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Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768243/prenatal-exposure-to-environmental-factors-and-congenital-limb-defects
#1
Peter G Alexander, Karen L Clark, Rocky S Tuan
Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact...
October 21, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653964/the-effect-of-maternal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-fetal-and-neonatal-development-a-review-on-the-major-concerns
#2
Maddalena Mallozzi, Giulia Bordi, Chiara Garo, Donatella Caserta
There is a widespread exposure of general population, including pregnant women and developing fetuses, to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These chemicals have been reported to be present in urine, blood serum, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Endocrine disruptions induced by environmental toxicants have placed a heavy burden on society, since environmental exposures during critical periods of development can permanently reprogram normal physiological responses, thereby increasing susceptibility to disease later in life-a process known as developmental reprogramming...
September 22, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774781/fetal-programming-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718306/common-congenital-anomalies-environmental-causes-and-prevention-with-folic-acid-containing-multivitamins
#4
REVIEW
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581067/fine-particle-induced-birth-defects-impacts-of-size-payload-and-beyond
#5
Chuanfeng Teng, Zhiping Wang, Bing Yan
Worldwide epidemiological studies have shown that exposures to particulate matters (PMs), such as PM2.5 or PM10 , during pregnancy cause birth defects in the newborn. Although mechanistic understanding of such effects are not available, recent research using murine models highlights some key progress: (1) toxicity caused by PMs is a combined effects of particles and the adsorbed toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, bacteria, and virus. Fine particles may hold on to pollutants and, therefore, reduce their toxicity or enhance the toxicity by carrying pollutants crossing the placental barrier; (2) smaller size, certain particle surface chemistry modifications, early developmental stage of placenta, and maternal diseases all aggravate PM-induced birth defects; (3) molecular events involved in such toxicity are begin to emerge: induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and alteration of molecular signaling or epigenetic events are some possible causes...
August 31, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345015/cocaine-induced-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-underlying-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Melissa M Martin, Devon L Graham, Deirdre M McCarthy, Pradeep G Bhide, Gregg D Stanwood
Exposure to drugs early in life has complex and long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. This review summarizes work to date on the immediate and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. In utero cocaine exposure produces disruptions in brain monoamines, particularly dopamine, during sensitive periods of brain development, and leads to permanent changes in specific brain circuits, molecules, and behavior. Here, we integrate clinical studies and significance with mechanistic preclinical studies, to define our current knowledge base and identify gaps for future investigation...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345014/prenatal-exposure-the-effects-of-prenatal-cocaine-and-methamphetamine-exposure-on-the-developing-child
#7
REVIEW
Lynne M Smith, Lucinda S Santos
Prenatal substance use remains a significant issue in the United States. Initial reports regarding prenatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure suggested profound adverse effects on child development. However, subsequent prospective, longitudinal investigations have found more subtle effects. What follows is a brief review of the health, growth, behavioral, and intellectual outcomes for children exposed to prenatal cocaine and prenatal methamphetamine. Factors that may mitigate or intensify subtle adverse effects manifested in exposed children will also be discussed...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345013/fetal-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-of-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-exacerbation-by-ethanol-and-methamphetamine
#8
REVIEW
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345012/prenatal-substance-use-and-developmental-disorders-overview-and-highlights
#9
EDITORIAL
Rocky S Tuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297291/mechanisms-involved-in-the-neurotoxic-and-cognitive-effects-of-developmental-methamphetamine-exposure
#10
REVIEW
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Methamphetamine exposure in utero leads to a variety of higher-order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention and working, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children (Piper et al., 2011; Roussotte et al., 2011; Kiblawi et al., 2011). As with other teratogens, the timing of methamphetamine exposure greatly determines its effects on both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes. Methamphetamine exposure in rodents during the third trimester human equivalent period of brain development results in distinct and long-lasting route-based and spatial navigation deficits (Williams et al...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297122/impact-of-fetal-alcohol-exposure-on-body-systems-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Courtney Caputo, Erin Wood, Leila Jabbour
UNLABELLED: Review of published manuscripts on fetal alcohol exposure on several body systems. METHOD: Articles in this review were found online using databases such as Medline, Medline Complete, PubMed, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. The following terms were searched: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal alcohol exposure, and alcohol related birth defects. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were gathered, five original investigations and eight reviews...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297020/the-effects-of-nicotine-on-human-fetal-development
#12
REVIEW
Bradley D Holbrook
Maternal smoking during pregnancy continues to represent a major public health concern. Nicotine is extremely harmful to the developing fetus through many different mechanisms, and the harms increase with later gestational age at exposure. Pregnancies complicated by maternal nicotine use are more likely to have significant adverse outcomes. Nicotine-exposed children tend to have several health problems throughout their lives, including impaired function of the endocrine, reproductive, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028846/membrane-mediated-regulation-of-embryonic-development-highlights
#13
Rocky C Tuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992153/membrane-dynamics-in-mammalian-embryogenesis-implication-in-signal-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Yoh Wada, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Nobuyuki Kawamura, Jyunichiro Yasukawa
Eukaryotes have evolved an array of membrane compartments constituting secretory and endocytic pathways that allow the flow of materials. Both pathways perform important regulatory roles. The secretory pathway is essential for the production of extracellular, secreted signal molecules, but its function is not restricted to a mere route connecting intra- and extracellular compartments. Post-translational modifications also play an integral function in the secretory pathway and are implicated in developmental regulation...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992081/membrane-mediated-regulation-of-vascular-identity
#15
REVIEW
Takuya Hashimoto, Masayuki Tsuneki, Trenton R Foster, Jeans M Santana, Hualong Bai, Mo Wang, Haidi Hu, Jesse J Hanisch, Alan Dardik
Vascular diseases span diverse pathology, but frequently arise from aberrant signaling attributed to specific membrane-associated molecules, particularly the Eph-ephrin family. Originally recognized as markers of embryonic vessel identity, Eph receptors and their membrane-associated ligands, ephrins, are now known to have a range of vital functions in vascular physiology. Interactions of Ephs with ephrins at cell-to-cell interfaces promote a variety of cellular responses such as repulsion, adhesion, attraction, and migration, and frequently occur during organ development, including vessel formation...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991990/from-embryonic-development-to-human-diseases-the-functional-role-of-caveolae-caveolin
#16
REVIEW
Jihee Sohn, Rachel M Brick, Rocky S Tuan
Caveolae, an almost ubiquitous, structural component of the plasma membrane, play a critical role in many functions essential for proper cell function, including membrane trafficking, signal transduction, extracellular matrix remodeling, and tissue regeneration. Three main types of caveolin proteins have been identified from caveolae since the discovery of caveolin-1 in the early 1990s. All three (Cav-1, Cav-2, and Cav-3) play crucial roles in mammalian physiology, and can effect pathogenesis in a wide range of human diseases...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991887/membrane-mediated-development-of-the-vertebrate-blood-gas-barrier
#17
REVIEW
Andrew N Makanya
During embryonic lung development, establishment of the gas-exchanging units is guided by epithelial tubes lined by columnar cells. Ultimately, a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established and forms the interface for efficient gas exchange. This thin BGB is achieved through processes, which entail lowering of tight junctions, stretching, and thinning in mammals. In birds the processes are termed peremerecytosis, if they involve cell squeezing and constriction, or secarecytosis, if they entail cutting cells to size...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989869/ion-currents-in-embryo-development
#18
REVIEW
Elisabetta Tosti, Raffaele Boni, Alessandra Gallo
Ion channels are proteins expressed in the plasma membrane of electrogenic cells. In the zygote and blastomeres of the developing embryo, electrical modifications result from ion currents that flow through these channels. This phenomenon implies that ion current activity exerts a specific developmental function, and plays a crucial role in signal transduction and the control of embryogenesis, from the early cleavage stages and during growth and development of the embryo. This review describes the involvement of ion currents in early embryo development, from marine invertebrates to human, focusing on the occurrence, modulation, and dynamic role of ion fluxes taking place on the zygote and blastomere plasma membrane, and at the intercellular communication between embryo cell stages...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969610/molecular-mechanisms-of-membrane-interaction-at-implantation
#19
REVIEW
Lien M Davidson, Kevin Coward
Successful pregnancy is dependent upon the implantation of a competent embryo into a receptive endometrium. Despite major advancement in our understanding of reproductive medicine over the last few decades, implantation failure still occurs in both normal pregnancies and those created artificially by assisted reproductive technology (ART). Consequently, there is significant interest in elucidating the etiology of implantation failure. The complex multistep process of implantation begins when the developing embryo first makes contact with the plasma membrane of epithelial cells within the uterine environment...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598285/gestational-surrogacy-and-the-role-of-routine-embryo-screening-current-challenges-and-future-directions-for-preimplantation-genetic-testing
#20
REVIEW
E Scott Sills, Robert E Anderson, Mary McCaffrey, Xiang Li, Nabil Arrach, Samuel H Wood
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a component of IVF entailing selection of an embryo for transfer on the basis of chromosomal normalcy. If PGS were integrated with single embryo transfer (SET) in a surrogacy setting, this approach could improve pregnancy rates, minimize miscarriage risk, and limit multiple gestations. Even without PGS, pregnancy rates for IVF surrogacy cases are generally satisfactory, especially when treatment utilizes embryos derived from young oocytes and transferred to a healthy surrogate...
March 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
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