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Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

Hang He, Ya-Li Nie, Jiang-Feng Li, Xiang-Guang Meng, Wei-Hong Yang, Yu-Long Chen, Shu-Jie Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Quan-Cheng Kan, Li-Rong Zhang
CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 are generally served as the major adult and fetal liver forms, respectively, and exhibited a developmental switch during liver maturation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms associated with the developmental switch of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in the Chinese Han population. We analyzed CYP3A4/7, nuclear receptors, and epigenetic modifications in human liver samples. We found that the expression levels of CYP3A4 mRNA in adults were significantly higher than the levels in fetus...
September 9, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kayoko Kanamitsu, Ryosuke Arakawa, Yuichi Sugiyama, Tetsuya Suhara, Hiroyuki Kusuhara
The effect of drugs in the central nervous system (CNS) is closely related to occupancy of their target receptor. In this study, we integrated plasma concentrations, in vitro/in vivo data for receptor or protein binding, and in silico data, using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, to examine the predictability of receptor occupancy in humans. The occupancy of the dopamine D2 receptor and the plasma concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs quetiapine and perospirone in humans were collected from the literature or produced experimentally...
July 30, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Toshihide Higashino, Hirotaka Matsuo, Masayuki Sakiyama, Akiyoshi Nakayama, Takahiro Nakamura, Tappei Takada, Hiraku Ogata, Yusuke Kawamura, Makoto Kawaguchi, Mariko Naito, Sayo Kawai, Yuzo Takada, Hiroshi Ooyama, Hiroshi Suzuki, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) is a scaffold protein that organizes a transportsome and regulates several transporters' functions including urate and drug transporters. Therefore, PDZK1 in renal proximal tubules may affect serum uric acid levels through PDZK1-binding renal urate transporters. Two previous studies in Japanese male population reported that a PDZK1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12129861, was not associated with gout. In the present study, we performed a further association analysis between gout and rs12129861 in a different large-scale Japanese male population and a meta-analysis with previous Japanese population studies...
July 30, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Almudena Sánchez-Martín, Salvador Cabrera Figueroa, Raquel Cruz, Liliana Porras-Hurtado, Fernando Calvo-Boyero, Mahmood Rasool, Alfonso Domínguez-Gil Hurlé, Angel Carracedo
Genetic factors have a significant impact on the PK variability of EFV, much higher than other non-genetic factors, such as demography. In this work we have performed a comprehensive PG analysis of genes encoding the major metabolizing enzymes and transporters of EFV, establishing a clear relationship between the PK parameters and genetic factors, which explain 50% of the variability in EFV PK parameters. The most relevant associations for metabolizing enzymes were found in CYP2B6 (rs3745274), in agreement with previous studies...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yasushi Yamazoe, Kazumi Ito, Yoshiya Yamamura, Ryutaro Iwama, Kouichi Yoshinari
This prediction system is based on placements of CYP1A2-substrates on a hexagonal-grid template in a way following the rule generated from the relationship of the substrate-structure and selective-area uses on the template, and also the rule for a triggering-event to initiate the catalytic reactions. Clear relationship found between the placements and preferred-order of regioselective reactions from the comparison of experimental data of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-substrates was implemented in this system...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Michał Romański, Anna Kasprzyk, Agnieszka Karbownik, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan (TREO) has an established position in chemotherapy of advanced ovarian cancer but has been also applied in uveal melanoma patients. Moreover, it is used as an orphan drug for a myeloablative conditioning prior to stem cell transplantation. In this paper, biodistribution of prodrug TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into aqueous humor of the eye was studied for the first time. For that purpose, alone TREO and the mixture of TREO, S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB were administered intravenously to New Zealand White rabbits...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yoshiyuki Shirasaka, Nora Lee, Weibin Zha, David Wagner, Joanne Wang
Metformin is widely used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. It was reported to be substrate of OCT3/Oct3, which is expressed in the brush boarder membrane of the enterocytes. However, the role of OCT3/Oct3 in the intestinal absorption process of metformin remains obscure. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the impact of Oct3 on the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of metformin in mice, by means of in vivo pharmacokinetic study using wild-type (Oct3(+/+)) and Oct3-knockout (Oct3(-/-)) mice...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Masanori Nakakariya, Akihiko Goto, Nobuyuki Amano
DDI could be caused by the inhibition of OATP-mediated hepatic uptakes. The aim of this study is to set the risk criteria for the compounds that would cause DDI via OATP inhibition at the drug discovery stage. The IC50 values of OATP inhibitors for human OATP-mediated atorvastatin uptake were evaluated in the expression system. In order to set the risk criteria for OATP inhibition, the relationship was clarified between OATP inhibitory effect and severe adverse effects of OATP substrates, rhabdomyolysis, hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Naoya Kameyama, Kaoru Kobayashi, Shoko Shimizu, Yuki Yamasaki, Mika Endo, Mari Hashimoto, Tomomi Furihata, Kan Chiba
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is involved in the transactivation of ABCB1 gene by rifampicin (RIF). However, we found that increase in ABCB1 mRNA by RIF was observed in LS180 cells but not in HepG2 cells. Since both cell lines expressed PXR equally, we hypothesized that a factor(s) other than PXR is responsible for PXR-mediated transactivation of the ABCB1 gene. Reporter activities of a distal enhancer module containing direct repeat 4 (DR4) motifs were increased by RIF in LS180 cells but not in HepG2 cells. Mutation of the DR4 motifs diminished the increase in reporter activities in LS180 cells...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
A Petitcollin, R Crochette, C Tron, M-C Verdier, C Boglione-Kerrien, C Vigneau, E Bellissant, F Lemaitre
Being a substrate of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) isoenzyme, sirolimus metabolism is decreased when posaconazole is administered concomitantly. However, because of the poor bioavailability of the oral suspension of posaconazole with which low plasma concentrations are obtained, CYP3A4 inhibition is weak and a 50-75% dose reduction of sirolimus is sufficient to avoid sirolimus overdosage. The new tablet formulation allows reaching posaconazole concentrations 3-4 fold higher than those obtained with the oral suspension...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kazuo Umemura, Yasuhiko Ikeda, Kazunao Kondo
This randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled study assessed the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of prasugrel in healthy adult Japanese male subjects after single (n = 50) and multiple (n = 40) oral administration. With a single administration of prasugrel (2-30 mg), the plasma concentration of the active metabolite increased rapidly, reached a maximum at 30 min after administration, and then decreased rapidly within 4 h. The 5 mg and higher doses prevented ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Rui Gao, Mingyi Liu, Yu Chen, Chunhua Xia, Hong Zhang, Yuqing Xiong, Shibo Huang
This study aims to characterize the glucuronidation kinetics of ursolic acid (UA) in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and identify the main UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved. In our present study, only one type of UA glucuronide was observed after incubation with HLMs and HIMs respectively and was identified as a UA hydroxyl O-glucuronide. The glucuronidation of UA can be shown in HLMs and HIMs with Km values of 3.29 ± 0.16 and 3.74 ± 0.22 μM and Vmax values of 0...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Akitsugu Takada, Masataka Katashima, Atsunori Kaibara, Koji Chono, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Taiji Sawamoto, Hiroshi Suzuki, Yoshitaka Yano
Amenamevir is a novel drug that targets the viral helicase-primase complex. While dose-dependent efficacy had been observed in non-clinical studies, no clear dose dependence has been observed in humans. We therefore developed a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to explain this inconsistency between species and to clarify the immune-related healing of amenamevir in humans. The model consisted of a non-linear kinetic model for a virtual number of virus plaques as a built-in biomarker. Lesion score was defined as an endpoint of antiviral efficacy, and logit model analysis was applied to the ordered-categorical lesion score...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Xiaolin Sun, Junxiu Li, Chaorui Guo, Han Xing, Jie Xu, Yanli Wen, Zhixia Qiu, Qiuyang Zhang, Yi Zheng, Xijing Chen, Di Zhao
Curcumin can synergistically enhance docetaxel's in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity and has been co-administrated with docetaxel in clinical trials. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and explore its mechanism on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and human liver microsomes (HLMs). In rats, curcumin increased the docetaxel area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8h) and the terminal half-life (t1/2) to 1.86- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Moreover, curcumin decreased the clearance (CL) of docetaxel to 52...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Qiushi Xie, Yang Chen, Fei Liu, Zeyu Zhong, Kaijing Zhao, Zhaoli Ling, Fan Wang, Xiange Tang, Zhongjian Wang, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a natural lignan product which has drawn much attention due to its pharmacological properties including antitumor effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate interspecies differences in metabolism of DPT in hepatic microsomes from human (HLM), cynomolgus monkey (CyLM), rat (RLM), mouse (MLM) and dog (DLM). Incubation of DPT with hepatic microsomes from five species in the presence of NADPH resulted in formation of seven metabolites, five of which were compared with the synthetic standards...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Pimsumon Jiamboonsri, Pimolpan Pithayanukul, Rapepol Bavovada, Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai, Song Gao, Ming Hu
Methyl gallate (MG) and pentagalloyl glucopyranose (PGG) are bioactive phenolic compounds that possess various pharmacological activities. However, the knowledge of hepatic metabolism of MG and PGG is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro glucuronidation of MG and PGG using liver microsomes from human (HLMs) and rats (Sprague-Dawley, SDRLMs; Wistar, WRLMs; and Gunn, GRLMs), and recombinant human uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) 1A1 and 1A9. The results demonstrated that liver microsomes catalyzed two mono-glucuronided MG (M1 and M2) formations but that UGT1A1 and 1A9 catalyzed only M1 formation...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Lay Kek Teh, Vinothini Subramaniam, Tuan Azlin Tuan Abdu Aziz, Lian Shien Lee, Mohamed Izwan Ismail, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Richard James Johari, Rose Iszati Ismet, Noor Saadah Sahak, Aminuddin Ahmad, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Fadzilah Mohd Nor Ghazali, SyahrulAzlin Shaari, Mustaffa Omar, Adzrool Idzwan Ismail, Kamarudzaman Md Isa, Hood Salleh, Mohd Zaki Salleh
We conducted a systematic characterization of CYP2C9 variants in 61 Orang Asli and 96 Singaporean Malays using the whole genome sequences data and compared the variants with the other 11 HapMap populations. The frequency of rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3) is the highest in the Orang Asli compared to other populations. Three alleles with clinical implication were detected in the Orang Asli while 2 were found in the Singaporean Malays. Large numbers of the Orang Asli are predicted to have reduced metabolic capacity and therefore they would require a lower dose of drugs which are metabolized by CYP2C9...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kenta Haraya, Motohiro Kato, Koji Chiba, Yuichi Sugiyama
The activity of CYP1A2, a major drug-metabolizing enzyme, is known to be affected by various environmental factors. Our study aimed to predict inter-individual variability of AUC/Dose of CYP1A2 substrates in non-smoking healthy volunteers using the Monte Carlo simulation. Inter-individual variability in hepatic intrinsic clearance of CYP1A2 substrates (CLint,h,1A2) was estimated using dispersion model based on the inter-individual variability (N = 96) of the AUC of caffeine, a major CYP1A2 substrate. The estimated coefficient of variation (CV) of CLint,h,1A2 was 55%, similar to previously reported CLint,h,2D6 (60%) but larger than CLint,h,3A4 (33%)...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Tomohiko Kurata, Takuya Iwamoto, Yuki Kawahara, Masahiro Okuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yuichi Uwai, Tatsuya Kawasaki, Tomohiro Nabekura
Lithium, which is used in the treatment of and prophylaxis for bipolar disease, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) by producing its phosphorylated form (p-GSK3β). GSK3β plays a role in apoptosis and some kinds of acute kidney injuries, and the formation of p-GSK3β is considered to contribute to protection against acute kidney injury. We previously reported that the sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIa (SLC34A1) mediated the reabsorption of lithium in the rat kidney. In the present study, the phosphorylation status of GSK3β in the kidney cortex of rats administered lithium chloride and foscarnet, a typical inhibitor of NaPi-IIa, was examined using Western blotting...
June 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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