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Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033665/challenges-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-disorders-of-sex-development
#1
REVIEW
Katherine Kutney, Laura Konczal, Beth Kaminski, Naveen Uli
Disorders of sex development (DSD) represent a spectrum of uncommon but very complex disorders with medical, psychosexual, and family implications for those affected by them. The diagnosis and management of these disorders requires a coordinated team of multiple specialists. Following an international conference in Chicago in 2005, a consensus statement was created and presented, which has resulted in a new paradigm in the nomenclature, classification, and management of DSDs. Since that time, many improvements have been forthcoming, most notably in the area of molecular genetic technologies...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033664/why-boys-will-be-boys-and-girls-will-be-girls-human-sex-development-and-its-defects
#2
REVIEW
Wassim Eid, Anna Biason-Lauber
Among the most defining events of an individual's life, is the development of a human embryo into male or a female. The phenotypic sex of an individual depends on the type of gonad that develops in the embryo, a process which itself is determined by the genetic setting of the individual. The development of the gonads is different from any other organ, as they possess the potential to differentiate into two functionally distinct organs, testes, or ovaries. Sex development can be divided into two distinctive processes, "sex determination," which is the commitment of the undifferentiated gonad into either a testis or an ovary, a process that is genetically programmed in a critically timed manner and "sex differentiation," which takes place through hormones produced by the gonads, once the developmental sex determination decision has been made...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033663/review-disorders-of-sex-development-the-evolving-role-of-genomics-in-diagnosis-and-gene-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Brittany Croft, Katie Ayers, Andrew Sinclair, Thomas Ohnesorg
Disorders of Sex Development (DSDs) are a major paediatric concern and are estimated to occur in around 1.7% of all live births (Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality, Basic Books, New York, 2000). They are often caused by the breakdown in the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie gonadal development and differentiation. Having a genetic diagnosis can be important for patients with a DSD: it can increase acceptance of a disorder often surrounded by stigma, alter clinical management and it can assist in reproductive planning...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033662/sociocultural-aspects-of-disorders-of-sex-development
#4
REVIEW
Annastasia Ediati, Nani Maharani, Agustini Utari
Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a congenital condition in which the development of chromosomes, gonads, hormones, and reproductive structures are atypical. DSD brings with it a psychological impact on the affected individual and their families. The consensus statement on management of DSD strongly advised an integrated and multidisciplinary approach in providing care to the affected individuals. Studies have been conducted focusing on medical intervention, and more recently, there is increasing attention paid to psychological aspects of DSD...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033661/introduction-sex-development
#5
Michiko Watanabe, Naveen Uli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033660/wide-spectrum-of-nr5a1-related-phenotypes-in-46-xy-and-46-xx-individuals
#6
REVIEW
Sorahia Domenice, Aline Zamboni Machado, Frederico Moraes Ferreira, Bruno Ferraz-de-Souza, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Lin Lin, Mirian Yumie Nishi, Nathalia Lisboa Gomes, Thatiana Evelin da Silva, Rosana Barbosa Silva, Rafaela Vieira Correa, Luciana Ribeiro Montenegro, Amanda Narciso, Elaine Maria Frade Costa, John C Achermann, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca
Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF-1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1-related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033659/genetic-and-epigenetic-effects-in-sex-determination
#7
REVIEW
Sezgin Ozgur Gunes, Asli Metin Mahmutoglu, Ashok Agarwal
Sex determination is a complex and dynamic process with multiple genetic and environmental causes, in which germ and somatic cells receive various sex-specific features. During the fifth week of fetal life, the bipotential embryonic gonad starts to develop in humans. In the bipotential gonadal tissue, certain cell groups start to differentiate to form the ovaries or testes. Despite considerable efforts and advances in identifying the mechanisms playing a role in sex determination and differentiation, the underlying mechanisms of the exact functions of many genes, gene-gene interactions, and epigenetic modifications that are involved in different stages of this cascade are not completely understood...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033658/multiple-exposures-to-environmental-pollutants-and-oxidative-stress-is-there-a-sex-specific-risk-of-developmental-complications-for-fetuses
#8
REVIEW
Kaïs H Al-Gubory
Medically assisted procreation significantly contributes to an increase in twin pregnancies. One of the major factors contributing to more twin births is the use of fertility treatments. Twin pregnancy is not without a risk for fetal organ development and the health outcome of new-borns, children, and adults. Multiple pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of developmental complications, such as perinatal mortality, premature births, and low birth weight. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders such as abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, and prenatal mortality...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774781/fetal-programming-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768243/prenatal-exposure-to-environmental-factors-and-congenital-limb-defects
#10
REVIEW
Peter G Alexander, Karen L Clark, Rocky S Tuan
Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718306/common-congenital-anomalies-environmental-causes-and-prevention-with-folic-acid-containing-multivitamins
#11
REVIEW
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653964/the-effect-of-maternal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-fetal-and-neonatal-development-a-review-on-the-major-concerns
#12
REVIEW
Maddalena Mallozzi, Giulia Bordi, Chiara Garo, Donatella Caserta
There is a widespread exposure of general population, including pregnant women and developing fetuses, to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These chemicals have been reported to be present in urine, blood serum, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Endocrine disruptions induced by environmental toxicants have placed a heavy burden on society, since environmental exposures during critical periods of development can permanently reprogram normal physiological responses, thereby increasing susceptibility to disease later in life-a process known as developmental reprogramming...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581067/fine-particle-induced-birth-defects-impacts-of-size-payload-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Chuanfeng Teng, Zhiping Wang, Bing Yan
Worldwide epidemiological studies have shown that exposures to particulate matters (PMs), such as PM2.5 or PM10 , during pregnancy cause birth defects in the newborn. Although mechanistic understanding of such effects are not available, recent research using murine models highlights some key progress: (1) toxicity caused by PMs is a combined effects of particles and the adsorbed toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, bacteria, and virus. Fine particles may hold on to pollutants and, therefore, reduce their toxicity or enhance the toxicity by carrying pollutants crossing the placental barrier; (2) smaller size, certain particle surface chemistry modifications, early developmental stage of placenta, and maternal diseases all aggravate PM-induced birth defects; (3) molecular events involved in such toxicity are begin to emerge: induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and alteration of molecular signaling or epigenetic events are some possible causes...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345015/cocaine-induced-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-underlying-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Melissa M Martin, Devon L Graham, Deirdre M McCarthy, Pradeep G Bhide, Gregg D Stanwood
Exposure to drugs early in life has complex and long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. This review summarizes work to date on the immediate and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. In utero cocaine exposure produces disruptions in brain monoamines, particularly dopamine, during sensitive periods of brain development, and leads to permanent changes in specific brain circuits, molecules, and behavior. Here, we integrate clinical studies and significance with mechanistic preclinical studies, to define our current knowledge base and identify gaps for future investigation...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345014/prenatal-exposure-the-effects-of-prenatal-cocaine-and-methamphetamine-exposure-on-the-developing-child
#15
REVIEW
Lynne M Smith, Lucinda S Santos
Prenatal substance use remains a significant issue in the United States. Initial reports regarding prenatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure suggested profound adverse effects on child development. However, subsequent prospective, longitudinal investigations have found more subtle effects. What follows is a brief review of the health, growth, behavioral, and intellectual outcomes for children exposed to prenatal cocaine and prenatal methamphetamine. Factors that may mitigate or intensify subtle adverse effects manifested in exposed children will also be discussed...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345013/fetal-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-of-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-exacerbation-by-ethanol-and-methamphetamine
#16
REVIEW
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345012/prenatal-substance-use-and-developmental-disorders-overview-and-highlights
#17
EDITORIAL
Rocky S Tuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297291/mechanisms-involved-in-the-neurotoxic-and-cognitive-effects-of-developmental-methamphetamine-exposure
#18
REVIEW
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Methamphetamine exposure in utero leads to a variety of higher-order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention and working, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children (Piper et al., 2011; Roussotte et al., 2011; Kiblawi et al., 2011). As with other teratogens, the timing of methamphetamine exposure greatly determines its effects on both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes. Methamphetamine exposure in rodents during the third trimester human equivalent period of brain development results in distinct and long-lasting route-based and spatial navigation deficits (Williams et al...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297122/impact-of-fetal-alcohol-exposure-on-body-systems-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Courtney Caputo, Erin Wood, Leila Jabbour
UNLABELLED: Review of published manuscripts on fetal alcohol exposure on several body systems. METHOD: Articles in this review were found online using databases such as Medline, Medline Complete, PubMed, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. The following terms were searched: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal alcohol exposure, and alcohol related birth defects. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were gathered, five original investigations and eight reviews...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297020/the-effects-of-nicotine-on-human-fetal-development
#20
REVIEW
Bradley D Holbrook
Maternal smoking during pregnancy continues to represent a major public health concern. Nicotine is extremely harmful to the developing fetus through many different mechanisms, and the harms increase with later gestational age at exposure. Pregnancies complicated by maternal nicotine use are more likely to have significant adverse outcomes. Nicotine-exposed children tend to have several health problems throughout their lives, including impaired function of the endocrine, reproductive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
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