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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088079/geographic-determinants-of-individual-obesity-risk-in-spain-a-multilevel-approach
#1
Athina Raftopoulou
This paper seeks to understand the determinants of individual body weight status and obesity risk in Spain by concurrently examining individual and regional characteristics. The data are drawn from the National Health Survey of Spain for the year 2011-2012 (INE-National Statistical Institute of Spain) and contain information for a representative sample of 12,671 adults across 50 provinces in Spain. A multilevel analysis is carried out to examine the determinants of individual weight status and obesity, controlling not only for the individual effects and those of the immediate environment but also for the broader setting to which individuals and their immediate environment belong...
January 3, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038413/the-effects-of-prospective-mate-quality-on-investments-in-healthy-body-weight-among-single-women
#2
Matthew C Harris, Christopher J Cronin
This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight...
December 21, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024175/two-worlds-apart-determinants-of-height-in-late-18th-century-central-mexico
#3
Rafael Dobado-González, Alfredo Garcia-Hiernaux
Anthropometric literature on the American territories of the Hispanic monarchy before their independence is still scarce. We attempt to expand the field with a case study that includes some important novelties. Albeit our main source, the military records of the Censo de Revillagigedo (conducted in the early 1790s), has already been used, the sample size and the geographical scope are unprecedented: 19,390 males of four ethnicities (castizos, españoles, mestizos, and mulatos) aged from 16 to 39 from 24 localities, including towns and villages scattered across central regions of the Viceroyalty of New Spain...
December 14, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063679/are-publicly-insured-children-less-likely-to-be-admitted-to-hospital-than-the-privately-insured-and-does-it-matter
#4
Diane Alexander, Janet Currie
There is continuing controversy about the extent to which publicly insured children are treated differently than privately insured children, and whether differences in treatment matter. We show that on average, hospitals are less likely to admit publicly insured children than privately insured children who present at the ER and the gap grows during high flu weeks, when hospital beds are in high demand. This pattern is present even after controlling for detailed diagnostic categories and hospital fixed effects, but does not appear to have any effect on measurable health outcomes such as repeat ER visits and future hospitalizations...
December 9, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940369/the-biological-standard-of-living-in-pre-modern-korea-determinants-of-height-of-militia-recruits-during-the-chos%C3%A5-n-dynasty
#5
Seong Ho Jun, James B Lewis, Daniel Schwekendiek
This paper extends the research on the biological standard of living in the Korean peninsula back to pre-modern times. Drawing on militia rosters of the Chosŏn Dynasty from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, we tentatively conclude that the final height of Korean men during this period was 166cm and thus slightly above that of modern North Korean men (165cm). On the other hand, the average height of modern South Korean men is 172cm, 6cm more than what we tentatively estimate for pre-modern Korean men. Regression analysis of the height of pre-modern Korean men finds that un-free Koreans ("slaves") were significantly shorter by about 0...
December 2, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987490/revisiting-the-relationship-between-wages-and-sleep-duration-the-role-of-insomnia
#6
Golnaz Sedigh, Rose Anne Devlin, Gilles Grenier, Catherine Deri Armstrong
This paper uses the 2005 and 2010 Canadian General Social Surveys (Time Use) to investigate the effect of wages on the sleep duration of individuals in the labour force. The endogeneity of wages is taken into account with an instrumental variables approach; we find that the wage rate affects sleeping time in general, corroborating Biddle and Hamermesh's (1990) main conclusion. A ten percent increase in the wage rate leads to an 11-12min decrease in sleep per week. But this number masks several effects. The responsiveness of sleep time to wage rate changes depends upon the sex of the individual, whether or not sleep problems are present and general economic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057439/introduction-to-the-special-issue-in-honor-of-nobel-laureate-angus-deaton-on-health-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#7
EDITORIAL
Franco Peracchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984771/the-perils-of-climate-change-in-utero-exposure-to-temperature-variability-and-birth-outcomes-in-the-andean-region
#8
Oswaldo Molina, Victor Saldarriaga
The discussion on the effects of climate change on human activity has primarily focused on how increasing temperature levels can impair human health. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of increased climate variability on health. We investigate how in utero exposure to temperature variability, measured as the fluctuations relative to the historical local temperature mean, affects birth outcomes in the Andean region. Our results suggest that exposure to a temperate one standard deviation relative to the municipality's long-term temperature mean during pregnancy reduces birth weight by 20g...
November 28, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923558/evaluating-the-role-of-income-state-dependence-and-individual-specific-heterogeneity-in-the-determination-of-subjective-health-assessments
#9
Iván Fernández-Val, Yevgeniya Savchenko, Francis Vella
This paper investigates the role of various determinants of an individual's subjective self-assessment of own health. While the economics literature has focused primarily on the role of income on these assessments, we include an examination of the role of state dependence and unobserved individual specific time invariant heterogeneity. We employ a dynamic fixed effects ordered choice model to examine the responses of Australian residents. We find no statistically significant relationship between transitory income and health responses...
November 28, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912152/hearing-loss-and-disability-exit-measurement-issues-and-coping-strategies
#10
Vibeke Tornhøj Christensen, Nabanita Datta Gupta
Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions related to aging, and previous descriptive evidence links it to early exit from the labor market. These studies are usually based on self-reported hearing difficulties, which are potentially endogenous to labor supply. We use unique representative data collected in the spring of 2005 through in-home interviews. The data contains self-reported functional and clinically-measured hearing ability for a representative sample of the Danish population aged 50-64. We estimate the causal effect of hearing loss on early retirement via disability benefits, taking into account the endogeneity of functional hearing...
November 25, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987491/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-body-mass-index-across-countries
#11
Peter Dolton, Mimi Xiao
There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity. We are just beginning to understand its consequences for child obesity. This paper addresses one important component of the crisis; namely the extent to which adiposity, or more specifically, BMI, is passed down from one generation to the next. We find that the intergenerational elasticity of BMI is very similar across countries and relatively constant - at 0.2 per parent. Our substantive finding is that this elasticity is very comparable across time and countries - even if these countries are at very different stages of economic development...
November 24, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888777/the-effects-of-prenatal-testosterone-on-wages-evidence-from-russia
#12
John V C Nye, Maksym Bryukhanov, Ekaterina Kochergina, Ekaterina Orel, Sergiy Polyachenko, Maria Yudkevich
Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation...
November 19, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908610/economics-human-biology-and-inequality-a-review-of-puzzles-and-recent-contributions-from-a-deatonian-perspective
#13
Joerg Baten
The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889633/effects-of-state-contraceptive-insurance-mandates
#14
Angela K Dills, Anca M Grecu
Using U.S. Natality data for 1996 through 2009 and an event analysis specification, we investigate the dynamics of the effects of state insurance contraceptive mandates on births and measures of parental investment: prenatal visits, non-marital childbearing, and risky behaviors during pregnancy. We analyze outcomes separately by age, race, and ethnicity. Among young Hispanic women, we find a 4% decline in the birth rate. There is evidence of a decrease in births to single mothers, consistent with increased wantedness...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915138/parental-misclassification-of-child-overweight-obese-status-the-role-of-parental-education-and-parental-weight-status
#15
John Cullinan, John Cawley
Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health challenge for policymakers in many countries. As the most common supervisors of children's activities, parents have a potentially important role to play in obesity prevention. However, a precondition for parents to improve their children's diets, encourage them to be more physically active, or take them to see a doctor about their weight is for the parent to first recognize that their child is overweight or obese. This paper examines the extent of parental misclassification of child weight status, and its correlates, focusing on the role of parental education and the parent's own obesity status...
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907834/effects-of-drought-on-child-health-in-marsabit-district-northern-kenya
#16
Jan M Bauer, Samuel Mburu
This study uses five years of panel data (2009-2013) for Northern Kenya's Marsabit district to analyze the levels and extent of malnutrition among children aged five and under in that area. We measure drought based on the standardized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and assess its effect on child health using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The results show that approximately 20 percent of the children in the study area are malnourished and a one standard deviation increase in NDVI z-score decreases the probability of child malnourishment by 12-16 percent...
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889634/obesity-a-major-problem-for-spanish-minors
#17
Manel Antelo, Pilar Magdalena, Juan C Reboredo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846416/stature-and-long-term-labor-market-outcomes-evidence-using-mendelian-randomization
#18
Petri Böckerman, Jutta Viinikainen, Jari Vainiomäki, Mirka Hintsanen, Niina Pitkänen, Terho Lehtimäki, Jaakko Pehkonen, Suvi Rovio, Olli Raitakari
We use the Young Finns Study (N=∼2000) on the measured height linked to register-based long-term labor market outcomes. The data contain six age cohorts (ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18, in 1980) with the average age of 31.7, in 2001, and with the female share of 54.7. We find that taller people earn higher earnings according to the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation. The OLS models show that 10cm of extra height is associated with 13% higher earnings. We use Mendelian randomization, with the genetic score as an instrumental variable (IV) for height to account for potential confounders that are related to socioeconomic background, early life conditions and parental investments, which are otherwise very difficult to fully account for when using covariates in observational studies...
November 8, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843117/height-and-cognition-at-work-labor-market-productivity-in-a-low-income-setting
#19
Daniel LaFave, Duncan Thomas
Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice...
November 5, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838563/malaria-ecology-child-mortality-fertility
#20
Gordon C McCord, Dalton Conley, Jeffrey D Sachs
The broad determinants of fertility are thought to be reasonably well identified by demographers, though the detailed quantitative drivers of fertility levels and changes are less well understood. This paper uses a novel ecological index of malaria transmission to study the effect of child mortality on fertility. We find that temporal variation in the ecology of the disease is well-correlated to mortality, and pernicious malaria conditions lead to higher fertility rates. We then argue that most of this effect occurs through child mortality, and estimate the effect of child mortality changes on fertility...
November 4, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
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