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Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS

Gabriela Basile Carballo, Jéssica Ribeiro Honorato, Giselle Pinto Farias de Lopes, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an essential role during vertebrate embryonic development and tumorigenesis. It is already known that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is important for the evolution of radio and chemo-resistance of several types of tumors. Most of the brain tumors are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, consequently, they have a poor prognosis. So, a better knowledge of the Shh pathway opens an opportunity for targeted therapies against brain tumors considering a multi-factorial molecular overview...
March 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Sheng Liu, Josephine Iaria, Richard J Simpson, Hong-Jian Zhu
BACKGROUND: Transformation by oncogene Ras overcomes TGF-β mediated growth inhibition in epithelial cells. However, it cooperates with each other to mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanism of how these two pathways interact with each other is controversial. METHODS: Molecular techniques were used to engineer expression plasmids for Ras, SPRY, TGF-β receptors, type I and II and ubiquitin. Immunoprecipitation and western blots were employed to determine protein-protein interactions, preotein levels, protein phosphorylation while immunofluorecesent staining for molecular co-localization...
March 13, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yuanyuan Tang, Joshua Berlind, Nirmala Mavila
BACKGROUND: The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Deyuan Fu, Jing Li, Jinli Wei, Zhengquan Zhang, Yulin Luo, Haosheng Tan, Chuanli Ren
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is implicated in tumorigenesis in various cancers. However, the clinical significance of HMGB2 signaling in human breast cancer progression remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated HMGB2 expression in 185 cases of primary breast cancer and matched normal breast tissue specimens, and explored the underlying mechanisms of altered HMGB2 expression as well as the impact of this altered expression on breast cancer growth and on aerobic glycolysis using in vitro and animal models of breast cancer...
February 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Haizhou Liu, Hui Liu, Zhiyi Zhou, Robert A Parise, Edward Chu, John C Schmitz
BACKGROUND: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains the most widely used agent to treat colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its clinical efficacy is currently limited by the development of drug resistance. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCM) has been shown to enhance the efficacy of standard anticancer agents. However, there are only a limited number of well-controlled preclinical and clinical studies documenting the potential benefit of TCM. Herein, we screened a series of TCM formulas in in vitro and in vivo animal models to identify biologically active formulas that were effective against CRC...
February 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Li Wu, Jiayu Zhao, Kexin Cao, Xiao Liu, Hao Cai, Jiaqi Wang, Weidong Li, Zhipeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the implications for tumor growth and cancer drug resistance, the mechanisms underlying differences in energy metabolism among cells remain unclear. METHODS: To analyze differences between cell types, cell viability, ATP and α-ketoglutaric acid levels, the oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate, and the expression of key enzymes involved in α-KG metabolism and transfer were examined. Additionally, UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine the doxorubicin (DOX) content in SMMC-7721 and SMMC-7721/DOX cells...
February 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Peng Zheng, Ze Yin, Ying Wu, Yao Xu, Ying Luo, Tong-Cun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a new and crucial layer of gene regulation in recent years and regulate various biological processes such as carcinogenesis and metastasis. LncRNA HOTAIR, an oncogenic lncRNA, is involved in human tumorigenesis and dysregulated in cervical cancer. Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1), as a transcription coactivity factor, involved in cancer metastasis and cell differentiation. However, the precise mechanism of biological roles of HOTAIR and MKL1 in cancer cells remain unclear...
February 1, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Sylvain Pagie, Nathalie Gérard, Béatrice Charreau
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling controls many cellular processes, including cell fate determination, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In mammals, four Notch receptors (Notch 1-4) can interact with five distinct ligands [Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like 1 (DLL1), DLL3, and DLL4]. We previously reported that Notch activation is modulated in endothelial cells and monocytes during inflammation and showed that inflammation upregulates DLL4 on endothelial cells. DLL4 promotes differentiation of blood monocytes into proinflammatory M1 macrophages...
January 10, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Syeda Kiran Riaz, Jahangir Sarwar Khan, Syed Tahir Abbas Shah, Fen Wang, Lin Ye, Wen G Jiang, Muhammad Faraz Arshad Malik
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of hedgehog pathway is observed in numerous cancers. Relevance of hedgehog pathway genes in cancer cohort and inhibition of its downstream effector (GLI1) towards metastasis in cell lines are explored in the study. METHOD: One hundred fifty fresh tumours of breast cancer patients were collected for the study. Based on differential expression, panel of 6 key regulators of the pathway (SHH, DHH, IHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI1) in microarray datasets were identified...
January 8, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yutaro Otsuka, Tsukasa Oikawa, Hinako Yoshino, Shigeru Hashimoto, Haruka Handa, Hiroki Yamamoto, Ari Hashimoto, Hisataka Sabe
BACKGROUND: The small GTPase Arf6 and its downstream effector AMAP1 (also called ASAP1/DDEF1) constitute a signaling pathway promoting cell invasion, in which AMAP1 interacts with several different proteins, including PRKD2, EPB41L5, paxillin, and cortactin. Components of this pathway are often overexpressed in human breast cancer cells, to be correlated with poor prognosis of the patients, whereas overexpression of the Arf6 pathway did not correlate with the four main molecular classes of human breast tumors...
January 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass
BACKGROUND: Fusion of breast cancer cells with tumor-associated populations of the microenvironment including mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC) represents a rare event in cell communication whereby the metastatic capacity of those hybrid cells remains unclear. METHODS: Functional changes were investigated in vitro and in vivo following spontaneous fusion and hybrid cell formation between primary human MSC and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Thus, lentiviral eGFP-labeled MSC and breast cancer cells labeled with mcherry resulted in dual-fluorescing hybrid cells after co-culture...
January 5, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Daniela M Gomez Zubieta, Mohamed A Hamood, Rami Beydoun, Ashley E Pall, Kalyan C Kondapalli
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) is the most aggressive type of malignant brain tumor with complex molecular profile. Overexpression of Na+/H+ Exchanger isoform 9 (NHE9) promotes tumor progression and correlates positively with insensitivity to radiochemotherapy and poor prognosis. However, molecular mechanisms responsible for increase in NHE9 levels beyond a critical threshold have not been identified. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR and western blotting were conducted to examine the expression profiles and identify microRNAs (miRNA) that target NHE9...
December 21, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Wu Fei, Daiki Kijima, Mami Hashimoto, Miki Hashimura, Yasuko Oguri, Sabine Kajita, Toshihide Matsumoto, Ako Yokoi, Makoto Saegusa
BACKGROUND: The left-right determination factor (LEFTY) is a novel member of the TGF-β/Smad2 pathway and belongs to the premenstrual/menstrual repertoire in human endometrium, but little is known about its functional role in endometrial carcinomas (Em Cas). Herein, we focused on LEFTY expression and its association with progesterone therapy in Em Cas. METHODS: Regulation and function of LEFTY, as well as its associated molecules including Smad2, ovarian hormone receptors, GSK-3β, and cell cycle-related factors, were assessed using clinical samples and cell lines of Em Cas...
December 21, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yang Jiang, Sheng Han, Wen Cheng, Zixun Wang, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that the local immune status correlated with the glioma prognosis. Interleukin-6 (IL6) was identified as an important local immune-related risk marker related to unfavourable prognosis. In this study, we further investigated the role and regulation of IL6 signalling in glioma. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of IL6 and the IL6 receptor (IL6R) were explored in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and REMBRANDT databases and clinical samples...
December 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Qianhui Wu, Stacey D Finley
BACKGROUND: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a matricellular protein that functions to inhibit angiogenesis. An important pathway that contributes to this inhibitory effect is triggered by TSP1 binding to the CD36 receptor, inducing endothelial cell apoptosis. However, therapies that mimic this function have not demonstrated clear clinical efficacy. This study explores strategies to enhance TSP1-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. In particular, we focus on establishing a computational model to describe the signaling pathway, and using this model to investigate the effects of several approaches to perturb the TSP1-CD36 signaling network...
December 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Minjing Li, Changzhu Jin, Maolei Xu, Ling Zhou, Defang Li, Yancun Yin
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the cancer types with poor prognosis. To effectively treat HCC, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase (ATIC), a bifunctional protein enzyme, catalyzes the last two steps of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. Whether ATIC contributes to cancer development remains unclear. METHODS: ATIC mRNA levels in different types of human HCC samples or normal tissues were determined from Gene Expression across Normal and Tumor tissue (GENT) database...
December 16, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Nicoletta Ferrari, Ilaria Granata, Matteo Capaia, Marina Piccirillo, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Roberta Venè, Antonella Brizzolara, Andrea Petretto, Elvira Inglese, Martina Morini, Simonetta Astigiano, Adriana Agnese Amaro, Francesco Boccardo, Cecilia Balbi, Paola Barboro
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide, shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behaviour representing the epiphenomenon of an extreme heterogeneity. Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced forms but after few years the majority of patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form that poses considerable therapeutic challenges. METHODS: Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and reporter assays, and in vivo studies were performed to characterize androgen resistant sublines phenotype in comparison to the parental cell line LNCaP...
December 8, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Eva María García-Vizcaíno, Sergio Liarte, José Luis Alonso-Romero, Francisco José Nicolás
BACKGROUND: The simplicity of Transforming Growth Factor ß (TGFβ) signaling pathway, linear and non-amplified, hardly sustains its variety of responses. This is often justified by the complex regulation showed by Smad proteins, TGFβ signaling intracellular transducers, object of post-translational modifications that modulate TGFβ-dependent transcription. Protein acetylation is emerging as a compelling mechanism affecting the activities of significant transcription factors, including p53, FOXO or NF-kB...
November 29, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Yue Pang, Changzhi Li, Shiyue Wang, Wei Ba, Tao Yu, Guangying Pei, Dan Bi, Hongfang Liang, Xiong Pan, Ting Zhu, Meng Gou, Yinglun Han, Qingwei Li
Unfortunately, following publication of this article [1], it was noticed that the key in Figure 5c incorrectly showed '0 h', '5 h' and '10 h'. The corrected version, showing '0 h', '12 h' and '24 h', can be seen below and the original article has been updated to reflect this.
November 27, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Nguyet Nguyen, Awanit Kumar, Simi Chacko, Rodney J Ouellette, Anirban Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Human hyaluronic acid (HA) molecules are synthesized by three membrane spanning Hyaluronic Acid Synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3). Of the three, HAS1 is found to be localized more into the cytoplasmic space where it synthesizes intracellular HA. HA is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan, mainly present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface, but are also detected intracellularly. Accumulation of HA in cancer cells, the cancer-surrounding stroma, and ECM is generally considered an independent prognostic factors for patients...
November 14, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
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