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Cancer Science

I Ketut Gunarta, Rong Li, Ryota Nakazato, Ryusuke Suzuki, Jambaldorj Boldbaatar, Takeshi Suzuki, Katsuji Yoshioka
Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. This aggressiveness appears to be due to the cancer cells' ability to reversibly switch between phenotypes with non-invasive and invasive potentials, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is known to play a central role in this process. The transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a component of the canonical and noncanonical sonic hedgehog pathways. Although GLI1 has been suggested to be involved in melanoma progression, its precise role and the mechanism underlying invasion remain unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Science
Taiki Takaoka, Yuta Shibamoto, Masayuki Matsuo, Chikao Sugie, Taro Murai, Yasutaka Ogawa, Akifumi Miyakawa, Yoshihiko Manabe, Takuhito Kondo, Koichiro Nakajima, Dai Okazaki, Takahiro Tsuchiya
Despite insufficient laboratory data, radiotherapy after intratumoral injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is increasingly being used clinically for radioresistant tumors. Especially, this treatment might become an alternative definitive treatment for early and advanced breast cancer in patients who refuse any type of surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects and appropriate combination methods of irradiation and H2 O2 in vivo. SCCVII tumor cells transplanted into the legs of C3H/HeN mice were used...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Science
Yasunori Kogure, Keisuke Kataoka
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a dismal prognosis, caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus. A long latency period from HTLV-1 infection to ATL onset suggests that not only HTLV-1 proteins, such as Tax and HBZ, but also additional genetic and/or epigenetic events are required for ATL development. Although many studies have demonstrated the biological functions of viral genes, alterations of cellular genes associated with ATL have not been fully investigated...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Science
Shigeru Yutani, Takahisa Shirahama, Daisuke Muroya, Satoko Matsueda, Rin Yamaguchi, Michi Morita, Shigeki Shichijo, Akira Yamada, Tetsuro Sasada, Kyogo Itoh
Overall survival (OS) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to loco-regional therapy is dismal even by treatment with sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor. To develop a more efficacious treatment modality, we conducted a feasibility study of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) for HCC, in which the peptides were selected from 31 peptide candidates based on the pre-existing immunity. Twenty-six HCC patients refractory to loco-regional therapies (Cohort 1) and 30 patients refractory to both loco-regional and systemic therapies (Cohort 2) were entered to the study...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Science
Jie Yin, Xiao-Yu Jiang, Wei Qi, Chen-Guang Ji, Xiao-Li Xie, Dong-Xuan Zhang, Zi-Jin Cui, Cun-Kai Wang, Yun Bai, Jia Wang, Hui-Qing Jiang
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a novel class of small non-coding RNA, were first discovered in germline cells and are thought to silence transposons in spermatogenesis. Recently, piRNAs have also been identified in somatic tissues, and aberrant expression of piRNAs in tumor tissues may be implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the function of piR-823 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Here, we first found that piR-823 was significantly up-regulated in CRC tissues compared with its expression in the adjacent tissues...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Science
Keiichi Koshizuka, Toyoyuki Hanazawa, Naoko Kikkawa, Takayuki Arai, Atsushi Okato, Akira Kurozumi, Mayuko Kato, Koji Katada, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Naohiko Seki
For patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), survival rates have not improved due to local recurrence and distant metastasis. Current targeted molecular therapies do not provide a substantial benefit to HNSCC patients. Therefore, it is necessary to use advanced genomic approaches to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness of HNSCC cells. Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature by RNA-sequencing showed that the miR-199 family (miR-199a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-199b-5p and miR-199b-3p) was significantly reduced in cancer tissues...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Science
Natalie Schudrowitz, Satoshi Takagi, Gary M Wessel, Mamiko Yajima
DDX4 (the human ortholog of Drosophila Vasa) is an RNA helicase and is present in the germ lines of all metazoans tested. It was historically thought to be expressed specifically in germline cells, but with additional organisms studied, it is now clear that in some animals DDX4/Vasa functions outside of the germline, in a variety of somatic cells in the embryo and adult. In this report, we document that DDX4 is widely expressed in soma-derived cancer cell lines, including myeloma (IM-9) and leukemia (THP-1) cells...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Science
Zi-Hao Feng, Yong Fang, Liang-Yun Zhao, Jun Lu, Yong-Qian Wang, Zhen-Hua Chen, Yong Huang, Jin-Huan Wei, Yan-Ping Liang, Jun-Jie Cen, Yi-Hui Pan, Bing Liao, Wei Chen, Jun-Hang Luo
We previously identified the important role of RIN1 expression in the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The role of RIN1 in ccRCC malignancy and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that ccRCC cells and tissues expressed more RIN1 than normal controls. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that RIN1 enhanced ccRCC cell growth, migration and invasion abilities in vitro and promoted tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that RIN1 has an activating effect on EGFR signalling in ccRCC...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Science
Ji-Jin Yao, Li Lin, Ya-Nan Jin, Si-Yang Wang, Wang-Jian Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guan-Qun Zhou, Zhi-Bin Cheng, Zhen-Yu Qi, Ying Sun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against early antigen (EA-IgA) and viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) are the most commonly used to screen for NPC in endemic areas. However, the prognostic value of serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA in patients with NPC were less clear. We hypothesize that serum EA-IgA and VCA-IgA levels have prognostic impact for survival outcomes in NPC patients with undetectable pretreatment EBV (pEBV) DNA. In this series, 334 patients with non-metastatic NPC and undetectable pEBV DNA were included...
June 12, 2017: Cancer Science
Yusuke Inoue, Shun Matsuura, Katsuhiro Yoshimura, Yuji Iwashita, Tomoaki Kahyo, Akikazu Kawase, Masayuki Tanahashi, Matsuyoshi Maeda, Hiroshi Ogawa, Naoki Inui, Kazuhito Funai, Kazuya Shinmura, Hiroshi Niwa, Takafumi Suda, Haruhiko Sugimura
V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 (VSIG1) is a newly discovered member of the immunoglobulin superfamily proteins, expressed in normal stomach and testis. In cancers, however, the clinical and biological roles of VSIG1 remain unknown. Here we investigated VSIG1 expression in 11 cancers and assessed the prognostic roles of VSIG1 in patients with gastric cancer (GC) (N = 362) and non-small-cell lung cancer (N = 650). VSIG1 was downregulated in 60.5% of GC specimens, and high VSIG1 expression was identified as an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in GC patients (hazard ratio, 0...
June 12, 2017: Cancer Science
Hiroyuki Masaoka, Hidemi Ito, Akira Yokomizo, Masatoshi Eto, Keitaro Matsuo
Despite treatment guidelines recommending observation for men with low-risk prostate cancer with life expectancy <10 years, a majority of elderly patients choose active treatment, which may result in overtreatment. Given the growing burden of prostate cancer among men aged ≥80 years (super-elderly men), accumulation of survival data for evaluation of overtreatment among super-elderly patients is imperative. Here, we conducted a population-based cohort study to clarify potential overtreatment of super-elderly men with localized prostate cancer...
June 8, 2017: Cancer Science
Jin-Hu Fan, Jian-Bing Wang, Shao-Ming Wang, Christian C Abnet, You-Lin Qiao, Philip R Taylor
Although a number of previous studies have noted either positive or no association for body mass index (BMI) and gastric cancers risk, little evidence exists in the Chinese population. We prospectively examined the associations of BMI with risk of gastric cancers in the Linxian General Population Trial cohort, with 29,584 healthy adults enrolled in 1985 and followed through the end of 2014. Body weight and height were measured during physical examination at baseline and BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared...
June 8, 2017: Cancer Science
Makoto Murata, Yoshinobu Maeda, Masayoshi Masuko, Yasushi Onishi, Tomoyuki Endo, Seitaro Terakura, Yuichi Ishikawa, Chisako Iriyama, Yoko Ushijima, Tatsunori Goto, Nobuharu Fujii, Mitsune Tanimoto, Hironori Kobayashi, Yasuhiko Shibasaki, Noriko Fukuhara, Yoshihiro Inamoto, Ritsuro Suzuki, Yoshihisa Kodera, Tadashi Matsushita, Hitoshi Kiyoi, Tomoki Naoe, Tetsuya Nishida
The outcomes of cord blood transplantation with non-irradiated reduced-intensity conditioning for hematological malignancies need to be improved because of graft failure and delayed engraftment. Intrabone infusion of cord blood cells has the potential to resolve the problems. In this phase 2 study, twenty-one adult patients with hematological malignancy received intrabone transplantation of serological HLA-A, B, and DR ≥4/6 matched single cord blood with a median number of cryopreserved total nucleated cells of 2...
June 5, 2017: Cancer Science
Yuko Miyasato, Takuya Shiota, Koji Ohnishi, Cheng Pan, Hiromu Yano, Hasita Horlad, Yutaka Yamamoto, Mutsuko Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Hirotaka Iwase, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
Recent studies have indicated the clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in several malignant tumors including breast cancer. Although recent studies have focused on CD68-positive or CD163-positive TAMs in breast cancer, no study has investigated the significance of CD204-positive TAMs in breast cancer. We found that CD204 expression by macrophages was evaluated following stimulation with the conditioned medium (CM) of breast cancer cell lines. Paraffin sections of 149 breast cancer samples which were diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD68, CD163, and CD204 expression...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Science
Hongfei Wang, Xueyi Liang, Mianxiang Li, Xiaoan Tao, Shanshan Tai, Zhaona Fan, Zhi Wang, Bin Cheng, Juan Xia
Chemokine (CC motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is involved in the remodeling of tumor microenvironment and have critical roles in oncogenesis, invasiveness and metastasis. We previously investigated that CCL18 was overexpressed in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and associated with advanced clinical stage of OSCC patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of this CCL18-derived activity remains unidentified. This study showed exogenous CCL18 increased cell migration, invasion and induced cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), displaying that E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, decreased and N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker, increased, compared to negative control in OSCC cells...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Science
Anuttara Udomprasert, Thaned Kangsamaksin
Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, the development of cancer diagnosis and therapy is still progressing, and a complete understanding of cancer biology still remain elusive. Recently, cancer nanomedicine has gained much interest as promising diagnostic and therapeutic strategies as a wide range of nanomaterials possess unique physical properties that can render drug delivery systems more effective and safer. Also, targeted drug delivery and precision medicine have now become a new paradigm in cancer therapy...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Science
Hye Won Chung, Jong-Baeck Lim
Many soluble factors are involved in tumor angiogenesis. Thus, it is valuable to identify novel soluble factors for effective control of tumor angiogenesis in gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the role of extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and its associated soluble factors in tumor angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Clinically, we measured serum levels of HMGB1 and GC-associated cytokines/chemokines using GC serum samples (n=120), and calculated microvessel density (MVD) by performing CD34 immuno-staining using human GC tissues (n=27)...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Science
Yosuke Minami, Hironobu Minami, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Goichi Yoshimoto, Yukio Kobayashi, Wataru Munakata, Yasushi Onishi, Masahiro Kobayashi, Mari Ikuta, Geoffrey Chan, Adrian Woolfson, Chiho Ono, Mohammed Naveed Shaik, Yosuke Fujii, Xianxian Zheng, Tomoki Naoe
The hedgehog signaling pathway regulates multiple morphogenetic processes during embryogenesis. Aberrant activation of the hedgehog pathway signal transduction in adult tissues is associated with the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. We report findings from an open-label, multicenter phase I trial of the selective, small-molecule hedgehog signaling inhibitor glasdegib (PF-04449913) in Japanese patients with select advanced hematologic malignancies. Glasdegib was administered as once-daily oral doses (25, 50, and 100 mg) in 28-day cycles after a lead-in dose on Day -5...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Science
Norihito Shibata, Naoki Miyamoto, Katsunori Nagai, Kenichiro Shimokawa, Tomoya Sameshima, Nobumichi Ohoka, Takayuki Hattori, Yasuhiro Imaeda, Hiroshi Nara, Nobuo Cho, Mikihiko Naito
Chromosomal translocation occurs in some cancer cells, which results in the expression of aberrant oncogenic fusion proteins that include BCR-ABL in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Inhibitors of ABL tyrosine kinase such as imatinib and dasatinib exhibit remarkable therapeutic effects, though emergence of drug resistance hampers the therapy during long-term treatment. An alternative approach to treat CML is to down-regulate the BCR-ABL protein. We have devised a protein knockdown system by hybrid molecules named SNIPERs (Specific and Non-genetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein [IAP]-dependent Protein Erasers), which is designed to induce IAP-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of target proteins, and a couple of SNIPER(ABL) against BCR-ABL protein has been developed recently...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Science
Riyo Morimoto-Kamata, Satoru Yui
Cathepsin G (CG), a neutrophil serine protease, induces cell migration and multicellular aggregation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a process that is dependent on E-cadherin and CG enzymatic activity. While these tumor cell aggregates can cause tumor emboli that could represent intravascular growth and extravasation into the surrounding tissues, resulting in metastasis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify the signaling pathway that is triggered during CG-mediated stimulation of cell aggregation...
May 24, 2017: Cancer Science
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