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Reproductive Biology

Abdel Halim Harrath, Olga Østrup, Jan Rafay, Iveta Koničková Florkovičová, Jozef Laurincik, Alexander V Sirotkin
Leptin is a hormone that mediates the effect of the metabolic state on several biological functions, including reproduction. Leptin affects reproductive functions via alterations in the release of hormonal regulators. However, the extent to which caloric restriction (CR) can affect the complex processes of reproduction by other mechanisms, such as altering ovarian functions via direct binding/response to leptin, is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to show basic ovarian cell functions and CR on the response of ovarian cells to leptin...
November 25, 2016: Reproductive Biology
Wilasinee Inyawilert, Yu-Jing Liao, Pin-Chi Tang
Inconsistent reproductive performance has been reported in superovulated mice. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect and possible mechanism of superovulation timing on mouse reproductive performance. The results showed that mice superovulated at the metestrous (23.08±6.08%) and diestrous stages (33.33±11.45%) presented significantly lower pregnancy rates compared with those superovulated at the estrous stage (66.67±9.20%). After superovulation at the proestrous and estrous stages, mucin 1 (MUC1) and let-7a/let-7b microRNA (miRNA) expression levels were significantly attenuated and enhanced on embryonic day 3...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Heba M A Abdelrazek, Seham A Helmy, Doaa H Elsayed, Hala M Ebaid, Racha M Mohamed
Cadmium is one of the potent environmental endocrine disruptors that has adverse effects on male fertility. This study was conducted to investigate the protective role of green tea extract (GTE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2) induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided to 4 groups, each one contained 9 rats. Control group, they were gavaged distilled water, meanwhile the treated groups gavaged CdCl2 (3mg/kg), GTE (70mg/kg) and CdCl2+GTE (3mg/kg and 70mg/kg) for 63days...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Guang-Min Yu, Jia-Hua Bai, Yan Liu, Teruo Maeda, Shen-Ming Zeng
Postpartum uterine health in dairy cows is crucial for the maintenance of good reproductive performance. In order to improve uterine health and reduce puerperal intrauterine infection, 608 Holstein cows received a weekly PGF2α protocol (3 i.m. injections of PGF2α at 7, 14 and 21 d postpartum). For comparison, 593 cows in the control group received injections of sterile saline at the same time. Uterine score at 14 d postpartum, the prevalence of endometritis at 21-27 d postpartum, and subsequent reproduction performance was evaluated...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ihtesham Ul Haq, Ying Han, Tariq Ali, Yingzheng Wang, Hui Gao, Lu Lin, Yi Wu, Shuaishuai Wu, Shenming Zeng
Pregnancy recognition is associated with the upregulation of the great number of genes in ruminants. One of these genes is interferon-stimulatory gene (ISG15), an ubiquitin-like protein that mediates the conjugation of different proteins through its ISGylation enzymes UBE1L and UBCH8. We demonstrate that ISG15 and its ISGlyation enzymes UBE1L and UBCH8 are differentially regulated in pregnant and non-pregnant cows. The mRNA and/or protein levels of ISG15, UBE1L and UBCH8 increased significantly (p<0.05) after treatment of PBMCs with different concentrations of interferon-tau (IFN-τ)...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ganesan Saibaba, Durairaj Rajesh, Subramanian Muthukumar, Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Parasuraman Padmanabhan, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha, Balázs Gulyás, Govindaraju Archunan
Human saliva contains numerous molecules that play a variety of roles. Among them there are proteins which serve as biomarkers of various physiological and/or pathological conditions. Compared to other body fluids, saliva is the most convenient material for investigations, and especially for monitoring the disease conditions. Presently, there is an increasing need to develop a noninvasive method to identify the time of ovulation in humans to ensure successful fertilization, and for evolving strategies for family planning...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Tatsanee Phermthai, Kittima Tungprasertpol, Suphakde Julavijitphong, Puttachart Pokathikorn, Sasiprapa Thongbopit, Suparat Wichitwiengrat
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can effectively repair endometrial deficiencies, including infertile patients with a problem of inadequate endometrium thickness. Although, MSC derived from different organ sources have a similarity of MSC specific characteristics, endometrial stem cells (EMSC) are temporally regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a micro-environmental niche found only in endometrial tissue. Given the micro-environment niche, developing treatments for endometrial disorders with EMSC should be a top priority...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Reza K Oqani, So Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Cho, Yong Dae Jeong, Jun Jong Baek, Dong Il Jin
The aim of this study is to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress attenuation could improve porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo developmental competence. We treated porcine SCNT embryos with TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an inhibitor of ER stress) and/or TM (tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer), and examined embryonic developmental potential, embryo quality, the levels of ER stress markers (XBP1 protein and mRNA) and apoptosis-related-genes (BAX and BCL2 mRNA). Immunostaining detected X-box-binding protein (XBP1), a key gene regulator during ER stress, at all stages of SCNT embryo development...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Sona Scsukova, Eva Rollerova, Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova
A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemical substances designated as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to disturb endocrine (hormonal) activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction. The presence of EDCs has already been associated with reproductive malfunction in wildlife species, but it remains difficult to prove causal relationships between the presence of EDCs and specific reproductive problems in vivo, especially in females...
December 2016: Reproductive Biology
Wen-Lin Chang, Huiying Wang, Lina Cui, Nan-Ni Peng, Xiujun Fan, Li-Qun Xue, Qing Yang
Placenta specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is thought to be important for murine and human placentation because of its abundant expression in placenta; however, the trophoblast subtypes that express PLAC1 at the fetomaternal interface and the major role of PLAC1 in placentation are still unclear. This study investigated the expression pattern of PLAC1 at the human fetomaternal interface and its involvement in trophoblast syncytialization. Localization of PLAC1 at the fetomaternal interface was studied using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Jianying Tao, Juanxiu Lv, Weisheng Li, Pengjie Zhang, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Christophe Louis Depoix, Olivier Flabat, Frédéric Debiève, Corinne Hubinont
During the first trimester of pregnancy, placenta formation probably occurs in a low-oxygen environment necessary to protect cytotrophoblasts from oxidative stress and to allow proper gene regulation. Transcription factors involved in gene regulation under low oxygen tension are the hypoxia-inducible factors, mainly HIF1A, EPAS1 and their dimerization partner HIF1B. Little is known about their expression during in vitro culture of cytotrophoblasts under chronic hypoxia. We assessed HIF1A and EPAS1 expression in a 4-day in vitro culture of primary term cytotrophoblasts under 21% O2 and 2...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Terttu Katila
This review suggests a classification for uterine diseases of mares. Information is presented on the prevalence of endometritis in the past and at present. The review describes uterine sampling techniques for mares: swabbing, cytobrushing, low volume lavage and biopsy. The performance of culture, cytology and histology and threshold values is discussed. Correlations between different diagnostic methods and fertility are presented, as well as specificities, sensitivities and positive and negative predictive values of the diagnostic methods...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Shubhashree Uppangala, Shivananda Pudakalakatti, Fiona D'souza, Sujith Raj Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Pratap Kumar, Hanudatta Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
Understanding the embryo metabolic response to sperm induced specific abnormalities could help in developing the metabolic markers to prevent the transfer of embryos carrying sperm mediated defects. In this study, NMR based metabolic profiling of the embryo spent media was employed in 34 patients undergoing ICSI cycles. Processed ejaculates were tested for DNA damage using comet assay. Relative intensities of the metabolites from 74 embryo spent media samples from 34 patients and 23 medium controls were profiled using (1)H NMR and compared between 'male-factor' and control groups...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Yan Cheng, Guixian Xiang, Yanbo Meng, Runzhi Dong
MicroRNAs are often aberrantly expressed in breast cancer and postulated to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of breast cancer by binding to its target mRNA. Here, we evaluated the effects of miRNA-183-5p on cell proliferation and apoptosis which attempted to elucidate the potential role of miR-183-5p/PDCD4 axis in human breast cancer. We found that the miR-183-5p expression level was extremely promoted in breast cancer in comparison with the adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-183-5p significantly enhanced the cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Anna E Zielak-Steciwko, Alexander C O Evans
The female reproductive cycle is characterized by cyclic patterns of growth of ovarian follicles destined to ovulate and the degeneration of those not chosen for ovulation. Apoptosis is the underlying mechanism of ovarian follicle degeneration during atresia. The fate of ovarian follicles is under the control of endocrine hormones (e.g. gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (e.g. growth factors and gonadal steroids), but the intra-cellular and molecular regulation of follicle fate (cellular proliferation or atresia) are still not fully understood...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ryosuke Sakumoto
The main function of the bovine corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of intraluteal substances including steroids, peptides and prostaglandins. Although regulation of luteal function throughout the estrous cycle has been intensively studied, studies of the CL during the entire gestation period are limited...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ewelina Jursza-Piotrowska, Marta J Siemieniuch
Pyometra is a significant reproductive problem in cats. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the immunological profile of queens by studying plasma concentrations of metabolites of prostacyclin I2 (6-keto-PGF1α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4); and (ii) the gene transcription profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 (TLR2/4), PGE2-synthase (PGES), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in the feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment and during pyometra...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Saori Kataoka, Yuuka Mukai, Mihoko Takebayashi, Megumi Kudo, Uson Rachael Acuram, Masaaki Kurasaki, Shin Sato
Excessive maternal fructose intake during pregnancy and in early postnatal life has metabolic consequences for the offspring. We investigated the effects of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) extract (MeE) intake during lactation on the expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver of offspring from excessive fructose-fed pregnant dams. Pregnant Wistar rats received a normal diet and 100g/L fructose solution during gestation ad libitum. At delivery, dams were divided into two groups: a control diet (FC) or a 0...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
Ivona Žura Žaja, Marko Samardžija, Silvijo Vince, Ivanka Majić-Balić, Dražen Đuričić, Suzana Milinković-Tur
The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years)...
June 2016: Reproductive Biology
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