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Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Hidenori Komiyama, Hitoshi Takano, Shunichi Nakamura, Masamichi Takano, Noritake Hata, Miyauchi Yasushi, Yoshihiko Seino, Kyoichi Mizuno, Wataru Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of geographical predisposition on the spatial distribution and composition of coronary plaques. METHODS: Thirty coronary arteries were evaluated. A total of 1441 cross-sections were collected from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and radio-frequency signal-based virtual histology (VH-IVUS) imaging. To exclude complex geographical effects of side branches and to localise the plaque distribution, we analysed only eccentric plaques in non-branching regions...
November 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Giorgio Galanti, Laura Stefani, Gabriele Mascherini, Valentina Di Tante, Loira Toncelli
BACKGROUND: Regular physical exercise determines a progressive increase of the cardiac mass known as adaptive hypertrophy. Up to now, two morphological echocardiographic heart patterns of athletes have been described by Morganroth in 1975: predominant augmentation of wall thickness, and major cavity size in chamber dimensions in the case of prevalent static or dynamic components. The aim of the study was to follow up the impact of physical training on heart morphology and function in a group of elite soccer and rugby players for at least five years...
November 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Juan Cong, Zhibin Wang, Hong Jin, Wugang Wang, Kun Gong, Yuanyuan Meng, Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: The myocardial wall of the left ventricle is a complex, multilayered structure and is not homogenous. The aim of this study was to determine longitudinal strain (LS) in the three myocardial layers in normal pregnant women according to gestation proceedings. METHODS: The advanced two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) was performed on 62 women during each pregnancy trimester and 6 to 9 weeks after delivery, while 30 age-matched, healthy, nonpregnant women served as controls...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Talal Dahhan, Irfan Siddiqui, Victor F Tapson, Eric J Velazquez, Stephanie Sun, Clemontina A Davenport, Zainab Samad, Sudarshan Rajagopal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of adding quantitative assessments of cardiac function from echocardiography to clinical factors in predicting the outcome of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of acute PE, based on a positive ventilation perfusion scan or computed tomography (CT) chest angiogram, were identified using the Duke University Hospital Database. Of these, 69 had echocardiograms within 24-48 h of the diagnosis that were suitable for offline analysis...
October 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Johannes Scherr, Philip Jung, Tibor Schuster, Lars Pollmer, Gert Eisele, Franz Goss, Jens Schneider, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Increased left atrial (LA) dimensions are known to be a risk factor in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality and to be one key diagnostic tool to assess diastolic dysfunction. Currently, LA measurements are usually conducted using 2D-echocardiography, although there are well-known limitations. Real-time 3D-echocardiography is able to overcome these limitations, furthermore being a valid measurement tool compared to reference standards (e.g. cardiac magnetic resonance imaging)...
October 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jureerat Khongkaew, Dujdao Sahasthas, Tharrittawadha Potat, Phatchara Thammawirat
BACKGROUND: The transesophageal echocardiograhpy (TEE) has been studied worldwide. However, identifying additional factors on top of operator's experience and patient's cooperation which could influence the success of the procedure in unsedated patients with heart disease  is not well documented. METHODS: Under the cross-sectional descriptive design, 85 target patients were fulfilling the criteria: being Thai national at the age of at least 20-year-old, being performed TEE by the study participant's cardiologists, being able to communicate verbally...
October 5, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Michał Podgórski, Monika Winnicka, Michał Polguj, Piotr Grzelak, Maciej Łukaszewski, Ludomir Stefańczyk
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an early marker of atherosclerosis. The carotid arteries are easily accessible by ultrasound and are commonly used for the evaluation of atherosclerosis development. However, this stiffness assessment is based on the elastic properties of the artery, which may be influenced by the adjacent internal jugular vein (IJV). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of internal jugular vein morphology on the stiffness of the common carotid artery...
September 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Martina Chantal de Knegt, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Peter Søgaard, Jacob Sivertsen, Jan Skov Jensen, Rasmus Møgelvang
BACKGROUND: The current method for a non-invasive assessment of diastolic dysfunction is complex with the use of algorithms of many different echocardiographic parameters. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement (LD), determined by colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) via the measurement of LD during early diastole and atrial contraction, can potentially be used as a simple and reliable alternative. METHODS: In 206 patients, using GE Healthcare Vivid E7 and 9 and Echopac BT11 software, we determined both diastolic LD, measured in the septal and lateral walls in the apical 4-chamber view by TDI, and the degree of diastolic dysfunction, based on current guidelines...
September 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Yasunobu Hayabuchi, Akemi Ono, Yukako Homma, Shoji Kagami
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that longitudinal pulmonary arterial deformation during the cardiac cycle reflects pulmonary arterial capacitance. To examine this hypothesis, we assessed whether tissue Doppler-derived pulmonary annular motion could serve as a novel way to evaluate pulmonary arterial capacitance in pediatric patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD). METHODS: In this prospective study, pulmonary annular velocity was measured in children (age, 6 months-5 years) with a preoperative VSD (VSD group, n = 35) and age-matched healthy children (Control group, n = 23)...
September 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Marcel L Geleijnse, Luigi F M Di Martino, Wim B Vletter, Ben Ren, Tjebbe W Galema, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Peter P T de Jaegere, Osama I I Soliman
To make assessment of paravalvular aortic leakage (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) more uniform the second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) recently updated the echocardiographic criteria for mild, moderate and severe PVL. In the VARC recommendation the assessment of the circumferential extent of PVL in the short-axis view is considered critical. In this paper we will discuss our observational data on the limitations and difficulties of this particular view, that may potentially result in overestimation or underestimation of PVL severity...
September 6, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jiaqi Shen, Qiao Zhou, Yue Liu, Runlan Luo, Bijun Tan, Guangsen Li
BACKGROUND: Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global health problem and a common medical condition that can be seen in everyday clinical practice. And two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) has been reported very useful in evaluating left atrial (LA) function, as well as left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of our study is to evaluate the LA function in patients with IDA by 2D-STE. METHODS: 65 patients with IDA were selected. This group of patients was then divided into two groups according to the degree of hemoglobin: group B (Hb > 90 g/L) and group C (Hb60 ~ 90 g/L)...
August 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
William Ciozda, Ilan Kedan, Devin W Kehl, Raymond Zimmer, Raj Khandwalla, Asher Kimchi
BACKGROUND: Central venous pressure (CVP) and right atrial pressure (RAP) are important parameters in the complete hemodynamic assessment of a patient. Sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter is a non-invasive method of estimating these parameters, but there are limited data summarizing its diagnostic accuracy across multiple studies. We performed a comprehensive review of the existing literature to examine the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of sonographic measurement of IVC diameter as a method for assessing CVP and RAP...
August 20, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jayanta T Mukherjee, Joni R Beshansky, Robin Ruthazer, Hadeel Alkofide, Madhab Ray, David Kent, Warren J Manning, Gordon S Huggins, Harry P Selker
BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a known marker for increased mortality. However, the relationship between LVEF measured during index ACS hospitalization and mortality and heart failure (HF) within 1 year are less well-defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 445 participants in the IMMEDIATE Trial who had LVEF measured by left ventriculography or echocardiogram during hospitalization...
August 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Dorota Sobczyk, Krzysztof Nycz, Pawel Andruszkiewicz, Karol Wierzbicki, Maciej Stapor
BACKGROUND: Appropriate fluid management is one of the most important elements of early goal-directed therapy after cardiothoracic surgery. Reliable determination of fluid responsivenss remains the fundamental issue in volume therapy. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of dynamic IVC-derived parameters (collapsibility index, distensibility index) in comparison to passive leg raising, in postoperative fluid management in mechanically ventilated patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 30 %, immediately after elective coronary artery bypass grafting...
June 8, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Sisi Meng, Lijuan Guo, Guangsen Li
BACKGROUND: Heart ventricular dysfunction has been characterized as reduced longitudinal function of the right ventricle (RV), and is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. This study investigated the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) to assess the longitudinal systolic and diastolic RV function of patients with alcoholic myocardial damage. METHODS: We stratified 92 asymptomatic alcoholic men into three groups of increasing alcohol intake, Groups A-C...
April 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Andrew C Y To, Rodolfo D Benatti, Kimi Sato, Richard A Grimm, James D Thomas, Bruce L Wilkoff, Deborah Agler, Zoran B Popović
BACKGROUND: Patients with non-ischemic heart failure etiology and left bundle branch block (LBBB) show better response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). While these patients have the most pronounced left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony, LV dyssynchrony assessment often fails to predict outcome. We hypothesized that patients with favorable outcome from CRT can be identified by a characteristic strain distribution pattern. METHODS: From 313 patients who underwent CRT between 2003 and 2006, we identified 10 patients who were CRT non-responders (no LV end-systolic volume [LVESV] reduction) with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and LBBB and compared with randomly selected CRT responders (n = 10; LVESV reduction ≥15%)...
April 18, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jelena Čelutkienė, Greta Burneikaitė, Linas Petkevičius, Laura Balkevičienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
BACKGROUND: To evaluate if the combination of several quantitative parameters into a mathematical model would enhance the detection of myocardial ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) when compared to conventional wall motion analysis. METHODS: In a prospective study design 151 patients (age 61.8 ± 9.2) in test group and 105 patients (age 64.0 ± 10.6) in validation group were selected and underwent DSE between January 2008 and December 2012...
April 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jing Zhang, Qichang Zhou, Yili Zhao, Qinghai Peng, Zheli Gong, Xiangdang Long
BACKGROUND: Postnatal outcome of fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is mainly determined by right ventricular function. In the present study we used spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) to assess right ventricular function of fetuses with HLHS. METHODS: Three-dimensional ultrasound with STIC technique was used to acquire heart images from fetuses that had HLHS and the normal controls, between 24(+0) and 37(+6) weeks of gestation. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) were determined using the virtual organ computer-aided analysis software, and the parameters of right ventricular function were calculated...
April 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Mathias Sørgaard, Jesper J Linde, Hafsa Ismail, Niels Risum, Klaus F Kofoed, Jørgen T Kühl, Benjamin Tittle, Walter B Nielsen, Jens D Hove
BACKGROUND: Left atrial volume (LAV) estimation with 3D echocardiography has been shown to be more accurate than 2D volume calculation. However, little is known about the possible effect of respiratory movements on the accuracy of the measurement. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients admitted with chest pain were examined with 3D echocardiography and LAV was quantified during inspiratory breath hold, expiratory breath hold and during free breathing. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, only 65 had an echocardiographic window that allowed for 3D echocardiography in the entire respiratory cycle...
March 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Samir Sulemane, Vasileios F Panoulas, Klio Konstantinou, Athanasios Bratsas, Frederick W Tam, Edwina A Brown, Petros Nihoyannopoulos
BACKGROUND: Recent studies hypothesized left ventricular (LV) twist as a potential biomarker for evaluation of sub clinical myocardial disease, however its relationship with aortic stiffness has yet to be investigated. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as a risk factor for both myocardial and arterial disease. As such we sought to explore the relationship between aortic stiffness and LV twist in CKD patients without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 106 CKD patients (Stages 1 to 5) with normal LVEF as assessed by conventional echocardiography...
March 9, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
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