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Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921363/morphomechanics-and-developmental-constraints-in-the-evolution-of-ammonites-shell-form
#1
Alexander Erlich, Derek E Moulton, Alain Goriely, Regis Chirat
The idea that physical processes involved in biological development underlie morphogenetic rules and channel morphological evolution has been central to the rise of evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we explore this idea in the context of seashell morphogenesis. We show that a morphomechanical model predicts the effects of variations in shell shape on the ornamental pattern in ammonites, a now extinct group of cephalopods with external chambered shell. Our model shows that several seemingly unrelated characteristics of synchronous, ontogenetic, intraspecific, and evolutionary variations in ornamental patterns among various ammonite species may all be understood from the fact that the mechanical forces underlying the oscillatory behavior of the shell secreting system scale with the cross-sectional curvature of the shell aperture...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862964/morphological-and-molecular-analyses-of-an-anatomical-novelty-the-pelvic-fin-filaments-of-the-south-american-lungfish
#2
Sergio Q Lima, Carinne M Costa, Chris T Amemiya, Igor Schneider
The pelvic fins of male South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, are adorned with a distinctive array of filaments, which grow and become highly vascularized during the breeding season. The resemblance between these pelvic fin filaments (PFFs) and external gills of other vertebrates suggested that this gill-like structure was used for physiological gas exchange. It has been proposed that the unique pelvic fin of male L. paradoxa is used for release of oxygen from its blood into the environment in order to aerate its nesting brood, or, conversely, as an auxiliary respiratory organ by absorbing oxygen from the environment into its bloodstream...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862951/characterization-and-evolution-of-the-spotted-gar-retina
#3
Joshua M Sukeena, Carlos A Galicia, Jacob D Wilson, Tim McGinn, Janette W Boughman, Barrie D Robison, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Deborah L Stenkamp, Peter G Fuerst
In this study, we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high-quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781409/treeexp1-0-r-package-for-analyzing-expression-evolution-based-on-rna-seq-data
#4
Hang Ruan, Zhixi Su, Xun Gu
Recent innovation of RNA-seq technology has shed insightful light on the transcriptomic evolution studies, especially on researches of tissue-specific expression evolution. Phylogenetic analysis of transcriptome data may help to identify causal gene expression differences underlying the evolutionary changes in morphological, physiological, and developmental characters of interest. However, there is a deficiency of software to phylogenetically analyze transcriptome data. To address this need, we have developed an R package TreeExp that can perform comparative expression evolution analysis based on RNA-seq data, which includes optimized input formatting, normalization, pairwise expression distance estimation, expression character tree inference, and preliminary expression phylogenetic network analysis...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781385/an-epigenetic-perspective-on-the-midwife-toad-experiments-of-paul-kammerer-1880-1926
#5
REVIEW
Alexander O Vargas, Quirin Krabichler, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659033/heterochrony-and-morphological-variation-of-epithalamic-asymmetry
#6
Iskra A Signore, Miguel L Concha
Heterochrony is one proposed mechanism to explain how morphological variation and novelty arise during evolution. To experimentally approach heterochrony in a comprehensive manner, we must consider all three aspects of developmental time (sequence, timing, duration). This task is only possible in developmental models that allow the acquisition of high-quality temporal data in the context of normalized developmental time. Here we propose that epithalamic asymmetry of teleosts is one such model. Comparative studies among related teleost species have revealed heterochronic shifts in the timing of ontogenic events leading to the development of epithalamic asymmetry...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658924/toward-an-understanding-of-divergent-compound-eye-development-in-drones-and-workers-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l-a-correlative-analysis-of-morphology-and-gene-expression
#7
David S Marco Antonio, Klaus Hartfelder
Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649924/greater-growth-of-proximal-metatarsals-in-bird-embryos-and-the-evolution-of-hallux-position-in-the-grasping-foot
#8
João Francisco Botelho, Daniel Smith-Paredes, Sergio Soto-Acuña, Daniel Núñez-León, Verónica Palma, Alexander O Vargas
In early theropod dinosaurs-the ancestors of birds-the hallux (digit 1) had an elevated position within the foot and had lost the proximal portion of its metatarsal. It no longer articulated with the ankle, but was attached at about mid-length of metatarsal 2 (mt2). In adult birds, the hallux is articulated closer to the distal end of mt2 at ground level with the other digits. However, on chick embryonic day 7, its position is as in early theropods at half-length of mt2. The adult distal location is acquired during embryonic days 8-10...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700007/what-the-evolution-of-female-orgasm-teaches-us
#9
Günter P Wagner, Mihaela Pavličev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554771/analysis-of-genomewide-dna-methylation-reveals-differences-in-dna-methylation-levels-between-dormant-and-naturally-as-well-as-artificially-potentiated-pedicle-periosteum-of-sika-deer-cervus-nippon
#10
Chun Yang, Xiao Lu, Hongmei Sun, Wen Hui Chu, Chunyi Li
Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages that can fully regenerate each year from the permanent bony protuberances of the frontal bones, called pedicles. Pedicle periosteum (PP) is the key tissue for antler regeneration and the source of antler stem cells. The distal one third of the PP has acquired the ability to regenerate antlers and is termed the potentiated PP (PPP), whereas the proximal two thirds of the PP requires further interactions within its niche to launch antler regeneration and is termed the dormant PP (DPP)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527384/sexually-dimorphic-expression-of-foxl2-and-ftz-f1-in-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#11
Qiaomu Hu, Yan Meng, Haifeng Tian, Y U Zhang, Hanbing Xiao
Foxl2 and FTZ-F1 play a crucial role in the regulation of gonad development in fish and mammals, but studies of their function in amphibians are scarce. We isolated the full length of Foxl2 (adFoxl2) and Ftz-F1 (adFtz-f1) cDNA from the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and quantified its expression in various tissues and developing gonads. The adFoxl2 gene encodes 301aa including a conserved forkhead box, and the adFtz-f1 gene encodes 467aa containing an Ftz-F1 box. The amino acid sequences showed high homology with other amphibians...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511594/comparison-and-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-two-approaches-of-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-dicect-for-avian-cephalic-material
#12
Zhiheng Li, Richard A Ketcham, Fei Yan, Jessica A Maisano, Julia A Clarke
Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography presents a comparatively new tool kit for imaging fine-scale three-dimensional phenotypes that is rapidly becoming standard anatomical practice. However, relatively few studies have attempted to look at subtle differences in staining protocols or attempted to model tissue reactions to gain insight into staining mechanisms. Here, two iodine-based contrast agents, iodine-ethanol (I2 E) and iodine-potassium iodide (I2 KI) in neutral buffered formalin , were applied to avian cephalic specimens to investigate their effectiveness...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506161/sauropsids-cornification-is-based-on-corneous-beta-proteins-a-special-type-of-keratin-associated-corneous-proteins-of-the-epidermis
#13
Lorenzo Alibardi
The evolution of the process of cornification in amniote epidermis from the general process of keratinization present in simple epithelia of anamniotes took place through the evolution of specialized intermediate filament (α) keratins, keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) and corneous proteins (CPs). The scanty information on the three-dimensional conformation of known KAPs and CPs indicate these proteins contain α-helix, random coiled, or beta sheets with different lengths and organizations. CP genes originated in a chromosome locus indicated as epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), and transformed the epidermal keratinization of anamniotes into the cornified epidermis and skin appendages of amniotes (claws, beaks, and feathers)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478160/the-evolutionary-origin-of-female-orgasm
#14
Mihaela Pavličev, Günter Wagner
The evolutionary explanation of female orgasm has been difficult to come by. The orgasm in women does not obviously contribute to the reproductive success, and surprisingly unreliably accompanies heterosexual intercourse. Two types of explanations have been proposed: one insisting on extant adaptive roles in reproduction, another explaining female orgasm as a byproduct of selection on male orgasm, which is crucial for sperm transfer. We emphasize that these explanations tend to focus on evidence from human biology and thus address the modification of a trait rather than its evolutionary origin...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554589/functional-diversification-of-the-four-marcks-family-members-in-zebrafish-neural-development
#15
Daniel Prieto, Flavio R Zolessi
Myristoylated alanin-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) and MARCKS-like 1, each encoded by a different gene, comprise a very small family of actin-modulating proteins with essential roles in mammalian neural development. We show here that four genes (two marcks and two marcksl1) are present in teleosts including zebrafish, while ancient actinopterigians, sarcopterigian fishes, and chondrichtyans only have two. No marcks genes were found in agnaths or invertebrates. All four zebrafish genes are expressed during development, and we show here how their early knockdown causes defects in neural development, with some phenotypical differences...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507740/deep-into-the-aristolochia-flower-expression-of-c-d-and-e-class-genes-in-aristolochia-fimbriata-aristolochiaceae
#16
Harold Suárez-Baron, Pablo Pérez-Mesa, Barbara A Ambrose, Favio González, Natalia Pabón-Mora
Aristolochia fimbriata (Aristolochiaceae) is a member of an early diverging lineage of flowering plants and a promising candidate for evo-devo studies. Aristolochia flowers exhibit a unique floral synorganization that consists of a monosymmetric and petaloid calyx formed by three congenitally fused sepals, and a gynostemium formed by the congenital fusion between stamens and the stigmatic region of the carpels. This floral ground plan atypical in the magnoliids can be used to evaluate the role of floral organ identity MADS-box genes during early flower evolution...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491339/evolutionary-developmental-biology-evo-devo-research-in-latin-america
#17
Sylvain Marcellini, Favio González, Andres F Sarrazin, Natalia Pabón-Mora, Mariana Benítez, Alma Piñeyro-Nelson, Gustavo L Rezende, Ernesto Maldonado, Patricia Neiva Schneider, Mariana B Grizante, Rodrigo Nunes DA Fonseca, Francisco Vergara-Silva, Vanessa Suaza-Gaviria, Cecilia Zumajo-Cardona, Eduardo E Zattara, Sofia Casasa, Harold Suárez-Baron, Federico D Brown
Famous for its blind cavefish and Darwin's finches, Latin America is home to some of the richest biodiversity hotspots of our planet. The Latin American fauna and flora inspired and captivated naturalists from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including such notable pioneers such as Fritz Müller, Florentino Ameghino, and Léon Croizat who made a significant contribution to the study of embryology and evolutionary thinking. But, what are the historical and present contributions of the Latin American scientific community to Evo-Devo? Here, we provide the first comprehensive overview of the Evo-Devo laboratories based in Latin America and describe current lines of research based on endemic species, focusing on body plans and patterning, systematics, physiology, computational modeling approaches, ecology, and domestication...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381278/analysis-of-cell-size-in-the-gastrula-of-ten-frog-species-reveals-a-correlation-of-egg-with-cell-sizes-and-a-conserved-pattern-of-small-cells-in-the-marginal-zone
#18
Alexandra Vargas, Eugenia M Del Pino
We investigated the relationship between egg and cell sizes in the early gastrula of ten species of frogs with eggs of 1,100-3,500 μm diameters. We asked whether differences in cell size of the vegetal region, blastocoel roof, and marginal zone of the early gastrula were associated with egg size. Alternatively, we proposed that cell size differences may associate with gastrulation characteristics. The analyzed species were as follows: Xenopus laevis, Engystomops randi, Engystomops coloradorum, Espadarana callistomma, Epipedobates machalilla, Epipedobates anthonyi, Epipedobates tricolor, Dendrobates auratus, Gastrotheca riobambae, and Eleutherodactylus coqui...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507801/the-role-of-hox-in-pisiform-and-calcaneus-growth-plate-formation-and-the-nature-of-the-zeugopod-autopod-boundary
#19
Philip L Reno, Kelsey M Kjosness, Jasmine E Hines
The mesopodium forms at the boundary between the zeugopod and autopod and is composed of short nodular bones that typically lack growth plates. Hoxa11 and Hoxa13 are expressed in mutually exclusive proximal-distal domains that demarcate the zeugopod/autopod boundary. Similarly, Hoxd genes are deployed in two distinct phases during limb development. The early phase corresponds to proximal segments including the zeugopod, and a late phase occurs in the digits. This arrangement produces a gap of low Hoxd expression that is traditionally viewed to correspond to the mesopodium...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381191/a-single-chance-to-contact-multiple-targets-distinct-osteocyte-morphotypes-shed-light-on-the-cellular-mechanism-ensuring-the-robust-formation-of-osteocytic-networks
#20
Alan Fritz, Ariana Bertin, Patricia Hanna, Francisco Nualart, Sylvain Marcellini
The formation of the complex osteocytic network relies on the emission of long cellular processes involved in communication, mechanical strain sensing, and bone turnover control. Newly deposited osteocytic processes rapidly become trapped within the calcifying matrix, and, therefore, they must adopt their definitive conformation and contact their targets in a single morphogenetic event. However, the cellular mechanisms ensuring the robustness of this unique mode of morphogenesis remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the developing calvaria of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis by confocal, two-photon, and super-resolution imaging, and described flattened osteocytes lying within a woven bone structured in lamellae of randomly oriented collagen fibers...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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