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Gene Expression Patterns: GEP

Sarah E Emerson, Benjamin K Grebber, Morgan E McNellis, Ambrose R Orr, Paula B Deming, Alicia M Ebert
Protein kinase A (PKA), also known as cAMP dependent protein kinase, is an essential component of many signaling pathways, many of which regulate key developmental processes. Inactive PKA is a tetrameric holoenzyme, comprised of two catalytic (PRKAC), and two regulatory subunits. Upon cAMP binding, the catalytic subunits are released and thereby activated. There are multiple isoforms of PKA catalytic subunits, but their individual roles are not well understood. In order to begin studying their roles in zebrafish development, it is first necessary to identify the spatial and temporal expression profiles for each prkac subunit...
November 20, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Khazar Edrisi Maryan, Habibollah Samizadeh Lahiji, Naser Farrokhi, Hassan Hasani Komeleh
Dehydrins (DHNs) are plant specific cold and drought stress-responsive proteins that belong to late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families. B. napus DHNs (BnDHNs) were computationally analyzed to establish gene regulatory- and protein-protein interaction networks. Promoter analyses suggested functionality of phytohormones in BnDHNs gene network. The relative expressions of some BnDHNs were analyzed using qRT-PCR in seedling leaves of both cold-tolerant (Zarfam) and -sensitive (Sari Gul) canola treated/untreated by cold...
November 5, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Shari Bodofsky, Katarina Liberatore, Lauren Pioppo, Dominic Lapadula, Lily Thompson, Susanna Birnbaum, George McClung, Akshara Kartik, Sheila Clever, Bruce Wightman
The nhr-67 nuclear receptor gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes the ortholog of the Drosophila tailless and vertebrate Tlx genes. In C. elegans, nhr-67 plays multiple roles in the development of the uterus during L2 and L3 larval stages. Four pre-VU cells are born in the L2 stage and form the precursor complement for the ventral surface of the mature uterus. One of the four pre-VU cells becomes the anchor cell (AC), which exits the cell cycle and differentiates, while the remaining three VU cells serve as stem cells that populate the ventral uterus...
November 4, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Chen Dong, Sudip Paudel, Nana Yaa Amoh, Margaret S Saha
Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel genes code for an extensive family of conserved proteins responsible for a variety of physiological processes, including sensory perception, ion homeostasis, and chemical signal transduction. The TRP superfamily consists of seven subgroups, one of which is the transient receptor potential vanilloid (trpv) channel family. While trpv channels are relatively well studied in adult vertebrate organisms given their role in functions such as nociception, thermoregulation, and osmotic regulation in mature tissues and organ systems, relatively little is known regarding their function during embryonic development...
October 13, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ankita Saha, Sarika Tiwari, Subramanian Dharmarajan, Deborah C Otteson, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: The acetylation state of histones has been used as an indicator of the developmental state of progenitor and differentiating cells. The goal of this study was to determine the nuclear localization patterns of Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), as the first step in understanding their potential importance in cell fate determination within the murine retina. RESULTS: The only HDAC to label RPC nuclei at E16 and P5 was HDAC1...
September 1, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Jie Gong, Linlin Chai, Guangmin Xu, You Ni, Dong Liu
There are three isoforms of natriuretic peptide (NP) specific cell surface receptor: NP receptor-A (NPRA), receptor-B (NPRB), and receptor-C (NPRC). They are also known as NPR1, NPR2 and NPR3, respectively. NPs and their receptors were revealed to involve in diverse cellular and physiological processes including renal, cardiovascular, neuronal, and immunological aspects. However, the systematic analysis of the expression of these receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates is thus far lacking. In this study, two versions of the npr1 gene (npr1a and npr1b) in zebrafish was identified...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ping Song, Brian D Perkins
Members of the Arf-like (Arl) family of small GTP-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular functions and play important roles in cilia structure and signaling. The small GTPase Arl13a is a close paralog to Arl13b, a small GTPase required for normal cilia formation that causes Joubert Syndrome when mutated. As mutation of arl13b causes a slow retinal degeneration in zebrafish (Song et al., 2016), we hypothesized that expression of arl13a may provide functional redundancy. We determined the expression domains of arl13a and arl13b during zebrafish development and examined subcellular localization by expression of fluorescence fusion proteins...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ines Desanlis, Hannah L Felstead, Dylan R Edwards, Grant N Wheeler
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by metalloproteinases is crucial during development. The ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type I motifs) enzymes are secreted, multi-domain matrix-associated zinc metalloendopeptidases that have diverse roles in tissue morphogenesis and patho-physiological remodeling. The human family includes 19 members. In this study we identified the 19 members of the ADAMTS family in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. Gene identification and a phylogenetic study revealed strong conservation of the ADAMTS family and contributed to a better annotation of the Xenopus genomes...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Özge Çelik, Aybüke Ekşioğlu, Enes Yağız Akdaş
The main aim of the study is to identify the genes differentially, predominantly or specifically expressed in salt tolerant tobacco mutants, improved from Akhisar 97 and İzmir Özbaş varieties via mutation breeding, with respect to unstressed control plants. Seven tobacco mutants which have different salt tolerance capacities were evaluated by Gene Fishing analysis. Under stress conditions differentially expressed 100 reproducible bands were identified (74 of up-regulated and 20 of down-regulated while 6 were unknown)...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Shuoqi Feng, Su Wang, Yashuo Wang, Qingyun Yang, Dejing Wang, Hongyan Li
Proteomic study has determined age-related changes in synthesis of carbonic anhydrase 2, myosin regulatory light chain 2 and selenium-binding protein 1 in muscle of post-menopausal women. However, little information is available regarding the expression and role of these proteins in early development and life span. In this study we showed that zebrafish ca2, myl2a, myl2b and selenbp1 were highly identical to their mammalian counterparts in primary and tertiary structures as well as genomic organization and syntenic map...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Brian S Grewe, Janet E Richmond, David E Featherstone
The Drosophila gene c12.2 was isolated in a screen examining mRNA binding proteins. Drosophila c12.2 is the mouse Vwa8 homolog. Various genome-wide associated studies have linked human Vwa8 to both neurological and oncological pathologies, which include autism, bipolar disorder, comorbid migraine, and acute myeloid leukemia, however, the function and role of the VWA8 protein remain poorly understood. To further analyze the Vwa8 gene in mouse, gene structure, protein homology modeling, and gene expression patterns were examined throughout mouse development...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Zimei Dong, Yibo Yang, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
The runt family genes play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of protein transcription, such as hematopoietic system, proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and neural development. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two runt genes are first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and their roles are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) the Djrunts are conserved during evolution; (2) the Djrunts mRNA are widely expressed in intact and regenerative worms, and their expression levels are up-regulated significantly on day 1 after amputation; (3) loss of Djrunts function lead to lysis or regeneration failure in the intact and regenerating worms...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ryotaro Tsutsumi, Taro Chaya, Takahisa Furukawa
Cilia are essential for sensory and motile functions across species. In humans, ciliary dysfunction causes "ciliopathies", which show severe developmental abnormalities in various tissues. Several missense mutations in intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene lead to endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome or short rib-polydactyly syndrome, lethal recessive developmental ciliopathies. We and others previously reported that Ick-deficient mice exhibit neonatal lethality with developmental defects. Mechanistically, Ick regulates intraflagellar transport and cilia length at ciliary tips...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Joanna K Ledwon, Sergey Y Turin, Arun K Gosain, Jolanta M Topczewska
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for many developmental processes and plays a pivotal role in skeletal homeostasis, regeneration and wound healing. FGF signals through one of five tyrosine kinase receptors: Fgfr1a, -1b, -2, -3, -4. To characterize the expression of zebrafish fgfr3 from the larval stage to adulthood, we used RNAscope in situ hybridization on paraffin sections of the zebrafish head. Our study revealed spatial and temporal distribution of fgfr3 transcript in chondrocytes of the head cartilages, osteoblasts involved in bone formation, ventricular zone of the brain, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the skin, and lens epithelium of the eye...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Wei Wei, Jeremy Lotto, Pamela A Hoodless
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates many cellular processes, but has been specifically associated with control organ size and tumor growth. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional cofactor, in the Hippo pathway, that regulates gene expression when localized in the nucleus. Elevated expression of YAP1 in adult mouse liver leads to hepatomegaly and can cause hepatocellular carcinoma; while the loss of function studies reveal its importance in regulating cholangiocyte development. Here, we report the expression of YAP1 in mouse embryonic and postnatal hepatic cells, using AFP-GFP transgenic mice to identify the hepatocyte lineage...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Rasoul Godini, Haider Yabr Lafta, Hossein Fallahi
Epigenetic modifications are involved in global reprogramming of the cell transcriptome. Therefore, synchronized major shifts in the expression of many genes could be achieved through epigenetic changes. The regulation of gene expression could be implemented by different epigenetic events including histone modifications, DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling. Interestingly, it has been documented that reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is also a typical example of epigenetic modifications...
September 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Courtney L Smith, Jacquelyn Mesenbrink, Rebecca Chowdhury, Abbie Burney, Margaret Lang, Matthew Sierra, Amy Stark, Gabriel Maldonado-Casalduc, Madison Muller, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive muscle atrophy resulting from the deterioration of motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed several genes linked to ALS, further demonstrating the complexity of the disease. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model organism to study the function of the rapidly expanding number of ALS-associated genes, in part, due to the development of genome editing techniques that have facilitated specific gene targeting...
August 27, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Atsuo Kawahara, Hitoshi Morita, Kanoko Yanagi, Tomoe Ishizaka, Kiyohito Taimatsu, Rie Ohga
Mammalian SLURP1 and SLURP2 belong to the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily and are involved in maintaining the physiological integrity of keratinocytes. However, the developmental expression and functions of other Ly-6/uPAR family genes in vertebrates are still obscure. We have isolated novel Ly-6/uPAR family genes slurp-like1 (ly2.3/ly97.3) and slurp-like2 (ly2.2/ly97.2) in zebrafish. Both the Slurp-like1 and Slurp-like2 proteins contain the typical signal sequence and carboxy-terminal CCXXXXCN (X: an arbitrary amino acid) consensus sequence of the Ly-6/uPAR family but lack a transmembrane domain and a GPI-anchoring signal sequence, suggesting that both proteins may function as secretory proteins...
August 24, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Tehani El Faitwri, Katrin Huber
Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family and an atypical notch ligand that is widely expressed during early mammalian development with putative functions in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. During later stages of development, DLK1 is downregulated and becomes increasingly restricted to specific cell types, including several types of endocrine cells. DLK1 has been linked to various tumors and associated with tumor stem cell features. Sympathoadrenal precursors are neural crest derived cells that give rise to either sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system or the endocrine chromaffin cells located in the adrenal medulla or extraadrenal positions...
August 23, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Shruti Kumar, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) play several important roles during organ morphogenesis and act as multi-functional growth factors that bind to their membrane bound receptors (FGFRs) and activate further downstream signalling pathways. Several studies have investigated the function and expression of FGF/FGFRs in endochondral bone development, however, we know little about their role in the development of neural crest derived intramembranous bones. Here, we investigate the expression of 'b' and c' isoforms of FGFRs 1-3 during the development of the scleral ossicles, a ring of neural crest derived intramembranous bones in the chicken eye...
August 22, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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