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Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772112/liver-macrophages-friend-or-foe-during-hepatitis-b-infection
#1
Suzanne Faure-Dupuy, David Durantel, Julie Lucifora
The Hepatitis B virus chronically infects the liver of 250 million people worldwide. Over the past decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of Hepatitis B virus life cycle in hepatocytes. Beside these parenchymal cells, the liver also contains resident and infiltrating myeloid cells involved in immune responses to pathogens and much less is known about their interplay with Hepatitis B virus. In this review, we summarized and discussed the current knowledge of the role of liver macrophages (including Kupffer cells and liver monocyte-derived macrophages), in HBV infection...
May 17, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768734/in-vitro-efficacy-of-pro-and-anticoagulant-strategies-in-compensated-and-acutely-ill-patients-with-cirrhosis
#2
Ton Lisman, Simone Kleiss, Vishal C Patel, Caleb Fisher, Jelle Adelmeijer, Sarah Bos, Arjuna Singanayagam, Sidsel Hyldgaard Stoy, Debbie L Shawcross, William Bernal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A simultaneous decline in pro- and anticoagulant drivers in patients with liver diseases results in a 'rebalanced' hemostatic system, even in acutely ill patients. Nevertheless, both bleeding and thrombotic events are common. Here, we explored efficacy of pro- and antihemostatic strategies in compensated and acutely ill cirrhotics which may be unpredictable given the profound hemostatic changes. METHODS: We tested the effects in vitro of the addition of clinically relevant doses of commonly used pro- and antihemostatic strategies in plasma from healthy individuals (n=30) and patients with compensated (n=18) and acutely decompensated cirrhosis (n=18), and acute-on-chronic liver failure (n=10)...
May 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758112/novel-and-emerging-therapies-for-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#3
Jordan Goldstein, Cynthia Levy
While bile acids are important for both digestion and signaling, hydrophobic bile acids can be harmful especially when in high concentrations. Mechanisms for protection of cholangiocytes against bile acid cytotoxicity include negative feedback loops via farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR) activation, the bicarbonate umbrella, cholehepatic shunting and anti-inflammatory signaling, among others. By altering or overwhelming these defense mechanisms, cholestatic diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) can further progress to biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and death or liver transplantation...
May 14, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751359/bone-morphogenetic-protein-9-as-a-key-regulator-of-liver-progenitor-cells-in-ddc-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#4
Annalisa Addante, Cesáreo Roncero, Laura Almalé, Nerea Lazcanoiturburu, María García-Álvaro, Margarita Fernández, Julián Sanz, Seddik Hammad, Zeribe Chike Nwosu, Se-Jin Lee, Isabel Fabregat, Steven Dooley, Peter Ten Dijke, Blanca Herrera, Aránzazu Sánchez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) interferes with liver regeneration upon acute injury, while promoting fibrosis upon carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic injury. We have now addressed the role of BMP9 in 3,5 diethoxicarbonyl-1,4 dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced cholestatic liver injury, a model of liver regeneration mediated by hepatic progenitor cell (known as oval cell), exemplified as ductular reaction and oval cell expansion. METHODS: WT and BMP9KO mice were submitted to DDC diet...
May 11, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750389/delisting-hcv-infected-liver-transplant-candidates-who-improved-after-viral-eradication-outcome-2-years-after-delisting
#5
Giovanni Perricone, Christophe Duvoux, Marina Berenguer, Paolo A Cortesi, Carmen Vinaixa, Rita Facchetti, Chiara Mazzarelli, Susanne Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Silvia Martini, Cristina Morelli, Sara Monico, Riccardo Volpes, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Stefano Fagiuoli, Luca S Belli
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Treating patients with decompensated cirrhosis with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy while on the waiting list for liver transplantation, results in substantial improvement of liver function allowing one in four patients to be removed from the waiting list or delisted, as reported in a previous study promoted by the European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association (ELITA). Aim of this study was to report on clinical outcomes of delisted patients, including mortality risk, hepatocellular-carcinoma development, and clinical de-compensation requiring relisting...
May 11, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745475/metabolic-disorders-across-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-italy
#6
Filomena Morisco, Maria Guarino, Maria Rosa Valvano, Francesco Auriemma, Fabio Farinati, Edoardo G Giannini, Francesca Ciccarese, Francesco Tovoli, Gian Ludovico Rapaccini, Maria Di Marco, Eugenio Caturelli, Marco Zoli, Franco Borzio, Rodolfo Sacco, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Martina Felder, Luisa Benvengù, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Elisabetta Biasini, Alberto Masotto, Roberto Virdone, Fabio Marra, Nicola Caporaso, Franco Trevisani
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders are well known risk factors for HCC. Conversely, their impact on the natural history of HCC is not established. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of metabolic disorders on clinical features, treatment and survival of HCC patients regardless of its etiology. METHODS: We analyzed the ITA.LI.CA database regarding 839 HCC patients prospectively collected. The following metabolic features were analyzed: BMI, diabetes, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia...
May 10, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738637/risk-of-hbv-reactivation-with-direct-acting-antivirals-against-hcv-a-cohort-study-from-egypt-and-meta-analysis-of-published-data
#7
Mohamed El Kassas, Yusuke Shimakawa, Zainab Ali-Eldin, Anna-Louise Funk, Mohamed Naguib Wifi, Samy Zaky, Fathiya El-Raey, Gamal Esmat, Arnaud Fontanet
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) became an issue. However, its frequency has been poorly estimated, due to the varying definitions used and evaluation of heterogeneous study populations, including those concurrently treated for HBV. METHODS: We prospectively followed HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive Egyptians undergoing interferon-free DAAs, to estimate the risk of HBV reactivation and HBV-related hepatitis...
May 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738632/reversal-of-hypercoagulability-in-patients-with-hcv-related-cirrhosis-after-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#8
Francesco Paolo Russo, Alberto Zanetto, Elena Campello, Cristiana Bulato, Sarah Shalaby, Luca Spiezia, Sabrina Gavasso, Enrica Franceschet, Claudia Radu, Marco Senzolo, Patrizia Burra, Ton Lisman, Paolo Simioni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The long-term impact of sustained virological response (SVR) after direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) on the hypercoagulability associated with HCV cirrhosis is unknown. We longitudinally evaluated the effect of DAAs treatment on cirrhotic coagulopathy. METHODS: Pro- and anticoagulant factors levels and thrombin generation were assessed in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis at baseline, end of therapy (EOT), at 12, 24 and 48 weeks (W) after EOT...
May 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738109/sarcopenic-obesity-in-cirrhosis-the-confluence-of-two-prognostic-titans
#9
Tannaz Eslamparast, Aldo J Montano-Loza, Maitreyi Raman, Puneeta Tandon
Sarcopenia and obesity are two major health conditions with a growing prevalence in cirrhosis. The concordance of these two conditions, sarcopenic obesity, is associated with higher rates of mortality and impact on the metabolic profile and physical function than either condition alone. To date, there is little consensus surrounding the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, obesity or as a result, sarcopenic obesity in patients with cirrhosis. Cross-sectional imaging, although the most accurate diagnostic technique, has practical limitations for routine use in clinical practice...
May 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714035/myocardial-extracellular-volume-quantified-by-magnetic-resonance-is-increased-in-cirrhosis-and-related-to-poor-outcome
#10
Signe Wiese, Jens Hove, Silje Mo, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Claus L Petersen, Marianne K Vester-Andersen, Naja D Mygind, Jens P Goetze, Andreas Kjaer, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The underlying pathogenesis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is unclear. Structural myocardial changes including diffuse fibrosis may be involved and can be accurately assessed by cardiac MRI (CMR) with quantification of the extracellular volume (ECV).This is the first application of this technique in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the presence of diffuse myocardial fibrosis and to determine the relation to disease severity, cardiac function, and outcome...
April 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714031/an-uncommon-presentation-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#11
Jordi Gratacós-Ginès, Gerhard Jung, Alba Díaz, Xavier Forns
A 28-year-old man with previous medical history of chronic alcohol intake (>100g/day) was admitted into the hospital with jaundice and asthenia since the last 2 weeks. His alcohol consume had increased lately. Except for jaundice, physical examination was non relevant. Laboratory tests indicated: ASAT/ALAT 936/100 UI/L, Total bilirubin 26 mg/dl (predominantly direct), GGT 1021 UI/L, AP 327 UI/L, total cholesterol 335 mg/dl, triglycerides 515 mg/dl, platelet count 86x10^12/L, INR 1.74; white blood cell count and creatinine levels were normal...
April 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710425/systemic-inflammation-and-immune-cell-phenotypes-are-associated-with-neuro-psychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-liver-diseases
#12
Amare Aregay, Meike Dirks, Verena Schlaphoff, Solomon Owusu Sekyere, Kim Haag, Christine Susanne Falk, Julia Hengst, Birgit Bremer, Ramona Schuppner, Michael P Manns, Henning Pflugrad, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Karin Weissenborn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic inflammatory liver diseases are frequently associated with neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients may show altered levels of soluble inflammatory mediators (SIMs) as well as changes in immune cell phenotypes. METHODS: A comprehensive immune-phenotyping including investigation of 50 SIMs as well as ex-vivo phenotypes of NK-cells, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and regulatory T cells in 40 patients with viral and autoimmune chronic liver diseases was performed...
April 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710378/placental-expression-of-asialoglycoprotein-receptor-associated-with-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-from-mother-to-child
#13
Ashish Kumar Vyas, Usha Ramakrishna, Bijoya Sen, Mojahidul Islam, Gayatri Ramakrishna, Sharda Patra, Archana Rastogi, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Nirupma Trehanpati
BACKGROUND: Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression on hepatocytes has been associated with endocytosis, binding and uptake of HBV. The role of ASGPR in HBV vertical transmission and its expression on placenta has not yet been studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty four HBsAg+ve and thirteen healthy pregnant mothers along with their newborns were enrolled. The former were categorized into transmitting and non-transmitting mothers based on their newborns being HBsAg and HBV DNA positive...
April 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704434/diagnostic-accuracy-of-scca-and-scca-igm-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#14
Chang-Hai Liu, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Javier Ampuero, Manuel Romero-Gómez
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and its immune complex (SCCA-IgM) have been proposed for use in the screening of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SCCA and SCCA-IgM and of both combined with alpha-fetoprotein. METHODS: After a systematic review of the relevant studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under curve (AUC) for the diagnosis of HCC were pooled using bivariate meta-analysis...
April 28, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682909/a-qualitative-signature-for-early-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-relative-expression-orderings
#15
Lu Ao, Zimei Zhang, Qingzhou Guan, Yating Guo, You Guo, Jiahui Zhang, Xingwei Lv, Haiyan Huang, Huarong Zhang, Xianlong Wang, Zheng Guo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Currently, using biopsy specimens to confirm suspicious liver lesions of early hepatocellular carcinoma are not entirely reliable because of insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. It is necessary to develop a signature to aid early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis using biopsy specimens even when the sampling location is inaccurate. METHODS: Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a simple qualitative signature to distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients...
April 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682885/identifying-palliative-care-needs-in-a-portuguese-liver-unit
#16
Joana Rita Carvalho, Mariana Vasconcelos, Pedro Marques da Costa, Rui Tato Marinho, Narcisa Fatela, Miguel Raimundo, Sofia Carvalhana, Fernando Ramalho, Helena Cortez-Pinto, José Velosa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Palliative care policies are not clearly established in chronic liver disease. The NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© (NECesidades PALiativas/Palliative Needs) is a tool to identify palliative care needs, including a section for liver disease. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify palliative care needs in liver patients hospitalised in a tertiary referral Liver Unit METHODS: single-center prospective observational study...
April 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682868/role-and-mechanisms-of-autophagy-in-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#17
Xiaojuan Chao, Hua Wang, Hartmut Jaeschke, Wen-Xing Ding
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and many other countries. Although the metabolism and pathogenesis of APAP has been extensively investigated for decades, the mechanisms by which APAP induces liver injury are incompletely known, which hampers the development of effective therapeutic approaches to tackle this important clinical problem. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation pathway, which aims at recycling cellular components and damaged organelles in response to adverse environmental conditions and stresses as a survival mechanism...
April 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676846/generic-sofosbuvir-based-direct-acting-antivirals-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Suman Lata Nayak, Ekta Gupta, Ashish Kataria, Shiv K Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is scant data on use of sofosbuvir containing directly acting anti-viral (DAA) regimens in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Recently generic versions of DAAs have become available in low income countries including India. The aim of this study was to study the efficacy and safety of generic sofosbuvir in combination with generic ribavirin, ledipasvir, or daclatasvir in HCV infected patients with CKD including patients with advanced CKD (CKD stage 4 or 5 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min or those on dialysis)...
April 20, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675988/dose-dependent-impact-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-clinical-course-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#19
Tammo L Tergast, Anika Wranke, Hans Laser, Svetlana Gerbel, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Benjamin Maasoumy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication in patients with liver cirrhosis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and a high mortality. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and the potential relevance of the taken dosage on the incidence and clinical course of SBP. METHODS: Overall, 613 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were included...
April 19, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675889/acute-liver-failure-caused-by-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-and-4-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#20
Samir Haffar, Shalimar, Ravinder Jeet Kaur, Zhen Wang, Larry Prokop, M Hassan Murad, Fateh Bazerbachi
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 and 4 has been rarely described. Due to the presence of a short golden therapeutic window in patients with viral ALF from other causes, it is possible that early recognition and treatment might reduce the morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematicac review and pooled analysis of ALF caused by HEV genotype 3 and 4. METHODS: Two reviewers appraised studies after searching multiple databases on June 12th , 2017...
April 19, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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