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Meat Science

Carmen Meichtry, Urs Glauser, Matthieu Glardon, Steffen G Ross, Isabel Lechner, Beat P Kneubuehl, Dominic Gascho, Claudia Spadavecchia, Alois von Rotz, Ana Stojiljkovic, Michael H Stoffel
Water buffaloes and cattle differ considerably with respect to the anatomy of the head. As a result, captive bolt stunners often fail to reliably produce adequate loss of consciousness in water buffaloes and, thus, do not fulfill animal welfare requirements. The goal of the present study was to assess and validate a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. The newly designed bullet casing gun uses .357Mag/10.2g hollow point bullets and has additional safety features...
September 14, 2017: Meat Science
E K Harris, M A Mellencamp, L J Johnston, R B Cox, G C Shurson
Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies (a corn-soybean meal (CS) fed continously; CS+40% DDGS fed continously; CS+40, 30, 20, or 10% DDGS in 4 phases, respectively; or CS+40% DDGS in phases 1 to 3 and CS in phase 4 before slaughter) on belly and pork fat quality of immunologically castrated (n=192) pigs were evaluated. All pigs received the first Improvest dose at 11week of age, and the second dose at 9, 7, or 5week before slaughter at 24week of age. Increasing the time interval of the second Improvest dose before slaughter reduced IV in all fat depots and increased belly thickness...
September 9, 2017: Meat Science
Ewelina Pogorzelska, Jolanta Godziszewska, Marta Brodowska, Agnieszka Wierzbicka
Astaxanthin is proven to be one of the most potent, naturally occurring antioxidants. A rich source of astaxanthin is algae Haematoccocus pluvialis (H. pluvialis). The aim of the study was to investigate antioxidant effect of H. pluvalis extract added in different levels (0.15, 0.3 or 0.45g/kg of meat) on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (7days). Obtained data revealed that DPPH scavenging activity of the extract at the concentration of 0.45g/kg of meat was as high as 85%...
September 5, 2017: Meat Science
Benjamin W B Holman, Damian Collins, Ashleigh K Kilgannon, David L Hopkins
The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values)...
September 4, 2017: Meat Science
Hannelore De Maere, Sylvie Chollet, Jos De Brabanter, Chris Michiels, Hubert Paelinck, Ilse Fraeye
Nitrite is commonly used in meat products due to its plural technological advantages. However, it is controversial because of its detrimental side effects on health. Within the context of nitrite reduction, zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) formation in meat products as natural red colouring agent has been suggested. This investigation presents the evaluation of naturally occurring pigments, namely Zn(II)PPIX, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme in nitrite-free dry fermented sausages in function of time, meat source (pork, horsemeat and a combination of both meat sources) and pH condition...
September 1, 2017: Meat Science
M J Colle, J A Nasados, J M Rogers, D M Kerby, M M Colle, J B Van Buren, R P Richard, G K Murdoch, C J Williams, M E Doumit
Our objectives were to determine the effect of post rigor calcium chloride injection or freezing on 1) sarcoplasmic calcium concentration and calpain-2 activity of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks aged 1, 4, and 14days post-treatment and on 2) Warner-Bratzler shear force, water holding capacity, and consumer acceptability of LL and SM steaks aged 4 and 14days post-treatment. Free calcium levels in the calcium, frozen, and control steaks averaged 1256, 127, and 121μM for the LL and 1520, 120, and 111μM for the SM, respectively...
August 24, 2017: Meat Science
Alba Santos, F Javier Giráldez, Javier Mateo, Javier Frutos, Sonia Andrés
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of early feed restriction on carcass and meat quality traits in Merino lambs. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4.81±0.256kg) were assigned to two groups (12 animals in each group). The first group (ad libitum, ADL) was kept permanently with the dams. The second group (restricted, RES) was milk-restricted. After weaning (15kg), daily feed intake of all lambs was identical, but a lower gain: feed ratio was recorded in the RES group (0.320 vs. 0.261; P<0...
August 19, 2017: Meat Science
T M Ngapo, M S Rubio Lozano, D Braña Varela
Use of within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed that consumers in four cities across Mexico had similar strategies for pork choice. New surveying tools also determined preferred levels of the characteristics used in the decision-making process. The most important choice criteria were colour (31% chose dark and 21% light red), and fat cover (42% chose lean and 8% fatty). Marbling and drip were less used, but are nevertheless important given that 21% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice...
August 18, 2017: Meat Science
Nompumelelo Shange, Thandeka N Makasi, Pieter A Gouws, Louwrens C Hoffman
Changes in pH, colour and microbiological counts were investigated in previously frozen Biceps femoris (BF) muscles from black wildebeest. Samples were stored under vacuum at refrigerated conditions (4.2±0.8°C) for 12days. Seven BF muscles had a high pH (DFD) (pH≥6) and five had a normal pH (pH<6). Overtime the pH of DFD did not significantly change whilst that of normal pH meat decreased. Browning under anaerobic storage conditions was seen, more for normal meat than DFD meat. Initial total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and coliform counts from samples with normal pH, were significantly higher than counts from the DFD samples...
August 18, 2017: Meat Science
T Pintado, A M Herrero, F Jiménez-Colmenero, C Pasqualin Cavalheiro, C Ruiz-Capillas
This paper examines the effect of emulsion gels (EG) prepared with chia (CEG) and oats (OEG) used as animal fat replacers in reduced-fat fresh sausages (longaniza) (LRF) during chilled storage. Reduced-fat samples were reformulated with CEG and OEG, (LRF/CEG and LRF/OEG respectively). Normal (LNF/P) and reduced-fat (LRF/P) (all-pork-fat) sausages were used as controls. Nutritional composition and microbiological, technological and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated. The presence of an EG affected (P<0...
August 15, 2017: Meat Science
Keelyn E Hanlon, Mark F Miller, Lacey M Guillen, Alejandro Echeverry, Erin Dormedy, Brittney Cemo, Loree A Branham, Shanequa Sanders, Mindy M Brashears
The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Salmonella and E. coli O157 found on the hides, as well as presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli O157 found in small-ruminant fecal samples from abattoirs and farms in California, New Mexico, Texas, Mexico and the Bahamas. In small-ruminant fecal samples, overall organism presence was identified as 13.9% Salmonella (n=532), 15.3% E. coli O157 (n=477) and 80.7% Campylobacter (n=176). Overall, on small-ruminant hide surfaces, Salmonella frequency was 17...
August 8, 2017: Meat Science
G Papadomichelakis, E Zoidis, A C Pappas, I Hadjigeorgiou
The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LL) was used to investigate seasonal variation (September, November and March) in wild rabbits from Lemnos Island (Greece). The n-3 FA were particularly high during early March in comparison (P<0.05) with late September and late November. Thrombogenicity index (TI) values were lower in March (P<0.05) compared to the other periods. High concentrations of odd- and branched-chain FA were found in the meat of wild rabbits; however, they were not different among the considered periods of the year...
August 5, 2017: Meat Science
Alfredo Teixeira, Aline Fernandes, Etelvina Pereira, Aristides Manuel, Sandra Rodrigues
Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat cured legs were evaluated. The pH values (5.7-5.8) and aw (0.87 and 0.83) found to be adequate to control meat deterioration, promoting safety and stability to shelf life of products with respect to microbial growth. The high protein (46.2 and 38.4%) and low fat (5.3 and 8.7%) percentages of the goat and sheep cured legs were the main evidence of the effect of salting and ripening processes. A low cholesterol content of 4.5% is particularly evident in sheep cured legs...
August 4, 2017: Meat Science
Mohammed A F Nasr, Tamer Abd-Elhamid, Mohamed A Hussein
Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0...
August 2, 2017: Meat Science
Piotr Domaradzki, Piotr Stanek, Zygmunt Litwińczuk, Piotr Skałecki, Mariusz Florek
Veal is widely prized by consumers for its excellent nutritional value. Calf meat is generally obtained from young (immature) bovine animals up to 8months of age, or in some cases from older animals, but no older than 12months. Classification of calf carcasses and specification of cuts are quite well regulated in the European market, in contrast with feeding systems and meat characteristics. There are several calf production systems, but in terms of consumer health the most beneficial meat is obtained from animals reared on pasture with natural suckling...
August 2, 2017: Meat Science
P De Palo, A Tateo, A Maggiolino, R Marino, E Ceci, A Nisi, J M Lorenzo
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of suckling technique and slaughter age on Martina Franca donkey meat quality. Twenty Martina Franca male foals were involved in the trial. Foals naturally assumed colostrum within 4h from birth. Afterwards, 10 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), and 10 foals were naturally suckled (NS). All the foals were weaned at 180d, then housed indoors and fed the same diet. Ten donkeys were slaughtered at 12months and the other 10 at the age of 18months. Samples of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical analysis, then rheological parameters, oxidative profile, colorimetric parameters and fatty acid profile were assessed...
August 2, 2017: Meat Science
Sarah K Duffy, John V O'Doherty, Gaurav Rajauria, Louise C Clarke, Kevin D Cashman, Aoife Hayes, Michael N O'Grady, Joseph P Kerry, Alan K Kelly
This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet+0IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet+2000IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet+4000IU vitamin D₃] for a 30day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D3) concentrations (R(2)=0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R(2)=0...
July 31, 2017: Meat Science
Yicun Cai, Qiang Wang, Yuping He, Liangwen Pan
In this work we performed interlaboratory validation of a Taqman real-time PCR method for the identification of bovine and ovine material. The Bos taurus beta-actin gene (ACTB) and Ovis aries prolactin receptor gene (PRLR) were selected as the bovine and ovine species-specific amplifying target sequences, and primers and TaqMan probes were designed accordingly. The precision, efficiency, false positive rate, limit of detection (LOD95%) and probability of detection (POD) were determined, and the results demonstrated that both bovine and ovine detection methods performed well...
July 29, 2017: Meat Science
Irene Peñaranda, Ma Dolores Garrido, Macarena Egea, Pedro Díaz, Daniel Álvarez, Ma Angeles Oliver, Ma Belén Linares
The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of androstenone in pork from entire male pigs with different androstenone levels (High≥2mgkg(-1); Medium 0.5-0.7mgkg(-1)) applying four different heating methods (vacuum, grill, oven and frying). Androstenone (AND) perception was analysed during and after cooking by a trained panel. During cooking, the highest score for AND odour (greatest perception) was obtained with the grill and vacuum, while frying was the best option for reducing its perception, which was judged to be imperceptible for androstenone medium level (P<0...
July 29, 2017: Meat Science
Sephora Baugreet, Joseph P Kerry, Paul Allen, Ruth M Hamill
Mixture design was used to technologically optimise inclusions of protein ingredients [rice protein (RP) 0-10%, and lentil flour (LF) 0-10%] in fortified beef patties [meat (M) 90-100%] to ensure acceptable technological and sensorial properties. 17 formulations were generated. Composition, texture parameters, colour, lipid oxidation, microbiological and sensorial parameters were assessed. Maximal predicted protein content was 28.7% (P<0.01) which positively correlated with RP, but not LF. Models showed that LF inclusion correlated with improved texture and also reduced cook loss...
July 29, 2017: Meat Science
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