinggang Wang, Elisabeth Bruder, Fabienne Hélène Emch, Christian De Geyter, Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cell migration including collective cell movement and individual cell migration are crucial factors in embryogenesis. During the spreading/migration of cells, several types of adhesive structures physically interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM) or with another cell have been described and the formation and maturation of adhesion structures are coordinated, however the molecular pathways involved are still not fully understood. RESULTS: We generated a mouse embryonic fibroblast line (MEF) from homozygous mutant (Hectd1 (R/R) , Hectd1 (Gt(RRC200)) ) mouse of the E3 ubiquitin ligase for inhibin B receptor (Hectd1)...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073373/t-cell-exhaustion-from-pathophysiological-basics-to-tumor-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Kemal Catakovic, Eckhard Klieser, Daniel Neureiter, Roland Geisberger
The immune system is capable of distinguishing between danger- and non-danger signals, thus inducing either an appropriate immune response against pathogens and cancer or inducing self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity and immunopathology. One of the mechanisms that have evolved to prevent destruction by the immune system, is to functionally silence effector T cells, termed T cell exhaustion, which is also exploited by viruses and cancers for immune escape In this review, we discuss some of the phenotypic markers associated with T cell exhaustion and we summarize current strategies to reinvigorate exhausted T cells by blocking these surface marker using monoclonal antibodies...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057038/aldose-reductase-mediates-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-induced-by-high-uric-acid-concentrations
#4
Zhiyong Huang, Quan Hong, Xueguang Zhang, Wenzhen Xiao, Liyuan Wang, Shaoyuan Cui, Zhe Feng, Yang Lv, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Di Wu
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant found in human serum. However, high UA levels may also have pro-oxidant functions. According to previous research, aldose reductase (AR) plays a vital role in the oxidative stress-related complications of diabetes. We sought to determine the mechanism by which UA becomes deleterious at high concentrations as well as the effect of AR in this process. METHOD: Endothelial cells were divided into three groups cultured without UA or with 300 μM or 600 μM UA...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978828/integrin-fak-signaling-rapidly-and-potently-promotes-mitochondrial-function-through-stat3
#5
Nishant P Visavadiya, Matthew P Keasey, Vladislav Razskazovskiy, Kalpita Banerjee, Cuihong Jia, Chiharu Lovins, Gary L Wright, Theo Hagg
BACKGROUND: STAT3 is increasingly becoming known for its non-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function upon activation of its S727 residue (S727-STAT3). Lengthy mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to cell death. We tested whether an integrin-FAK-STAT3 signaling pathway we recently discovered regulates mitochondrial function and cell survival, and treatments thereof. METHODS: Cultured mouse brain bEnd5 endothelial cells were treated with integrin, FAK or STAT3 inhibitors, FAK siRNA, as well as integrin and STAT3 activators...
December 15, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955674/attenuation-of-chemokine-receptor-function-and-surface-expression-as-an-immunomodulatory-strategy-employed-by-human-cytomegalovirus-is-linked-to-vgpcr-us28
#6
Theresa Frank, Anna Reichel, Olav Larsen, Anne-Charlotte Stilp, Mette M Rosenkilde, Thomas Stamminger, Takeaki Ozawa, Nuska Tschammer
BACKGROUND: Some herpesviruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encode viral G protein-coupled receptors that cause reprogramming of cell signaling to facilitate dissemination of the virus, prevent immune surveillance and establish life-long latency. Human GPCRs are known to function in complex signaling networks involving direct physical interactions as well as indirect crosstalk of orthogonal signaling networks. The human chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, leukocytes, endothelial and epithelial cells, which are infected by HCMV or display reservoirs of latency...
December 12, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931258/htra-mediated-e-cadherin-cleavage-is-limited-to-degp-and-degq-homologs-expressed-by-gram-negative-pathogens
#7
Carmen M Abfalter, Maria Schubert, Camilla Götz, Thomas P Schmidt, Gernot Posselt, Silja Wessler
BACKGROUND: The serine proteases HtrA/DegP secreted by the human gastrointestinal pathogens Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) cleave the mammalian cell adhesion protein E-cadherin to open intercellular adhesions. A wide range of bacteria also expresses the HtrA/DegP homologs DegQ and/or DegS, which significantly differ in structure and function. METHODS: E-cadherin shedding was investigated in infection experiments with the Gram-negative pathogens H...
December 8, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905994/the-role-of-il-10-in-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-infection
#8
REVIEW
Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Srinand Sreevatsan, Xiangmei Zhou
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells...
December 1, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871329/high-expression-of-epb41l5-an-integral-component-of-the-arf6-driven-mesenchymal-program-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tongue
#9
Yutaro Otsuka, Hiroki Sato, Tsukasa Oikawa, Yasuhito Onodera, Jin-Min Nam, Ari Hashimoto, Kiyoshi Fukunaga, Kanako C Hatanaka, Yutaka Hatanaka, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Satoshi Fukuda, Hisataka Sabe
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (tongue SCC) is a major subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is an intractable cancer under current therapeutics. ARF6 and its effector AMAP1 are often overexpressed in different types of cancers, such as breast cancer and renal cancer, and in these cancers, AMAP1 binds to EPB41L5 to promote invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. EPB41L5 is a mesenchymal-specific protein, normally induced during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote focal adhesion dynamics...
November 21, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814736/e-cadherin-roles-in-animal-biology-a-perspective-on-thyroid-hormone-influence
#10
REVIEW
María Fernanda Izaguirre, Victor Hugo Casco
The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in these processes. Particularly, adherens junctions (AJs) mediated by E-cadherin and catenins determine cell-cell contact survival and epithelia function...
November 4, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784296/-inverse-signaling-of-the-transmembrane-chemokine-cxcl16-contributes-to-proliferative-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-cultured-human-meningioma-cells
#11
Kirsten Hattermann, Kareen Bartsch, Henrike H Gebhardt, H Maximilian Mehdorn, Michael Synowitz, Anne Dorothée Schmitt, Rolf Mentlein, Janka Held-Feindt
BACKGROUND: Chemokines and their receptors play a decisive role in tumor progression and metastasis. We recently found a new signaling mechanism in malignant glioma cells mediated by transmembrane chemokines that we termed "inverse signaling". According to this hypothesis, soluble (s)-CXCL16 binds to the surface-expressed transmembrane (tm) -CXCL16, and induces signaling and different biological effects in the stimulated cells, so that the transmembrane ligand itself acts as a receptor for its soluble counterpart...
October 27, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765041/lack-of-interaction-between-erbb2-and-insulin-receptor-substrate-signaling-in-breast-cancer
#12
Susan M Farabaugh, Bonita T Chan, Xiaojiang Cui, Robert K Dearth, Adrian V Lee
BACKGROUND: ErbB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ErbB2, HER2/Neu) is amplified in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Growing evidence suggests interplay between ErbB2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. For example, ErbB2 inhibitors can block IGF-induced signaling while, conversely, IGF1R inhibitors can inhibit ErbB2 action. ErbB receptors can bind and phosphorylate insulin receptor substrates (IRS) and this may be critical for ErbB-mediated anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer...
October 21, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677261/hunting-for-the-ultimate-liquid-cancer-biopsy-let-the-tep-dance-begin
#13
Stephan M Feller, Marc Lewitzky
Non-protein coding RNAs in different flavors (miRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, lncRNAs, SHOT-RNAs), exosomes, large oncosomes, exoDNA and now tumor-educated platelets (TEPs) have emerged as crucial signal transmitting, transporting and regulating devices of cells in the last two decades. They are also establishing themselves increasingly in the realm of tumor research. We are currently witnessing a mushrooming of candidate entities for diagnostic and prognostic cancer detection and characterization tests that could have a major impact on how this diverse group of diseases is initially spotted and subsequently treated in the near future...
September 27, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639852/can-erythrocytes-release-biologically-active-no
#14
Peter M Benz, Ingrid Fleming
Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are the main source of NO in the cardiovascular system. However, several other cell types have also been implicated in the NO-dependent regulation of cell function, including erythrocytes. NO derived from red blood cells has been proposed to regulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity, inhibit platelet activation and induce vasodilation in hypoxic areas, but these proposals are highly controversial. In the current issue of Cell Communication and Signaling, an elegant study by Gambaryan et al...
September 17, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048167/the-new-dis-order-in-rna-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Aino I Järvelin, Marko Noerenberg, Ilan Davis, Alfredo Castello
RNA-binding proteins play a key role in the regulation of all aspects of RNA metabolism, from the synthesis of RNA to its decay. Protein-RNA interactions have been thought to be mostly mediated by canonical RNA-binding domains that form stable secondary and tertiary structures. However, a number of pioneering studies over the past decades, together with recent proteome-wide data, have challenged this view, revealing surprising roles for intrinsically disordered protein regions in RNA binding. Here, we discuss how disordered protein regions can mediate protein-RNA interactions, conceptually grouping these regions into RS-rich, RG-rich, and other basic sequences, that can mediate both specific and non-specific interactions with RNA...
April 6, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26936767/motif-mediated-protein-protein-interactions-as-drug-targets
#16
REVIEW
Carles Corbi-Verge, Philip M Kim
Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are involved in virtually every cellular process and thus represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. A significant number of protein interactions are frequently formed between globular domains and short linear peptide motifs (DMI). Targeting these DMIs has proven challenging and classical approaches to inhibiting such interactions with small molecules have had limited success. However, recent new approaches have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors, some of them, such as Obatoclax, ABT-199, AEG-40826 and SAH-p53-8 are likely to become approved drugs...
March 2, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912052/axitinib-and-sorafenib-are-potent-in-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#17
Sebastian Halbach, Zehan Hu, Christine Gretzmeier, Julia Ellermann, Franziska U Wöhrle, Jörn Dengjel, Tilman Brummer
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is driven by the fusion kinase Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib mesylate (IM), revolutionized CML therapy. Nevertheless, about 20 % of CMLs display primary or acquired TKI resistance. TKI resistance can be either caused by mutations within the Bcr-Abl kinase domain or by aberrant signaling by its effectors, e.g. Lyn or Gab2. Bcr-Abl mutations are frequently observed in TKI resistance and can only in some cases be overcome by second line TKIs...
February 24, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861207/feedback-activation-of-neurofibromin-terminates-growth-factor-induced-ras-activation
#18
Anne Hennig, Robby Markwart, Katharina Wolff, Katja Schubert, Yan Cui, Ian A Prior, Manuel A Esparza-Franco, Graham Ladds, Ignacio Rubio
BACKGROUND: Growth factors induce a characteristically short-lived Ras activation in cells emerging from quiescence. Extensive work has shown that transient as opposed to sustained Ras activation is critical for the induction of mitogenic programs. Mitogen-induced accumulation of active Ras-GTP results from increased nucleotide exchange driven by the nucleotide exchange factor Sos. In contrast, the mechanism accounting for signal termination and prompt restoration of basal Ras-GTP levels is unclear, but has been inferred to involve feedback inhibition of Sos...
February 9, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759169/cisplatin-induced-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-mediated-mechanism-contributing-to-decreased-antitumor-effect-in-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Svetlana Skolekova, Miroslava Matuskova, Martin Bohac, Lenka Toro, Erika Durinikova, Silvia Tyciakova, Lucia Demkova, Jan Gursky, Lucia Kucerova
BACKGROUND: Cells of the tumor microenvironment are recognized as important determinants of the tumor biology. The adjacent non-malignant cells can regulate drug responses of the cancer cells by secreted paracrine factors and direct interactions with tumor cells. RESULTS: Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) actively contribute to tumor microenvironment. Here we focused on their response to chemotherapy as during the treatment these cells become affected. We have shown that the secretory phenotype and behavior of mesenchymal stromal cells influenced by cisplatin differs from the naïve MSC...
January 12, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759054/gpr91-expanding-the-frontiers-of-krebs-cycle-intermediates
#20
REVIEW
Matheus de Castro Fonseca, Carla J Aguiar, Joao Antônio da Rocha Franco, Rafael N Gingold, M Fatima Leite
Since it was discovered, the citric acid cycle has been known to be central to cell metabolism and energy homeostasis. Mainly found in the mitochondrial matrix, some of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are also present in the blood stream. Currently, there are several reports that indicate functional roles for Krebs intermediates out of its cycle. Succinate, for instance, acts as an extracellular ligand by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, known as GPR91, expressed in kidney, liver, heart, retinal cells and possibly many other tissues, leading to a wide array of physiological and pathological effects...
January 12, 2016: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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