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Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

Yaling Dou, Pan Peng, Congli Cai, Ali Ye, Lingjun Kong, Rui Zhang
HLA-B*58:01 has been demonstrated to be associated with allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Since HLA-B*58:01 is too complicated to be identified, it is necessary to select an appropriate surrogate biomarker. In Japan, the rs9263726 allele was considered as a surrogate biomarker for HLA-B*58:01, but this was not the case with the Australian cohort. Due to the conflict results, in this study, we aim to demonstrate whether the rs9263726 allele is a surrogate biomarker for HLA-B*58:01 in Han Chinese population...
August 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Naoyuki Tatsumi, Shinsaku Tokumitsu, Masataka Nakano, Tatsuki Fukami, Miki Nakajima
UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A enzymes catalyze the glucuronidation of various compounds. Since no correlation was observed between the protein and mRNA expression of some UGT1A isoforms in the human liver, the involvement of post-transcriptional regulation was hypothesized. We examined whether microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate human UGT1A, focusing on the predicted miR-141-3p. A luciferase assay revealed that a miRNA recognition element for miR-141-3p in the 3'-untranslated region of UGT1A mRNA was functional...
August 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Misato Nakamura, Hidetaka Yamanaka, Ami Oguro, Susumu Imaoka
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the estrogen receptor, leading to the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we found that BPA increased nitric oxide (NO) levels but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, and induced drug-metabolizing enzymes such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been reported to be activated by ROS through inactivation of its regulating protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), and to be the key mediator of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, and phase III drug transporters...
August 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jun Terashima, Yoko Jimma, Keiko Jimma, Shuko Hakata, Maako Yachi, Wataru Habano, Shogo Ozawa
Most of cytochrome P450 (CYP) expressions are regulated by nuclear receptors. The regulation pathways of transcription are activated by binding of the ligand to the receptor. Many combination of CYPs and nuclear receptors in transcriptional regulation have been reported. However, we have reported that the combination changes depending on culture condition on the same type of cells. The regulation pathway of CYP1A expression is different between 2D monolayer cultured cells and 3D spheroids of human liver cancer cells...
August 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Christina Y S Chan, Owain Roberts, Rajith K R Rajoli, Neill J Liptrott, Marco Siccardi, Lisa Almond, Andrew Owen
The first-order degradation rate constant (kdeg ) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is a known source of uncertainty in the prediction of time-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. This study aimed to measure CYP kdeg using siRNA to suppress CYP expression in primary human hepatocytes followed by incubation over a time-course and tracking of protein expression and activity to observe degradation. The magnitude of gene knockdown was determined by qPCR and activity was measured by probe substrate metabolite formation and CYP2B6-Glo™ assay...
August 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Shinya Suzuki, Takeshi Yamashita, Hidefumi Kasai, Takayuki Otsuka, Koichi Sagara
Prothrombin time (PT) has been widely used for measuring anticoagulation intensity under rivaroxaban therapy, but precise information has not been well established yet. Consecutive 96 non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) under rivaroxaban between Jan/June, 2015 were recruited. Serum concentration (SC) and PT with 5 representative reagents available in Japan (Neoplastin Plus®, Thromborel S®, Thrombocheck PT®, Thrombocheck PT Plus®, and Recombiplastin®) at 2-4 hours after (peak) and before intake of rivaroxaban (trough) were measured at outpatient clinic in the cardiovascular institute (CVI ARO study 1)...
August 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Y Amy Siu, Ming-Hong Hao, Vaishali Dixit, W George Lai
Celecoxib was characterized as a substrate of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 in vitro. In recombinant CYP2D6, celecoxib hydroxylation showed atypical substrate inhibition kinetics with apparent Km , Ki , and Vmax of 67.2 μM, 12.6 μM, and 1.33 μM/min, respectively. In human liver microsomes (HLMs), a concentration-dependent inhibition of celecoxib hydroxylation by quinidine was observed after CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 were inhibited. In individual HLMs with variable CYP2D6 activities, a significant correlation was observed between celecoxib hydroxylation and CYP2D6-selective dextromethorphan O-demethylation when CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities were suppressed (r = 0...
June 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yuki Kimura, Masaki Kobayashi, Masaru Asari, Issei Higuchi, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Ken Iseki
MCT1 (SLC16A1), MCT4 (SLC16A3), and MCT11 (SLC16A11) are members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family. MCT1 and MCT4 transport pH-related monocarboxylates, such as lactate and pyruvate. MCT11 may also be a proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Although alterations of these substrates are involved in the pathology of cancer and diabetes, little is known about MCT polymorphisms. In this study, genetic variation was evaluated in SLC16A1, SLC16A3, and SLC16A11 in the Japanese population (healthy volunteers, n = 92)...
June 1, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Eunyoung Lee, Ju-Hyun Kim, Jong Cheol Shon, Zhexue Wu, Hyun Ji Kim, Minsik Gim, Taeho Lee, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) is involved in the metabolism of drugs, including albendazole, astemizole, ebastine, and endogenous substrates. In a previous study, we used recombinant CYP2J2 and determined whether danazol, hydroxyebastine, telmisartan, and terfenadone inhibited CYP2J2 by using four representative CYP2J2 substrates, namely albendazole, astemizole, ebastine, and terfenadine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory potential of these four chemicals on human liver and intestinal microsomes, which are commonly used in a reaction phenotyping study...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Andrew HyoungJin Kim, Bora Kim, Su-Jin Rhee, Yujin Lee, Joong Shin Park, Seung Mi Lee, Sun Min Kim, SeungHwan Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Joo-Youn Cho
AIMS: This study was aimed at evaluating changes in CYP3A activity following and during pregnancy by analyzing metabolic markers for CYP3A activity, which can help avoid unnecessary drug exposure and invasive sampling. METHODS: Forty-eight pregnant women and 25 non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Plasma and urine samples were collected from the pregnant women during each trimester and from the non-pregnant women for evaluation of metabolic markers for CYP3A activity...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Katsuhiro Kanda, Ryosuke Takahashi, Takashi Yoshikado, Yuichi Sugiyama
This study describes the total disposition profiling of rosuvastatin (RSV) and pitavastatin (PTV) using a single systematic procedure called D-PREX (Disposition Profile Exploration) in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH). The biliary excretion fractions of both statins were clearly observed, which were significantly decreased dependent on the concentration of Ko143, an inhibitor for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Ko143 also decreased the basolateral efflux fraction of RSV, whereas that of PTV was not significantly affected...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Yoshiteru Oshima, Susumu Kodama, Toshio Miyata, Takashi Dan, Hiroyuki Takatoku, Hideaki Kuribayashi, Ryosuke Nakamura, Yoshiro Saito
Pharmacotherapy shows striking individual differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, involving drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Recent genetic research has revealed that genetic polymorphisms are important intrinsic factors for these inter-individual differences. This pharmacogenomic information could help develop safer and more effective precision pharmacotherapies and thus, regulatory guidance/guidelines were developed in this area, especially in the EU and US. The Project for the Promotion of Progressive Medicine, Medical Devices, and Regenerative Medicine by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, performed by Tohoku University, reported scientific information on the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms, mainly on drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, during non-clinical studies and phase I clinical trials in Japanese subjects/patients...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Paul Baverel, Dewei She, Edward Piper, Shinya Ueda, Tomoko Yoshioka, Raffaella Faggioni, Hakop Gevorkyan
Tralokinumab is a human monoclonal antibody in clinical development for asthma and atopic dermatitis that specifically neutralizes interleukin-13. This phase I, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending-dose study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of subcutaneous tralokinumab (150, 300, or 600 mg) in thirty healthy Japanese adults. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) in all treatment groups was injection-site pain. The frequency and severity of TEAEs was similar across tralokinumab doses...
June 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jian Shi, Xinwen Wang, Lingyun Lyu, Hui Jiang, Hao-Jie Zhu
Human hepatic cell lines are widely used as an in vitro model for the study of drug metabolism and liver toxicity. However, the validity of this model is still a subject of debate because the expressions of various proteins in the cell lines, including drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), can differ significantly from those in human livers. In the present study, we first conducted an untargeted proteomics analysis of the microsomes of the cell lines HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7, and compared them to human livers using a sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH) method...
April 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Shingo Niimi, Kazuhiro Nishimiya, Masanobu Nishidate, Tetsu Saito, Kyoko Minoura, Kenta Kadotsuji, Jin Shimakura, Hiroko Shigemizu, Jun Hosogi, Maiko Adachi, Tsutomu Hashimoto, Tamiki Mori, Hideki Harada, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Takahiro Nakamura, Tatsuki Nomura, Itadaki Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko Sonehara, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Nana Kawasaki
This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays constructed by each participating company using common samples including ADA, drug and human serum. The ADA assays constructed by each company showed good sensitivity and precision for evaluation of ADA. Cut points for screening and confirmatory assays and assay selectivity were determined by various calculation methods. In evaluations of blind ADA samples, nearly similar results were obtained by the study companies in determinations of whether samples were positive or negative except at the lowest sample concentration (5 ng/mL)...
April 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Daisuke Miyatake, Naoyuki Nakada, Akitsugu Takada, Kota Kato, Yuta Taniuchi, Masataka Katashima, Taiji Sawamoto
ASP7991 is a calcimimetic that acts on the calcium-sensing receptor on parathyroid cell membranes and suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mass balance and metabolite profile of [14 C]ASP7991 were investigated in six healthy male subjects after a single oral dose of [14 C]ASP7991 [1 mg, 18.5 kBq (500 nCi)] in solution. [14 C] radioactivity in plasma, urine and feces was analyzed using Accelerator mass spectrometry. ASP7991 was rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted...
April 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Riya Shrestha, Ju-Hyun Kim, Wongshik Nam, Hye Suk Lee, Jae-Mok Lee, Sangkyu Lee
Fisetin is a flavonol compound commonly found in edible vegetables and fruits. It has anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Geraldol, the O-methyl metabolite of fisetin in mice, is reported to suppress endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Although the in vivo and in vitro effects of fisetin and its metabolites are frequently reported, studies on herb-drug interactions have not yet been performed. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of fisetin and geraldol on eight isoforms of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) by using cocktail assay and LC-MS/MS analysis...
April 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kazuhide Iwasaki, Yasuhiro Uno, Masahiro Uto, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Animal species used in the preclinical studies for development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs are surveyed in this review. Relevant animal species for preclinical studies of mAb candidates are those express desired epitope of mAb candidates. Cynomolgus monkeys cross-react with mAb drugs much higher than other animal species commonly used in preclinical studies such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), efficacy, and toxicity studies, for development of new drugs. Moreover, plasma exposure of the mAb drugs in humans is predicted well from the exposure in the monkeys, and the placental transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG, all the mAb drugs contain IgG) from mother to fetus is similar between humans and the monkeys from a viewpoint of time course and plasma level of IgG transferred...
March 20, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Lei Li, Qing-Yu Zhang, Xinxin Ding
CYP2B6 is a human microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme with broad substrate selectivity. CYP2B6 is the only functional member of the human CYP2B gene subfamily, which differs from the situation in rodents, such as mouse, where multiple functional Cyp2b genes are expressed. Recent studies with Cyp2b knockout or knockdown mouse models have yielded insights into the in vivo roles of mouse CYP2B enzymes in drug disposition and xenobiotic toxicity. A CYP2B6-humanized mouse model (CYP2A13/2B6/2F1-transgenic/Cyp2abfgs-null), which expresses human CYP2B6 in the liver, and human CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 in the respiratory tract, but not any of the mouse Cyp2b genes, has also been established...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Seiichi Ishida
Assay systems using in vitro cultured cells are increasingly applied for evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of drug candidates. In vitro cell-based assays have two main applications in the drug discovery process: searching for a compound that is effective against the target disease (seed investigation) and confirmation of safety during use of the identified compounds (safety assessment). Currently available in vitro cell-based assays have been designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity in single organs, but the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the administered drug candidates have not been considered...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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