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Research in Sports Medicine

Ambra Antonioni, Cristina Fantini, Ivan Dimauro, Daniela Caporossi
Supplementation with antioxidants received interest as suitable tool for preventing or reducing exercise-related oxidative stress possibly leading to improvement of sport performance in athletes. To date, it is difficult to reach a conclusion on the relevance of antioxidants supplementation in athletes and/or well-trained people. The general picture that emerges from the available data indicates that antioxidants requirement can be covered by dosage equal or close to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) provided by consumption of a balanced, well-diversified diet...
December 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Carlos Serrano, Víctor Paredes-Hernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jana Gallardo-Pérez, Ricardo Da Silva, David Porcel, Enrique Colino, Jorge García-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo
This study examined physical and technical demands and the influence of the team's level on elite goalkeepers' performance during six consecutive seasons in Spanish Professional Soccer League. The goalkeepers' performance data were obtained by analyzing a total of 3,874 matches using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system. The physical and technical match variables registered were: distance traveled; distance Sprinted and the number of sprints; total number of passes; successful passes; pass percentage; recovered balls; lost balls; ratio lost balls: recovered balls, and number of saves...
December 16, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this investigation was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of the acute ingestion of caffeine (from 3 to 6 mg/kg) to increase performance on variables related to team sports. A systematic review was performed in scientific databases from January to April 2018. All studies included had cross-over experimental designs comparing caffeine to an identical placebo condition. A meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model and pooled standardized mean differences (Glass's Δ)...
December 5, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Emmanouil Smpokos, Christos Mourikis, Christos Theos, Manolis Linardakis
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of injuries on a cohort of 123 Greek team's professional football players during three consecutive seasons, 2015/16-to-2017/18. Injuries were assessed and regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors. Three-quarters of the players were recorded as injured with 2.3 injuries/injured player, and the injury incidence was 55 injuries/1,000 match-playing-exposure-hours. The mean rehabilitation days were 29.3/injured player (95%CI 22.4-36...
November 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Jordan D Philpott, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Galloway
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has recently been proposed as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This claim is primarily based on mechanistic evidence that n-3PUFA's exert anti-inflammatory properties and act to change the functional capacity of the muscle cell by modifying the membrane fluidity of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane. In this review, we critically evaluate the scientific literature that examines the efficacy of n-3PUFA supplementation to improve athlete performance within the context of promoting muscle adaptation, energy metabolism, muscle recovery and injury prevention (e...
November 28, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Seyed Majid Hosseini, Nasrin Salehi Dehno, Fateme Rezaiian, Khosro Khademi Kalantari, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of direction of kinesio taping of wrist flexor muscles on force sense. Forty-five healthy women took part in this study, in three groups: kinesio taping application from origin to insertion (OI group) or from insertion to origin (IO group), and no kinesio taping (control group). Absolute and relative force sense errors were calculated with 50% maximal grip strength as the target force value. Absolute and relative force sense errors in the dominant hand were recorded before and 24 h after the application of kinesio tape to the forearm...
November 21, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
M Andrzejewski, B Pluta, M Konefał, J Konarski, J Chmura, P Chmura
The aim of the present study was to determine and characterize the activity of male Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-level matches, depending on playing position, activity intensity range, and match period. The study sample comprised 1178 players. Amisco Pro® was used to track the match activity players. Statistical analysis of the total distance covered by players revealed that the greatest distance was covered by central midfielders (11894 ± 765 m) and external midfielders (11751 ± 686 m)...
November 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Beat Knechtle, Ilja Käch, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sex, age and performance level on pacing of Ironman triathletes. Split times (i.e. swimming, cycling, and running) and overall race times of 343,345 athletes competing between 2002 and 2015 in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analyzed. Participants were classified into nine performance groups according to their overall race time. Times in swimming, cycling, running and transition were expressed as percentage of the overall race time. Women spent relatively less time (%) in swimming, running and transition time, and more time (%) in cycling than men (p < 0...
November 11, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Daniele Conte, Rita Sanches, Carlos Filipe Moleiro, Mónica Gomes, Ricardo Lima
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between anthropometric (height and weight), fitness status (aerobic capacity, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test - level 1, YYIRT-L1; countermovement jump performance, CMJ) and perceived exertion (RPE) of twenty youth (under-14 and under-16) male basketball players and their technical actions (attacking balls-AB, shots-S, received balls-RB, rebounds-R, conquered balls-CB, lost balls-LB) during five small-sided games (SSGs) formats (from 1v1 to 5v5). Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients tested the relationships between the anthropometric and fitness variables and the technical actions and perceived exertion during SSGs...
November 11, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine the performance× age interaction on pacing in cross-country (XC) skiing. We analyzed all finishers (n = 79,722) who competed in "Vasaloppet" from 2012 to 2017 grouped in performance quartiles according to their race time with Q1 as the fastest and Q4 as the slowest. Women (44.1 ± 10.2%) had larger pace range than men (40.9 ± 11.8%; p < 0.001, η2  = 0.014). The pace range ranged from 29.8 ± 7.1% (Q1) to 49.0 ± 10.1% (Q4; p < 0.001, η2  = 0...
November 10, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Conrad P Earnest, Jeff Rothschild, Christopher R Harnish, Alireza Naderi
Endurance performance is the result of optimal training targeting cardiovascular, metabolic, and peripheral muscular adaptations and is coupled to effective nutrition strategies via the use of macronutrient manipulations surrounding training and potential supplementation with ergogenic aids. It is important to note that training and nutrition may differ according to the individual needs of the athlete and can markedly impact the physiological response to training. Herein, we discuss various aspects of endurance training adaptations, nutritional strategies and their contributions to towards performance...
November 9, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Sara Santos, Bruno Travassos, Del P Wong, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the effects of different pitch configurations on youth players positional and physical performances. Forty players participated in a Gk + 5vs5 + Gk small-sided game under four conditions: regular condition (regular), pitch with the direction of competitive matches; sided condition (sided), goals were changed to width; different pitch orientation (≠orientation), performed in side-to-side line compared to competitive matches; dynamic pitch (dynamic), boundaries were randomly changed every minute by: regular pitch; decrease 6 m width; diamond shape...
November 5, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Yang Gai, Anthony S Leicht, Carlos Lago, Miguel-Ángel Gómez
Physical demands and technical skills of different playing positions within soccer match-play have been rarely studied in competitions from Asia that have unique restrictions that limit the number of foreign players per team. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify the technical and physical differences between domestic and foreign soccer players according to playing-positions in the China Super League (CSL); and to classify domestic and foreign players (best/worst) based on their match performance characteristics...
October 30, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Yftach Gepner, Alyssa N Varanoske, David Boffey, Jay R Hoffman
β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and its ketoacid α-ketoisocaproate. HMB has been widely used as an ergogenic supplement to increase muscle strength, muscle hypertrophy and enhance recovery. The physiological mechanisms that underlie these benefits are related to HMB's ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and minimize muscle breakdown. Although evidence supporting the benefits of HMB supplementation is not conclusive, many of these studies have suffered from methodological flaws including different formulations, supplement duration and population studied...
October 22, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Daniel Castillo, Jesús Cámara, Demetrio Lozano, César Berzosa, Javier Yanci
The aims of this study were to compare the external and internal match responses and fitness performance of national field referees (FRs) and assistant referees (ARs), and to examine the relationships between these fitness measures and physical and physiological responses during match play. Forty-four national soccer match officials (e.g. FRs and ARs) participated in this study. The distance covered and the VO2max in Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (YYIR1) and the 30 m sprint test correlated with high speed and high intensity activities during match play in FRs (r = -0...
October 20, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Ethan A Hood, Dennis W Klima, Kevin K Chui, Nicholas J Avallone
This study's objectives were to assess the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the King-Devick Test (KDT) during concussion screening and to analyze potential sport-specific differences in test performance across two sports. Two hundred and sixty-six high school male American football and soccer players recruited from four area high schools participated prior to the fall sports season. Main outcome measures included the KDT and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
October 18, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Alexandra M L Kundert, Stefania Di Gangi, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Participation and performance of elite age group athletes from 35-39 to 95-99 years competing in World Masters Athletics (WMA) Championships 1975-2016 were examined for throwing (discus, hammer, javelin and shot put) and jumping (high jump, long jump, pole vault and triple jump) events. Overall, 21,723 observations from 8,974 master athletes were analysed. A mixed regression model with sex, age group, calendar year and interactions terms (sex-age group; sex-year) defined as fixed effects was performed for each event separately...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Bailey A Tadlock, Lauren A Pierpoint, Tracey Covassin, Shane V Caswell, Andrew E Lincoln, Zachary Y Kerr
Research on knee internal derangement (KID) injuries in high school girls' lacrosse is limited, yet needed to identify sport-specific risk factors. This study describes the epidemiology of KID injuries in United States high school girls' lacrosse during the 2008/09-2016/17 academic years. Athletic trainers (ATs) reported injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data to the High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) surveillance system. KID injuries involved the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and menisci...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Larissa Neves Pavin, Anthony S Leicht, Samuel Valencia Gimenes, Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Moacir Marocolo, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota
Soccer-induced fatigue and performance are different between the sexes. The effect of compression stockings (CS) use on fatigue during the soccer match in females is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the impact of CS use during a female soccer match on match-induced fatigue. Twenty soccer players were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 10 for each group): CS and Control (regular socks), and equally distributed within two teams. At rest (baseline 48-h before the match) and immediately post-match, we assessed agility T-test, standing heel-rise test and YoYo Intermittent Endurance Test level 2 (YoYoIE2) performance...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
C Blennerhassett, L R McNaughton, S A Sparks
Inadequate nutritional intake has been reported during ultra-endurance training and competition. While substandard nutritional knowledge may contribute to inappropriate nutritional choices, the relationship between these variables is often weak. As such, this study investigated the importance of a range of factors to the food choices of ultra-endurance athletes. An existing food choices questionnaire was extended to reflect the main factors proposed to influence the food choices of these athletes. The questionnaire was pilot tested with endurance athletes, during which, it was refined and reassessed for internal consistency and test-retest reliability...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
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