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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153871/revisiting-the-impact-of-macroeconomic-conditions-on-health-behaviours
#1
Giorgio Di Pietro
This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age...
November 7, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158159/on-the-distributional-and-evolutionary-nature-of-the-obesity-wage-penalty
#2
Christian Brown, P Wesley Routon
The economics literature supports a link between labor market measures, such as earnings, and health conditions, such as obesity. There is reason to believe the effects of obesity on wages may vary for high- and low-earning individuals and that obesity wage effects may evolve over a lifecycle or from generation to generation. Drawing on data from two longitudinal surveys, we estimate quantile and fixed effect quantile regressions, among others, to further examine the obesity wage effect. Results suggest an increasingly severe penalty across the wage distribution for females...
October 19, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150387/the-effect-of-social-fathers-on-the-cognitive-skills-of-out-of-wedlock-children-in-the-u-s
#3
Kwok Ho Chan, Ka Wai Terence Fung
There are two competing views regarding the presence of social fathers on childrens' cognitive ability: (1) either the social father provides more financial resources which benefit the children or (2) the mother with new partners may shift the focus away from the children. Previous research focused on older children or adolescents and ignored the self-selection problem. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), and a sample of younger children. Using propensity score matching method (nonparametric methods), we find that children with social fathers scored around three points less in a cognitive ability test than children living only with biological mothers (assuming that self-selection is based on observables)...
October 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074165/early-life-undernutrition-and-adult-height-the-dutch-famine-of-1944-45
#4
F R M Portrait, T F van Wingerden, D J H Deeg
Current research shows strong associations between adult height and several positive outcomes such as higher cognitive skills, better earning capacity, increased chance of marriage and better health. It is therefore relevant to investigate the determinants of adult height. There is mixed evidence on the effects of undernutrition during early life on adult height. Therefore, our study aims at assessing the impact of undernutrition during gestation and at ages younger than 15 on adult height. We used data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam...
October 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055649/socioeconomic-inequality-in-excessive-body-weight-in-indonesia
#5
Toshiaki Aizawa, Matthias Helble
Exploiting the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS), this paper studies the transition of socioeconomic-related excess weight disparity, including overweight and obesity, from 1993 to 2014. First, we show that the proportions of overweight and obese people in Indonesia increased rapidly during the time period covered and that poorer groups exhibited a larger annual excess weight growth rate than richer groups (7.49 percent vs. 3.01 percent). Second, by calculating the concentration index, we confirm that the prevalence of obesity affected increasingly poorer segments of Indonesian society...
September 29, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107462/each-meal-matters-in-the-exposome-biological-and-community-considerations-in-fast-food-socioeconomic-associations
#6
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
Advances in omics and microbiome technology have transformed the ways in which the biological consequences of life in the 'ecological theatre' can be visualized. Exposome science examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) as a means to understand the response of the 'total organism to the total environment' over time. The repetitive stimulation of compensatory physiological responses (immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine) in response to stress - including sources of stress highly relevant to socioeconomic disadvantage - may lead to metabolic dysregulation and cellular damage, ultimately influencing behavior and disease...
September 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051044/the-effect-of-health-on-socioeconomic-status-using-instrumental-variables-to-revisit-a-successful-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Madeleine I G Daepp, Mariana C Arcaya
Poor health is widely recognized as a consequence of social disadvantage, but health problems may also help transmit social disadvantage over time and generations. Experimentally assigned health exposures, namely those tested in randomized controlled trials, may provide opportunities to estimate the causal effects of health on socioeconomic status (SES). We revisit data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, a randomized controlled trial of glucose control therapy in Type 1 diabetic patients, and use treatment assignment as an instrument for health status to test the causal effect of treatment-related health improvement on subsequent SES measured during the trial's follow-up study, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study...
September 25, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055650/big-and-tall-does-a-height-premium-dwarf-an-obesity-penalty-in-the-labor-market
#8
Wang-Sheng Lee
Previous studies have shown that both height and weight are associated with wages. However, some gaps in our understanding of the relationship between body size and wages remain. For example, given a height premium and an obesity penalty, due to forces working in opposite directions, the current literature is unable to provide clear answers to questions such as whether a tall obese woman or a short healthy weight woman would earn a higher wage premium. Using Australian data and iso-contour wage curves derived from a semi-parametric wage regression model, this paper illustrates the complex nature of the relationship between height, weight and wages and how the nature of these differences depends on gender and age...
September 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934704/cyclical-unemployment-and-infant-health
#9
Erin K Kaplan, Courtney A Collins, Frances A Tylavsky
This study provides evidence on the effect of cyclical unemployment on infant health. We match individual-level data from a detailed survey of mothers and their children in Memphis, TN, with 5-year average census-tract unemployment rates from the American Community Survey. Our findings indicate that a one percentage point increase in the local unemployment rate is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of having a low birthweight baby (a baby weighing less than 2500 grams). We also find evidence of a statistically significant decrease in gestational age...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930700/economic-analysis-of-the-link-between-diet-quality-and-health-evidence-from-kosovo
#10
Kushtrim Braha, Andrej Cupák, Ján Pokrivčák, Artan Qineti, Marian Rizov
We analyse the link between diet diversity, (which is a proxy of diet quality) and health outcomes measured by body-mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of Kosovar adults using household expenditure micro-data. Building on a household model of health production we devise a two-stage empirical strategy to estimate the determinants of diet diversity and its effect on BMI. Economic factors and demographic characteristics play an important role in the choice of balanced diets. Results from the BMI analysis support the hypothesis that diet diversity is associated with optimal BMI...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930699/causal-effects-of-hiv-on-employment-status-in-low-income-settings
#11
Jessica Ochalek, Paul Revill, Bernard van den Berg
This paper estimates the causal impact of being HIV positive on individual employment status using a recursive bivariate probit with male circumcision as the instrument to overcome the endogeneity arising from simultaneity bias. The results show that being HIV positive reduces the probability of being employed by 5 percentage points among males in Uganda. The effect is greater for individuals employed in manual labor than non-manual labor. When limiting the sample to mainly individuals employed in subsistence agriculture, we find a 4 percentage point reduction in the likelihood of employment, suggesting that the effect occurs primarily through reductions in labor supply as opposed to demand...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#12
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843868/recessions-and-health-revisited-new-findings-for-working-age-adults
#13
Benjamin Crost, Andrew Friedson
A series of influential papers have documented that state level mortality rates decrease during economic downturns. In this paper, we estimate the effect of education specific unemployment rates on mortality, which provide a more exact measure of the likelihood of being directly impacted by a recession. We find that the unemployment rate of an education group in a given state is positively related to mortality in that group. A 1% increase in the group-specific unemployment rate is associated with an approximately 0...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787653/body-mass-and-wages-new-evidence-from-quantile-estimation
#14
Peter Slade
I estimate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on wages across the unconditional distribution of wages. I find that for whites and Hispanics the effect of BMI is generally decreasing across the wage distribution; at the .9 quantile of the wage distribution, a two standard deviation increase in BMI reduces wages by 8% for white males, 13% for white females, 9% for Hispanic males, and 16% for Hispanic females. Conversely, at the .1 quantile, a two standard deviation increase in BMI affects wages by less than 2% for all these groups...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768226/you-can-be-too-thin-but-not-too-tall-social-desirability-bias-in-self-reports-of-weight-and-height
#15
Mary A Burke, Katherine G Carman
Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height)...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735163/multidimensional-human-capital-formation-in-a-developing-country-health-cognition-and-locus-of-control-in-the-philippines
#16
Kira M Villa
Economic success depends on multiple human capital stocks whose production is interrelated and occurs over many life stages. Yet, much empirical work fails to account for human capital's multidimensional nature and limits its focus to specific childhood stages. Using longitudinal data from the Philippines, I estimate a model of multidimensional human capital formation from birth through adulthood where health, cognitive, and noncognitive dimensions are jointly produced. I examine during which developmental stages parental investment is most influential and address the endogeneity of investment using a policy function where investment depends on child characteristics, exogenous conditions at birth and local prices...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709119/a-compensating-income-variation-approach-to-valuing-34-health-conditions-in-iceland
#17
Tinna Laufey Asgeirsdottir, Kristin Helga Birgisdottir, Thorhildur Ólafsdóttir, Sigurdur Pall Olafsson
Using data from an Icelandic health-and-lifestyle survey carried out in 2007, 2009, and 2012, we employ a compensating income variation (CIV) approach to estimate the monetary value sufficient to compensate individuals for the presence of various sub-optimal health conditions. This method is inexpensive and easy on subjects and has been applied to several desiderata that do not have revealed market prices. The CIV literature is, however, still limited in its application to health and thus information about its suitability is limited...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649037/the-dynamic-effects-of-obesity-on-the-wages-of-young-workers
#18
Joshua C Pinkston
This paper considers effects of body mass on wages in the years following labor market entry. The preferred models allow current wages to be affected by both past and current body mass, as well as past wages, while also addressing the endogeneity of body mass. I find that a history of severe obesity has a large negative effect on the wages of white men. White women face a penalty for a history of being overweight, with some evidence of additional penalties that begin above the threshold for severe obesity. Furthermore, the effects of past wages on current wages imply that past body mass has additional, indirect effects on wages, especially for white women...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628787/biological-welfare-and-the-commons-a-natural-experiment-in-the-alps-1765-1845
#19
Trevor O'Grady, Claudio Tagliapietra
In the late 18th century hundreds self-governing alpine communities in Northern Italy came under the direct control of centralized states (Austria and France) at different times. We exploit the timing and location of these interventions in a DD type design to investigate the effects of removing CPR institutions on biological welfare. We find a significant and persistent increase in infant mortality rates and a more modest decrease in birth rates as a result of state centralization. We provide evidence that these demographic changes reflect a critical loss of natural resource income caused by the disruption of communal institutions...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605623/heterogeneity-in-the-long-term-health-effects-of-warfare
#20
Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel, Mutlu Yuksel
This paper estimates the long-term heterogeneous legacies of exposures to war in utero and during early childhood on height in adulthood. Using a novel dataset on the regional WWII destruction in Germany, combined with the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we find that individuals who experienced warfare in utero and during childhood are an average of 2cm shorter as adults, suggesting that the negative scarring effect of WWII dominated the positive effect coming from a selection. Among war survivors, children from less privileged families who resided in highly destroyed regions, particularly girls, suffered the greatest health consequences of warfare...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
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