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Reproductive Biology

Anat Schonblum, Liat Arnon, Eyal Ravid, Liat Salzer, Eran Hadar, Israel Meizner, Arnon Wiznitzer, Aron Weller, Lee Koren
Maintaining pregnancy to term is important as preterm delivery is a risk factor for impaired infant development, which may have negative long-term consequences. Therefore, developing biomarkers that can predict pregnancy longevity during early gestation is essential for the prevention of preterm birth. Here we explored whether maternal hair testosterone and cortisol, representing the pre-conception and first trimester periods respectively, may be used to predict pregnancy longevity. We recruited 125 pregnant women that contributed hair samples and answered a personal information questionnaire that included pre-conception smoking...
September 12, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Kalpana Rana, Deepali Thaper, Harpreet Vander, Vijay Prabha
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of P. aeruginosa on reproductive potential of male mice via a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro studies involved sperm parameters, Mg2+ ATPase activity and acrosome status. In vivo study employed male mice which in the right vas deferens received 20 μl of either PBS (Group I) or 104 cfu of P. aeruginosa (Group II). The animals were sacrificed on day 3, 7 and 14 and various parameters viz. body weight, TSI (%), bacterial load, spermiogram {i...
September 1, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Luc J Martin, Pauline Roumaud
Leptin is an important adipose derived hormone being secreted by adipocytes and involved in appetite regulation. Disruption of normal plasma levels of leptin has been associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. It is now well established that obesity is associated to an increased risk of cancer development, including testicular cancers. Recently, we have shown that high levels of leptin have inhibitory effects on cAMP-dependent steroidogenic genes expression in MA-10 Leydig cells. Hence, we examined if leptin could alter the transcriptome of the constitutively steroidogenic rat tumor Leydig cell line R2C...
August 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Mohamed Ashry, KyungBon Lee, Joseph K Folger, Sandeep K Rajput, George W Smith
Using sex-sorted semen to produce offspring of desired sex is associated with reduced developmental competence in vitro and lower fertility rates in vivo. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of exogenous follistatin supplementation on the developmental competence of bovine embryos produced with sex-sorted semen and possible link between TGF-β regulated pathways and embryotrophic actions of follistatin. Effects of follistatin on expression of cell lineage markers (CDX2 and Nanog) and downstream targets of SMAD signaling (CTGF, ID1, ID2 and ID3) and AKT phosphorylation were investigated...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Katie E Fowler, Anjali A Mandawala, Darren K Griffin, Grant A Walling, Simon C Harvey
Human assisted reproductive technology procedures are routinely performed in clinics globally, and some of these approaches are now common in other mammals such as cattle. This is currently not the case in pigs. Given that the global population is expected to increase by over two billion people between now and 2050, the demand for meat will also undoubtedly increase. With this in mind, a more sustainable way to produce livestock; increasing productivity and implementing methods that will lead to faster genetic selection, is imperative...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Aliki Anyfantaki, Christiana Kyvelidou, Margarita Tsagkaraki, George Filippidis, Mattheos Fraidakis, Alexandros Zafiropoulos, Irene Athanassakis
Implantation failure is a major problem in human assisted reproduction, which persists regardless the optimization of endometrial receptivity and selection of genetically and morphologically healthy embryos. Since embryo-endometrium interaction depends on cell junctional, cell adhesion and cell-substratum adhesion molecules, the present study inquired whether in vitro growing murine embryos display similar to the in vivo growing embryos patterns of adhesion molecules. To this extend aVb3 expression and distribution in zygotes and 2-cell stage embryos were studied...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Guixian Xiang, Yan Cheng
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading malignancies in women and the 5-year survival rate of ovarian cancer still remains poor. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the interaction between the miR-126-3p and PLXNB2 in the progression of ovarian cancer. The qRT-PCR data revealed a reduction of miR-126-3p level in ovarian cancer tissues comparing to the adjacent normal tissues. Over-expression of miR-126-3p in ovarian cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation and invasion and the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Hassan I H El-Sayyad, Effat M F El-Shershaby, Ahmed A El-Mansi, Nermeen E El-Ashry
A high cholesterol diet is related to ovarian dysfunction and infertility which has been increased among young ages consuming processed food products. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of a high cholesterol diet on the ovaries of young female rats via assessments of histopathology, immunohistochemistry, oxidative stress and apoptic markers. Also, mating of hypercholesterolemic female rats was carried out to measure the fertility and numbers of their offspring. At the same time, phytotherapy was carried out through supplementing the diet with barley and/ or date palm fruits (10%) during the experiment to assess the phyto-therapeutic impacts in attenuation of drastic hypercholesterolemic effects...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Lu Wang, Wei Zhang, Hai-Yun Guan
The intent of the study was to explore the elevating expression of decay-accelerating factor(DAF) exerts influence on biological behaviors of endometrial stromal cells except in classical immunology on the basis of bioinformatic statistics and clinical miscarriages findings suggesting its potential role in the establishment of endometrial receptivity. We confirmed that DAF locates on the cellular surface of endometrial epithelium and stroma. By using plasmid transfection to down-regulate DAF expression in primary endometrial stromal cells(ESCs), we discovered that DAF expression in ESCs increases in response to estradiol and progesterone stimulation in dose- and time-dependent manners; moreover, tamoxifen and RU486 stimulations to block estrogen receptors(ERs) and progesterone receptors(PRs) respectively result in reduced DAF mRNA and protein, and it is more obvious to block PRs...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Diana M Morales-Prieto, Joerg Herrmann, Hermann Osterwald, Prithi S Kochhar, Ekkehard Schleussner, Udo R Markert, Michael Oettel
Dienogest (DNG) administration is a well-established treatment for endometriosis but bleeding irregularities remain its main disadvantage. Changes in diet, mainly to vegetable consumption, are beneficial in the treatment of estrogen-related pathologies but their use for endometriosis has been poorly studied. In this study, addition of the phytochemical 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to DNG therapy has been investigated in in vitro and ex vivo models for endometriosis and in a small cohort of women with endometriosis...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Selçuk Özdemir, Selim Çomaklı
The aim of the present study was to investigate the posttranscriptional regulation of bta-miR-222 and the estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene in cows. The preovulatory follicles (POFs) were detected and ER-alpha levels in the corpus luteum (CL) were measured via immunofluorescent method. Afterwards, an ELISA test was performed to detect estradiol- and progesterone-active follicles, and the expression levels of ER-alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), and bta-miR-222 were measured via qRT-PCR. Finally, a western blot analysis was performed to determine ER-alpha protein levels...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Ling Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Shujing Li, Meixia Zhu, Kaili He, Xiaolei Yao, Leying Zhang
Maternal systemic immune response is regulated by conceptus-derived signals through peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) via blood circulation during early pregnancy in cattle. In this study, the PBMCs from day 18 in non-pregnant cows and days 14, 18 and 30 in pregnant cows were used to explore the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10, and the plasma progesterone (P4) concentration was also determined. The results showed that the expression levels of mRNA and the protein of IFN-γ were lower and that IL-4 and IL-10 were higher in the PBMCs from the pregnant cows than in those of non-pregnant cows...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Daria Hafner, Sanja Vujisic Zivkovic, Renato Bauman, Kujundzic Tiljak, Neven Papić, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej
The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interferon alpha (IFN-α) in the follicular fluid (FF) and their possible influence, as pro-angiogenic or anti-angiogenic factors, on in vitro fertilization outcome. The concentrations of VEGF and IFN-α were correlated with oocyte and embryo quality, concentrations of hormones in the serum, perifollicular blood flow and endometrial thickness. VEGF was detected in all FF samples (median 706.6 pg/ml, range 182...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Haiyan Zhu, Yinshen Jiang, Yibin Pan, Libing Shi, Songying Zhang
Multiple studies have confirmed that human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) have potential applications in regenerative medicine or cell therapy. However, the contribution of MenSCs to endometrial repair is currently unknown. We evaluated the protective effects of MenSCs on impaired endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process. Mifepristone was used to damage human ESCs, which were subsequently cocultured with MenSCs. The proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of ESCs were assessed, together with the expression of related signaling proteins including total p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, P-p38, total protein kinase B (AKT), P-AKT, β-catenin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Cristina González-Ravina, Mercedes Aguirre-Lipperheide, Francisco Pinto, David Martín-Lozano, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, Víctor Blasco, Esther Santamaría-López, Luz Candenas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of diet supplementation with a highly concentrated and purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formula on human sperm function. We performed a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled intervention study. One-hundred eighty human semen samples from sixty infertile patients recruited in a private assisted reproduction center were included. All samples were examined according to World Health Organization guidelines. We analyzed macroscopic and microscopic sperm parameters, oxidative stress, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation before and after supplementation with different DHA daily doses (0...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Diba Bagheri, Parinaz Kazemi, Fatemeh Sarmadi, Mehdi Shamsara, Ehsan Hashemi, Morteza Daliri Joupari, Mojtaba Dashtizad
Low oxygen concentrations during in vitro embryo development not only improving the embryo quality but also can lead to successful implantation. Yet, there is no investigation at the molecular level to indicate the association between increased implantation rate and invasive ability of blastocyst and its inner cell mass quality with in vitro culture under a hypoxic condition. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate blastocyst formation, total cell number, hatching and implantation rates. In addition we assessed the transcription levels of invasion-(Mmp-9 and uPA) and pluripotency-related genes (Pou5f1, Nanog) in mouse blastocyst under hypoxic condition...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
John L Yovich, Jason L Conceicao, Nicole Marjanovich, Yun Ye, Peter M Hinchliffe, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Kevin N Keane
IVF cycles utilizing the ICSI technique for fertilization have been rising over the 25 years since its introduction, with indications now extending beyond male factor infertility. We have performed ICSI for 87% of cases compared with the ANZARD average of 67%. This retrospective study reports on the outcomes of 1547 autologous ART treatments undertaken over a recent 3-year period. Based on various indications, cases were managed within 3 groupings - IVF Only, ICSI Only or IVF-ICSI Split insemination where oocytes were randomly allocated...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Sarah R McCoski, Rebecca K Poole, McCauley T Vailes, Alan D Ealy
The influence of exposure to overfeeding-induced maternal obesity around the time of conception on early embryogenesis was examined in the day 14 ovine conceptus. The relative abundance of FGFR2 and DNMT1 was influenced by maternal obesity status and conceptus sex, and the abundance of PPARG and PTGS2 transcripts was greater in male conceptuses regardless of the obesity status of the ewe. These observations demonstrated that short-term exposure to maternal obesity impacts early conceptus transcript patterning...
June 2018: Reproductive Biology
Hossein Motedayyen, Abbas Rezaei, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Nader Tajik
Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) has been assumed to be caused by a defect in maternal immunological tolerance to the fetus. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) have stem cell-like features and the ability to modulate the innate and adoptive immune responses. This study aimed to investigate whether hAECs have immunomodulatory effects on naive CD4+ T cells from URSA patients. hAECs were obtained from 15 healthy pregnant women and phenotypic profile of hAECs was determined by flow cytometry...
June 2018: Reproductive Biology
Parameswari Ranganathan, Kamini A Rao, Jesu Jaya Sudan, Sridharan Balasundaram
Smoking releases cadmium (Cd), the metal toxicant which causes an imbalance in reactive oxygen species level in seminal plasma. This imbalance is envisaged to impair the sperm DNA morphology and thereby result in male infertility. In order to correlate this association, we performed in vitro and in silico studies and evaluated the influence of reactive oxygen species imbalance on sperm morphology impairments due to smoking. The study included 76 infertile smokers, 72 infertile non-smokers, 68 fertile smokers and 74 fertile non-smokers (control)...
June 2018: Reproductive Biology
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