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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106045/hyaluronic-acid-in-the-tail-and-limb-of-amphibians-and-lizards-recreates-permissive-embryonic-conditions-for-regeneration-due-to-its-hygroscopic-and-immunosuppressive-properties
#1
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alibardi
The present review focuses on the role of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) during limb and tail regeneration in amphibians and lizards mainly in relation to cells of the immune system. This non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) increases in early stages of wound healing and blastema formation, like during limb or tail embryogenesis, when the immune system is still immature. The formation of a regenerating blastema occurs by the accumulation of mesenchymal cells displaying embryonic-like antigens and HA. This GAG adsorbs large amount of water and generates a soft tissue over 80% hydrated where mesenchymal and epithelial cells can move and interact, an obligatory passage for organ regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044994/characterization-and-expression-pattern-of-r-spondin1-in-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#2
Hailong Li, Wenteng Xu, Ying Zhu, Ning Zhang, Jialu Ma, Ai Sun, Zhongkai Cui, Fengtao Gao, Na Wang, Changwei Shao, Zhongdian Dong, Yangzhen Li
r-spondin1 (rspo1) encodes a secreted protein that is involved in the determination and differentiation of the mammalian ovary. However, little information is yet available for teleosts. Here, we identified a homologue of rspo1 in Cynoglossus semilaevis. The full-length cDNA of rspo1 had a length of 2,703 bp with an open reading frame of 834 bp, encoding a protein with a length of 277 amino-acids. rspo1 expression was detected via qRT-PCR in various tissues, and significant sexually dimorphic expression was observed in the gonads...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834149/maternal-inheritance-of-nanog-ortholog-in-blunt-snout-bream
#3
Miao Yu, Ting Xue, Tiansheng Chen, Jian Fang, Qihua Pan, Yu Deng, Lingyu Li, Kai Chen, Yizhou Wang
The homeodomain transcription factor Nanog plays an essential role in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells in mammals. However, the evolutionary conservation of its ortholog in teleosts remains elusive. Here we isolated and characterized a Nanog homolog named as Ma-Nanog in blunt-snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The full-length genomic sequence is 3,326 bp in length and consists of four exons encoding a homeodomain protein of 386 amino acid residues. Comparison of protein sequences revealed that Ma-Nanog is highly homologous to those in other teleosts, particularly in the homeodomain region...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059507/the-non-visual-opsins-eighteen-in-the-ancestor-of-vertebrates-astonishing-increase-in-ray-finned-fish-and-loss-in-amniotes
#4
Felix Emile Gastonguay Beaudry, Tom W Iwanicki, Bertha Ruth Zelada Mariluz, Sylvain Darnet, Henner Brinkmann, Patricia Schneider, John Stewart Taylor
Non-visual opsins were discovered in the early 1990s. These genes play roles in circadian rhythm in mammals, seasonal reproduction in birds, light avoidance in amphibian larvae, and neural development in fish. However, the interpretation of such studies and the success of future work are compromised by the fact that non-visual opsin repertoires have not been properly characterized in any of these lineages. Here, we show that non-visual opsins from tetrapods and ray-finned fish are distributed among 18 monophyletic subfamilies...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059506/the-spotted-gar-genomic-journeys-into-a-lost-world
#5
EDITORIAL
Ingo Braasch, John H Postlethwait
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980772/genetic-variation-and-biogeography-of-the-spotted-gar-lepisosteus-oculatus-from-core-and-peripheral-populations
#6
Solomon R David, Jeremy J Wright
The spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) shows a disjunct natural distribution, with a core population extending from the central Mississippi River Basin to the U.S. gulf coast and a peripheral population in the southern Great Lakes Basin. Despite significant conservation concerns for this species in the Great Lakes watersheds where it occurs, few genetic examinations and comparisons of these populations have been performed. We investigated inter- and intrapopulational variation in several mitochondrial genetic markers (cytochrome oxidase subunit I, COI; cytochrome oxidase subunit II, COII; and 16S rRNA, 16S) from spotted gars taken from core and peripheral populations...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944589/evolution-of-gene-expression-after-whole-genome-duplication-new-insights-from-the-spotted-gar-genome
#7
Jeremy Pasquier, Ingo Braasch, Peter Batzel, Cedric Cabau, Jérome Montfort, Thaovi Nguyen, Elodie Jouanno, Camille Berthelot, Christophe Klopp, Laurent Journot, John H Postlethwait, Yann Guiguen, Julien Bobe
Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are important evolutionary events. Our understanding of underlying mechanisms, including the evolution of duplicated genes after WGD, however, remains incomplete. Teleost fish experienced a common WGD (teleost-specific genome duplication, or TGD) followed by a dramatic adaptive radiation leading to more than half of all vertebrate species. The analysis of gene expression patterns following TGD at the genome level has been limited by the lack of suitable genomic resources. The recent concomitant release of the genome sequence of spotted gar (a representative of holosteans, the closest-related lineage of teleosts that lacks the TGD) and the tissue-specific gene expression repertoires of over 20 holostean and teleostean fish species, including spotted gar, zebrafish, and medaka (the PhyloFish project), offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of gene expression following TGD in teleosts...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921831/analysis-of-the-spotted-gar-genome-suggests-absence-of-causative-link-between-ancestral-genome-duplication-and-transposable-element-diversification-in-teleost-fish
#8
Domitille Chalopin, Jean-Nicolas Volff
Teleost fish have been shown to contain many superfamilies of transposable elements (TEs) that are absent from most tetrapod genomes. Since theories predict an increase in TE activity following polyploidization, such diversity might be linked to the 3R whole-genome duplication that occurred approximately 300 million years ago before the teleost radiation. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the genome of the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, which diverged from the teleost lineage before the 3R duplication...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643450/scpp-genes-and-their-relatives-in-gar-rapid-expansion-of-mineralization-genes-in-osteichthyans
#9
Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Masato Mikami, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Ingo Braasch, Peter Batzel, John H Postlethwait, Akie Sato, Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama
Gar is an actinopterygian that has bone, dentin, enameloid, and ganoin (enamel) in teeth and/or scales. Mineralization of these tissues involves genes encoding various secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) in osteichthyans, but no SCPP genes have been identified in chondrichthyans to date. In the gar genome, we identified 38 SCPP genes, seven of which encode "acidic-residue-rich" proteins and 31 encode "Pro/Gln (P/Q) rich" proteins. These gar SCPP genes constitute the largest known repertoire, including many newly identified P/Q-rich genes expressed in teeth and/or scales...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544607/spotted-gar-and-the-evolution-of-innate-immune-receptors
#10
Dustin J Wcisel, Tatsuya Ota, Gary W Litman, Jeffrey A Yoder
The resolution of the gar genome affords an opportunity to examine the diversification and functional specialization of immune effector molecules at a distant and potentially informative point in phylogenetic development. Although innate immunity is effected by a particularly large number of different families of molecules, the focus here is to provide detailed characterization of several families of innate receptors that are encoded in large multigene families, for which orthologous forms can be identified in other species of bony fish but not in other vertebrate groups as well as those for which orthologs are present in other vertebrate species...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544213/bac-recombineering-of-the-agouti-loci-from-spotted-gar-and-zebrafish-reveals-the-evolutionary-ancestry-of-dorsal-ventral-pigment-asymmetry-in-fish
#11
Laura Cal, Manuel MegÍas, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229564/diversification-of-hox-gene-clusters-in-osteoglossomorph-fish-in-comparison-to-other-teleosts-and-the-spotted-gar-outgroup
#12
Kyle J Martin, Peter W H Holland
An ancient genome duplication (TGD or 3R) occurred in teleost fish after divergence from the lineage leading to gar. This genome duplication is shared by the three extant teleost lineages: Osteoglossomorpha (bony-tongues), Elopomorpha (eels and tarpons), and Clupeocephala (a large clade including salmon, carp, medaka, zebrafish, cichlids, pufferfish, stickleback, and ∼26,000 other species). After TGD, different clupeocephalan species retained different gene duplicates; this is seen clearly in Hox gene clusters but extends to all genes...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074622/-holostei-versus-halecostomi-problem-insight-from-cytogenetics-of-ancient-nonteleost-actinopterygian-fish-bowfin-amia-calva
#13
Zuzana Majtánová, Radka Symonová, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Lauren Sallan, Petr Ráb
Bowfin belongs to an ancient lineage of nonteleost ray-finned fishes (actinopterygians) and is the only extant survivor of a once diverged group, the Halecomorphi or Amiiformes. Owing to the scarcity of extant nonteleost ray-finned lineages, also referred as "living fossils," their phylogenetic interrelationships have been the target of multiple hypotheses concerning their sister group relationships. Molecular and morphological data sets have produced controversial results; bowfin is considered as either the sister group to genome-duplicated teleosts (together forming the group of Halecostomi) or to gars (Lepisosteiformes; together forming the group of Holostei)...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035749/genome-compositional-organization-in-gars-shows-more-similarities-to-mammals-than-to-other-ray-finned-fish
#14
Radka Symonová, Zuzana Majtánová, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Libor Mořkovský, Tereza Kořínková, Lionel Cavin, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Marie Doležálková, Martin Flajšhans, Eric Normandeau, Petr Ráb, Axel Meyer, Louis Bernatchez
Genomic GC content can vary locally, and GC-rich regions are usually associated with increased DNA thermostability in thermophilic prokaryotes and warm-blooded eukaryotes. Among vertebrates, fish and amphibians appeared to possess a distinctly less heterogeneous AT/GC organization in their genomes, whereas cytogenetically detectable GC heterogeneity has so far only been documented in mammals and birds. The subject of our study is the gar, an ancient "living fossil" of a basal ray-finned fish lineage, known from the Cretaceous period...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815920/corrigenda-the-regulation-of-uterine-proinflammatory-gene-expression-during-pregnancy-in-the-live-bearing-lizard-pseudemoia-entrecasteauxii
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744964/specification-of-larval-axes-of-partial-embryos-in-the-temnopleurid-temnopleurus-toreumaticus-and-the-strongylocentroid-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#16
Chisato Kitazawa, Michihiro Nakano, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Chisato Miyahara, Akira Yamanaka
Many sea urchins, including the strongylocentroid Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, produce an amniotic cavity on the left for adult rudiment formation at the late larval stage. In contrast, temnopleurids form a cell mass at the early larval stage instead of an amniotic cavity. Although the mechanisms establishing left-right polarity of the amniotic cavity involve cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, corresponding pathways for the cell mass are unknown. We analyzed the effects of blastomere isolation on the specification of larval axes in the temnopleurid Temnopleurus toreumaticus and compared them to those in H...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643469/atra-signaling-regulates-the-expression-of-col9a1-through-bmp2-wnt4-runx1-pathway-in-antler-chondrocytes
#17
Hong-Liang Zhang, Bin Guo, Zhan-Qing Yang, Cui-Cui Duan, Shuang Geng, Kai Wang, Hai-Fan Yu, Zhan-Peng Yue
Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is involved in the regulation of cartilage growth and development, its regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that ATRA could induce the expression of COL9A1 in antler chondrocytes. Silencing of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) could impede the ATRA-induced upregulation of COL9A1, whereas overexpression of CRABP2 presented the opposite effect. RARα agonist Am80 induced the expression of COL9A1, whereas treatment with RARα antagonist Ro 41-5253 or RXRα small-interfering RNA (siRNA) caused an obvious blockage of ATRA on COL9A1...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612481/review-biological-and-molecular-differences-between-tail-regeneration-and-limb-scarring-in-lizard-an-inspiring-model-addressing-limb-regeneration-in-amniotes
#18
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alibardi
Tissue regeneration in lizards represents a unique model of regeneration and scarring in amniotes. The tail and limb contain putative stem cells but also dedifferentiating cells contribute to regeneration. Following tail amputation, inflammation is low and cell proliferation high, leading to regeneration while the intense inflammation in the limb leads to low proliferation and scarring. FGFs stimulate tail and limb regeneration and are present in the wound epidermis and blastema while they disappear in the limb wound epidermis 2-3 weeks postamputation in the scarring outgrowth...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612405/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-development-in-two-astyanax-cavefish-populations
#19
Bethany A Stahl, Joshua B Gross
Organisms that are isolated into extreme environments often evolve extreme phenotypes. However, global patterns of dynamic gene expression changes that accompany dramatic environmental changes remain largely unknown. The blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, has evolved a number of severe cave-associated phenotypes including loss of vision and pigmentation, craniofacial bone fusions, increased fat storage, reduced sleep, and amplified nonvisual sensory systems. Interestingly, surface-dwelling forms have repeatedly entered different caves throughout Mexico, providing a natural set of "replicate" instances of cave isolation...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597591/morphological-variation-in-anuran-limbs-constraints-and-novelties
#20
Marissa Fabrezi, Javier Goldberg, Mariana Chuliver Pereyra
Anurans have three primary types of locomotion: walking, jumping, and swimming. Additionally, they may dig, climb, grasp, etc. All adult anurans have four limbs, with four fingers on the hands and five toes on the feet. We summarized and updated knowledge on the interspecific variation within anuran limbs, then discuss how developmental constraints (e.g., in size) and novelties may have influenced anuran diversification through the locomotion. We analyze morphological variation from limb bud stages up to the final limb form resulting from certain skeletal organization and growth...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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