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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998472/expansions-of-key-protein-families-in-the-german-cockroach-highlight-the-molecular-basis-of-its-remarkable-success-as-a-global-indoor-pest
#1
Mark C Harrison, Nicolas Arning, Lukas P M Kremer, Guillem Ylla, Xavier Belles, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Ann Kathrin Huylmans, Evelien Jongepier, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Stephen Richards, Coby Schal
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a worldwide pest that infests buildings, including homes, restaurants, and hospitals, often living in unsanitary conditions. As a disease vector and producer of allergens, this species has major health and economic impacts on humans. Factors contributing to the success of the German cockroach include its resistance to a broad range of insecticides, immunity to many pathogens, and its ability, as an extreme generalist omnivore, to survive on most food sources. The recently published genome shows that B...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989317/the-evolution-of-sociality-in-termites-from-cockroaches-a-taxonomic-and-phylogenetic-perspective
#2
Frédéric Legendre, Philippe Grandcolas
Despite multiple studies and advances, sociality still puzzles evolutionary biologists in numerous ways, which might be partly addressed with the advent of sociogenomics. In insects, the majority of sociogenomic studies deal with Hymenoptera, one of the two groups that evolved eusociality with termites. But, to fully grasp the evolution of sociality, studies must obviously not restrict to eusocial lineages. Multiple kinds of social system transitions have been recorded and they all bring complementary insights...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975449/diversity-of-pirna-expression-patterns-during-the-ontogeny-of-the-german-cockroach
#3
Natalia Llonga, Guillem Ylla, Josep Bau, Xavier Belles, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) system is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism involved in the control of transposable elements and maintenance of genomic stability, especially in germ line cells and in early embryo stages. However, relevant particularities, both in mechanism and function, exist across species among metazoans and even within the insect class. As a member of the scarcely studied hemimetabolan group, Blattella germanica can be a suitable reference model to study insect evolution. We present the results of a stringent process of identification and study of expressed piRNAs for B...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904995/heterochronic-opsin-expression-due-to-early-light-deprivation-results-in-drastically-shifted-visual-sensitivity-in-a-cichlid-fish-possible-role-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling
#4
Nidal Karagic, Andreas Härer, Axel Meyer, Julián Torres-Dowdall
During early ontogeny, visual opsin gene expression in cichlids is influenced by prevailing light regimen. Red light, for example, leads to an early switch from the expression of short-wavelength sensitive to long-wavelength sensitive opsins. Here, we address the influence of light deprivation on opsin expression. Individuals reared in constant darkness during the first 14 days post-hatching (dph) showed a general developmental delay compared with fish reared under a 12:12 hr light-dark cycle (control group)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888542/reconstructed-evolution-of-insulin-receptors-in-insects-reveals-duplications-in-early-insects-and-cockroaches
#5
Lukas Peter Maria Kremer, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Social insects show an extreme degree of phenotypic plasticity. In highly eusocial species, this manifests in the generation of distinct castes with extreme differences in both morphology and life span. The molecular basis of these differences is highly entangled and not fully understood, but several recent studies demonstrated that insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is one of the key pathways. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of insect insulin receptors (InRs), which are membrane-bound dimers that enable IIS by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular signaling cascades...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845724/remodeling-of-the-juvenile-hormone-pathway-through-caste-biased-gene-expression-and-positive-selection-along-a-gradient-of-termite-eusociality
#6
Evelien Jongepier, Carsten Kemena, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Xavier Belles, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Judith Korb
The evolution of division of labor between sterile and fertile individuals represents one of the major transitions in biological complexity. A fascinating gradient in eusociality evolved among the ancient hemimetabolous insects, ranging from noneusocial cockroaches through the primitively social lower termites-where workers retain the ability to reproduce-to the higher termites, characterized by lifetime commitment to worker sterility. Juvenile hormone (JH) is a prime candidate for the regulation of reproductive division of labor in termites, as it plays a key role in insect postembryonic development and reproduction...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947476/an-alternative-evolutionary-pathway-for-the-twin-tail-goldfish-via-szl-gene-mutation
#7
Gembu Abe, Shu-Hua Lee, Ing-Jia Li, Kinya G Ota
The twin-tail of ornamental goldfish provides unique evolutionary evidence that the highly conserved midline localization of axial skeleton components can be changed by artificial selection. This morphological change is known to be caused by a nonsense mutation in one of the recently duplicated chordin genes, which are key players in dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning. Since all of the multiple twin-tail ornamental goldfish strains share the same mutation, it is reasonable to presume that this mutation occurred only once in domesticated goldfish...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873175/generation-of-albino-medaka-oryzias-latipes-by-crispr-cas9
#8
Jian Fang, Tiansheng Chen, Qihua Pan, Qian Wang
CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool to produce the genetic modification in plants and animals such as mouse and zebrafish. However, this technique was less reported in fish model medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here, we describe an efficient and rapid procedure for genome editing in medaka tyr and generate a stable albino strain. The Cas9 mRNA and gRNA for tyr gene were injected into the embryos of orange-red medaka, and the tyr gene was disrupted in more than 90% of embryos in F0 and F1, which were validated by observation and sequencing of targeted locus...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862646/artificial-light-at-night-prolongs-juvenile-development-time-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#9
Joanna Durrant, L Michael Botha, Mark P Green, Therésa M Jones
A growing body of evidence exists to support a detrimental effect of the presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) on life-history and fitness traits. However, few studies simultaneously investigate multiple traits and the life stages at which changes manifest. We experimentally manipulated ALAN intensities, within those found in the natural environment, to explore the consequences for growth, survival, and reproductive success of the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We reared crickets from egg to adult under a daily light-cycle consisting of 12 hr bright daylight (2,600 lx) followed by either 12 hr darkness (0 lx) or dim-light environments (1, 10, or 100 lx)...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781132/egr2-mediates-the-differentiation-of-mouse-uterine-stromal-cells-responsiveness-to-hb-egf-during-decidualization
#10
Liang Yue, Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Qing Yang, Xue-Chao Tian, Lian-Wen Zheng, Bin Guo
Although Egr2 is involved in regulating the folliculogenesis and ovulation, there is almost no data describing its physiological function in embryo implantation and decidualization. Here, we showed that Egr2 mRNA was distinctly accumulated in subluminal stromal cells around implanting blastocyst on day 5 of pregnancy as well as in estrogen-activated implantation uterus. Estrogen induced the expression of Egr2 in uterine epithelia. Elevated expression of Egr2 mRNA was also observed in the decidual cells. Silencing of Egr2 by specific siRNA weakened the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and reduced the expression of Ccnd1, Ccnd3, Cdk4, and Cdk6...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750393/losp-a-putative-marker-of-parasperm-lineage-in-male-reproductive-system-of-the-prosobranch-mollusk-littorina-obtusata
#11
Arseniy A Lobov, Arina L Maltseva, Viktor V Starunov, Irina Y Babkina, Vadim A Ivanov, Natalia A Mikhailova, Andrey I Granovitch
Reproductive isolation is the key attribute of biological species and establishment of the reproductive barriers is an essential event for speciation. Among the mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gamete incompatibility due to the variability of gamete interaction proteins may drive fast divergence even in sympatry. However, the number of available models to study this phenomenon is limited. In case of internally fertilized invertebrates, models to study gamete incompatibility and sperm competition mechanisms are restricted to a single taxon: insects...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733500/the-second-biennial-meeting-of-the-pan-american-society-for-evolutionary-developmental-biology
#12
Viviane Callier
Evodevo is concerned with understanding how phenotypes develop and evolve, how organismal diversity is generated and maintained, and how evolutionary innovations originate. The second Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology (PASEDB) meeting in Calgary, Canada, showcased a great variety of species and study systems, and a variety of approaches to address these questions. Although there were, like at the first PASEDB meeting, many developmental genetic and genomic studies, much of the work moved beyond comparative developmental genetics toward more integrative studies that seek explanations at different levels of the organismal hierarchy...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682883/comparison-of-oocyte-mrna-localization-patterns-in-sterlet-acipenser-ruthenus-and-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#13
Kseniia Pocherniaieva, Monika Sidova, Milos Havelka, Taiju Saito, Martin Psenicka, Radek Sindelka, Vojtech Kaspar
In oocytes, RNA localization has critical implications, as assembly of proteins in particular subcellular domains is crucial to embryo development. The distribution of mRNA molecules can identify and characterize localized transcripts. The goal of this study was to clarify the origin of primordial germ cells in the oocyte body plan and to reveal the generation of cell lineages by localized RNAs. The distribution of 12 selected mRNAs in sterlet Acipenser ruthenus oocytes was investigated by qPCR tomography and compared with known patterns of mRNA localization in Xenopus laevis...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656535/uterine-and-eggshell-modifications-associated-with-the-evolution-of-viviparity-in-south-american-water-snakes-helicops-spp
#14
Henrique B Braz, Selma M Almeida-Santos, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
The evolution of viviparity requires eggshell thinning to bring together the maternal uterus and extraembryonic membranes to form placentae for physiological exchanges. Eggshell thinning likely involves reduced activity of the uterine glands that secrete it. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the uterine and eggshell structure and histochemistry among oviparous and viviparous water snakes (Helicops) using phylogenetic methods. Eggshell thinning occurred convergently in all three origins of viviparity in Helicops and was accomplished by the loss of the mineral layer and thinning of the shell membrane...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602213/expression-of-the-sox9-foxl2-vasa-and-trpv4-genes-in-the-ovaries-and-testes-of-the-morelet-s-crocodile-crocodylus-moreletii
#15
Adriana Martínez-Juárez, Marco A López-Luna, Tania J Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
The Sox9 gene is important for determining sex in vertebrates, as well as for maintaining testis morphology and fertility during adult life. In the same way, Vasa is an important gene for the maintenance of the germinal lineage and has been highly conserved throughout evolution, as it is expressed in germ cells of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the particular case of crocodiles, the expression of Sox9 during gonadal morphogenesis and in the testes of 3-month-old Alligator mississippiensis has been studied...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602205/noncanonical-hox-etv4-and-gli3-gene-activities-give-insight-into-unique-limb-patterning-in-salamanders
#16
Constanze Bickelmann, Gabriela Neiva Frota-Lima, Sandra Karla Triepel, Akane Kawaguchi, Igor Schneider, Nadia Belinda Fröbisch
Limb development in salamanders is unique among tetrapods in significant ways. Not only can salamanders regenerate lost limbs repeatedly and throughout their lives, but also the preaxial zeugopodial element and digits form before the postaxial ones and, hence, with a reversed polarity compared to all other tetrapods. Moreover, in salamanders with free-swimming larval stages, as exemplified by the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), each digit buds independently, instead of undergoing a paddle stage. Here, we report gene expression patterns of Hoxa and d clusters, and other crucial transcription factors during axolotl limb development...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578654/typological-thinking-then-and-now
#17
Joeri Witteveen
A popular narrative about the history of modern biology has it that Ernst Mayr introduced the distinction between "typological thinking" and "population thinking" to mark a contrast between a metaphysically problematic and a promising foundation for (evolutionary) biology, respectively. This narrative sometimes continues with the observation that, since the late-20th century, typological concepts have been making a comeback in biology, primarily in the context of evolutionary developmental biology...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566459/enormous-expansion-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-omnivorous-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica
#18
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633558/the-evolution-of-empathy-and-devo-evo-what-is-the-connection
#19
EDITORIAL
Gunter P Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537732/female-orgasm-and-the-emergence-of-prosocial-empathy-an-evo-devo-perspective
#20
James Kennedy, Mihaela Pavličev
In human females, direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris plays a central role in reaching orgasm. A majority of women report that penetrative coitus alone is insufficient for triggering orgasm, puzzling researchers who expect orgasm to be an outcome of procreative intercourse. In the present paper, we turn our attention to the evolutionary role that such unreliability of orgasm at coitus might have played in human evolution. We emphasize that we do not thereby attempt an explanation of its origin, but its potential evolutionary effect...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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