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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421540/sewing-up-the-wounds-the-epithelial-morphogenesis-as-a-central-mechanism-of-calcaronean-sponge-regeneration
#1
Andrey I Lavrov, Fyodor V Bolshakov, Daria B Tokina, Alexander V Ereskovsky
Sponges (Porifera) demonstrate prominent regeneration abilities and possess a wide variety of mechanisms, used during this process. In the current study, we combined in vivo observations with histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural technics to elucidate the fine cellular mechanisms of the regeneration in the calcareous sponge Leucosolenia cf. variabilis. The regeneration of Leucosolenia cf. variabilis ends within 4-6 days. The crucial step of the process is the formation of the transient regenerative membrane, formed by the epithelial morphogenesis-spreading of the intact exopinacoderm and choanoderm...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387926/from-gene-list-to-gene-network-recognizing-functional-connections-that-regulate-behavioral-traits
#2
Kyrillos M Faragalla, Anna M Chernyshova, Anthony J Gallo, Graham J Thompson
The study of social breeding systems is often gene focused, and the field of insect sociobiology has been successful at assimilating tools and techniques from molecular biology. One common output from sociogenomic studies is a gene list. Gene lists are readily generated from microarray, RNA sequencing, or other molecular screens that typically aim to prioritize genes based on the differences in their expression. Gene lists, however, are often unsatisfying because the information they provide is simply tabular and does not explain how genes interact with each other, or how genetic interactions change in real time under social or environmental circumstances...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387925/a-novel-allele-of-the-goldfish-chdb-gene-functional-evaluation-and-evolutionary-considerations
#3
Gembu Abe, Ing-Jia Li, Shu-Hua Lee, Kinya G Ota
The twin tail of ornamental goldfish is known to be caused by a nonsense mutation in one chordin paralogue gene. Our previous molecular studies in goldfish revealed that the ancestral chordin gene was duplicated, creating the chdA and chdB genes, and the subsequent introduction of a stop codon allele in the chdA gene ( chdA E127X ) caused the twin-tail morphology. The chdA E127X allele was positively selected by breeders, and the allele was genetically fixed in the ornamental twin-tail goldfish population. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of the chdB paralogue, begging the question: are there the functionally distinct alleles at the chdB locus, and if so, how did they evolve? To address these questions, we conducted molecular sequencing of the chdB gene from five different goldfish strains and discovered two alleles at the chdB gene locus; the two alleles are designated chdB 1 and chdB 2 ...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280505/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-the-fox-gene-family-in-the-leech-helobdella-austinensis
#4
Hee-Jin Kwak, Kyoung-Bin Ryu, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Soon Cheol Park, Sung-Jin Cho
The Forkhead box (Fox) gene family is an evolutionarily ancient gene family named after the Drosophila melanogaster forkhead gene (fkh). Fox genes are highly conserved transcription factors critical for embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. In the current study, we report a whole-genome survey of Fox genes and their expression patterns in the leech Helobdella austienesis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that some Fox genes of leeches are correlated with other Lophotrochozoa and vertebrate Fox genes. Here we have performed semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization of Fox genes throughout the embryonic development of H...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156749/segmentation-pattern-of-zebrafish-caudal-fin-is-affected-by-developmental-temperature-and-defined-by-multiple-fusions-between-segments
#5
Maria Christou, Maria Iliopoulou, Paul Eckhard Witten, George Koumoundouros
Caudal-fin lepidotrichia is composed of numerous segments, which are linked to each other by intersegmental joints. During fish growth, lepidotrichia elongate by the addition of new segments at their distal margin, whereas the length of each segment remains constant after it is formed. In the present paper, we examined whether the water temperature affects the segmentation pattern of the juvenile and adult caudal fin. For this purpose, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were exposed to three different temperature conditions (24°C, 28°C, and 32°C) from the pharyngula stage (1 day postfertilization [dpf]) to metamorphosis, whereas the control temperature (28°C) was applied to all the groups before and after this period...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058118/massive-parallel-expansions-of-methuselah-methuselah-like-receptors-in-schizophoran-diptera
#6
Markus Friedrich, Hanady Chahine, Cristina Al-Jageta, Hamzah Badreddine
The Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is represented by 16 homologs in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three of them have thus far been functionally characterized and found to play critical roles in cell adhesion, immunity, lifespan, and oxidative stress regulation. Evolutionary studies have shown that the large number of D. melanogaster Mth/Mthl GPCRs arose by at least two rounds of gene duplications. The first produced the "mth superclade" subfamily and was followed by the expansion of the "melanogaster subgroup" cluster within the "mth superclade" of Mth/Mthl GPCRs...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168666/the-first-cockroach-genome-and-its-significance-for-understanding-development-and-the-evolution-of-insect-eusociality
#7
EDITORIAL
Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998472/expansions-of-key-protein-families-in-the-german-cockroach-highlight-the-molecular-basis-of-its-remarkable-success-as-a-global-indoor-pest
#8
Mark C Harrison, Nicolas Arning, Lukas P M Kremer, Guillem Ylla, Xavier Belles, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Ann Kathrin Huylmans, Evelien Jongepier, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Stephen Richards, Coby Schal
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a worldwide pest that infests buildings, including homes, restaurants, and hospitals, often living in unsanitary conditions. As a disease vector and producer of allergens, this species has major health and economic impacts on humans. Factors contributing to the success of the German cockroach include its resistance to a broad range of insecticides, immunity to many pathogens, and its ability, as an extreme generalist omnivore, to survive on most food sources. The recently published genome shows that B...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989317/the-evolution-of-sociality-in-termites-from-cockroaches-a-taxonomic-and-phylogenetic-perspective
#9
Frédéric Legendre, Philippe Grandcolas
Despite multiple studies and advances, sociality still puzzles evolutionary biologists in numerous ways, which might be partly addressed with the advent of sociogenomics. In insects, the majority of sociogenomic studies deal with Hymenoptera, one of the two groups that evolved eusociality with termites. But, to fully grasp the evolution of sociality, studies must obviously not restrict to eusocial lineages. Multiple kinds of social system transitions have been recorded and they all bring complementary insights...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975449/diversity-of-pirna-expression-patterns-during-the-ontogeny-of-the-german-cockroach
#10
Natalia Llonga, Guillem Ylla, Josep Bau, Xavier Belles, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) system is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism involved in the control of transposable elements and maintenance of genomic stability, especially in germ line cells and in early embryo stages. However, relevant particularities, both in mechanism and function, exist across species among metazoans and even within the insect class. As a member of the scarcely studied hemimetabolan group, Blattella germanica can be a suitable reference model to study insect evolution. We present the results of a stringent process of identification and study of expressed piRNAs for B...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888542/reconstructed-evolution-of-insulin-receptors-in-insects-reveals-duplications-in-early-insects-and-cockroaches
#11
Lukas Peter Maria Kremer, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Social insects show an extreme degree of phenotypic plasticity. In highly eusocial species, this manifests in the generation of distinct castes with extreme differences in both morphology and life span. The molecular basis of these differences is highly entangled and not fully understood, but several recent studies demonstrated that insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is one of the key pathways. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of insect insulin receptors (InRs), which are membrane-bound dimers that enable IIS by relaying extracellular signals to intracellular signaling cascades...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845724/remodeling-of-the-juvenile-hormone-pathway-through-caste-biased-gene-expression-and-positive-selection-along-a-gradient-of-termite-eusociality
#12
Evelien Jongepier, Carsten Kemena, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Xavier Belles, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Judith Korb
The evolution of division of labor between sterile and fertile individuals represents one of the major transitions in biological complexity. A fascinating gradient in eusociality evolved among the ancient hemimetabolous insects, ranging from noneusocial cockroaches through the primitively social lower termites-where workers retain the ability to reproduce-to the higher termites, characterized by lifetime commitment to worker sterility. Juvenile hormone (JH) is a prime candidate for the regulation of reproductive division of labor in termites, as it plays a key role in insect postembryonic development and reproduction...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566459/enormous-expansion-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-omnivorous-german-cockroach-blattella-germanica
#13
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947476/an-alternative-evolutionary-pathway-for-the-twin-tail-goldfish-via-szl-gene-mutation
#14
Gembu Abe, Shu-Hua Lee, Ing-Jia Li, Kinya G Ota
The twin-tail of ornamental goldfish provides unique evolutionary evidence that the highly conserved midline localization of axial skeleton components can be changed by artificial selection. This morphological change is known to be caused by a nonsense mutation in one of the recently duplicated chordin genes, which are key players in dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning. Since all of the multiple twin-tail ornamental goldfish strains share the same mutation, it is reasonable to presume that this mutation occurred only once in domesticated goldfish...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904995/heterochronic-opsin-expression-due-to-early-light-deprivation-results-in-drastically-shifted-visual-sensitivity-in-a-cichlid-fish-possible-role-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling
#15
Nidal Karagic, Andreas Härer, Axel Meyer, Julián Torres-Dowdall
During early ontogeny, visual opsin gene expression in cichlids is influenced by prevailing light regimen. Red light, for example, leads to an early switch from the expression of short-wavelength sensitive to long-wavelength sensitive opsins. Here, we address the influence of light deprivation on opsin expression. Individuals reared in constant darkness during the first 14 days post-hatching (dph) showed a general developmental delay compared with fish reared under a 12:12 hr light-dark cycle (control group)...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873175/generation-of-albino-medaka-oryzias-latipes-by-crispr-cas9
#16
Jian Fang, Tiansheng Chen, Qihua Pan, Qian Wang
CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool to produce the genetic modification in plants and animals such as mouse and zebrafish. However, this technique was less reported in fish model medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here, we describe an efficient and rapid procedure for genome editing in medaka tyr and generate a stable albino strain. The Cas9 mRNA and gRNA for tyr gene were injected into the embryos of orange-red medaka, and the tyr gene was disrupted in more than 90% of embryos in F0 and F1, which were validated by observation and sequencing of targeted locus...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862646/artificial-light-at-night-prolongs-juvenile-development-time-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#17
Joanna Durrant, L Michael Botha, Mark P Green, Therésa M Jones
A growing body of evidence exists to support a detrimental effect of the presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) on life-history and fitness traits. However, few studies simultaneously investigate multiple traits and the life stages at which changes manifest. We experimentally manipulated ALAN intensities, within those found in the natural environment, to explore the consequences for growth, survival, and reproductive success of the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We reared crickets from egg to adult under a daily light-cycle consisting of 12 hr bright daylight (2,600 lx) followed by either 12 hr darkness (0 lx) or dim-light environments (1, 10, or 100 lx)...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781132/egr2-mediates-the-differentiation-of-mouse-uterine-stromal-cells-responsiveness-to-hb-egf-during-decidualization
#18
Liang Yue, Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Qing Yang, Xue-Chao Tian, Lian-Wen Zheng, Bin Guo
Although Egr2 is involved in regulating the folliculogenesis and ovulation, there is almost no data describing its physiological function in embryo implantation and decidualization. Here, we showed that Egr2 mRNA was distinctly accumulated in subluminal stromal cells around implanting blastocyst on day 5 of pregnancy as well as in estrogen-activated implantation uterus. Estrogen induced the expression of Egr2 in uterine epithelia. Elevated expression of Egr2 mRNA was also observed in the decidual cells. Silencing of Egr2 by specific siRNA weakened the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and reduced the expression of Ccnd1, Ccnd3, Cdk4, and Cdk6...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750393/losp-a-putative-marker-of-parasperm-lineage-in-male-reproductive-system-of-the-prosobranch-mollusk-littorina-obtusata
#19
Arseniy A Lobov, Arina L Maltseva, Viktor V Starunov, Irina Y Babkina, Vadim A Ivanov, Natalia A Mikhailova, Andrey I Granovitch
Reproductive isolation is the key attribute of biological species and establishment of the reproductive barriers is an essential event for speciation. Among the mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gamete incompatibility due to the variability of gamete interaction proteins may drive fast divergence even in sympatry. However, the number of available models to study this phenomenon is limited. In case of internally fertilized invertebrates, models to study gamete incompatibility and sperm competition mechanisms are restricted to a single taxon: insects...
June 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733500/the-second-biennial-meeting-of-the-pan-american-society-for-evolutionary-developmental-biology
#20
Viviane Callier
Evodevo is concerned with understanding how phenotypes develop and evolve, how organismal diversity is generated and maintained, and how evolutionary innovations originate. The second Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology (PASEDB) meeting in Calgary, Canada, showcased a great variety of species and study systems, and a variety of approaches to address these questions. Although there were, like at the first PASEDB meeting, many developmental genetic and genomic studies, much of the work moved beyond comparative developmental genetics toward more integrative studies that seek explanations at different levels of the organismal hierarchy...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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