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Cancer Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791768/vaccine-immunotherapy-with-arnax-induces-tumor-specific-memory-t-cells-and-durable-anti-tumor-immunity-in-mouse-models
#1
Yohei Takeda, Sumito Yoshida, Ken Takashima, Noriko Ishii-Mugikura, Hiroaki Shime, Tsukasa Seya, Misako Matsumoto
Immunological checkpoint blockade therapies benefit a limited population of cancer patients. We have previously shown that vaccine immunotherapy with TLR3-adjuvant and tumor antigen overcomes anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) resistance in mouse tumor models. In this study, four different OVA-expressing tumor cell lines were implanted into syngeneic mice and subjected to antitumor immunotherapy using ARNAX and whole OVA protein. ARNAX is a Toll-like receptor 3-specific agonist that does not activate the MAVS pathway, and thus does not induce systemic inflammation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791764/synergy-between-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonist-and-radiotherapy-in-cancer
#2
Guodong Huang, Limei Yin, Jie Lan, Ruizhan Tong, Mengqian Li, Feifei Na, Xianming Mo, Chong Chen, Jianxin Xue, You Lu
ANGIOGENESIS AND INFLAMMATION ARE CRUCIAL PROCESSES, THROUGH WHICH THE: tumor microenvironment (TME) influences tumor progression. In this STUDY, WE REVEALED THAT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR Γ (PPARΓ) IS: NOT ONLY EXPRESSED IN CT26 AND 4T1 TUMOR CELL LINES BUT ALSO IN CELLS OF TME,: including endothelial cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). In addition, WE DEMONSTRATED THAT ROSIGLITAZONE MAY INDUCE TUMOR VESSEL NORMALIZATION AND REDUCE: TAM infiltration. Additionally, 4T1 and CT26 tumor-bearing mice treated with ROSIGLITAZONE IN COMBINATION WITH RADIOTHERAPY DISPLAYED A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN: lesion size and lung metastasis...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790629/long-non-coding-rna-neat1-promoted-ovarian-cancer-cells-metastasis-via-regulating-of-mir-382-3p-rock1-axial
#3
Yangcheng Liu, Yong Wang, Xinming Fu, Zhi Lu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are extensively involved in various malignant tumors including ovarian cancer (OC). In the present study, we focused on the expression and function of nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) work on ovarian cancer cells' metastasis. We demonstrated that NEAT1 was up-regulated in OC tissue specimens and cell lines. Also, we revealed that depression of NEAT1 inhibited OC cells' metastasis and the expression of Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) which was a metastasis-related gene...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790621/generation-and-application-of-human-induced-stem-cell-memory-t-it-scm-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#4
Taisuke Kondo, Yuuki Imura, Shunsuke Chikuma, Sana Hibino, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Makoto Ando, Takashi Akanuma, Mana Iizuka, Ryota Sakai, Rimpei Morita, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy. However, infused T cells frequently become functionally exhausted, and consequently offer a poor prognosis after transplantation into patients. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific stem cell memory T (TSCM ) cells is expected to overcome this shortcoming since TSCM cells are close to naïve T cells, but are also highly proliferative, long-lived, and produce a large number of effector T cells in response to antigen stimulation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788550/usp22-acts-as-an-oncoprotein-to-maintain-glioma-malignancy-through-deubiquitinating-bmi1-for-stabilization
#5
Guan-Zhong Qiu, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Yue Ma, Xing-Chun Gao, Zhen Wang, Ming-Zhu Jin, Wei Sun, Yong-Xiang Zou, Jing Lin, Hua-Lin Fu, Wei-Lin Jin
USP22 is a member of "death-from-cancer" signature, which plays a key role in cancer progression. Although previous evidence has shown that USP22 is overexpressed and correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. The effect and mechanism of USP22 in glioma malignancy especially cancer stemness remain elusive. Here, we find USP22 is more enriched in stem-like tumorspheres than differentiated glioma cells. USP22 knockdown inhibits cancer stemness in glioma cell lines. With a cell-penetrating TAT-tag protein, BMI1, a robust glioma stem-cell marker, is found to mediate the effect of USP22 on glioma stemness...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788541/increase-in-incidental-detection-of-thyroid-cancer-in-osaka-japan
#6
Yasuhiro Toyoda, Takahiro Tabuchi, Kayo Nakata, Toshitaka Morishima, Tomio Nakayama, Isao Miyashiro, Shigeyuki Hojo, Setsuko Yoshioka
We examined age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancer according to the route of thyroid cancer detection from 1992-2012, using Osaka Cancer Registry data. The detection routes were categorized into 'symptomatic' and 'incidental detection'. Age-specific incidence rates of incidentally-detected thyroid cancer consistently increased during the study period, especially after 2001, for all sex and age groups other than childhood. The rate of symptomatic thyroid cancer did not largely differ...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777630/microrna-493-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#7
Ling Yao, Yirong Liu, Zhigang Cao, Junjing Li, Yanni Huang, Xin Hu, Zhiming Shao
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women, in which triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibits higher aggressiveness and recurrence rates, while there are no effective targets or tailored treatments for patients with this subtype. Thus, finding effective prognostic markers for TNBC might help clinicians in their ability to care for their patients. We used tissue microarrays (TMAs) to detect miR-493 expression in breast cancer samples. A miRCURY LNATM detection probe specific for miR-493 was used in in situ hybridization assays...
May 19, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774637/potassium-octatitanate-fibers-induce-persistent-lung-and-pleural-injury-and-are-possibly-carcinogenic-in-male-fischer-344-rats
#8
Mohamed Abdelgied, Ahmed M El-Gazzar, David B Alexander, William T Alexander, Takamasa Numano, Masaaki Iigou, Aya Naiki-Ito, Hirotsugu Takase, Khaled Abbas Abdou, Akihiko Hirose, Yuhji Taquahashi, Jun Kanno, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Satoru Takahashi
Potassium octatitanate fibers (K2 O•8TiO2 , POT fibers) are widely used as an alternative to asbestos. We investigated the pulmonary and pleural toxicity of POT fibers with reference to 2 non-fibrous titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 ), photo-reactive anatase (a-nTiO2 ) and inert rutile (r-nTiO2 ). Ten-week old male F344 rats were administered 0.5 ml of 250-μg/ml suspensions of POT fibers, a-nTiO2 , or r-nTiO2 , eight times (1 mg/rat) over a 15 day period by trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS)...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774630/the-emerging-roles-of-long-non-coding-rna-in-cancer
#9
Anna Sanchez Calle, Yumi Kawamura, Yusuke Yamamoto, Fumitaka Takeshita, Takahiro Ochiya
Since comprehensive analysis of the mammalian genome has revealed that the vast majority of genomic products are transcribed in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), increasing attention has been paid towards these transcripts. The applied next-generation sequencing technologies have provided accumulating evidence of dysregulated lncRNAs in cancer. The implication of this finding may be seen in many forms and at multiple levels. With impacts ranging from integrating chromatin remodeling complexes to regulating transcription and post-transcriptional processes, aberrant expression of lncRNAs may have repercussions in cell proliferation, tumor progression or metastasis...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772611/evaluation-of-two-prognostic-indices-for-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-in-the-subtropical-endemic-area-okinawa-japan
#10
Keita Tamaki, Satoko Morishima, Shogo Nomura, Yukiko Nishi, Sawako Nakachi, Sakiko Kitamura, Sachie Uchibori, Shouhei Tomori, Taeko Hanashiro, Natsuki Shimabukuro, Iori Tedokon, Kazuho Morichika, Naoya Taira, Takeaki Tomoyose, Takashi Miyagi, Kaori Karimata, Masayo Ohama, Atsushi Yamanoha, Kazumitsu Tamaki, Masaki Hayashi, Jun-Nosuke Uchihara, Kazuiku Ohshiro, Yoshitaka Asakura, Megumi Kuba-Miyara, Kennosuke Karube, Takuya Fukushima, Hiroaki Masuzaki
Aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) has an extremely poor prognosis and is hyperendemic in Okinawa, Japan. This study evaluated two prognostic indices (PIs) for aggressive ATL, the ATL-PI and Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG)-PI, in a cohort from Okinawa. The PIs were developed using two different Japanese cohorts that included few patients from Okinawa. The endpoint was overall survival (OS). Multivariable Cox regression analyses in the cohort of 433 patients revealed that all seven factors for calculating each PI were statistically significant prognostic predictors...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770536/combination-of-ifitm1-knockdown-and-radiotherapy-inhibits-the-growth-of-oral-cancer
#11
Jie Yang, Lei Li, Yan Xi, Ruimei Sun, Hu Wang, Yanxin Ren, Liufang Zhao, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaojiang Li
This research aimed to analyze the effect of IFITM1 on the radioresistance of oral neoplasm. IFITM1 emerged using multi-group heat map from GSE9716 analysis of GEO database as the relevant radioresistance gene. IFITM1 was screened by TCGA database before its expression was analyzed. IFITM1 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 19 paired oral neoplasm cases. The effects of time and dose of radiation on IFITM1 expression level in CAL27 and TSCC1 cell lines was tested via qRT-PCR. Oral neoplasm cells were transfected with siRNA after radiotherapy to disturb IFITM1 expression...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770533/nctd-enhances-antitumor-immunity-of-gm-csf-prostate-cancer-cells-vaccine-by-inducing-apoptosis-of-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Lijun Mo, Xinji Zhang, Xiaojun Shi, Lili Wei, Dianpeng Zheng, Hongwei Li, Jimin Gao, Jinlong Li, Zhiming Hu
Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a promising antitumor drug with low toxicity. It was reported to be able to regulate immunity, but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here we explored whether NCTD could enhance the antitumor immunity induced by prostate cancer cells vaccine. The results in vitro study showed that NCTD induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of Tregs. Mechanistic research showed that NCTD inhibited Akt activation and activated FOXO1 transcription, resulting in pro-apoptotic effect. The results in vivo study showed that more tumor-infiltrating Tregs existed within peripheral blood and tumor tissue after treating with the vaccine...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758120/concomitant-administration-of-radiation-with-eribulin-improves-the-survival-of-mice-harboring-intracerebral-glioblastoma
#13
Shunichiro Miki, Shoji Imamichi, Hiroaki Fujimori, Arata Tomiyama, Kenji Fujimoto, Kaishi Satomi, Yuko Matsushita, Sanae Matsuzaki, Masamichi Takahashi, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Akitake Mukasa, Ryo Nishikawa, Kenkichi Masutomi, Yoshitaka Narita, Mitsuko Masutani, Koichi Ichimura
Glioblastoma is the most common and devastating type of malignant brain tumor. We recently found that eribulin suppresses glioma growth in vitro and in vivo and that eribulin is efficiently transferred into mouse brain tumors at a high concentration. Eribulin is a non-taxane microtubule inhibitor approved for breast cancer and liposarcoma. Cells arrested in M-phase by chemotherapeutic agents such as microtubule inhibitors are highly sensitive to radiation-induced DNA damage. Several recent case reports demonstrated the clinical benefits of eribulin combined with radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumors...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758119/loss-of-protein-phosphatase-6-in-mouse-keratinocytes-enhances-k-ras-g12d-driven-tumor-promotion
#14
Koreyuki Kurosawa, Yui Inoue, Yoichiro Kakugawa, Yoji Yamashita, Kosuke Kanazawa, Kazuhiro Kishimoto, Miyuki Nomura, Yuki Momoi, Ikuro Sato, Natsuko Chiba, Mai Suzuki, Honami Ogoh, Hidekazu Yamada, Koh Miura, Toshio Watanabe, Nobuhiro Tanuma, Masahiro Tachi, Hiroshi Shima
Here, we address the function of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) loss on K-ras-initiated tumorigenesis in keratinocytes. To do so, we developed tamoxifen-inducible double mutant (K-rasG12D -expressing and Ppp6c-deficient) mice in which K-rasG12D expression is driven by the cytokeratin 14 (K14) promoter. Doubly-mutant mice showed early onset tumor formation in lip, nipples, external genitalia, anus and palms, and had to be sacrificed by three weeks after induction by tamoxifen, while comparably-treated K-rasG12D -expressing mice did not...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752851/idh-mutated-astrocytomas-with-19q-loss-constitute-a-subgroup-that-confers-better-prognosis
#15
Ryohei Otani, Takeo Uzuka, Fumi Higuchi, Hadzki Matsuda, Masashi Nomura, Shota Tanaka, Akitake Mukasa, Koichi Ichimura, Phyo Kim, Keisuke Ueki
IDH-mutant gliomas are classified into astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors by 1p/19q status in WHO 2016 classification, with the latter presenting with characteristic morphology and better prognosis in general. However, the morphological and genetic features within each category are varied, and there may be distinguishable subtypes. We analyzed 170 WHO grade II to IV gliomas resected in our institution. 1p/19q status was analyzed by microsatellite analysis, and genetic mutations were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing...
May 12, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751367/therapies-based-on-targeting-ebv-lytic-replication-for-ebv-associated-malignancies
#16
Hongde Li, Jianmin Hu, Xiangjian Luo, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong, Ya Cao
In recent years, EBV lytic infection has been shown to significantly contribute to carcinogenesis. Thus, therapies aimed at targeting the EBV lytic cycle have been developed as novel strategies for treatment of EBV-associated diseases malignancies. In this review, focusing on the viral lytic proteins, we describe recent advances regarding the involvement of the EBV lytic cycle in carcinogenesis. Moreover, we further discuss two distinct EBV lytic cycle-targeted therapeutic strategies against EBV-induced malignancies: One of the strategies involves inhibition of the EBV lytic cycle by natural compounds known to have anti-EBV properties; another one is to intentionally induce EBV lytic replication in combination with nucleotide analogues...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737600/stromal-barriers-to-nanomedicine-penetration-in-the-pancreatic-tumor-microenvironment
#17
REVIEW
Hiroyoshi Y Tanaka, Mitsunobu R Kano
Pancreatic cancer is known for its dismal prognosis despite efforts to improve therapeutic outcome. Recently, cancer nanomedicine, application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment, has gained interest for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect that promotes selective accumulation of nanometer-sized molecules within tumors is the theoretical rationale of treatment. However, it is clear that EPR may be insufficient in pancreatic cancer due to stromal barriers within the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737597/metabolomics-research-on-potential-role-for-9-cis-retinoic-acid-in-breast-cancer-progression
#18
Jing Wu, Rui Yang, Lei Zhang, YueGuo Li, BingBing Liu, Hua Kang, ZhiJuan Fan, YaQiong Tian, ShuYe Liu, Tong Li
Deciphering the molecular networks that discriminate organ-confined breast cancer from metastatic breast cancer may lead to the identification of critical biomarkers for breast cancer invasion and aggressiveness. Here metabolomics, a global study of metabolites, has been applied to explore the metabolic alterations that characterize breast cancer progression. We profiled a total of 693 metabolites across 87 serum samples related to breast cancer (46 clinically localized and 41 metastatic breast cancer) and 49 normal samples...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737581/blockade-of-onecut2-expression-in-ovarian-cancer-inhibited-tumor-cell-proliferation-migration-invasion-and-angiogenesis
#19
Tongyi Lu, Binhua Wu, Yunfei Yu, Wenhui Zhu, Simin Zhang, Yinmei Zhang, Jiaying Guo, Ning Deng
ONECUT2 (One Cut Homeobox 2, OC-2) is a newly discovered transcription factor and aberrant expression of OC-2 is closely related to cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In this study, we found that the OC-2 expression was up-regulated in ovarian adenocarcinoma cells by western blot. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of OC-2 was also increased in malignant ovarian cancer tissue. In order to explore the role of OC-2 in the development of ovarian cancer, siRNA that specifically targets OC-2 were designed...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737580/long-non-coding-rna-foxd2-as1-contributes-to-colorectal-cancer-proliferation-through-its-interaction-with-microrna-185-5p
#20
Yanyan Zhu, Liang Qiao, Yun Zhou, Ning Ma, Chaojie Wang, Jianwei Zhou
Emerging evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNA plays an important role in the carcinogenesis at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. The regulation of carcinogenesis related effectors is potent in the determination of tumor initiation and progression. In current study, FOXD2-AS1 was found to interact with miR-185-5p to modulate proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Interestingly, cell division control (CDC) 42 expression was significantly influenced by FOXD2-AS1 and miR-185-5p...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
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