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Meat Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651072/understanding-the-quality-of-typical-and-atypical-dark-cutting-beef-from-heifers-and-steers
#1
S Mahmood, B C Roy, I L Larsen, J L Aalhus, W T Dixon, H L Bruce
Dark cutting beef with pH <6.0 may have glucidic potential approaching that of normal beef but has increased toughness that may also be influenced by cattle sex and carcass characteristics. Beef longissimus thoracis (LT) from normal (Canada AA; n=24), and typical (TB4; pH>5.9, n=20) and atypical (AB4; pH<5.9, n=20) dark cutting carcasses were analyzed to investigate relationships between beef quality, pH, glucidic potential and carcass characteristics. Results indicated that reduced lactate and glucidic potential were accompanied by increased pH and reduced L*, a* and b* values...
June 17, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649047/high-pressure-processing-improves-the-tenderness-and-quality-of-hot-boned-beef
#2
D Morton, R G Pearson, H Y-Y Lee, S Smithson, S L Mason, R Bickerstaffe
Strip loins from different grades of cattle were subjected to two levels of high pressure processing (HPP) within 1h of slaughter at a commercial meat processing plant and chilled for 1day before freezing. The physical and eating quality characteristics of longissimus thoracis (strip loin) steaks from HPP were compared to meat that was chill aged for 1 or 28days. HPP produced meat after 1day with 60% lower shear force and higher sensory eating quality scores than 1day chill aged meat. Extended chill storage for 28days produced steaks of similar tenderness to HPP meat...
June 16, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644988/effect-of-marbling-on-volatile-generation-oral-breakdown-and-in-mouth-flavor-release-of-grilled-beef
#3
Damian Frank, Kornelia Kaczmarska, Janet Paterson, Udayasika Piyasiri, Robyn Warner
While the positive effect of intramuscular fat (IMF) on beef tenderness is well-established, its role in flavor generation and flavor release is less defined. To increase understanding, real-time volatile generation was monitored during grilling of beefsteaks (grass and grain-fed Angus and grass-fed Wagyu) with different amounts of IMF by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Volatile concentration increased significantly (p<0.001) when the IMF was >~10%, but did not differ (p>0.05) at lower IMF levels (5...
June 15, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618287/age-related-changes-in-the-carcass-yield-and-meat-quality-of-male-and-female-nutrias-myocastor-coypus-under-intensive-production-system
#4
Eva Tůmová, Darina Chodová, Jana Vlčková, Tomáš Němeček, Linda Uhlířová, Věra Skřivanová
The age at which final nutria weight is achieved varies in literature between six and 14months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, carcass composition and meat quality of male and female nutrias between the ages of six and eight months in intensive production system. Sexual dimorphism in growth was observed from three months of age, and in females, growth considerably decreased after six months of age. The dressing-out percentage and the meat color were not affected by the age or sex of nutrias...
June 8, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605701/an-application-based-on-the-decision-tree-to-classify-the-marbling-of-beef-by-hyperspectral-imaging
#5
Lía Velásquez, J P Cruz-Tirado, Raúl Siche, Roberto Quevedo
The aim of this study was to develop a system to classify the marbling of beef using the hyperspectral imaging technology. The Japanese standard classification of the degree of marbling of beef was used as reference and twelve standards were digitized to obtain the parameters of shape and spatial distribution of marbling of each class. A total of 35 samples M. longissmus dorsi muscle were scanned by the hyperspectral imaging system of 400-1000 nm in reflectance mode. The wavelength of 528nm was selected to segment the sample and the background, and 440nm was used for classified the samples...
June 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602574/characteristics-of-hanwoo-cattle-and-health-implications-of-consuming-highly-marbled-hanwoo-beef
#6
REVIEW
Seon-Tea Joo, Young-Hwa Hwang, Damian Frank
This review addresses the unique characteristics of Hanwoo cattle and potential health implications of consuming highly marbled Hanwoo beef. The Hanwoo breed has high genetic potential for accumulating intramuscular fat (IMF) and producing highly marbled beef. The high level of marbling is achieved through increasing levels of concentrated feed with an extended finishing period. In response to consumer preferences, the level of marbling of Hanwoo beef has been increasing. The IMF content can be manipulated depending on the feeding duration, finishing diet, and genotype...
June 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641137/real-time-pcr-methods-for-the-detection-of-blown-pack-spoilage-causing-clostridium-species-c-estertheticum-c-gasigenes-and-c-ruminantium
#7
Rachael Reid, Catherine M Burgess, Evonne McCabe, Séamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Joe Kerry, Declan Bolton
A set of real-time PCR methods for the detection of C. estertheticum, C. gasigenes and C. ruminantium, the causative agents of blown pack spoilage (BPS) in vacuum packaged beef, was developed. Robust validation of the sensitivity and specificity was carried out in the three matrices (beef meat drip, wet environmental swabs and dry environmental swabs) as encountered in our testing laboratory and against Clostridium strains (n=76) and non-Clostridium strains (n=36). It was possible to detect 4-5 spores per ml for C...
June 3, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599172/influence-of-sodium-chloride-reduction-and-replacement-with-potassium-chloride-based-salts-on-the-sensory-and-physico-chemical-characteristics-of-pork-sausage-patties
#8
Regan E Stanley, Chad G Bower, Gary A Sullivan
This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and replacement with potassium chloride or modified potassium chloride based salts using a weight or molar equivalent basis on the sensory and physico-chemical properties of pork sausage patties. Three independent replications of pork sausage patties were manufactured to compare five treatments: full sodium, reduced sodium, modified potassium chloride weight based replacement, modified potassium chloride molar based replacement, and standard potassium chloride weight based replacement...
May 31, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629585/sensory-capability-of-young-middle-aged-and-elderly-irish-assessors-to-identify-beef-steaks-of-varying-texture
#9
Paula M Conroy, Maurice G O' Sullivan, Ruth M Hamill, Joseph P Kerry
This study assessed the capability of various Irish assessor age cohorts to identify beef steaks of varying texture. Varying steak textures Moderately Tough (MTH), Moderately Tender (MTR) and Tender (TR) were achieved by aging beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle for 2, 7 and 21days respectively. Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) was measured to standardise the samples. Sensory evaluation was carried using 428 participants; 18-30yrs (years) (n=143), 31-60yrs (n=80), 61-75yrs (n=99) and 76-85yrs old (n=106)...
May 28, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577375/moisture-migration-microstructure-damage-and-protein-structure-changes-in-porcine-longissimus-muscle-as-influenced-by-multiple-freeze-thaw-cycles
#10
Mingcheng Zhang, Fangfei Li, Xinping Diao, Baohua Kong, Xiufang Xia
This study investigated the effects of multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on water mobility, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle. The transverse relaxation time T2 increased significantly when muscles were subjected to multiple F-T cycles (P<0.05), which means that immobile water shifted to free water and the free water mobility increased. Multiple F-T cycles caused sarcomere shortening, Z line fractures, and I band weakening and also led to microstructural destruction of muscle tissue...
May 27, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577374/evaluation-of-lipid-oxidation-of-chinese-style-sausage-during-processing-and-storage-based-on-electronic-nose
#11
Xinzhe Gu, Ye Sun, Kang Tu, Leiqing Pan
A portable electronic nose was used for extracting flavour fingerprint map of Chinese-style sausage during processing and storage, in parallel with detection of acid value (AV) and peroxide value (POV) for evaluating lipid oxidation. Sausage samples during processing and storage were divided into three and five quality phases, respectively. After comparison of sensors response to lipid oxidation, optimal sensor array was determined. Several classification and regression models were developed to classify samples into their respective quality phase and predict lipid oxidation using full and optimal sensor array...
May 25, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582757/comparative-analysis-of-muscle-phosphoproteome-induced-by-salt-curing
#12
Zhenyu Wang, Caixia Zhang, Zheng Li, Qingwu Shen, Dequan Zhang
Phosphorylated proteins in ovine muscle induced by salt curing were well investigated. Ten topside muscles of crossbred sheep were ground, mixed and divided into two groups, which were cured for 16h with 0% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Muscle proteins of two cured groups were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with Pro-Q Diamond and SYPRO Ruby staining. The differential phosphorylated proteins were determined using LC-MS/MS and the UniProt database. Ten different phosphoproteins (>1.5 fold) induced by salting were identified, including triosephosphate isomerase, glycogen phosphorylase, creatine kinase M-type, myoglobin, troponin T fast skeletal muscle type, actin, myosin light chain 1/3, tropomyosin beta chain, etc...
May 23, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648604/technological-demands-of-meat-processing-an-asian-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Wangang Zhang, B Maheswarappa Naveena, Cheorun Jo, Ryoichi Sakata, Guanghong Zhou, Rituparna Banerjee, Tadayuki Nishiumi
A rapid increase in the economy, population, industrialization, and urbanization of Asian countries has driven the fast development of their meat industries over recent decades. This consistent increase in meat production and consumption in Asia has been the major cause for the development of the global meat industry. Meat production methods and consumption are very diverse across different regions and countries in Asia, and thus, it is impossible to cover the technological demands of all Asian countries in this review...
May 20, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552497/muscle-structure-sarcomere-length-and-influences-on-meat-quality-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Per Ertbjerg, Eero Puolanne
The basic contractile unit of muscle, the sarcomere, will contract as the muscle goes into rigor post-mortem. Depending on the conditions, such as the rate of pH decline, the cooling rate and the mechanical restraints on the muscles, this longitudinal shortening will result in various post-mortem sarcomere lengths as well as lateral differences in the distances between the myosin and actin filaments. This shortening is underlying the phenomena described as rigor contraction, thaw rigor, cold shortening and heat shortening...
May 19, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544978/documentation-of-50-water-conservation-in-a-single-process-at-a-beef-abattoir
#15
C L Drennan, R E DeOtte, T E Lawrence
Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275kPa), and flowrate (152L/head washed), then developed a 3-D CAD model to identify regions of water use redundancy. The mechanical head wash was modified by reducing nozzle count (72), decreasing pressure (138kPa) and flowrate (78...
May 17, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527366/effect-of-low-protein-diets-in-heavy-pigs-on-dry-cured-ham-quality-characteristics
#16
Silvia Grassi, Ernestina Casiraghi, Simona Benedetti, Cristina Alamprese
The present work aimed at evaluating if heavy pig low-protein diets balanced for amino acid (AA) profile affect the quality characteristics of dry cured hams. To the aim, 40 hams obtained by Italian Duroc×Italian Large White pigs fed three different dietary crude protein and indispensable AA levels were compared with those obtained by a conventional Parma ham Protected Designation of Origin diet (C). No physico-chemical (aw, pH), chemical (gross composition, NaCl, lipid peroxidation, non-protein nitrogen, total volatile bases) or sensory characteristics of hams were systematically affected by the administered diet, animal sex or their interaction with the exception of total and subcutaneous fat (the latter measured by an image analysis procedure)...
May 13, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528296/novel-ultrasound-approach-for-measuring-marbling-in-pork
#17
Agnieszka Ludwiczak, Marek Stanisz, Dariusz Lisiak, Piotr Janiszewski, Marta Bykowska, Joanna Składanowska, Piotr Ślósarz
An ultrasound examination was done on the m. longissimus lumborum, between the 10th and the 11th thoracic vertebra, on two sides (inside and outside the thoracic cavity) of the left half-carcasses of 162 fatteners. The carcasses were classified for lean meat percentage using the SEUROP system. The R pig carcasses (47.7% lean) had the thickest backfat (30.6mm; P≤0.01) and the highest content of intramuscular fat (IMF=2.28%; P≤0.01). More artifacts-free images were collected from the inside compared to the outside of the pig carcasses (90...
May 12, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527368/effects-of-parsley-extract-powder-as-an-alternative-for-the-direct-addition-of-sodium-nitrite-in-the-production-of-mortadella-type-sausages-impact-on-microbiological-physicochemical-and-sensory-aspects
#18
Greta Riel, Annika Boulaaba, Johanna Popp, Guenter Klein
Increasing concern about chemical additives in processed meat has led to an increased market of uncured and alternatively cured meat products. However, the use of vegetable extracts or the exclusion of curing salt may increase the risk of greater bacterial growth and alteration of several physicochemical parameters. Therefore, in this study mortadella-type sausages, manufactured with 1.07 (V3), 2.14 (V4) and 4.29 (V5) g parsley extract powder/kg sausage meat were produced. These sausage variants were compared to an uncured (V2) and a traditionally nitrite-cured control (V1)...
May 12, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527364/effect-of-extended-aging-on-calpain-1-and-2-activity-in-beef-longissimus-lumborum-and-semimembranosus-muscles
#19
M J Colle, M E Doumit
Our objectives were to (Exp. 1) determine the effect of postmortem aging (2, 3, 4, 14, 28, and 42days) on calpain-1 and -2 activity in beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks and (Exp. 2) determine the effect of postmortem aging for two extended periods (63 and 84days) on calpain-2 activity of beef SM steaks. Calpain-1 was not active in either muscle following 14days of aging. Native calpain-2 activity decreased (P<0.001) with longer aging periods for both the LL and SM in Exp. 1 and for the SM in Exp...
May 12, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527365/variation-in-the-ovine-myf5-gene-and-its-effect-on-carcass-lean-meat-yield-in-new-zealand-romney-sheep
#20
Jiqing Wang, Huitong Zhou, Rachel H J Forrest, Jiang Hu, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Yuzhu Luo, Jon G H Hickford
Myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle, but to date there have been no reports on whether the gene is variable and whether this variation is associated with meat yield in sheep. In this study, four variants (A to D) of ovine MYF5 containing two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and one basepair (bp) insertion/deletion were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Breed differences in variant frequencies were observed...
May 11, 2017: Meat Science
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