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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294461/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-obesity-the-role-of-time-preferences-and-self-control
#1
Michal Stoklosa, Kerem Shuval, Jeffrey Drope, Rusty Tchernis, Mark Pachucki, Amy Yaroch, Matthew Harding
Previous research has found that impatient time preferences and self-control problems (present bias) are related to increased obesity risk. However, scant evidence exists pertaining to whether parents' impatience and self-control problems impact the obesity status of their children, too. Accordingly, we explore this study question among a large national sample of US adults and their children. Study results confirm previous findings indicating that intertemporal preferences are related to adults' obesity status...
December 20, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331629/growth-and-maturity-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-network-analysis-in-anthropometric-history
#2
Gregori Galofré-Vilà
This paper reviews the current wealth of anthropometric history since the early efforts of Robert Fogel in the 1970s. The survey is based on a quantitative systematic review of the literature and counts a total of 447 peer-reviewed articles being published in the main leading journals in economic history, economics and biology. Data are analysed using network analysis by journal and author and the main contributions of anthropometric history are highlighted, pointing to future areas of inquiry. The contributions of books and book chapters are also quantified and analysed...
December 16, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289699/does-integrating-aids-treatment-with-food-assistance-affect-labor-supply-evidence-from-zambia
#3
Nyasha Tirivayi, Wim Groot
In low income settings, food assistance is increasingly becoming part of AIDS treatment and care programs with the aim of improving adherence to AIDS treatment, enhancing household food security and strengthening economic wellbeing. Yet, evidence of its economic impact is sparse. This paper uses primary data to examine the short term impact of a food assistance program on labor supply as measured by the hours worked, labor market participation rates and transitions to employment within HIV/AIDS affected households in Zambia...
December 14, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276979/fertility-and-the-health-of-children-in-indonesia
#4
Timothy J Hatton, Robert Sparrow, Daniel Suryadarma, Pierre van der Eng
We analyse the heights of children aged 2 to 12 in the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) focusing on the effect of the number of children in the family. Previous studies of the trade-off between the quantity of children and some measure of their quality have been much concerned with the endogeneity of fertility choices. Here we use the IFLS for 1993, 1997 and 2000 to exploit some unique institutional features that have influenced fertility. We find evidence that family size is influenced both from the supply side, as represented by components of the Indonesian family planning programme, and on the demand side, as represented by exposure to modern media...
December 13, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288870/two-by-two-inch-by-inch-height-as-an-indicator-of-environmental-conditions-during-childhood-and-its-influence-on-earnings-over-the-life-cycle-among-twins
#5
Elisabeth Lång, Paul Nystedt
Adult height is a function of genetic predispositions and environmental influences during childhood. Hence, any variation in height among monozygotic twins, who share genetic predispositions, is bound to reflect differences in their environmental exposure. Therefore, a height premium in earnings among monozygotic twins also reflects such exposure. In this study, we analyze the height premium over the life cycle among Swedish twins, 10,000 of whom are monozygotic. The premium is relatively constant over the life cycle, amounting to 5-6% higher earnings per decimeter for men and less for women, suggesting that environmental conditions in childhood and youth affect earnings over most of the adult life course...
December 6, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197240/macroeconomic-conditions-and-health-inspecting-the-transmission-mechanism
#6
Emilio Colombo, Valentina Rotondi, Luca Stanca
We study the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and self-reported health in a large sample of Italian individuals, focusing on the mediating role played by health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, eating habits) and economic stress. Our findings indicate that, overall, higher local unemployment is negatively related to individuals' health conditions. A one percentage point increase in the province-level unemployment rate is associated with a significant increase in the probability of experiencing diabetes (0...
November 23, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197239/age-at-menarche-in-polish-university-students-born-before-during-and-after-world-war-ii-economic-effects
#7
Grażyna Liczbińska, Zbigniew Czapla, Janusz Piontek, Robert M Malina
Although the relationships between economic conditions and biological variables over the past two centuries in Poland are reasonably well-documented, the influence of economic and political disruptions, including nutritional privation, during the years immediately before, during and shortly after World War II (WWII) has received less attention. This paper considers the association between age at menarche and body size of university students born before, during and after WWII and father's level of education, a commonly used indicator of family economic status in Poland...
November 21, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197238/food-insecurity-and-child-behavior-problems-in-fragile-families
#8
Christian King
Food insecurity remains a persistent problem in the United States. Several studies have shown that food insecurity is associated with child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. However, some potential methodological limitations remain. For example, most studies use a household measure of food insecurity while there is evidence that children, especially younger ones, tend to be shielded by their parents from experiencing food insecurity. In addition, the mechanisms through which food insecurity affects children are not well understood...
November 21, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197237/the-rise-in-obesity-in-cuba-from-2001-to-2010-an-analysis-of-national-survey-on-risk-factors-and-chronic-diseases-data
#9
Peng Nie, Alina Alfonso Leon, Maria Elena Díaz Sánchez, Alfonso Sousa-Poza
Using two waves of the National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases in Cuba, we identify demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with obesity among urban adults aged 18+ and decompose the change in obesity within this 9-year period using both the mean-based Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and a nonlinear approach. Our results reveal significant increases in overweight and obesity (2.3, 3.1, and 7.6 percentage points for BMI-based overweight, BMI-based obesity, and abdominal obesity, respectively)...
November 15, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153871/revisiting-the-impact-of-macroeconomic-conditions-on-health-behaviours
#10
Giorgio Di Pietro
This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age...
November 7, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202446/do-employers-reward-physical-attractiveness-in-transition-countries
#11
Astghik Mavisakalyan
This paper studies the labour market returns to physical attractiveness using data from three transition countries of the Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. I estimate a large positive effect of attractive looks on males' probability of employment. Results from the most comprehensive model suggest a marginal effect of 11.1 percentage points. Using a partial identification approach, I show that this relationship is likely to be causal. After accounting for covariates, particularly measures of human capital, there is no evidence for a statistically significant link between females' attractiveness and employment...
November 4, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107462/each-meal-matters-in-the-exposome-biological-and-community-considerations-in-fast-food-socioeconomic-associations
#12
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
Advances in omics and microbiome technology have transformed the ways in which the biological consequences of life in the 'ecological theatre' can be visualized. Exposome science examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) as a means to understand the response of the 'total organism to the total environment' over time. The repetitive stimulation of compensatory physiological responses (immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine) in response to stress - including sources of stress highly relevant to socioeconomic disadvantage - may lead to metabolic dysregulation and cellular damage, ultimately influencing behavior and disease...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934704/cyclical-unemployment-and-infant-health
#13
Erin K Kaplan, Courtney A Collins, Frances A Tylavsky
This study provides evidence on the effect of cyclical unemployment on infant health. We match individual-level data from a detailed survey of mothers and their children in Memphis, TN, with 5-year average census-tract unemployment rates from the American Community Survey. Our findings indicate that a one percentage point increase in the local unemployment rate is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of having a low birthweight baby (a baby weighing less than 2500 grams). We also find evidence of a statistically significant decrease in gestational age...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930700/economic-analysis-of-the-link-between-diet-quality-and-health-evidence-from-kosovo
#14
Kushtrim Braha, Andrej Cupák, Ján Pokrivčák, Artan Qineti, Marian Rizov
We analyse the link between diet diversity, (which is a proxy of diet quality) and health outcomes measured by body-mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of Kosovar adults using household expenditure micro-data. Building on a household model of health production we devise a two-stage empirical strategy to estimate the determinants of diet diversity and its effect on BMI. Economic factors and demographic characteristics play an important role in the choice of balanced diets. Results from the BMI analysis support the hypothesis that diet diversity is associated with optimal BMI...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930699/causal-effects-of-hiv-on-employment-status-in-low-income-settings
#15
Jessica Ochalek, Paul Revill, Bernard van den Berg
This paper estimates the causal impact of being HIV positive on individual employment status using a recursive bivariate probit with male circumcision as the instrument to overcome the endogeneity arising from simultaneity bias. The results show that being HIV positive reduces the probability of being employed by 5 percentage points among males in Uganda. The effect is greater for individuals employed in manual labor than non-manual labor. When limiting the sample to mainly individuals employed in subsistence agriculture, we find a 4 percentage point reduction in the likelihood of employment, suggesting that the effect occurs primarily through reductions in labor supply as opposed to demand...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#16
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843868/recessions-and-health-revisited-new-findings-for-working-age-adults
#17
Benjamin Crost, Andrew Friedson
A series of influential papers have documented that state level mortality rates decrease during economic downturns. In this paper, we estimate the effect of education specific unemployment rates on mortality, which provide a more exact measure of the likelihood of being directly impacted by a recession. We find that the unemployment rate of an education group in a given state is positively related to mortality in that group. A 1% increase in the group-specific unemployment rate is associated with an approximately 0...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787653/body-mass-and-wages-new-evidence-from-quantile-estimation
#18
Peter Slade
I estimate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on wages across the unconditional distribution of wages. I find that for whites and Hispanics the effect of BMI is generally decreasing across the wage distribution; at the .9 quantile of the wage distribution, a two standard deviation increase in BMI reduces wages by 8% for white males, 13% for white females, 9% for Hispanic males, and 16% for Hispanic females. Conversely, at the .1 quantile, a two standard deviation increase in BMI affects wages by less than 2% for all these groups...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768226/you-can-be-too-thin-but-not-too-tall-social-desirability-bias-in-self-reports-of-weight-and-height
#19
Mary A Burke, Katherine G Carman
Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height)...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735163/multidimensional-human-capital-formation-in-a-developing-country-health-cognition-and-locus-of-control-in-the-philippines
#20
Kira M Villa
Economic success depends on multiple human capital stocks whose production is interrelated and occurs over many life stages. Yet, much empirical work fails to account for human capital's multidimensional nature and limits its focus to specific childhood stages. Using longitudinal data from the Philippines, I estimate a model of multidimensional human capital formation from birth through adulthood where health, cognitive, and noncognitive dimensions are jointly produced. I examine during which developmental stages parental investment is most influential and address the endogeneity of investment using a policy function where investment depends on child characteristics, exogenous conditions at birth and local prices...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
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