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Reproductive Biology

Tatsanee Phermthai, Kittima Tungprasertpol, Suphakde Julavijitphong, Puttachart Pokathikorn, Sasiprapa Thongbopit, Suparat Wichitwiengrat
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can effectively repair endometrial deficiencies, including infertile patients with a problem of inadequate endometrium thickness. Although, MSC derived from different organ sources have a similarity of MSC specific characteristics, endometrial stem cells (EMSC) are temporally regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a micro-environmental niche found only in endometrial tissue. Given the micro-environment niche, developing treatments for endometrial disorders with EMSC should be a top priority...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology
Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Reza K Oqani, So Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Cho, Yong Dae Jeong, Jun Jong Baek, Dong Il Jin
The aim of this study is to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress attenuation could improve porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo developmental competence. We treated porcine SCNT embryos with TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an inhibitor of ER stress) and/or TM (tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer), and examined embryonic developmental potential, embryo quality, the levels of ER stress markers (XBP1 protein and mRNA) and apoptosis-related-genes (BAX and BCL2 mRNA). Immunostaining detected X-box-binding protein (XBP1), a key gene regulator during ER stress, at all stages of SCNT embryo development...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Biology
Sona Scsukova, Eva Rollerova, Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova
A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemical substances designated as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to disturb endocrine (hormonal) activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction. The presence of EDCs has already been associated with reproductive malfunction in wildlife species, but it remains difficult to prove causal relationships between the presence of EDCs and specific reproductive problems in vivo, especially in females...
September 28, 2016: Reproductive Biology
Wen-Lin Chang, Huiying Wang, Lina Cui, Nan-Ni Peng, Xiujun Fan, Li-Qun Xue, Qing Yang
Placenta specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is thought to be important for murine and human placentation because of its abundant expression in placenta; however, the trophoblast subtypes that express PLAC1 at the fetomaternal interface and the major role of PLAC1 in placentation are still unclear. This study investigated the expression pattern of PLAC1 at the human fetomaternal interface and its involvement in trophoblast syncytialization. Localization of PLAC1 at the fetomaternal interface was studied using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Jianying Tao, Juanxiu Lv, Weisheng Li, Pengjie Zhang, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Christophe Louis Depoix, Olivier Flabat, Frédéric Debiève, Corinne Hubinont
During the first trimester of pregnancy, placenta formation probably occurs in a low-oxygen environment necessary to protect cytotrophoblasts from oxidative stress and to allow proper gene regulation. Transcription factors involved in gene regulation under low oxygen tension are the hypoxia-inducible factors, mainly HIF1A, EPAS1 and their dimerization partner HIF1B. Little is known about their expression during in vitro culture of cytotrophoblasts under chronic hypoxia. We assessed HIF1A and EPAS1 expression in a 4-day in vitro culture of primary term cytotrophoblasts under 21% O2 and 2...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Terttu Katila
This review suggests a classification for uterine diseases of mares. Information is presented on the prevalence of endometritis in the past and at present. The review describes uterine sampling techniques for mares: swabbing, cytobrushing, low volume lavage and biopsy. The performance of culture, cytology and histology and threshold values is discussed. Correlations between different diagnostic methods and fertility are presented, as well as specificities, sensitivities and positive and negative predictive values of the diagnostic methods...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Shubhashree Uppangala, Shivananda Pudakalakatti, Fiona D'souza, Sujith Raj Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Pratap Kumar, Hanudatta Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
Understanding the embryo metabolic response to sperm induced specific abnormalities could help in developing the metabolic markers to prevent the transfer of embryos carrying sperm mediated defects. In this study, NMR based metabolic profiling of the embryo spent media was employed in 34 patients undergoing ICSI cycles. Processed ejaculates were tested for DNA damage using comet assay. Relative intensities of the metabolites from 74 embryo spent media samples from 34 patients and 23 medium controls were profiled using (1)H NMR and compared between 'male-factor' and control groups...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Yan Cheng, Guixian Xiang, Yanbo Meng, Runzhi Dong
MicroRNAs are often aberrantly expressed in breast cancer and postulated to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of breast cancer by binding to its target mRNA. Here, we evaluated the effects of miRNA-183-5p on cell proliferation and apoptosis which attempted to elucidate the potential role of miR-183-5p/PDCD4 axis in human breast cancer. We found that the miR-183-5p expression level was extremely promoted in breast cancer in comparison with the adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-183-5p significantly enhanced the cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Anna E Zielak-Steciwko, Alexander C O Evans
The female reproductive cycle is characterized by cyclic patterns of growth of ovarian follicles destined to ovulate and the degeneration of those not chosen for ovulation. Apoptosis is the underlying mechanism of ovarian follicle degeneration during atresia. The fate of ovarian follicles is under the control of endocrine hormones (e.g. gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (e.g. growth factors and gonadal steroids), but the intra-cellular and molecular regulation of follicle fate (cellular proliferation or atresia) are still not fully understood...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ryosuke Sakumoto
The main function of the bovine corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of intraluteal substances including steroids, peptides and prostaglandins. Although regulation of luteal function throughout the estrous cycle has been intensively studied, studies of the CL during the entire gestation period are limited...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ewelina Jursza-Piotrowska, Marta J Siemieniuch
Pyometra is a significant reproductive problem in cats. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the immunological profile of queens by studying plasma concentrations of metabolites of prostacyclin I2 (6-keto-PGF1α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4); and (ii) the gene transcription profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 (TLR2/4), PGE2-synthase (PGES), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in the feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment and during pyometra...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Saori Kataoka, Yuuka Mukai, Mihoko Takebayashi, Megumi Kudo, Uson Rachael Acuram, Masaaki Kurasaki, Shin Sato
Excessive maternal fructose intake during pregnancy and in early postnatal life has metabolic consequences for the offspring. We investigated the effects of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) extract (MeE) intake during lactation on the expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver of offspring from excessive fructose-fed pregnant dams. Pregnant Wistar rats received a normal diet and 100g/L fructose solution during gestation ad libitum. At delivery, dams were divided into two groups: a control diet (FC) or a 0...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ivona Žura Žaja, Marko Samardžija, Silvijo Vince, Ivanka Majić-Balić, Dražen Đuričić, Suzana Milinković-Tur
The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years)...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Y R Montanholi, A B P Fontoura, M Diel de Amorim, R A Foster, T Chenier, S P Miller
Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Vasiliki Dinopoulou, Peter Drakakis, Stella Kefala, Erasmia Kiapekou, Ritsa Bletsa, Elli Anagnostou, Konstantinos Kallianidis, Dimitrios Loutradis
During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Xue-Qing Wu, Xiao-Feng Li, Wei-Ting Xia, Bilu Ye, Kevin T O'Byrne
Rearing rats in small litters lead to obesity and reproductive dysfunction. We investigated the effects of rearing female rats in small litters on various reproductive parameters during puberty and into adulthood, and examined the possible involvement of local ovarian sympathetic nerve activity. The litter size was adjusted on postnatal day one to four pups per dam for the small litters and 12 pups per dam for the normal litters. Vaginal opening was recorded, and estrous cyclicity was monitored daily immediately post puberty for 14 days and again at 8-9 weeks of age...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Dušan Fabian, Martina Kačmarová, Janka Kubandová, Štefan Čikoš, Juraj Koppel
The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Francesco Capodanno, Gaetano De Feo, Salvatore Gizzo, Alessia Nicoli, Stefano Palomba, Giovanni Battista La Sala
Frozen embryo transfer cycles are now common practice, however, various aspects regarding the potential of frozen embryos remain unclear. The main goal of the present study was to assess embryo quality before and after slow freezing procedure, and more specifically blastomere loss and embryo quality as indicator of viability. A single center retrospective analysis of single frozen-thawed embryo replacements (s-FER) was performed. The embryo quality before and after slow freezing and thawing, implantation, and pregnancy rates were recorded...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Chanjuan Li, Yuan Zhang, Lisha Tang, Haijun Zhao, Chao Gao, Li Gao, Yugui Cui, Jiayin Liu
The effects of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) on the safety of pregnancy and the resulting offspring remain controversial. Studies of placental functions, especially vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, in pregnancies established through ART are helpful for furthering our understanding of the safety of ART. This study compares the expression profiles of angiogenic factors in human term placentas obtained from natural (NAT) pregnancies vs. placentas obtained from pregnancies that resulted from ART. Term placentas were obtained from women who underwent an ART procedure (n=4), and these were compared with term placentas that were obtained from women who had experienced a spontaneous pregnancy (controls, n=4)...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
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