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Research in Sports Medicine

Conrad P Earnest, Jeff Rothschild, Christopher R Harnish, Alireza Naderi
Endurance performance is the result of optimal training targeting cardiovascular, metabolic, and peripheral muscular adaptations and is coupled to effective nutrition strategies via the use of macronutrient manipulations surrounding training and potential supplementation with ergogenic aids. It is important to note that training and nutrition may differ according to the individual needs of the athlete and can markedly impact the physiological response to training. Herein, we discuss various aspects of endurance training adaptations, nutritional strategies and their contributions to towards performance...
November 9, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Sara Santos, Bruno Travassos, Del P Wong, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the effects of different pitch configurations on youth players positional and physical performances. Forty players participated in a Gk + 5vs5 + Gk small-sided game under four conditions: regular condition (regular), pitch with the direction of competitive matches; sided condition (sided), goals were changed to width; different pitch orientation (≠orientation), performed in side-to-side line compared to competitive matches; dynamic pitch (dynamic), boundaries were randomly changed every minute by: regular pitch; decrease 6 m width; diamond shape...
November 5, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Yang Gai, Anthony S Leicht, Carlos Lago, Miguel-Ángel Gómez
Physical demands and technical skills of different playing positions within soccer match-play have been rarely studied in competitions from Asia that have unique restrictions that limit the number of foreign players per team. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify the technical and physical differences between domestic and foreign soccer players according to playing-positions in the China Super League (CSL); and to classify domestic and foreign players (best/worst) based on their match performance characteristics...
October 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Yftach Gepner, Alyssa N Varanoske, David Boffey, Jay R Hoffman
β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and its ketoacid α-ketoisocaproate. HMB has been widely used as an ergogenic supplement to increase muscle strength, muscle hypertrophy and enhance recovery. The physiological mechanisms that underlie these benefits are related to HMB's ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and minimize muscle breakdown. Although evidence supporting the benefits of HMB supplementation is not conclusive, many of these studies have suffered from methodological flaws including different formulations, supplement duration and population studied...
October 22, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Daniel Castillo, Jesús Cámara, Demetrio Lozano, César Berzosa, Javier Yanci
The aims of this study were to compare the external and internal match responses and fitness performance of national field referees (FRs) and assistant referees (ARs), and to examine the relationships between these fitness measures and physical and physiological responses during match play. Forty-four national soccer match officials (e.g. FRs and ARs) participated in this study. The distance covered and the VO2max in Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (YYIR1) and the 30 m sprint test correlated with high speed and high intensity activities during match play in FRs (r = -0...
October 20, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Ethan A Hood, Dennis W Klima, Kevin K Chui, Nicholas J Avallone
This study's objectives were to assess the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the King-Devick Test (KDT) during concussion screening and to analyze potential sport-specific differences in test performance across two sports. Two hundred and sixty-six high school male American football and soccer players recruited from four area high schools participated prior to the fall sports season. Main outcome measures included the KDT and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
October 18, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Alexandra M L Kundert, Stefania Di Gangi, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Participation and performance of elite age group athletes from 35-39 to 95-99 years competing in World Masters Athletics (WMA) Championships 1975-2016 were examined for throwing (discus, hammer, javelin and shot put) and jumping (high jump, long jump, pole vault and triple jump) events. Overall, 21,723 observations from 8,974 master athletes were analysed. A mixed regression model with sex, age group, calendar year and interactions terms (sex-age group; sex-year) defined as fixed effects was performed for each event separately...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Bailey A Tadlock, Lauren A Pierpoint, Tracey Covassin, Shane V Caswell, Andrew E Lincoln, Zachary Y Kerr
Research on knee internal derangement (KID) injuries in high school girls' lacrosse is limited, yet needed to identify sport-specific risk factors. This study describes the epidemiology of KID injuries in United States high school girls' lacrosse during the 2008/09-2016/17 academic years. Athletic trainers (ATs) reported injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data to the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) surveillance system. KID injuries involved the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and menisci...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Larissa Neves Pavin, Anthony S Leicht, Samuel Valencia Gimenes, Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Moacir Marocolo, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota
Soccer-induced fatigue and performance are different between the sexes. The effect of compression stockings (CS) use on fatigue during the soccer match in females is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the impact of CS use during a female soccer match on match-induced fatigue. Twenty soccer players were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 10 for each group): CS and Control (regular socks), and equally distributed within two teams. At rest (baseline 48-h before the match) and immediately post-match, we assessed agility T-test, standing heel-rise test and YoYo Intermittent Endurance Test level 2 (YoYoIE2) performance...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
C Blennerhassett, L R McNaughton, S A Sparks
Inadequate nutritional intake has been reported during ultra-endurance training and competition. While substandard nutritional knowledge may contribute to inappropriate nutritional choices, the relationship between these variables is often weak. As such, this study investigated the importance of a range of factors to the food choices of ultra-endurance athletes. An existing food choices questionnaire was extended to reflect the main factors proposed to influence the food choices of these athletes. The questionnaire was pilot tested with endurance athletes, during which, it was refined and reassessed for internal consistency and test-retest reliability...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
David Rhodes, Lars McNaughton, Matt Greig
Eccentric hamstring strength is an aetiological risk factor for soccer injury. The temporal pattern of recovery post-exercise is critical in injury management. 18 male professional soccer players completed baseline assessments of eccentric hamstring strength at isokinetic speeds of 60, 150 and 300°· s-1 . Post SAFT90 measures were repeated immediately, + 24 hrs, + 48 hrs and + 72 hrs. Main effects for recovery time and testing speed in average torque (AvT), peak torque (PT) and the corresponding angle (Ɵ) were supplemented by regression modelling to describe the temporal pattern of recovery...
October 8, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Hugo Oliveira, Tiago Vaz, Sandro Carriço, Francisco Calvete, Bruno Mendes
The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to analyze the variations in internal load and well-being in professional handball players between normal and congested weeks and (ii) to analyze the variations between training days within weeks. Twenty male players (26.5 ± 4.9 yo) were monitored during a full season. MD-1 (match day -1) revealed larger decreases in muscle soreness (-17.3%, [-26.6;-6.9]) and fatigue (-16.6%, [-24.8;-7.4]) in congested weeks. Regarding MD-2, larger decreases in DOMS (-19.9%, [-30.5;-7...
October 3, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
It has been previously observed that athletes of certain origin nationality dominate particular sports; however, this phenomenon has been less studied in cross-country (XC) skiing, especially with regards to performance-related aspects, such as pacing. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of nationality on pacing strategies of XC skiers who finished the "Vasaloppet" from 2004 to 2017. We studied 183,919 finishers (19,465 women and 164,454 men), classified into 15 nationalities, i...
September 27, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Jose Antonio
The United States (US) recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram body weight per day (g/kg/d). The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) recently recommended an intake of 1.4-2.0 g/kg/d whereas the United States and Canadian Dietetic Association typically recommend a lower range of 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg/d. It is clear that the US RDA for protein is grossly inadequate for exercising individuals; thus, athletes are typically advised to consume twice the RDA. This falls within the range commonly recommended by academic societies...
September 22, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Andrea Riboli, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Eloisa Limonta, Giuseppe Coratella, Fabio Esposito
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stage duration in incremental protocols on lactate threshold (LT), determined by different methods. Sixteen semi-professional soccer-players performed a 4-min stage incremental discontinuous (DP) and two maximal incremental running continuous (1 km h-1 · min-1 , CP1; and 1 km h-1 ·2 min-1 CP2) protocols. Blood-lactate concentration [La- ] was measured at baseline and during the protocols. LT was determined using DMAX , DMAX-MOD , 4-mM⋅L-1 , Δ1-mM⋅L-1 and Log-Log methods...
September 22, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Hugo Sarmento, Alireza Rabbani, Cornelis M I Niels Van Der Linden, Mehdi Kargarfard, Israel Teoldo Costa
This study compared the relative physical demands of official matches and sided games (medium and large) in professional soccer players by means of a global positioning system. Twenty-three professional male soccer players (24.63[Formula: see text]2.84 years old; 180.94[Formula: see text]6.49 cm; 77.19[Formula: see text]6.46 kg; 52.99[Formula: see text]5.01 VO2max ) participated in the study. Total distance, running distance, sprinting distance, number of sprints, and acceleration sum were quantified per minute to compare the different games...
August 21, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Panagiota Dragonea, Emmanuil Zacharakis, Stylianos Kounalakis, Nikolaos Kostopoulos, Theodoros Bolatoglou, Nikolaos Apostolidis
The purpose of the present study was to define the maximal lactate steady state (MLSSmeas ) in high-level male basketball players and to compare it with the lactate turnpoint (LTP) and the respective point derived form a prediction method (MLSScal ). Twelve high-level basketball players underwent one maximal and several submaximal tests on a treadmill on different days where MLSS and LTP were measured. MLSSmeas was observed at 75% of the maximal treadmill speed, at 77% of VO2max , at 88% of HRmax and at [La- ] of 3...
August 20, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Liane E Hunter, Chloe Ifrah, Molly E Zimmerman, Mimi Kim, Richard B Lipton, Walter F Stewart, Michael L Lipton
The effects of soccer-related head impacts, beyond overt concussions, on Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) have not been explored to date. Generalized estimating equations were employed to determine the association between soccer-related head impacts (headers in the prior 2 weeks, unintentional head impacts in the prior 2 weeks, headers in the prior 12 months and lifetime concussions) on PROs including depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and sleep impairment. Compared to players with no unintentional head impacts in the prior 2 weeks, players with one unintentional exposure reported more symptoms of anxiety (p = 0...
October 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Vincenzo Rago, João Silva, Magni Mohr, Morten Randers, Daniel Barreira, Peter Krustrup, António Rebelo
We examined the influence of competitive standard of the opponent on activity profile and fatigue during preseason friendly soccer matches. Time motion analysis was performed in a male professional soccer team (N = 14) during six friendly games played against professional, semi-professional and amateur-level opponents (PL, SPL and AL). The reference team covered higher acceleration distance, acceleration and deceleration > 2 m· s-2 distance against PL than AL (ES = 0.77 to 0.91). Acceleration and deceleration distance > 2 m· s-2 was also higher (ES = 0...
October 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Rémy Hurdiel, Samantha M Riedy, Gregoire P Millet, Benoit Mauvieux, Thierry Pezé, Charlotte Elsworth-Edelsten, Dudoignon Martin, Gauntier Zunquin, Grégory Dupont
Ninety-two runners completed the study during a 168 km mountain ultramarathon (MUM). Sleepiness, self-reported sleep duration, and cognitive performance were assessed the day before the race and up to eight checkpoints during the race. Sleepiness was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive performance was also assessed using the Digital Symbol Substitution Task (DSST). Runner reported 23.40 ± 22.20 minutes of sleep (mean ± SD) during the race (race time: 29.38 to 46.20 hours). Sleepiness and cognitive performance decrements increased across this race, and this was modulated by time-of-day with higher sleepiness and greater performance decrements occurring during the early morning hours...
October 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
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