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Critical Pathways in Cardiology

Ali Bozorgi, Entezar Mehrabi Nasab, Maryam Khoshnevis, Enseyeh Dogmehchi, Gita Hamze, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad
OBJECTIVE: The red cell distribution width (RDW), a simple and widely available marker, has been linked with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and risk of death, and cardiovascular events in those with previous myocardial infarction, but its relation with the severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the RDW in post myocardial infarction patients with typical signs and symptoms of HF and with reduced LV ejection fraction (EF)...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Harry Jin, Jaimi H Greenslade, William A Parsonage, Tracey Hawkins, Martin Than, Louise Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Elevated uric acid levels have been associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to assess the clinical utility of serum uric acid levels to identify patients at high risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in those who presented to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 951 adult patients who were being evaluated for ACS in a single ED. Serum uric acid was taken on presentation...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Bryn E Mumma, James Eggert, Simon A Mahler, Michael C Kontos, Deborah B Diercks
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest a "door-in-door-out" (DIDO) time of 30 minutes or shorter for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who arrive at a STEMI referral hospital and are transferred to a STEMI-receiving center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Experts previously identified 18 system practices as critical for reducing DIDO times. The objective of this study was to describe how frequently these critical practices are used and to determine whether their use was associated with shorter DIDO times...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Shari V Montandon, Andrej A Petrov, Merritt L Fajt
BACKGROUND: Radiocontrast media allergy is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. This creates a clinical dilemma for cardiac patients who require urgent interventions with radiocontrast media. Several pretreatment regimens have been suggested for patients with prior immediate hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media. Despite using pretreatment regimens, breakthrough reactions have been reported in 2.1%-18% of patients with radiocontrast media allergy. Little is known about management of patients with a history of breakthrough radiocontrast media anaphylaxis who require urgent lifesaving procedures...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Osmar Antonio CenturiĆ³n
Assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has emerged as a simple and noninvasive technique for measuring atherosclerotic burden. Although serum biomarkers have been linked to the risk of developing atherosclerosis, carotid IMT has the theoretical advantage of directly visualizing a final consequence of the disease itself, namely atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. The current widespread application of carotid IMT measurements has been based on the validity, standardization, and reproducibility of the measurement and the evidence that an increased carotid IMT can be regarded as an attractive biomarker of atherosclerosis and of increased cardiovascular risk, potentially useful as a therapeutic target in those at increased cardiovascular risk...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Hao Wang, Katherine Watson, Richard D Robinson, Kristina H Domanski, Johnbosco Umejiego, Layton Hamblin, Sterling E Overstreet, Amanda M Akin, Steven Hoang, Meena Shrivastav, Michael Collyer, Ryan N Krech, Chet D Schrader, Nestor R Zenarosa
OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the performance of the HEART, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores to predict major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates after index placement in an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) and to determine the need for observation unit initiation of emergent cardiac imaging tests, that is, noninvasive cardiac stress tests and invasive coronary angiography. METHODS: A prospective observational single center study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Matthew T Crim, Scott A Berkowitz, Mustapha Saheed, Jason Miller, Amy Deutschendorf, Gary Gerstenblith, Peter Hill, Frederick K Korley
BACKGROUND: Patients with known coronary artery disease presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain are often admitted, yet may not be having an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We assessed whether the use of a novel risk score and a modified thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score obtained in the ED could discriminate which of these high-risk patients have ACS. Chart review was performed on a cohort of 285 patients with known coronary artery disease presenting to the ED with chest pain thought to be of ischemic origin and admitted to the hospital...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Christopher W Baugh, Jeffrey O Greenberg, Simon A Mahler, Joshua M Kosowsky, Jeremiah D Schuur, Siddharth Parmar, George R Ciociolo, Christina W Carr, Roya Ghazinouri, Benjamin M Scirica
OBJECTIVES: Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department, and a small but important minority represents an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Variation in diagnostic workup, risk stratification, and management may result in underuse, misuse, and/or overuse of resources. METHODS: From July to October 2014, we conducted a prospective cohort study in an academic medical center by implementing a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for chest pain based on the HEART score...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Shaban Mohammed, Ayman El-Menyar, Ihsan M Rafie, Hajar A AlBinAli, Rajvir Singh, Jassim Al Suwaidi
BACKGROUND: Gender discrepancy in the cardiovascular diseases has been evaluated in several studies. We studied the impact of gender disparity on the presentation and outcome of diabetic heart failure (DHF) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted including all DHF patients admitted to the Heart Hospital between 1991 and 2013. Patients' demographics, presentation, management, and hospital outcomes were analyzed and compared based on gender and age...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Alessandro Iliceto, Sara Louise Berndt, Jaimi H Greenslade, William A Parsonage, Christopher Hammett, Martin Than, Tracey Hawkins, Kate Parker, Shannen O'Kane, Louise Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Obtaining an accurate medical history is essential in the assessment of patients, particularly in emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain, as there can be a time imperative for diagnosis and commencement of treatment. We aimed to evaluate reliability of patient-reported compared with physician-adjudicated medical history by assessing patient's recall and communication of personal events and its influence on the accuracy of the medical history. METHODS: A total of 776 patients presenting at ED with suspected cardiac chest pain were recruited...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Wade Skoien
OBJECTIVE: Chest pain is one of the most frequent causes for presentation to emergency departments (EDs). The majority of patients will undergo diagnostic workup including stress testing to rule out an acute coronary syndrome, but very few patients will be diagnosed with a cardiac cause for their pain. Patients under 40 years represent a lower risk group in which routine stress testing may be of little benefit. This systematic review sought to determine the diagnostic yield of routine stress testing in low- and intermediate-risk chest pain patients under 40 years...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Paul A Heidenreich, Parisa Gholami, Shoutzu Lin
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine how often providers did not obtain a recommended measure of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following a high B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) value when the LVEF was not known to be low (<40%). Such patients may benefit from life-prolonging treatment. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients (inpatient or outpatient) with a BNP value of at least 200 pg/mL within a single VA health care system (3 inpatient facilities and 8 community clinics) during a 10-month period (September 2008-June 2009)...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Benjamin I Shepple, William A Thistlethwaite, Christopher L Schumann, Kwame O Akosah, Robert C Schutt, Ellen C Keeley
As part of a quality improvement project, we performed a process analysis to evaluate how patients presenting with type 1 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are diagnosed and managed early after the diagnosis has been made. We performed a retrospective chart review and collected detailed information regarding the timing of the first 12-lead electrocardiogram, troponin order entry and first positive troponin result, administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications, and referral for coronary angiography to identify areas of treatment variability and delay...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Ivan C Rokos, Karl Sporer, Paul B Savino, Mary P Mercer, Selinda S Shontz, Sarah Sabbagh, Renee Y Hsia
INTRODUCTION: California has been a global leader in regionalization efforts for time-critical medical conditions. A total of 33 local emergency medical service agencies (LEMSAs) exist, providing an organized EMS framework across the state for almost 40 years. We sought to develop a survey tool to quantify the degree and duration of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) regionalization over the last decade in California. METHODS: The project started with the development of an 8-question survey tool via a multi-disciplinary expert consensus process...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Jason P Stopyra, Cheryl Courage, Christopher A Davis, Brian C Hiestand, Robert D Nelson, James E Winslow
BACKGROUND: More than 300,000 persons in the United States experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest every year. The American Heart Association emphasizes on the rapid, effective delivery of cardiac arrest interventions by bystanders and emergency medical services (EMS) on scene. In July 2013, the EMS of Randolph County, a rural county in central North Carolina, implemented a team-focused cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) protocol. The protocol emphasized early chest compressions and resuscitation on scene until the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or until efforts were deemed futile...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Tracy Ison, Linda Morris, Gloria Wilkerson, Carla Schmidt, David E Winchester
BACKGROUND: An efficient testing process is a key to a timely diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department (ED). This includes a rapid evaluation cardiac biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a quality and process improvement project to reduce troponin-T turnaround time (TAT) in the central laboratory at our facility. An interdisciplinary team, including front-line staff members, reviewed each step of troponin-T processing in both the ED and the central laboratory...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian, Yadollah Fathi, Masoumeh Lotfi-Tokaldany, Mojtaba Salarifar, Mohammad Alidoosti, Ali-Mohammad Haji-Zeinali, Hassan Aghajani, Alireza Amirzadegan, Younes Nozari, Seyedeh Hamideh Mortazavi, Arash Jalali, Sepideh Saroukhani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare intracoronary (IC) bolus only with IC bolus plus maintenance intravenous (IV) infusion of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors with respect to 1-year major adverse cardiac events including mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, revascularization, and bleeding events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: This is an observational study of 233 consecutive patients who presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary PCI between April 2009 and December 2012...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Megan E Barra, John Fanikos, Marie D Gerhard-Herman, Deepak L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone intracoronary stent implantation often require surgery within the first year after the procedure. Planned or emergent surgical intervention requires interruption of antiplatelet therapy and is associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. Eptifibatide, an intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPIIb/IIIa), can be considered for antiplatelet bridging of high-risk patients in the periprocedural period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report is to describe the management of antiplatelet therapy and outcomes of patients who were bridged with eptifibatide perioperatively within 1 year of intracoronary stent implantation...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Jessica Buchheit, Prabashni Reddy, Jean M Connors
Idarucizumab (Praxbind), a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment was granted accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration in October 2015 as the first agent to reverse the effects of a novel oral anticoagulant. The drug is indicated for dabigatran reversal in patients requiring emergency surgery/urgent procedures or with life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding. In a randomized study with healthy volunteers, compared with placebo, idarucizumab reduced the clotting times for all tests assays (assessed pre-, end of-, and 24 hours after infusion), while the results for the placebo group remained unchanged...
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Tyler W Barrett, Keith D Wrenn, Corey M Slovis, Ian D Jones, Patty W Wright, Wesley H Self, Stephan Russ, Sean P Collins, Michael J Ward, Matthew Felbinger, Leanne Atchison, Joshua A Beckman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
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