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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744964/specification-of-larval-axes-of-partial-embryos-in-the-temnopleurid-temnopleurus-toreumaticus-and-the-strongylocentroid-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#1
Chisato Kitazawa, Michihiro Nakano, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Chisato Miyahara, Akira Yamanaka
Many sea urchins, including the strongylocentroid Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, produce an amniotic cavity on the left for adult rudiment formation at the late larval stage. In contrast, temnopleurids form a cell mass at the early larval stage instead of an amniotic cavity. Although the mechanisms establishing left-right polarity of the amniotic cavity involve cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, corresponding pathways for the cell mass are unknown. We analyzed the effects of blastomere isolation on the specification of larval axes in the temnopleurid Temnopleurus toreumaticus and compared them to those in H...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664626/morphological-integration-and-alternative-life-history-strategies-a-case-study-in-a-facultatively-paedomorphic-newt
#2
Nataša Tomašević Kolarov, Milena Cvijanović, Mathieu Denoël, Ana Ivanović
Tetrapod limbs are serially homologous structures that represent a particularly interesting model for studies on morphological integration, i.e. the tendency of developmental systems to produce correlated variation. In newts, limbs develop at an early larval stage and grow continuously, including after the habitat transition from water to land following metamorphosis. However, aquatic and terrestrial environments impose different constraints and locomotor modes that could affect patterns of morphological integration and evolvability...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660752/biased-duplications-and-loss-of-members-in-tdrd-family-in-teleost-fish
#3
Feng Chen, Majing Luo, Fengling Lai, Chunlai Yu, Hanhua Cheng, Rongjia Zhou
Gene expansion and contraction are important evolution events. Some tdrd genes, especially multi-Tudor members, participate in Piwi-interacting RNA pathway and spermatogenesis. However, tdrd evolution and their functions in teleost fish are poorly understood. Here, we identified 14 tdrds in the teleost fish, swamp eel, which were clustered into 12 tdrd branches. Comparative synteny showed biased duplications and loss of members in the tdrd family. Both tdrd6 and tdrd7 were duplicated in the teleost fish, whereas tdrd8 was lost from the original locus...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643469/atra-signaling-regulates-the-expression-of-col9a1-through-bmp2-wnt4-runx1-pathway-in-antler-chondrocytes
#4
Hong-Liang Zhang, Bin Guo, Zhan-Qing Yang, Cui-Cui Duan, Shuang Geng, Kai Wang, Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Peng Yue
Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is involved in the regulation of cartilage growth and development, its regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that ATRA could induce the expression of COL9A1 in antler chondrocytes. Silencing of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) could impede the ATRA-induced upregulation of COL9A1, whereas overexpression of CRABP2 presented the opposite effect. RARα agonist Am80 induced the expression of COL9A1, whereas treatment with RARα antagonist Ro 41-5253 or RXRα small-interfering RNA (siRNA) caused an obvious blockage of ATRA on COL9A1...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643450/scpp-genes-and-their-relatives-in-gar-rapid-expansion-of-mineralization-genes-in-osteichthyans
#5
Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Masato Mikami, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Ingo Braasch, Peter Batzel, John H Postlethwait, Akie Sato, Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama
Gar is an actinopterygian that has bone, dentin, enameloid, and ganoin (enamel) in teeth and/or scales. Mineralization of these tissues involves genes encoding various secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) in osteichthyans, but no SCPP genes have been identified in chondrichthyans to date. In the gar genome, we identified 38 SCPP genes, seven of which encode "acidic-residue-rich" proteins and 31 encode "Pro/Gln (P/Q) rich" proteins. These gar SCPP genes constitute the largest known repertoire, including many newly identified P/Q-rich genes expressed in teeth and/or scales...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612481/review-biological-and-molecular-differences-between-tail-regeneration-and-limb-scarring-in-lizard-an-inspiring-model-addressing-limb-regeneration-in-amniotes
#6
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alibardi
Tissue regeneration in lizards represents a unique model of regeneration and scarring in amniotes. The tail and limb contain putative stem cells but also dedifferentiating cells contribute to regeneration. Following tail amputation, inflammation is low and cell proliferation high, leading to regeneration while the intense inflammation in the limb leads to low proliferation and scarring. FGFs stimulate tail and limb regeneration and are present in the wound epidermis and blastema while they disappear in the limb wound epidermis 2-3 weeks postamputation in the scarring outgrowth...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612405/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-development-in-two-astyanax-cavefish-populations
#7
Bethany A Stahl, Joshua B Gross
Organisms that are isolated into extreme environments often evolve extreme phenotypes. However, global patterns of dynamic gene expression changes that accompany dramatic environmental changes remain largely unknown. The blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, has evolved a number of severe cave-associated phenotypes including loss of vision and pigmentation, craniofacial bone fusions, increased fat storage, reduced sleep, and amplified nonvisual sensory systems. Interestingly, surface-dwelling forms have repeatedly entered different caves throughout Mexico, providing a natural set of "replicate" instances of cave isolation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597591/morphological-variation-in-anuran-limbs-constraints-and-novelties
#8
Marissa Fabrezi, Javier Goldberg, Mariana Chuliver Pereyra
Anurans have three primary types of locomotion: walking, jumping, and swimming. Additionally, they may dig, climb, grasp, etc. All adult anurans have four limbs, with four fingers on the hands and five toes on the feet. We summarized and updated knowledge on the interspecific variation within anuran limbs, then discuss how developmental constraints (e.g., in size) and novelties may have influenced anuran diversification through the locomotion. We analyze morphological variation from limb bud stages up to the final limb form resulting from certain skeletal organization and growth...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573750/chondrification-and-character-identification-in-the-skull-exemplified-for-the-basicranial-anatomy-of-early-squamate-embryos
#9
Oleksandr Yaryhin, Ingmar Werneburg
The neurocranium of vertebrates is mainly derived from early cartilaginous anlagen, the so-called chondrocranium, the base of the future skull. Two initial bar-shaped and paired chondrifications flank the notochord, the rostral trabecles and the caudal parachordals. In most reptiles, there is an additional component, the transverse acrochordal, which is placed between trabecles and parachordals. All these elements compose the base of the future chondrocranium. There are several drastically different hypotheses concerning the development and interrelationship of these elements...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547909/identification-and-expression-of-conserved-and-novel-rna-variants-of-medaka-pax6b-gene
#10
Tiansheng Chen, Benzion Cavari, Manfred Schartl, Yunhan Hong
Gene duplication is a major driving force of evolution. How gene duplicates have evolved remains a mystery. A highly conserved gene such as Pax6 is an ideal model to study functional conservation and divergence via comparisons among diverse organisms. One pax6 gene has been characterized in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), which is annotated as pax6b on chromosome 3. Here, we report that Medaka pax6b is homolog to Pax6 of mammals in sequence, chromosomal synteny, and genomic organization. Cloning and sequencing led to the identification of up to 43 pax6b RNA variants predicting six protein isoforms, 22 of which are similar to those reported in other organisms and 21 represent novel RNA variants...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#11
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544607/spotted-gar-and-the-evolution-of-innate-immune-receptors
#12
Dustin J Wcisel, Tatsuya Ota, Gary W Litman, Jeffrey A Yoder
The resolution of the gar genome affords an opportunity to examine the diversification and functional specialization of immune effector molecules at a distant and potentially informative point in phylogenetic development. Although innate immunity is effected by a particularly large number of different families of molecules, the focus here is to provide detailed characterization of several families of innate receptors that are encoded in large multigene families, for which orthologous forms can be identified in other species of bony fish but not in other vertebrate groups as well as those for which orthologs are present in other vertebrate species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544213/bac-recombineering-of-the-agouti-loci-from-spotted-gar-and-zebrafish-reveals-the-evolutionary-ancestry-of-dorsal-ventral-pigment-asymmetry-in-fish
#13
Laura Cal, Manuel MegÍas, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544452/a-conserved-role-for-vegf-signaling-in-specification-of-homologous-mesenchymal-cell-types-positioned-at-spatially-distinct-developmental-addresses-in-early-development-of-sea-urchins
#14
Eric M Erkenbrack, Elizabeth Petsios
Comparative studies of early development in echinoderms are revealing the tempo and mode of alterations to developmental gene regulatory networks and to the cell types they specify. In euechinoid sea urchins, skeletogenic mesenchyme (SM) ingresses prior to gastrulation at the vegetal pole and aligns into a ring-like array with two bilateral pockets of cells, the sites where spiculogenesis will later occur. In cidaroid sea urchins, the anciently diverged sister clade to euechinoid sea urchins, a homologous SM cell type ingresses later in development, after gastrulation has commenced, and consequently at a distinct developmental address...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656658/pl10-dead-box-protein-is-expressed-during-germ-cell-differentiation-in-the-reptile-podarcis-sicula-family-lacertidae
#15
Liliana Milani, Andrea Pecci, Carmine Cifaldi, Maria Gabriella Maurizii
Among genes involved in the regulation of germ cell differentiation, those of DDX4/Vasa and the Ded1/DDX3 subfamilies encode for DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicases, proteins involved in many mechanisms related to RNA processing. For the first time in reptiles, using specific antibodies at confocal microscopy, we analysed the localization pattern of a Ded1/DDX3 subfamily member in testis and ovary of Podarcis sicula (Ps-PL10) during the reproductive cycle. In testis, Ps-PL10 is expressed in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and it is not detected in spermatogonia...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656657/early-activation-of-mapk-and-apoptosis-in-nutritive-embryos-of-calyptraeid-gastropods
#16
Maryna P Lesoway, Rachel Collin, Ehab Abouheif
Investigation of alternative phenotypes, different morphologies produced by a single genome, has contributed novel insights into development and evolution. Yet, the mechanisms underlying developmental switch points between alternative phenotypes remain poorly understood. The calyptraeid snails Crepidula navicella and Calyptraea lichen produce two phenotypes: viable and nutritive embryos, where nutritive embryos arrest their development after gastrulation and are ingested by their viable siblings as a form of intracapsular nutrition...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371416/origin-function-and-effects-of-female-orgasm-all-three-are-different
#17
Günter P Wagner, Mihaela Pavličev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251828/enriched-environment-increases-pcna-and-parp1-levels-in-octopus-vulgaris-central-nervous-system-first-evidence-of-adult-neurogenesis-in-lophotrochozoa
#18
Carla Bertapelle, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488750/computing-the-extended-synthesis-mapping-the-dynamics-and-conceptual-structure-of-the-evolvability-research-front
#19
Laura Nuño de la Rosa
Since the late 1970s, the field of evolutionary biology has undergone empirical and theoretical developments that have threaten the pillars of evolutionary theory. Some evolutionary biologists have recently argued that evolutionary biology is not experiencing a paradigm shift, but an expansion of the modern synthesis. Philosophers of biology focusing on scientific practices seem to agree with this pluralistic interpretation and have argued that evolutionary theory should rather be seen as an organized network of multiple problem agendas with diverse disciplinary contributors...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422426/dinosaurs-chameleons-humans-and-evo-devo-path-linking-%C3%A3-tienne-geoffroy-s-teratology-waddington-s-homeorhesis-alberch-s-logic-of-monsters-and-goldschmidt-hopeful-monsters
#20
REVIEW
Rui Diogo, Geoffrey Guinard, Raul E Diaz
Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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