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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930700/economic-analysis-of-the-link-between-diet-quality-and-health-evidence-from-kosovo
#1
Kushtrim Braha, Andrej Cupák, Ján Pokrivčák, Artan Qineti, Marian Rizov
We analyse the link between diet diversity, (which is a proxy of diet quality) and health outcomes measured by body-mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of Kosovar adults using household expenditure micro-data. Building on a household model of health production we devise a two-stage empirical strategy to estimate the determinants of diet diversity and its effect on BMI. Economic factors and demographic characteristics play an important role in the choice of balanced diets. Results from the BMI analysis support the hypothesis that diet diversity is associated with optimal BMI...
September 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930699/causal-effects-of-hiv-on-employment-status-in-low-income-settings
#2
Jessica Ochalek, Paul Revill, Bernard van den Berg
This paper estimates the causal impact of being HIV positive on individual employment status using a recursive bivariate probit with male circumcision as the instrument to overcome the endogeneity arising from simultaneity bias. The results show that being HIV positive reduces the probability of being employed by 5 percentage points among males in Uganda. The effect is greater for individuals employed in manual labor than non-manual labor. When limiting the sample to mainly individuals employed in subsistence agriculture, we find a 4 percentage point reduction in the likelihood of employment, suggesting that the effect occurs primarily through reductions in labor supply as opposed to demand...
September 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#3
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
September 2, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843868/recessions-and-health-revisited-new-findings-for-working-age-adults
#4
Benjamin Crost, Andrew Friedson
A series of influential papers have documented that state level mortality rates decrease during economic downturns. In this paper, we estimate the effect of education specific unemployment rates on mortality, which provide a more exact measure of the likelihood of being directly impacted by a recession. We find that the unemployment rate of an education group in a given state is positively related to mortality in that group. A 1% increase in the group-specific unemployment rate is associated with an approximately 0...
August 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787653/body-mass-and-wages-new-evidence-from-quantile-estimation
#5
Peter Slade
I estimate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on wages across the unconditional distribution of wages. I find that for whites and Hispanics the effect of BMI is generally decreasing across the wage distribution; at the .9 quantile of the wage distribution, a two standard deviation increase in BMI reduces wages by 8% for white males, 13% for white females, 9% for Hispanic males, and 16% for Hispanic females. Conversely, at the .1 quantile, a two standard deviation increase in BMI affects wages by less than 2% for all these groups...
July 16, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768226/you-can-be-too-thin-but-not-too-tall-social-desirability-bias-in-self-reports-of-weight-and-height
#6
Mary A Burke, Katherine G Carman
Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height)...
July 13, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735163/multidimensional-human-capital-formation-in-a-developing-country-health-cognition-and-locus-of-control-in-the-philippines
#7
Kira M Villa
Economic success depends on multiple human capital stocks whose production is interrelated and occurs over many life stages. Yet, much empirical work fails to account for human capital's multidimensional nature and limits its focus to specific childhood stages. Using longitudinal data from the Philippines, I estimate a model of multidimensional human capital formation from birth through adulthood where health, cognitive, and noncognitive dimensions are jointly produced. I examine during which developmental stages parental investment is most influential and address the endogeneity of investment using a policy function where investment depends on child characteristics, exogenous conditions at birth and local prices...
July 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709119/a-compensating-income-variation-approach-to-valuing-34-health-conditions-in-iceland
#8
Tinna Laufey Asgeirsdottir, Kristin Helga Birgisdottir, Thorhildur Ólafsdóttir, Sigurdur Pall Olafsson
Using data from an Icelandic health-and-lifestyle survey carried out in 2007, 2009, and 2012, we employ a compensating income variation (CIV) approach to estimate the monetary value sufficient to compensate individuals for the presence of various sub-optimal health conditions. This method is inexpensive and easy on subjects and has been applied to several desiderata that do not have revealed market prices. The CIV literature is, however, still limited in its application to health and thus information about its suitability is limited...
June 30, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324862/heterogeneity-in-predictive-power-of-early-childhood-nutritional-indicators-for-mid-childhood-outcomes-evidence-from-vietnam
#9
Le Thuc Duc, Jere R Behrman
We utilize longitudinal data on nearly 1800 children in Vietnam to study the predictive power of alternative measures of early childhood undernutrition for outcomes at age eight years: weight-for-age (WAZ8), height-for-age (HAZ8), and education (reading, math and receptive vocabulary). We apply two-stage procedures to derive unpredicted weight gain and height growth in the first year of life. Our estimates show that a standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight is associated with an increase of 0.14 (standard error [SE]: 0...
August 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222325/household-food-group-expenditure-patterns-are-associated-with-child-anthropometry-at-ages-5-8-and-12-years-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#10
Debbie L Humphries, Kirk A Dearden, Benjamin T Crookston, Tassew Woldehanna, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis...
August 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649037/the-dynamic-effects-of-obesity-on-the-wages-of-young-workers
#11
Joshua C Pinkston
This paper considers effects of body mass on wages in the years following labor market entry. The preferred models allow current wages to be affected by both past and current body mass, as well as past wages, while also addressing the endogeneity of body mass. I find that a history of severe obesity has a large negative effect on the wages of white men. White women face a penalty for a history of being overweight, with some evidence of additional penalties that begin above the threshold for severe obesity. Furthermore, the effects of past wages on current wages imply that past body mass has additional, indirect effects on wages, especially for white women...
June 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628787/biological-welfare-and-the-commons-a-natural-experiment-in-the-alps-1765-1845
#12
Trevor O'Grady, Claudio Tagliapietra
In the late 18th century hundreds self-governing alpine communities in Northern Italy came under the direct control of centralized states (Austria and France) at different times. We exploit the timing and location of these interventions in a difference-in-differences type design to investigate the effects of removing CPR (common-pool resources) institutions on biological welfare. We find a significant and persistent increase in infant mortality rates and a more modest decrease in birth rates as a result of state centralization...
June 6, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605623/heterogeneity-in-the-long-term-health-effects-of-warfare
#13
Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel, Mutlu Yuksel
This paper estimates the long-term heterogeneous legacies of exposures to war in utero and during early childhood on height in adulthood. Using a novel dataset on the regional WWII destruction in Germany, combined with the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we find that individuals who experienced warfare in utero and during childhood are an average of 2cm shorter as adults, suggesting that the negative scarring effect of WWII dominated the positive effect coming from a selection. Among war survivors, children from less privileged families who resided in highly destroyed regions, particularly girls, suffered the greatest health consequences of warfare...
May 26, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575714/performance-of-people-with-diabetes-in-the-labor-market-an-empirical-approach-controlling-for-complications
#14
Beatriz Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Cantarero-Prieto
This paper introduces a framework for modelling the impact that diabetes has on employment status and wages, improving the existing literature by controlling for diabetes-related complications. Using the last wave of the Spanish National Health Survey, we find that 1710 adults out of the original sample of 36,087 have diabetes, reporting higher rates of unemployment. Our empirical results suggest that persons with diabetes, compared with non-diabetic persons, have poorer labor outcomes in terms of length of unemployment and lower income...
May 25, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558310/estimating-sibling-spillovers-in-health-evidence-on-symptoms
#15
Cheuk Yin Ho
This paper estimates the sibling spillover effect in health symptoms using a sample of US adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset. The research design of this paper is to restrict the sample to sibling pairs who are separated between schools, where one enters high school and the other middle school. Because of school separation, sibling pairs face independent health shocks from own school peers. The identification strategy further exploits variations in individual health across symptoms to control for unobserved individual heterogeneity, which flexibly partials out family correlated effects...
May 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586722/childhood-obesity-and-maternal-education-in-ireland
#16
David Madden
This paper analyses the socioeconomic gradient of childhood obesity in Ireland using the Growing Up in Ireland data with three innovations compared to previous work in the area. A different measure of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is employed. In addition, the depth and severity of obesity are examined as well as the incidence. Finally, the use of two waves of longitudinal data permits the analysis of the persistence of obesity. Results show that overall childhood obesity stabilised between the two waves...
May 12, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550809/the-impact-of-childhood-overweight-and-obesity-on-healthcare-utilisation
#17
Edel Doherty, Michelle Queally, John Cullinan, Paddy Gillespie
Rising levels of childhood overweight and obesity represent a major global public health challenge. A number of studies have explored the association between childhood overweight and obesity and healthcare utilisation and costs. This paper adds to the literature by estimating the causal effect of child overweight and obesity status on use of general practitioner (GP) and hospital inpatient stays at two time points using instrumental variable (IV) methods The paper uses data from two waves of the Growing Up in Ireland survey of children when they are 9 and 13 years respectively and uses the biological mother's body mass index (BMI) as an instrument for the child's BMI...
May 12, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538160/colonialism-and-genetics-of-comparative-development
#18
Ideen Riahi
This study argues that European colonial policies and former colonies' genetic variation (genetic distance to Europeans and genetic diversity) were interlinked. Over a prolonged period of time, populations that were genetically far from Europeans and had extreme levels of genetic diversity (e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) adapted to environments that were significantly different from the climatic conditions of continental Europe. This resulted in a divergence in populations' resistance to infectious diseases and positive relationships between European settler mortality at the time of colonization, genetic distance to the technological frontier, and genetic diversity...
May 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550808/the-association-between-height-and-hypertension-in-indonesia
#19
Kitae Sohn
There is growing interest in the influence of early-life conditions on the development of disease. Among diseases in adulthood, hypertension is particularly important for the developing world because considerably more people there are and will be afflicted with the disease than in the developed world and hypertensives there are often unaware of their disease status. We employed height as a proxy for the influence of early-life conditions and estimated the relation between height and hypertension status in Indonesia...
May 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843117/height-and-cognition-at-work-labor-market-productivity-in-a-low-income-setting
#20
Daniel LaFave, Duncan Thomas
Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice...
May 2017: Economics and Human Biology
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