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Cancer Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803443/solasodine-inhibits-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-suppression-of-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#1
Yu-Wen Zhuang, Cun-En Wu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Xu Chen, Jian Wu, Shan Jiang, Hai-Yan Peng, Xi Zou, Jia-Yun Liu, Da-Peng Wu, Tao Gong, Ming-Hao Qi, Tian Xue, Shen-Lin Liu, Hui Cai
Solasodine is a main active component isolated from Solanum incanum L, who performs a wide range of functions containing anti-oxidant, anti-infection and neurogenesis promotion. In this study, we explored the influence of solasodine on three types of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. The consequences displayed that solasodine apparently prohibited CRC cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and impeded CRC cell motility by downregulating Matrix metalloprotease (MMPs). Besides, solasodine was investigated to fuel caspase-cascade reaction and increase the ratio between Bax and Bcl-2 so as to induce CRC cell apoptosis...
August 13, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801986/persistent-detection-of-alternatively-spliced-bcr-abl-variant-results-in-a-failure-to-achieve-deep-molecular-response
#2
Junichiro Yuda, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Jun Odawara, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Yuichiro Semba, Masayasu Hayashi, Koichi Miyamura, Mitsune Tanimoto, Kazuhito Yamamoto, Masafumi Taniwaki, Koichi Akashi
Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may sequentially induce TKI-resistant BCR-ABL mutants in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring of BCR-ABL is an important indicator to determine therapeutic intervention for preventing disease progression. However, PCR cannot quantify separately amounts of BCR-ABL and its mutants, including alternatively spliced BCR-ABL with an insertion of 35 intronic nucleotides (BCR-ABL(I)(ns35bp) ) between ABL exons 8 and 9 which introduces the premature termination and loss of kinase activity...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796931/modeling-phenotypes-of-malignant-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya
Malignant gliomas are primary tumors of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse infiltration into the brain and a high recurrence rate. Advances in comprehensive genomic studies have provided unprecedented insight into the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors and refined our understanding of their evolution from low to high grade. However, similar levels of phenotypic characterization are indispensable to understanding the complexity of malignant gliomas. Experimental glioma models have also achieved great progress in recent years...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796922/long-non-coding-rnas-and-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Aya Misawa, Ken-Ichi Takayama, Satoshi Inoue
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA transcripts larger than 200 nucleotides that do not code for proteins whose aberrant expression has been documented in various types of cancer, including prostate cancer. The lack of appropriate sensitive and specific biomarkers for prostate cancer has led to over-diagnosis and overtreatment, making lncRNAs promising novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets for the disease. This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge of lncRNA expression patterns and mechanisms in prostate cancer, which contribute to carcinogenesis...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796413/complex-genetic-control-of-lung-tumorigenesis-in-resistant-mice-strains
#5
Alice Dassano, Giulia Pintarelli, Chiara E Cotroneo, Angela Pettinicchio, Elena Forcati, Loris De Cecco, Andrea Borrego, Francesca Colombo, Tommaso A Dragani, Giacomo Manenti
The SM/J mouse strain is resistant to chemically induced lung tumorigenesis despite having a haplotype, in the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility locus (Pas1) locus, that confers tumor susceptibility in other strains. To clarify this inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlation, we crossed SM/J mice with another resistant strain and did genome-wide linkage analysis in the (C57BL/6J x SM/J)F2 progeny exposed to urethane to induce lung tumors. Overall, >80% of F2 mice of both sexes developed from 1 to 20 lung tumors...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796317/mutation-status-of-rad51c-palb2-and-brip1-in-100-japanese-familial-breast-cancer-cases-without-brca1-and-brca2-mutations
#6
Katsutoshi Sato, Mio Koyasu, Sachio Nomura, Yuri Sato, Mizuho Kita, Yuumi Ashihara, Yasue Adachi, Shinji Ohno, Takuji Iwase, Dai Kitagawa, Eri Nakashima, Reiko Yoshida, Yoshio Miki, Masami Arai
In addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2, RAD51C, PALB2, and BRIP1 are known as breast cancer susceptibility genes. However, the mutation status of these genes in Japanese familial breast cancer cases has not been evaluated yet. To this end, we analyzed the exon sequence and genomic rearrangement of RAD51C, PALB2, and BRIP1 in 100 Japanese patients diagnosed with familial breast and ovarian cancer and without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. We detected a large deletion from exon 6 to 9 in RAD51C, 4 novel BRIP1 missense variants containing 3 novel non-synonymous variants, c...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795470/dmkn-contributes-to-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-increased-activation-of-stat3-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Chaohao Huang, Yukai Xiang, Shengchuan Chen, Huajun Yu, Zhengde Wen, Tingting Ye, Hongwei Sun, Hongru Kong, Dapei Li, Dinglai Yu, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
DMKN was first identified in relation to skin lesion healing and skin carcinoma. Recently, its expression has been associated with pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis, although its involvement remains poorly understood. Herein, we show that DMKN loss of function in Patu-8988 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines results in reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and increased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and AKT serine/threonine kinase...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795467/cenp-r-acts-bilaterally-as-a-tumor-suppressor-and-an-oncogene-in-the-two-stage-skin-carcinogenesis-model
#8
Kazuhiro Okumura, Naoko Kagawa, Megumi Saito, Yasuhiro Yoshizawa, Haruka Munakata, Eriko Isogai, Tatsuo Fukagawa, Yuichi Wakabayashi
CENP-R is a component of the CENP-O complex, including CENP-O, CENP-P, CENP-Q, CENP-R, and CENP-U and is constitutively localized to kinetochores throughout the cell cycle in vertebrates. CENP-R deficient chicken DT40 cells are viable and show very minor effect on mitosis. To investigate the functional roles of CENP-R in vivo, we generated CENP-R deficient mice (Cenp-r(-/-) ). Mice heterozygous or homozygous for Cenp-r null mutation are viable and healthy, with no apparent defect in growth and morphology, indicating Cenp-r is not essential for normal development...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787768/a-combination-of-anti-cd4-antibody-treatment-and-dli-ameliorates-gvhd-while-preserving-gvt-effects-in-murine-allo-hsct
#9
REVIEW
Satoshi Ueha, Shoji Yokochi, Yoshiro Ishiwata, Mizuha Kosugi-Kanaya, Yusuke Shono, Shiro Shibayama, Satoru Ito, Kouji Matsushima
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is not only a well-established immunotherapy for hematologic malignancies, but is potentially useful for treating solid tumors refractory to available therapies. However, application of allo-HSCT to solid tumors is limited, despite the beneficial anti-tumor effects, by the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD4(+) T cells have been implicated in several aspects of GVHD, and suppress anti-tumor CD8(+) T cell responses. In the present study, we investigated clinically applicable allo-HSCT protocols designed to maximize anti-tumor effects while reducing the risk of GVHD...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787757/metabolic-tumor-volume-of-primary-tumor-predicts-survival-better-than-t-classification-in-the-larynx-preservation-approach
#10
REVIEW
Junji Miyabe, Atsushi Hanamoto, Mitsuaki Tatsumi, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Yukinori Takenaka, Susumu Nakahara, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Motoyuki Suzuki, Norihiko Takemoto, Takahiro Michiba, Yasuo Yoshioka, Fumiaki Isohashi, Koji Konishi, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Jun Hatazawa, Hidenori Inohara
We aimed to determine whether pretreatment metabolic tumor volume of the primary tumor (T-MTV) or T classification would be a better predictor of laryngectomy-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) after chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer requiring total laryngectomy. We analyzed 85 patients using a Cox proportional hazards model and evaluated its usefulness by Akaike's information criterion. A T-MTV cutoff value was determined by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787548/contrasting-effects-of-cyclophosphamide-on-anti-ctla-4-blockade-therapy-in-two-mouse-tumor-models
#11
Yuichi Iida, Nanae Harashima, Takanobu Motoshima, Yoshihiro Komohara, Masatoshi Eto, Mamoru Harada
Immune checkpoint blockade is a promising anti-cancer therapy, but must be used in combination with other anti-cancer therapies to increase therapeutic efficacy. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapeutic drug that exhibits immune-modulating effects. In this study, we examined the effect of CP on anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) blockade therapy in two mouse tumor models. Drastic tumor regression was observed in the CT26 colon carcinoma model after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CP (100 mg/kg) followed by anti-CTLA-4 antibody...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782898/macf1-a-novel-potential-target-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Zhiping Miao, Arshad Ali, Lifang Hu, Fan Zhao, Chong Yin, Chu Chen, Tuanmin Yang, Airong Qian
Cancer is a polygenic disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of normal body cells, which exhibits deregulation of cell cycle as well as resistance to apoptosis and leads to metastasize into other parts of the body. The spectraplakin protein, microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) plays an essential function in various cellular processes including cell proliferation, migrations, signaling transduction and embryo development. MACF1 is also involved in processes such as metastatic invasion in which cytoskeleton organization is a critical element that contributes to tumor progression in various human cancers...
August 7, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777492/gankyrin-induces-stat3-activation-in-tumour-microenvironment-and-sorafenib-resistance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Toshiharu Sakurai, Norihisa Yada, Satoru Hagiwara, Tadaaki Arizumi, Kosuke Minaga, Ken Kamata, Mamoru Takenaka, Yasunori Minami, Tomohiro Watanabe, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) develop as a result of chronic liver inflammation. We have shown that the oncoprotein gankyrin is critical for inflammation-induced tumourigenesis in the colon. Although the in vitro function of gankyrin is well known, its role in vivo remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of gankyrin in tumour microenvironment of mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Alb-Cre;gankyrin(f/f) ) and gankyrin deletion both in liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells (Mx1-Cre;gankyrin(f/f) )...
August 4, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776911/long-non-coding-rnas-as-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-human-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Yutaka Kondo, Keiko Shinjo, Keisuke Katsushima
Recent studies have demonstrated the important multiple roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) during oncogenic transformation. Because the coding genome accounts for a small amount of total DNA, and many mutations leading to cancer occur in the non-coding genome, it is plausible that the dysregulation of such non-coding transcribes might also affect tumor phenotypes. Indeed, to date, lncRNAs have been reported to affect diverse biological processes through the regulation of mRNA stability, RNA splicing, chromatin structure, and miRNA-mediated gene regulation by acting as miRNA sponges...
August 4, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776876/mogamulizumab-for-relapsed-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-updated-follow-up-analysis-of-phase-i-and-ii-studies
#15
Takashi Ishida, Atae Utsunomiya, Tatsuro Jo, Kazuhito Yamamoto, Koji Kato, Shinichiro Yoshida, Shigeki Takemoto, Hitoshi Suzushima, Yukio Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Imaizumi, Kenichi Yoshimura, Kouichi Kawamura, Takeshi Takahashi, Kensei Tobinai, Ryuzo Ueda
The present study sought to elucidate the prognosis of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients receiving mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of ATL patients enrolled in two studies are updated here, namely NCT00355472 (phase I study of mogamulizumab in relapsed patients with ATL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma) and NCT00920790 (phase II study for relapsed ATL). Of 13 patients with relapsed aggressive ATL in the phase I study, four (31%) survived > 3 years...
August 4, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771889/phase-i-ii-study-of-pralatrexate-in-japanese-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#16
Dai Maruyama, Hirokazu Nagai, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takahiko Nakane, Tatsu Shimoyama, Tomonori Nakazato, Rika Sakai, Takayuki Ishikawa, Koji Izutsu, Ryuzo Ueda, Kensei Tobinai
Pralatrexate is a novel antifolate approved in the United States for the treatment of relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma. To assess its safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients with this disease, we conducted a phase I/II study. Pralatrexate was given i.v. weekly for 6 weeks of a 7-week cycle. All patients received concurrent vitamin B12 and folic acid. In phase I, three patients received pralatrexate 30 mg/m(2) and none experienced a dose-limiting toxicity. In phase II, we treated 22 additional patients with that dose...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771887/acsl3-promotes-intratumoral-steroidogenesis-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Toshiro Migita, Ken-Ichi Takayama, Tomohiko Urano, Daisuke Obinata, Kazutaka Ikeda, Tomoyoshi Soga, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase 3 (ACSL3) is an androgen-responsive gene involved in the generation of fatty acyl-CoA esters. ACSL3 is expressed in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, its role in prostate cancer remains elusive. We overexpressed ACSL3 in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and examined the downstream effectors of ACSL3. Furthermore, we examined the role of ACSL3 in the androgen metabolism of prostate cancer. ACSL3 overexpression led to upregulation of several genes such as aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) involved in steroidogenesis, which utilizes adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) as substrate, and downregulated androgen-inactivating enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 (UGT2B)...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771881/microrna-219-5p-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-by-targeting-lef1
#18
Lan-Xuan Huang, Chun-Yan Hu, Li Jing, Min-Cong Wang, Meng Xu, Jing Wang, Yu Wang, Ke-Jun Nan, Shu-Hong Wang
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors. miR-219-5p has been reported to be abnormally expressed in some types of human tumors. However, the mechanism between miR-219-5p and colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis remains unclear. In this study, miR-219-5p was found to be downregulated in CRC tissue compared with matched normal tissue. Through luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) as a direct target of miR-219-5p...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763145/phase-ii-study-of-s-1-plus-leucovorin-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-regimen-of-1-week-on-1-week-off
#19
Jin Li, Ruihua Xu, Jianming Xu, Tadamichi Denda, Koji Ikejiri, Lin Shen, Yasushi Toh, Ken Shimada, Takeshi Kato, Kenji Sakai, Manabu Yamamoto, Hideyuki Mishima, Jinwan Wang, Hideo Baba
A phase II study of S-1 plus leucovorin (LV) given in a 4-week schedule (2 weeks administration followed by 2 weeks rest) for patients with untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) showed the combination was effective, but grade 3 toxicities (diarrhea, stomatitis, anorexia) occurred at a relatively high rate. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 2-week schedule of S-1 plus LV. Patients with mCRC received oral S-1 (40-60 mg) and LV (25 mg) twice daily for 1 week, followed by 1 week rest...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763139/tumor-endothelial-cells-accelerate-tumor-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Nako Maishi, Kyoko Hida
Tumor metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis is crucial to control the fatal disease. Several molecular pathways orchestrate the complex cell biological events during a metastatic cascade. It is now well known that bidirectional interaction between the tumor cells and their microenvironment, including tumor stroma, is important for tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor stromal cells, which acquire their specific characteristics in the tumor microenvironment, accelerate tumor malignancy...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Science
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