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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538160/colonialism-and-genetics-of-comparative-development
#1
Ideen Riahi
This study argues that European colonial policies and former colonies' genetic variation (genetic distance to Europeans and genetic diversity) were interlinked. Over a prolonged period of time, populations that were genetically far from Europeans and had extreme levels of genetic diversity (e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) adapted to environments that were significantly different from the climatic conditions of continental Europe. This resulted in a divergence in populations' resistance to infectious diseases and positive relationships between European settler mortality at the time of colonization, genetic distance to the technological frontier, and genetic diversity...
May 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486211/low-expectations-do-teachers-underestimate-the-ability-of-overweight-children-or-the-children-of-overweight-mothers
#2
Michelle Queally, Edel Doherty, Francis M Finucane, Ciaran O'Neill
Using the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland Survey of nine year old children we examine whether a teacher's assessment of their pupil's academic ability is influenced by the weight status of the child and/or the child's mother. Multivariate regression analyses of the teacher's assessment, controlling for the child's actual test performance, their BMI, their mother's BMI, other socio-demographic and teacher characteristics were undertaken. The study highlighted that child BMI was not a significant determinant but that children whose mother was obese were more likely to be rated as below average in reading and in maths compared to those whose mother was leaner, after adjusting for their measured ability...
April 28, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472713/business-cycle-impacts-on-substance-use-of-adolescents-a-multi-country-analysis
#3
Thomas Paling, Judit Vall Castello
Populations respond to changes in the economic climate in a variety of ways. The recent 'Great Recession' has brought attention to the vulnerability of many economies around the world to changes in non-domestic macroeconomic fluctuations. However, empirical evidence on the responses of adolescents' substance consumption behaviour when the economy deteriorates is very scarce. Thus, the focus of this paper is to analyse the substance consumption patterns displayed by adolescents in response to changes in macroeconomic conditions in a large number of countries...
April 24, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472714/the-association-between-socioeconomic-status-and-adult-fast-food-consumption-in-the-u-s
#4
Jay L Zagorsky, Patricia K Smith
Health follows a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in developed countries, with disease prevalence falling as SES rises. This pattern is partially attributed to differences in nutritional intake, with the poor eating the least healthy diets. This paper examines whether there is an SES gradient in one specific aspect of nutrition: fast-food consumption. Fast food is generally high in calories and low in nutrients. We use data from the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test whether adult fast-food consumption in the United States falls as monetary resources rise (n=8136)...
April 19, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460366/long-run-health-consequences-of-air-pollution-evidence-from-indonesia-s-forest-fires-of-1997
#5
Younoh Kim, Scott Knowles, James Manley, Vlad Radoias
While many studies in the medical literature documented causal relationships between air pollution and negative health outcomes immediately following exposure, much less is known about the long run health consequences of pollution exposure. Using the 1997 Indonesian forest fires as a natural experiment, we estimate the long term effects of air pollution on health outcomes. We take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), which collects detailed individual data on a multitude of health outcomes, in both 1997 and 2007...
April 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505568/the-structural-relationship-between-early-nutrition-cognitive-skills-and-non-cognitive-skills-in-four-developing-countries
#6
Alan Sánchez
This study provides evidence about how cognitive and non-cognitive skills are acquired during childhood in four developing countries (Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam), highlighting the role of early nutrition as a determinant in this process. An increase of one standard deviation in height-for-age at the age of 1 is found to have a total effect on cognitive skills at age 8 by 5.4 percent in Ethiopia, 9.0 percent in India, 7.6 percent in Peru and 8.4 percent in Vietnam. The corresponding total effect on non-cognitive skills is 1...
April 17, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445843/health-and-income-inequalities-in-europe-what-is-the-role-of-circumstances
#7
M Pasqualini, D Lanari, L Minelli, L Pieroni, L Salmasi
Equality of opportunity theories distinguish between inequalities due to individual effort and those due to external circumstances. Recent research has shown that half of the variability in income of World population was determined by country of birth and income distribution. Since health and income are generally strictly related, the aim of this paper is to estimate how much variability in income and health is determined by external circumstances. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Survey on Ageing (ELSA), two comparable multidisciplinary surveys that provide micro-level data on health and financial resources among the elderly for a large number of European countries...
April 17, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448881/social-capital-and-cigarette-smoking-new-empirics-featuring-the-norwegian-hunt-data
#8
M Kamrul Islam, Sherman Folland, Oddvar M Kaarbøe
Using a rich Norwegian longitudinal data set, this study explores the effects of different social capital variables on the probability of cigarette smoking. There are four social capital variables available in two waves of our data set. Our results based on probit (and OLS) analyses (with municipality fixed-effects) show that the likelihood of smoking participation is negatively and significantly associated with social capital attributes, namely, community trust (-0.017), participation in organizational activities (-0...
April 14, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395273/obesity-and-its-socioeconomic-determinants-in-iran
#9
Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Mansooreh Fateh, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Ali Alami, Akbar Fotouhi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the socioeconomic inequality of obesity and its determinants in Iran. METHODS: Data was from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of non-communicable diseases which was conducted on 89,400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to create a new variable for defining socioeconomic status of participants. We assessed inequality by calculating a slop index of inequality and concentration index for obesity...
March 31, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410489/the-contribution-of-urbanization-to-non-communicable-diseases-evidence-from-173-countries-from-1980-to-2008
#10
Yevgeniy Goryakin, Lorenzo Rocco, Marc Suhrcke
It is widely believed that the expanding burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is in no small part the result of major macro-level determinants. We use a large amount of new data, to explore in particular the role played by urbanization - the process of the population shifting from rural to urban areas within countries - in affecting four important drivers of NCDs world-wide: diabetes prevalence, as well as average body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol level and systolic blood pressure. Urbanization is seen by many as a double-edged sword: while its beneficial economic effects are widely acknowledged, it is commonly alleged to produce adverse side effects for NCD-related health outcomes...
March 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388502/the-bmi-values-of-the-lower-classes-likely-declined-during-the-great-depression
#11
John Komlos, Scott Carson
The BMI values of inmates in the McNeil Island Penitentiary in Washington State declined between the 1860s and the 1910s birth cohorts by 1.44. Furthermore, those who were imprisoned in the 1930s had significantly lower BMI values (by between 0.72 and 1.01) than those who were incarcerated at the end of the 19th century. This corresponds to a decrease in weight of some 2.25kg (4.95lbs) for a man of average height of 173.86cm (68.5inches). The diminution in nutritional status among this lower-class sample is hardly surprising, given the high level of unemployment at the time but has not been verified until now...
March 22, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364586/imperfect-information-on-physical-activity-and-caloric-intake
#12
Matthew C Harris
Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, I find that individuals who overestimate their activity level by one standard deviation consume 40-60 extra calories per day, or enough to gain five pounds per year. These extra calories are composed mainly of sugar and carbohydrate, and are concentrated among individuals in the 75th and 90th percentiles of caloric intake. The link between overeating and inaccurate estimation of physical activity is strongest among less educated individuals and individuals with high variance in their physical activity, suggesting that imperfect recall or information gaps explain at least part of the relationship of interest...
March 18, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388501/the-heights-of-french-canadian-convicts-1780s-1820s
#13
Alex Arsenault Morin, Vincent Geloso, Vadim Kufenko
This paper uses a novel dataset of heights collected from the records of the Quebec City prison between 1813 and 1847 to survey the French-Canadian population of Quebec-which was then known either as Lower Canada or Canada East. Using a birth-cohort approach with 10year birth cohorts from the 1780s to the 1820s, we find that French-Canadian prisoners grew shorter over the period. Through the whole sample period, they were short compared to Americans. However, French-Canadians were taller either than their cousins in France or the inhabitants of Latin America (except Argentinians)...
March 16, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343116/health-and-weight-gender-specific-linkages-under-heterogeneity-interdependence-and-resilience-factors
#14
Olaf Hübler
Many studies have shown that obesity is a serious health problem for our society. Empirical analyses often neglect a number of methodological issues and relevant influences on health. This paper investigates empirically whether neglecting these items leads to systematically different estimates. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study derives the following results. (1) Many combinations of weight and height lead to the same health status. (2) The relationship between health and body mass index is nonlinear...
March 11, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324862/heterogeneity-in-predictive-power-of-early-childhood-nutritional-indicators-for-mid-childhood-outcomes-evidence-from-vietnam
#15
Le Thuc Duc, Jere R Behrman
We utilize longitudinal data on nearly 1800 children in Vietnam to study the predictive power of alternative measures of early childhood undernutrition for outcomes at age eight years: weight-for-age (WAZ8), height-for-age (HAZ8), and education (reading, math and receptive vocabulary). We apply two-stage procedures to derive unpredicted weight gain and height growth in the first year of life. Our estimates show that a standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight is associated with an increase of 0.14 (standard error [SE]: 0...
March 11, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334657/investigating-the-poverty-obesity-paradox-in-europe
#16
Luca Salmasi, Martina Celidoni
This paper investigates the effect of income- and wealth-based poverty on the probability of being obese for the elderly in Europe by analysing data drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We use early-life economic conditions and regional circumstances as instruments for poverty later in life to account for endogeneity issues. After controlling for a large set of covariates at the individual, household, regional and country level, the results show that poverty significantly increases the probability of being obese and the Body Mass Index (BMI), for men and women...
March 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284175/a-tall-order-small-area-mapping-and-modelling-of-adult-height-among-swiss-male-conscripts
#17
Radoslaw Panczak, André Moser, Leonhard Held, Philip A Jones, Frank J Rühli, Kaspar Staub
Adult height reflects an individual's socio-economic background and offers insights into the well-being of populations. Height is linked to various health outcomes such as morbidity and mortality and has consequences on the societal level. The aim of this study was to describe small-area variation of height and associated factors among young men in Switzerland. Data from 175,916 conscripts (aged between 18.50 and 20.50 years) was collected between 2005 and 2011, which represented approximately 90% of the corresponding birth cohorts...
March 1, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284174/childhood-obesity-among-the-poor-in-peru-are-there-implications-for-cognitive-outcomes
#18
Suzanne L Wisniewski
This paper exploits three rounds of panel data provided by the Peruvian dataset of the Young Lives study to investigate the relationship between child cognition and obesity status among the poor. Child weight status is measured by a full distribution of child weight, from severely thin to obese, using data from a z-score for body mass index and cognition is measured by the Spanish version of the Picture Peabody Vocabulary Test (PPVT). This relationship is studied at age five and age eight (school age), and disaggregated across socioeconomic factors of gender, urban/rural setting and indigenous/nonindigenous status...
February 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260634/comparing-the-role-of-the-height-of-men-and-women-in-the-marriage-market
#19
Eiji Yamamura, Yoshiro Tsutsui
This paper explores how the role of men and women's height in the marriage market has changed across generations. Using individual-level data from Japan, we compared the effect of height on marriages between men and women, and investigated how the effect of height on marriage has changed across generations. Our key findings are: (1) for men born before 1965, a 1% increase in height led to an approximately 0.56% increase in the probability of being married. Conversely, for women born before 1965, a 1% increase in height led to an approximately 0...
February 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222325/household-food-group-expenditure-patterns-are-associated-with-child-anthropometry-at-ages-5-8-and-12-years-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#20
Debbie L Humphries, Kirk A Dearden, Benjamin T Crookston, Tassew Woldehanna, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis...
February 14, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
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