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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912152/hearing-loss-and-disability-exit-measurement-issues-and-coping-strategies
#1
Vibeke Tornhøj Christensen, Nabanita Datta Gupta
Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions related to aging, and previous descriptive evidence links it to early exit from the labor market. These studies are usually based on self-reported hearing difficulties, which are potentially endogenous to labor supply. We use unique representative data collected in the spring of 2005 through in-home interviews. The data contains self-reported functional and clinically-measured hearing ability for a representative sample of the Danish population aged 50-64. We estimate the causal effect of hearing loss on early retirement via disability benefits, taking into account the endogeneity of functional hearing...
November 25, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888777/the-effects-of-prenatal-testosterone-on-wages-evidence-from-russia
#2
John V C Nye, Maksym Bryukhanov, Ekaterina Kochergina, Ekaterina Orel, Sergiy Polyachenko, Maria Yudkevich
Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation...
November 19, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908610/economics-human-biology-and-inequality-a-review-of-puzzles-and-recent-contributions-from-a-deatonian-perspective
#3
Joerg Baten
The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889633/effects-of-state-contraceptive-insurance-mandates
#4
Angela K Dills, Anca M Grecu
Using U.S. Natality data for 1996 through 2009 and an event analysis specification, we investigate the dynamics of the effects of state insurance contraceptive mandates on births and measures of parental investment: prenatal visits, non-marital childbearing, and risky behaviors during pregnancy. We analyze outcomes separately by age, race, and ethnicity. Among young Hispanic women, we find a 4% decline in the birth rate. There is evidence of a decrease in births to single mothers, consistent with increased wantedness...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907834/effects-of-drought-on-child-health-in-marsabit-district-northern-kenya
#5
Jan M Bauer, Samuel Mburu
This study uses five years of panel data (2009-2013) for Northern Kenya's Marsabit district to analyze the levels and extent of malnutrition among children aged five and under in that area. We measure drought based on the standardized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and assess its effect on child health using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The results show that approximately 20 percent of the children in the study area are malnourished and a one standard deviation increase in NDVI z-score decreases the probability of child malnourishment by 12-16 percent...
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889634/obesity-a-major-problem-for-spanish-minors
#6
Manel Antelo, Pilar Magdalena, Juan C Reboredo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846416/stature-and-long-term-labor-market-outcomes-evidence-using-mendelian-randomization
#7
Petri Böckerman, Jutta Viinikainen, Jari Vainiomäki, Mirka Hintsanen, Niina Pitkänen, Terho Lehtimäki, Jaakko Pehkonen, Suvi Rovio, Olli Raitakari
We use the Young Finns Study (N=∼2000) on the measured height linked to register-based long-term labor market outcomes. The data contain six age cohorts (ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18, in 1980) with the average age of 31.7, in 2001, and with the female share of 54.7. We find that taller people earn higher earnings according to the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation. The OLS models show that 10cm of extra height is associated with 13% higher earnings. We use Mendelian randomization, with the genetic score as an instrumental variable (IV) for height to account for potential confounders that are related to socioeconomic background, early life conditions and parental investments, which are otherwise very difficult to fully account for when using covariates in observational studies...
November 8, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843117/height-and-cognition-at-work-labor-market-productivity-in-a-low-income-setting
#8
Daniel LaFave, Duncan Thomas
Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status; and a proxy for family background and genetic characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and sectoral choice...
November 5, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838563/malaria-ecology-child-mortality-fertility
#9
Gordon C McCord, Dalton Conley, Jeffrey D Sachs
The broad determinants of fertility are thought to be reasonably well identified by demographers, though the detailed quantitative drivers of fertility levels and changes are less well understood. This paper uses a novel ecological index of malaria transmission to study the effect of child mortality on fertility. We find that temporal variation in the ecology of the disease is well-correlated to mortality, and pernicious malaria conditions lead to higher fertility rates. We then argue that most of this effect occurs through child mortality, and estimate the effect of child mortality changes on fertility...
November 4, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810442/do-boys-eat-better-than-girls-in-india-longitudinal-evidence-on-dietary-diversity-and-food-consumption-disparities-among-children-and-adolescents
#10
Elisabetta Aurino
This paper examines the dynamics of gender-based disparities in the intra-household allocation of food during childhood and adolescence in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana by using three rounds of longitudinal data from two cohorts. While boys are advantaged at all ages (except for the Younger Cohort at 12 years old), the pro-boy gap widens markedly at 15 years old. Specifically, mid-adolescent girls tend to consume fewer protein- and vitamin-rich foods such as eggs, legumes, root vegetables and fruit. This result is robust to gender differences between adolescents in terms of puberty onset, school enrolment, time use and dietary behaviours...
October 27, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836569/child-height-and-intergenerational-transmission-of-health-evidence-from-ethnic-indians-in-england
#11
Caterina Alacevich, Alessandro Tarozzi
A large literature documents a widespread prevalence of small stature among Indian children as well as adults. We show that a height gap relative to a richer population such as whites in England also exists, although substantially reduced, among adult immigrants of Indian ethnicity in England. This is despite positive height selection into migration, demonstrated by ethnic Indian adults in England being on average 6-7cm taller than in India. However, the difference between natives and ethnic Indians in England disappears among their younger sons and daughters, although it re-appears among adolescents...
October 24, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794258/misfortunes-never-come-singly-structural-change-multiple-shocks-and-child-malnutrition-in-rural-senegal
#12
Sara Lazzaroni, Natascha Wagner
This study considers the two most pronounced shocks Senegalese subsistence farmers struggle with, namely increasing purchase prices and droughts. We assess the relationship of these self-reported shocks with child health in a multi-shock approach to account for concomitance of adverse events from the natural, biological, economic and health sphere. We employ a unique farming household panel dataset containing information on children living in poor, rural households in eight regions of Senegal in 2009 and 2011 and account for structural changes occurring between survey periods due to the large scale, national Nutrition Enhancement Program...
October 21, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816867/effectiveness-of-weight-loss-intervention-in-highly-motivated-people
#13
Mariétou H Ouayogodé
A variety of approaches have been implemented to address the rising obesity epidemic, with limited success. I consider the success of weight loss efforts among a group of highly motivated people: those required to lose weight in order to qualify for a life-saving kidney transplantation. Out of 246 transplantation centers, I identified 156 (63%) with explicit body mass index (BMI) requirements for transplantation, ranging from 30 to 50kg/m(2). Using the United States national registry of transplant candidates, I examine outcomes for 29,608 obese deceased-donor transplant recipients between 1990 and 2010...
October 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776300/disease-externalities-and-net-nutrition-evidence-from-changes-in-sanitation-and-child-height-in-cambodia-2005-2010
#14
Sangita Vyas, Phyrum Kov, Susanna Smets, Dean Spears
Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years...
October 15, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756007/towards-an-anthropometric-history-of-latin-america-in-the-second-half-of-the-twentieth-century
#15
Amílcar E Challú, Sergio Silva-Castañeda
We examine the evolution of adult female heights in twelve Latin American countries during the second half of the twentieth century based on demographic health surveys and related surveys compiled from national and international organizations. Only countries with more than one survey were included, allowing us to cross-examine surveys and correct for biases. We first show that average height varies significantly according to location, from 148.3cm in Guatemala to 158.8cm in Haiti. The evolution of heights over these decades behaves like indicators of human development, showing a steady increase of 2...
October 7, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721111/the-effect-of-military-deployment-on-mental-health
#16
Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen, Cecilie Dohlmann Weatherall, Peter Winning Jepsen
Public concern about soldiers' mental health has increased over the last decade. Yet the large literature on the mental health problems of returning soldiers relies primarily on self-reported measures that may suffer from non-response bias, usually refers to older conflicts, and focuses mainly on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service...
September 30, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736669/obesity-and-the-labor-market-a-fresh-look-at-the-weight-penalty
#17
Marco Caliendo, Markus Gehrsitz
This paper applies semiparametric regression models to shed light on the relationship between body weight and labor market outcomes in Germany. We find conclusive evidence that these relationships are poorly described by linear or quadratic OLS specifications. Women's wages and employment probabilities do not follow a linear relationship and are highest at a body weight far below the clinical threshold of obesity. This indicates that looks, rather than health, is the driving force behind the adverse labor market outcomes to which overweight women are subject...
September 28, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720584/growing-up-in-wartime-evidence-from-the-era-of-two-world-wars
#18
Enkelejda Havari, Franco Peracchi
We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks...
September 16, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697622/labor-market-consequences-of-childhood-onset-type-1-diabetes
#19
Sofie Persson, Ulf-G Gerdtham, Katarina Steen Carlsson
This paper examines the effect of the onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) before 15 years of age on labor market outcomes and contributes to the literature on effects of childhood health on adult socioeconomic status. Using national Swedish socioeconomic register data 1991-2010 for 2485 individuals born 1972-1978 with onset of T1DM in 1977-1993, we find that T1DM in childhood has a negative effect on labor market outcomes later in life. Part of the T1DM effect is channeled through occupational field which may be related to both choice and opportunities...
September 14, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648973/is-treatment-intensity-associated-with-healthier-lifestyle-choices-an-application-of-the-dose-response-function
#20
Eleonora Fichera, Richard Emsley, Matt Sutton
Healthy lifestyle choices and doctor consultations can be substitutes or complements in the health production function. In this paper we consider the relation between the number of doctor consultations and the frequency of patient physical activity. We use a novel application of the Dose-Response Function model proposed by Hirano and Imbens (2004) to deal with treatment endogeneity under the no unmeasured confounding assumption. Our application takes account of unobserved heterogeneity and uses dynamic non-linear models for the treatment and outcome variables of interest...
September 11, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
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