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Economics and Human Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772278/zika-virus-incidence-preventive-and-reproductive-behaviors-correlates-from-new-survey-data
#1
Climent Quintana-Domeque, José Raimundo Carvalho, Victor Hugo de Oliveira
During the outbreak of the Zika virus, Brazilian health authorities recommended that pregnant women take meticulous precaution to avoid mosquito bites and that women in general use contraceptive methods to postpone/delay pregnancies. In this article, we present new estimates on the Zika virus incidence, its correlates and preventive behaviors in the Northeast of Brazil, where the outbreak initiated, using survey data collected between March 30th and June 3rd of 2016. The target population were women aged 15-49 in the capital cities of the nine states of the Northeast region of Brazil...
May 1, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698905/hungry-children-age-faster
#2
Ana Lucia Abeliansky, Holger Strulik
We analyze how childhood hunger affects human aging for a panel of European individuals. For this purpose, we use six waves of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset and construct a health deficit index. Results from log-linear regressions suggest that, on average, elderly European men and women developed about 20 percent more health deficits when they experienced a hunger episode in their childhood. The effect becomes larger when the hunger episode is experienced earlier in childhood...
April 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684671/public-health-and-multiple-phase-mortality-decline-evidence-from-industrializing-japan
#3
Kota Ogasawara, Yukitoshi Matsushita
A growing body of literature shows the mitigating effects of water-supply systems on the mortality rates in large cities, yet the heterogeneities in the effects have been understudied. This study fills in the gap in existing knowledge by providing evidence for non-linearity in the effects of clean water using semiparametric fixed effects approach with city-level nationwide longitudinal dataset between 1922 and 1940, which covers 91% of total city population. According to our baseline estimate, the clean water accounts for approximately 27% of the decrease in the crude death rate in this period...
April 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614459/height-in-eighteenth-century-chilean-men-evidence-from-military-records-1730-1800s
#4
Manuel Llorca-Jaña, Juan Navarrete-Montalvo, Federico Droller, Roberto Araya-Valenzuela
This article provides the first height estimates for the adult population for any period of Chilean history. Based on military records, it gives an analysis of the average heights of male soldiers in the last eight decades of the colonial period, c.1730-1800s. The average height of Chilean men was around 167 centimetres, making them on average taller than men from Mexico, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Venezuela, but of a similar height to men from Sweden. However, Chilean men were clearly shorter than men in neighbouring Argentina, the USA and the UK...
March 26, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674180/why-do-very-unattractive-workers-earn-so-much
#5
Satoshi Kanazawa, Shihao Hu, Adrien Larere
Kanazawa and Still (2018) showed that very unattractive workers earned more than unattractive workers, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive workers, because they had higher levels of intelligence and education, but they did not explain why very unattractive workers had higher intelligence and education. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that some intelligent men may prefer to marry very unattractive women. The analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married at Age 29 than unattractive or average-looking women, and their spouses or partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women...
March 22, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614460/inequality-in-old-age-cognition-across-the-world
#6
Javier Olivera, Francesco Andreoli, Anja K Leist, Louis Chauvel
Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health and policymaking efforts. We use all publicly available and representative old age surveys with comparable information to assess inequalities of cognitive functioning for six distinctive age groups in 29 countries. We document that cognitive inequalities in old age are largely determined by earlier educational inequalities as well as gender differential survival rates...
March 22, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649781/persisting-patterns-of-human-height-regional-differences-in-living-standards-in-the-early-middle-ages
#7
Nicholas J Meinzer
öProximity to protein production' has recently been identified as an important determinant of regional variation of biological standards of living, as evidenced by average heights. The number of cows per person turned out to be a useful proxy where milk consumption had not been documented. Re-analyses of agricultural production and average male heights in early 19th-century central Europe show that indicators of agricultural suitability and potential for food production constructed from modern agro-ecological data are strongly correlated with historical agricultural specialisation...
March 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649780/smoking-and-local-unemployment-evidence-from-germany
#8
Micha Kaiser, Mirjam Reutter, Alfonso Sousa-Poza, Kristina Strohmaier
In this paper, we use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel to investigate the effect of macro-economic conditions (in the form of local unemployment rates) on smoking behavior. The results from our panel data models, several of which control for selection bias, indicate that the propensity to become a smoker increases significantly during an economic downturn, with an approximately 0.7 percentage point increase for each percentage point rise in the unemployment rate. Conversely, conditional on the individual being a smoker, cigarette consumption decreases with rising unemployment rates, with a one percentage point increase in the regional unemployment rate leading to a decrease in consumption up to 0...
March 1, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529401/can-we-increase-organ-donation-by-reducing-the-disincentives-an-experimental-analysis
#9
Zackary Hawley, Danyang Li, Kurt Schnier, Nicole Turgeon
Our research utilizes the experimental economics laboratory to investigate the impact that reducing disincentives has on organ donation. The experiment consists of four treatments across different levels of donation related costs, which reflect the disincentives associated with being an organ donor. Our experimental results indicate that sizable increases in the organ donation rate are achievable if we reduce the level of disincentives present. The largest observed donation rates arise when a financial return is offered for being an organ donor, which is prohibited under the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA), but nearly 80% of the gains observed under the positive financial incentives can be achieved if all of the disincentives are eliminated...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529400/employment-and-weight-status-the-extreme-case-of-body-concern-in-south-korea
#10
Seung-Yong Han, Alexandra A Brewis, Cindi SturtzSreetharan
For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525700/craniofacial-asymmetry-as-a-marker-of-socioeconomic-status-among-undocumented-mexican-immigrants-in-the-united-states
#11
Katherine E Weisensee, M Katherine Spradley
This study examines levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Mexican residents, U.S. residents, and undocumented border crossers (UBCs) from Mexico to the United States. Craniofacial structures develop symmetrically under ideal circumstances; however, during periods of developmental stress random deviations from perfect symmetry, or FA, can occur. It is hypothesized that the UBC sample would represent individuals of a lower socioeconomic status (SES) who experienced higher stress levels during development, and that these individuals would consequently have higher levels of FA...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514119/the-educational-impact-of-shocks-in-utero-evidence-from-rwanda
#12
Tom Bundervoet, Sonja Fransen
Research on the impact of violence and conflict on education typically focuses on exposure among a cohort of school-aged children. In line with the fetal origins hypothesis, this paper studies the long-run effect of exposure to adverse maternal health shocks while still in the womb. Exploiting the sudden and discrete nature of the Rwandan genocide and an identification strategy based on temporal and spatial variation, we find that the cohort in utero during the genocide reported on average 0.3 fewer years of schooling in the 2012 Rwanda...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486413/ladies-first-female-and-male-adult-height-in-switzerland-1770-1930
#13
Nikola Koepke, Joël Floris, Christian Pfister, Frank J Rühli, Kaspar Staub
When investigating the well-being of a society, the living conditions of females are of special importance, not only due to the immediate impact for those directly involved, but also because of the potential intergenerational effects. Studying the dimorphism in the mean height helps to depict variation in the basic biological sex difference due to gender-related factors that potentially determine net nutrition. To expand knowledge of diachronic development in Swiss well-being conditions we investigate changes in the height of adult females born 1770-1930, and compare the series with data on contemporary males from the same sources: We employ a sample of N = 21'028 women and N = 21'329 men from passport-, convict-, maternity hospital-, and voluntary World War II army auxiliary records...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482155/sex-selection-and-health-at-birth-among-indian-immigrants
#14
Libertad González
I use birth-certificate data for Spain to document extremely son-biased sex ratios at birth among Indian immigrants (122 boys per 100 girls), especially at higher parities. I also show that the children of Indian immigrants display poor health outcomes during infancy. For instance, almost 10% of boys with Indian parents are born prematurely, compared with 6% of boys with native parents. However, there is no evidence of a gender gap in infant health among the children of Indian immigrants. I provide evidence suggesting that the poor outcomes of Indian children at birth may be attributed to the low endowments of Indian mothers, while the absence of a gender gap may be driven by the fact that the parents who would invest less in girls are less likely to carry the pregnancies of girls to term (more likely to practice sex-selective abortion), combined with the lower cost of prenatal investments in Spain (compared with India)...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482154/childhood-obesity-in-china-does-grandparents-coresidence-matter
#15
Qinying He, Xun Li, Rui Wang
Childhood obesity in China has been increasingly cited as a major public health issue in recent decades. The effect of grandparents on grandchildren's weight outcome is under-analyzed. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we examine the effect of grandparents' coresidence on childhood weight outcome with a sample of 2-13-year-old children in China. We use instrumental variables to address the potential endogeneity of grandparents' coresidence. We show that the effect of grandparents' coresidence on childhood weight outcome is significantly positive...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547802/hybrid-marriages-and-phenotypic-heterosis-in-offspring-evidence-from-china
#16
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428886/family-size-effects-on-childhood-obesity-evidence-on-the-quantity-quality-trade-off-using-the-nlsy
#17
Kabir Dasgupta, Keisha T Solomon
In this study, we use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to study the effects of family size on child health. Focusing on excess body weight indicators as children's health outcome of interest, we examine the effects of exogenous variations in family size generated by twin births and parental preference for mixed sex composition of their children. We find no significant empirical support in favor of the quantity-quality trade-off theory in instrumental variable regression analysis...
February 8, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413887/parental-alcohol-consumption-and-adult-children-s-educational-attainment
#18
Lucia Mangiavacchi, Luca Piccoli
This study analyses whether an excessive parental alcohol consumption during childhood can affect long run children's educational attainments. Using 19 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), where individuals and their families are followed from childhood to adulthood, this study analyses parental alcohol consumption during childhood (between 1994 and 2001) and its relation with children's educational attainment about twelve years later (from 2005 to 2014). Panel estimations show that mother's excessive alcohol consumption during childhood is consistently negatively associated with children educational outcomes, as years of education, the highest education grade achieved and the probability of having a tertiary education degree, a finding that is robust to possible endogeneity issues...
February 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355817/the-healthy-worker-effect-do-healthy-people-climb-the-occupational-ladder
#19
Joan Costa-Font, Martin Ljunge
The association between occupational status and health has been taken to reveal the presence of occupational health inequalities. However, that interpretation assumes no influence of health status in climbing the occupational ladder. This paper documents evidence of non-negligible returns to occupation status on health (which we refer as 'healthy worker effect'). We use a unique empirical strategy that addresses the problem of reverse causality. That is, an instrumental variable strategy using the variation in average health in the migrant's country of origin, a health measure plausibly not determined by the migrant's occupational status...
February 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331629/growth-and-maturity-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-network-analysis-in-anthropometric-history
#20
Gregori Galofré-Vilà
This paper reviews the current wealth of anthropometric history since the early efforts of Robert Fogel in the 1970s. The survey is based on a quantitative systematic review of the literature and counts a total of 447 peer-reviewed articles being published in the main leading journals in economic history, economics and biology. Data are analysed using network analysis by journal and author and the main contributions of anthropometric history are highlighted, pointing to future areas of inquiry. The contributions of books and book chapters are also quantified and analysed...
February 2018: Economics and Human Biology
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