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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324862/heterogeneity-in-predictive-power-of-early-childhood-nutritional-indicators-for-mid-childhood-outcomes-evidence-from-vietnam
#1
Le Thuc Duc, Jere R Behrman
We utilize longitudinal data on nearly 1800 children in Vietnam to study the predictive power of alternative measures of early childhood undernutrition for outcomes at age eight years: weight-for-age (WAZ8), height-for-age (HAZ8), and education (reading, math and receptive vocabulary). We apply two-stage procedures to derive unpredicted weight gain and height growth in the first year of life. Our estimates show that a standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight is associated with an increase of 0.14 (standard error [SE]: 0...
March 11, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334657/investigating-the-poverty-obesity-paradox-in-europe
#2
Luca Salmasi, Martina Celidoni
This paper investigates the effect of income- and wealth-based poverty on the probability of being obese for the elderly in Europe by analysing data drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We use early-life economic conditions and regional circumstances as instruments for poverty later in life to account for endogeneity issues. After controlling for a large set of covariates at the individual, household, regional and country level, the results show that poverty significantly increases the probability of being obese and the Body Mass Index (BMI), for men and women...
March 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284175/a-tall-order-small-area-mapping-and-modelling-of-adult-height-among-swiss-male-conscripts
#3
Radoslaw Panczak, André Moser, Leonhard Held, Philip A Jones, Frank J Rühli, Kaspar Staub
Adult height reflects an individual's socio-economic background and offers insights into the well-being of populations. Height is linked to various health outcomes such as morbidity and mortality and has consequences on the societal level. The aim of this study was to describe small-area variation of height and associated factors among young men in Switzerland. Data from 175,916 conscripts (aged between 18.50 and 20.50 years) was collected between 2005 and 2011, which represented approximately 90% of the corresponding birth cohorts...
March 1, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284174/childhood-obesity-among-the-poor-in-peru-are-there-implications-for-cognitive-outcomes
#4
Suzanne L Wisniewski
This paper exploits three rounds of panel data provided by the Peruvian dataset of the Young Lives study to investigate the relationship between child cognition and obesity status among the poor. Child weight status is measured by a full distribution of child weight, from severely thin to obese, using data from a z-score for body mass index and cognition is measured by the Spanish version of the Picture Peabody Vocabulary Test (PPVT). This relationship is studied at age five and age eight (school age), and disaggregated across socioeconomic factors of gender, urban/rural setting and indigenous/nonindigenous status...
February 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260634/comparing-the-role-of-the-height-of-men-and-women-in-the-marriage-market
#5
Eiji Yamamura, Yoshiro Tsutsui
This paper explores how the role of men and women's height in the marriage market has changed across generations. Using individual-level data from Japan, we compared the effect of height on marriages between men and women, and investigated how the effect of height on marriage has changed across generations. Our key findings are: (1) for men born before 1965, a 1% increase in height led to an approximately 0.56% increase in the probability of being married. Conversely, for women born before 1965, a 1% increase in height led to an approximately 0...
February 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222325/household-food-group-expenditure-patterns-are-associated-with-child-anthropometry-at-ages-5-8-and-12-years-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#6
Debbie L Humphries, Kirk A Dearden, Benjamin T Crookston, Tassew Woldehanna, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis...
February 14, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214730/risk-aversion-and-religious-behaviour-analysis-using-a-sample-of-danish-twins
#7
Jytte Seested Nielsen, Mickael Bech, Kaare Christensen, Astrid Kiil, Niels Christian Hvidt
Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results...
February 12, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232287/height-premium-for-job-performance
#8
Tae Hyun Kim, Euna Han
This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (<155cm, 155-160cm, 160-165cm, and ≥165cm for women; <165cm, 165-170cm, 170-175cm, 175-180cm, and ≥180cm for men). We controlled for household- and individual-level random effects. We used a random-effect quantile regression model for monthly wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages...
February 2, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142088/the-impact-of-spousal-bereavement-on-subjective-wellbeing-evidence-from-the-taiwanese-elderly-population
#9
Fu-Min Tseng, Dennis Petrie, Roberto Leon-Gonzalez
Bereavement is an inevitable event in our life. This paper employs the Taiwanese panel Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly (SHLSE) to evaluate the impact of losing a spouse on self-assessed health and subjective well-being measured by depression and life satisfaction. Propensity score matching methods are used to generate a hypothetical bereavement date and a weight for the non-bereaved to create a comparable non-bereaved cohort and a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach is used to estimate the impact of spousal bereavement...
January 21, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088079/geographic-determinants-of-individual-obesity-risk-in-spain-a-multilevel-approach
#10
Athina Raftopoulou
This paper seeks to understand the determinants of individual body weight status and obesity risk in Spain by concurrently examining individual and regional characteristics. The data are drawn from the National Health Survey of Spain for the year 2011-2012 (INE-National Statistical Institute of Spain) and contain information for a representative sample of 12,671 adults across 50 provinces in Spain. A multilevel analysis is carried out to examine the determinants of individual weight status and obesity, controlling not only for the individual effects and those of the immediate environment but also for the broader setting to which individuals and their immediate environment belong...
February 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038413/the-effects-of-prospective-mate-quality-on-investments-in-healthy-body-weight-among-single-women
#11
Matthew C Harris, Christopher J Cronin
This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight...
December 21, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024175/two-worlds-apart-determinants-of-height-in-late-18th-century-central-mexico
#12
Rafael Dobado-González, Alfredo Garcia-Hiernaux
Anthropometric literature on the American territories of the Hispanic monarchy before their independence is still scarce. We attempt to expand the field with a case study that includes some important novelties. Albeit our main source, the military records of the Censo de Revillagigedo (conducted in the early 1790s), has already been used, the sample size and the geographical scope are unprecedented: 19,390 males of four ethnicities (castizos, españoles, mestizos, and mulatos) aged from 16 to 39 from 24 localities, including towns and villages scattered across central regions of the Viceroyalty of New Spain...
December 14, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063679/are-publicly-insured-children-less-likely-to-be-admitted-to-hospital-than-the-privately-insured-and-does-it-matter
#13
Diane Alexander, Janet Currie
There is continuing controversy about the extent to which publicly insured children are treated differently than privately insured children, and whether differences in treatment matter. We show that on average, hospitals are less likely to admit publicly insured children than privately insured children who present at the ER and the gap grows during high flu weeks, when hospital beds are in high demand. This pattern is present even after controlling for detailed diagnostic categories and hospital fixed effects, but does not appear to have any effect on measurable health outcomes such as repeat ER visits and future hospitalizations...
December 9, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940369/the-biological-standard-of-living-in-pre-modern-korea-determinants-of-height-of-militia-recruits-during-the-chos%C3%A5-n-dynasty
#14
Seong Ho Jun, James B Lewis, Daniel Schwekendiek
This paper extends the research on the biological standard of living in the Korean peninsula back to pre-modern times. Drawing on militia rosters of the Chosŏn Dynasty from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, we tentatively conclude that the final height of Korean men during this period was 166cm and thus slightly above that of modern North Korean men (165cm). On the other hand, the average height of modern South Korean men is 172cm, 6cm more than what we tentatively estimate for pre-modern Korean men. Regression analysis of the height of pre-modern Korean men finds that un-free Koreans ("slaves") were significantly shorter by about 0...
December 2, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987490/revisiting-the-relationship-between-wages-and-sleep-duration-the-role-of-insomnia
#15
Golnaz Sedigh, Rose Anne Devlin, Gilles Grenier, Catherine Deri Armstrong
This paper uses the 2005 and 2010 Canadian General Social Surveys (Time Use) to investigate the effect of wages on the sleep duration of individuals in the labour force. The endogeneity of wages is taken into account with an instrumental variables approach; we find that the wage rate affects sleeping time in general, corroborating Biddle and Hamermesh's (1990) main conclusion. A ten percent increase in the wage rate leads to an 11-12min decrease in sleep per week. But this number masks several effects. The responsiveness of sleep time to wage rate changes depends upon the sex of the individual, whether or not sleep problems are present and general economic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816867/effectiveness-of-weight-loss-intervention-in-highly-motivated-people
#16
Mariétou H Ouayogodé
A variety of approaches have been implemented to address the rising obesity epidemic, with limited success. I consider the success of weight loss efforts among a group of highly motivated people: those required to lose weight in order to qualify for a life-saving kidney transplantation. Out of 246 transplantation centers, I identified 156 (63%) with explicit body mass index (BMI) requirements for transplantation, ranging from 30 to 50kg/m(2). Using the United States national registry of transplant candidates, I examine outcomes for 29,608 obese deceased-donor transplant recipients between 1990 and 2010...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794258/misfortunes-never-come-singly-structural-change-multiple-shocks-and-child-malnutrition-in-rural-senegal
#17
Sara Lazzaroni, Natascha Wagner
This study considers the two most pronounced shocks Senegalese subsistence farmers struggle with, namely increasing purchase prices and droughts. We assess the relationship of these self-reported shocks with child health in a multi-shock approach to account for concomitance of adverse events from the natural, biological, economic and health sphere. We employ a unique farming household panel dataset containing information on children living in poor, rural households in eight regions of Senegal in 2009 and 2011 and account for structural changes occurring between survey periods due to the large scale, national Nutrition Enhancement Program...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776300/disease-externalities-and-net-nutrition-evidence-from-changes-in-sanitation-and-child-height-in-cambodia-2005-2010
#18
Sangita Vyas, Phyrum Kov, Susanna Smets, Dean Spears
Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756007/towards-an-anthropometric-history-of-latin-america-in-the-second-half-of-the-twentieth-century
#19
Amílcar E Challú, Sergio Silva-Castañeda
We examine the evolution of adult female heights in twelve Latin American countries during the second half of the twentieth century based on demographic health surveys and related surveys compiled from national and international organizations. Only countries with more than one survey were included, allowing us to cross-examine surveys and correct for biases. We first show that average height varies significantly according to location, from 148.3cm in Guatemala to 158.8cm in Haiti. The evolution of heights over these decades behaves like indicators of human development, showing a steady increase of 2...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736669/obesity-and-the-labor-market-a-fresh-look-at-the-weight-penalty
#20
Marco Caliendo, Markus Gehrsitz
This paper applies semiparametric regression models to shed light on the relationship between body weight and labor market outcomes in Germany. We find conclusive evidence that these relationships are poorly described by linear or quadratic OLS specifications. Women's wages and employment probabilities do not follow a linear relationship and are highest at a body weight far below the clinical threshold of obesity. This indicates that looks, rather than health, is the driving force behind the adverse labor market outcomes to which overweight women are subject...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
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