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Reproductive Biology

Fang Xu, Hailun Zhu, Wenbing Zhu, Liqing Fan
The sperm acrosome reaction (AR) is a physiological secretory course of membrane fusion and hydrolytic enzymes, as well as matrix protein release, enabling spermatozoa to penetrate the egg surroundings. An instable acrosomal status before a specific stimulus, insufficient acrosomal responsiveness, or inadequate enzymatic activity of acrosomal content can be detrimental to male fertility. This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether three human sperm acrosome evaluation parameters-including spontaneous AR rate, AR after calcium ionophore A23187 challenge (ARIC) rate, and modified Kennedy acrosin activity-can predict fertilization outcomes in vitro and are correlated with male characteristics...
November 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Muhamet Afsin, Birgul Otludil, Onur Dede, Murat Akkus
Varicocele is one of the main and surgically repairable causes of male infertility, which arises from dilatation and torsion of the testicular veins in the plexus pampiniformis. In this study, we examined semen samples from 40 patients diagnosed with varicocele between the ages of 15 and 30 years, according to WHO criteria (pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively). The mean spermatozoa concentration was found to be 45.25 ± 34.83 million/ml pre-operatively, while the mean post-operative concentration was 48...
November 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Daniel Bodri, Robert Milewski, Jazmina Yao Serna, Takeshi Sugimoto, Ryutaro Kato, Tsunekazu Matsumoto, Satoshi Kawachiya
Prolonged embryo culture is increasingly used as a way of improving pregnancy rates, especially in the context of single embryo transfer. So far, only a handful of studies examined the relation between implantation potential and time-lapse parameters extracted from later stages (morula and blastocyst) of embryo development. For this retrospective study all 285 single vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfers (SVBT) from all consecutive unselected patients whose fertilized oocytes were submitted to time-lapse monitoring (TLM) from a two-year cohort were analysed...
October 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Vivian A P Alfradique, Ribrio I T P Batista, Joanna M G Souza-Fabjan, Luana R Côrtes, Gláucia M Bragança, Clara V de Souza, Lendel C da Costa, Felipe Z Brandão
This study investigated the effect that bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) and ovine spermatozoa co-culture exposed to different hormonal environments had on ram sperm function over the course of a 24-h incubation period. Ram cooled-stored spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and then co-cultured separately for 24 h at 38.5 °C under 5% CO2 with either: (1) Fert-TALP medium (positive control [POSControl]), (2) Fert-TALP medium supplemented with 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) at concentrations similar to follicular phase (Follicular NEGControl), (3) Fert-TALP medium supplemented with E2 and P4 concentrations similar to luteal phase (Luteal NEGControl), (4) BOEC cultured in the same medium as that of the Follicular NEGControl group (Follicular BOEC group), or (5) BOEC cultured in the same medium as that of the Luteal NEGControl group (Luteal BOEC group)...
October 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Ali Zeyad, Bandar Al-Abdulkareem, Mohamad Eid Hammadeh
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the gender of human embryos and chronological changes during the two pronuclear (2PN) embryonic stage and blastocyst formation on day five after injection using time-lapse imaging and preimplantation genetic testing. A total of 120 couples who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection with preimplantation genetic testing were included in the study. Only normal embryos (n = 416) were enrolled in this study. Time-lapse imaging data of male (n = 227) and female (n = 189) embryo progression was carried out to estimate the times of initial appearance of the 2PN stage, fading times and day five blastulation rates...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Fatema B Almughlliq, Yong Q Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Buddhika J Arachchige, Sarah Reed, Murray D Mitchell
During endometrial inflammation, bovine endometrium responds by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize an in vitro model of endometrial inflammation using bovine endometrial epithelial (bEEL) and stromal (bCSC) cell lines. We evaluated the effects of the infectious agent (bacterial lipopolysaccharide; LPS) and pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and TNFα) on eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression and production by bEEL and bCSC cells...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Sanjay Kumar Singh, Nitin Nage, Hitesh Jagani, Mukul Maiti, Ranjit Sudhakar Ranbhor
In humans, regulation of reproductive functions are carried out mainly by glycoprotein hormones namely follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Since glycans play an important role in binding of gonadotropins with their respective receptors, it is important to identify associated glycans and their pharmacological properties not only for the disease manipulation but also for making more efficacious and safer recombinant versions...
October 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Zhen Luo, Wenli Luo, Shaohua Li, Sen Zhao, Takami Sho, Xue Xu, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianxiong Xu
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a significant obstacle in pig production; however, information regarding the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced placental dysfunction and IUGR is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the placental redox status, mitochondrial content, cellular progression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in IUGR. Placental tissues were collected from normal intrauterine gestation (NIUG) and IUGR fetuses at delivery. Compared with the NIUG, placental ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were increased in IUGR...
October 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Keykavos Gholami, Gholamreza Pourmand, Morteza Koruji, Mohammadali Sadighigilani, Shadan Navid, Fariborz Izadyar, Mehdi Abbasi
Optimization of in vitro culture system for the expansion and the maturation of male germ cells to post meiotic stages is a valuable tool for studies exploring spermatogenesis regulation and the management of male infertility. Several studies have reported promising results of mouse spermatogonial stem cells culture in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems and a subsequent production of sperm. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of a three-dimensional soft agar culture system (SACS) supplemented with Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in colony formation and inducing human germ cells to reach post-meiotic stages...
October 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Kristina Rode, Karola Weider, Oliver Siegfried Damm, Joachim Wistuba, Marion Langeheine, Ralph Brehm
For the reason that adult Sertoli cell specific connexin 43 knockout (SCCx43KO) mice show arrested spermatogenesis at spermatogonial level or Sertoli cell only tubules and significantly reduced germ cell (GC) numbers, the aims of the present study were (1) to characterize the remaining GC population and (2) to elucidate possible mechanisms of their fading. Apoptosis was analyzed in both, KO and wild type (WT) male littermates during postnatal development and in adulthood using TUNEL. Although GC numbers were significantly reduced in KO at 2 and 8 days postpartum (dpp) when compared to WT, no differences were found concerning apoptotic incidence between genotypes...
September 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Eduardo B Blödorn, William B Domingues, Eliza R Komninou, Larissa Daneluz, Eduardo N Dellagostin, Amanda Weege, Antonio Sergio Varela, Carine D Corcini, Tiago V Collares, Vinicius F Campos
Physical methods such as electroporation have been used to improve the DNA uptake efficiency of sperm cells. This study aims to develop an efficient capillary-type electroporation method for incorporation of exogenous DNA into bovine cryopreserved sperm cells with minimal detrimental effects for later use in SMGT. Electroporation of the samples was performed in 2 different groups (with 1 μg of DNA and without DNA transfection) and under five different voltages: 500 V, 600 V, 700 V, 800 V and 900 V...
September 13, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Hossein Motedayyen, Farshid Fathi, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Ramezan Ali Taheri
Intrauterine infection is a major cause of immune imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface, which leads to spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of the fetal membranes, and preterm birth. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesize that bacteria influence the immunomodulatory effects of hAECs through stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we investigated how lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a bacterial component affects anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines production of hAECs...
September 13, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Belkis E Marelli, Cristian J M Leiva, Rocío B Flores Brun, Cintia S Ramírez, Juan I Failla, Valentina Matiller, Ayelén N Amweg, Florencia Rey, Hugo H Ortega
In ovarian granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates the proliferation and differentiation events required for follicular growth and oocyte maturation. FSH actions are mediated exclusively through the FSH receptor (FSHR). In cattle, the FSHR gene expression pattern during folliculogenesis and the implications of this receptor in reproductive disorders have been extensively studied. However, the limited availability of specific antibodies against bovine FSHR has restricted FSHR protein analysis...
September 13, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Anat Schonblum, Liat Arnon, Eyal Ravid, Liat Salzer, Eran Hadar, Israel Meizner, Arnon Wiznitzer, Aron Weller, Lee Koren
Maintaining pregnancy to term is important as preterm delivery is a risk factor for impaired infant development, which may have negative long-term consequences. Therefore, developing biomarkers that can predict pregnancy longevity during early gestation is essential for the prevention of preterm birth. Here we explored whether maternal hair testosterone and cortisol, representing the pre-conception and first trimester periods respectively, may be used to predict pregnancy longevity. We recruited 125 pregnant women that contributed hair samples and answered a personal information questionnaire that included pre-conception smoking...
September 12, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Kalpana Rana, Deepali Thaper, Harpreet Vander, Vijay Prabha
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of P. aeruginosa on reproductive potential of male mice via a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro studies involved sperm parameters, Mg2+ ATPase activity and acrosome status. In vivo study employed male mice which in the right vas deferens received 20 μl of either PBS (Group I) or 104 cfu of P. aeruginosa (Group II). The animals were sacrificed on day 3, 7 and 14 and various parameters viz. body weight, TSI (%), bacterial load, spermiogram {i...
September 1, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Luc J Martin, Pauline Roumaud
Leptin is an important adipose derived hormone being secreted by adipocytes and involved in appetite regulation. Disruption of normal plasma levels of leptin has been associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. It is now well established that obesity is associated to an increased risk of cancer development, including testicular cancers. Recently, we have shown that high levels of leptin have inhibitory effects on cAMP-dependent steroidogenic genes expression in MA-10 Leydig cells. Hence, we examined if leptin could alter the transcriptome of the constitutively steroidogenic rat tumor Leydig cell line R2C...
August 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Mohamed Ashry, KyungBon Lee, Joseph K Folger, Sandeep K Rajput, George W Smith
Using sex-sorted semen to produce offspring of desired sex is associated with reduced developmental competence in vitro and lower fertility rates in vivo. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of exogenous follistatin supplementation on the developmental competence of bovine embryos produced with sex-sorted semen and possible link between TGF-β regulated pathways and embryotrophic actions of follistatin. Effects of follistatin on expression of cell lineage markers (CDX2 and Nanog) and downstream targets of SMAD signaling (CTGF, ID1, ID2 and ID3) and AKT phosphorylation were investigated...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Katie E Fowler, Anjali A Mandawala, Darren K Griffin, Grant A Walling, Simon C Harvey
Human assisted reproductive technology procedures are routinely performed in clinics globally, and some of these approaches are now common in other mammals such as cattle. This is currently not the case in pigs. Given that the global population is expected to increase by over two billion people between now and 2050, the demand for meat will also undoubtedly increase. With this in mind, a more sustainable way to produce livestock; increasing productivity and implementing methods that will lead to faster genetic selection, is imperative...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Aliki Anyfantaki, Christiana Kyvelidou, Margarita Tsagkaraki, George Filippidis, Mattheos Fraidakis, Alexandros Zafiropoulos, Irene Athanassakis
Implantation failure is a major problem in human assisted reproduction, which persists regardless the optimization of endometrial receptivity and selection of genetically and morphologically healthy embryos. Since embryo-endometrium interaction depends on cell junctional, cell adhesion and cell-substratum adhesion molecules, the present study inquired whether in vitro growing murine embryos display similar to the in vivo growing embryos patterns of adhesion molecules. To this extend aVb3 expression and distribution in zygotes and 2-cell stage embryos were studied...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
Guixian Xiang, Yan Cheng
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading malignancies in women and the 5-year survival rate of ovarian cancer still remains poor. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the interaction between the miR-126-3p and PLXNB2 in the progression of ovarian cancer. The qRT-PCR data revealed a reduction of miR-126-3p level in ovarian cancer tissues comparing to the adjacent normal tissues. Over-expression of miR-126-3p in ovarian cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation and invasion and the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2...
September 2018: Reproductive Biology
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