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Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology

Y Rafique, M AlBader, M Oriowo
In addition to providing mechanical support for blood vessels, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) secretes a number of vasoactive substances and exerts an anticontractile effect. The main objective of this study was to find out whether the anticontractile effect of cooling in the rat aorta is affected by PVAT. Our hypothesis was that PVAT would enhance the anticontractile effect of cooling in the rat aorta. Aorta segments, with or without PVAT, were used in this investigation. Cumulative concentration-response curves were established for phenylephrine at 37°C or 24°C...
September 4, 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Peter Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
S Joukar, M Sheibani
The effect of nicotine on heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial. Autonomic nervous system is the main regulator of heart rhythm, and heart rate variability is an appropriate index to assessment of the effects of the autonomic system on heart. In this study, the combination effect of nicotine and black tea consumption on sympatho-vagal balance and heart rate variability was investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups as control, tea (2.5 g/100 cc, daily), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) and tea plus nicotine groups which treated for 28 days, and in the 29th day, their electrocardiograms (lead II) were recorded...
June 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
H J Lee, S M Cantú, A S Donoso, M R Choi, H A Peredo, A M Puyó
Perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction induced by high-fat feeding leads to alterations in the modulation of inflammation, contractile activity of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function, all risk factors in the development of hypertension. Metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is an interest in actions of this drug with potential relevance in cardiovascular diseases...
June 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
A Karimi, S Joukar, H Najafipour, Y Masoumi-Ardakani, B Shahouzehi
Vast adverse effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) on athletes' cardiovascular systems have been reported. However, there is still a lack of adequate information regarding the pathways and mechanisms involved. We tested the hypothesis that adiponectin and its receptors in the heart may be affected by long-term use of AASs alongside exercising. Male Wistar rats were randomized into the control (CTL), exercise (EX), nandrolone (Nan), arachis (Arach) group which treated with arachis as vehicle, trained vehicle (EX+Arach) and trained nandrolone (EX+Nan) groups that were treated for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Y Oki, H Teraoka, T Kitazawa
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes various central and peripheral actions through activation of G-protein-coupled NPY receptors. Although a species-dependent difference in cardiac actions of NPY has been reported, the responses to NPY have not been examined in mice, widely used experimental animals. This study aimed to clarify the responses to NPY and the receptor subtype involved in the responses in mouse atrium. Neuropeptide Y caused negative inotropic and negative chronotropic actions in spontaneous beating right atria...
March 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
S M Bihzad, M H M Yousif
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are endogenous ligands that undergo hydrolysis by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The responses of 11, 12-EET in comparison with other vasodilator agonists including carbachol and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were investigated. The effect of 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl urea (CDU), a sEH, was tested on the vasodilator effect induced by 11, 12-EET in the perfused mesenteric beds isolated from normo-glycaemic and type-1 STZ-diabetic rats. In the perfused mesenteric beds of control and diabetic animals, 11, 12-EET produced vasodilation in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
R N Kazi, M A Sattar, E J Johns
Altered renal adrenergic responses have been recognized as pathophysiological responses to high salt intake. This study aims to investigate the influence of 6 weeks of high salt diet on α1A -adrenoceptor regulation of renal tubular antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response in normal Wistar Kyoto rats. To achieve the above objective, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response to phenylephrine was measured in the absence and presence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU) using the inulin clearance method. Systemic mean arterial blood pressure and renal haemodynamics were also measured simultaneously...
January 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
P E Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
J Y Al-Hashel, D Youssry, H M Rashaed, T Shamov, R T Rousseff
Objective assessment of the effect of botulinum toxin A (BT) treatment in primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is attempted by different methods. We decided to use for this purpose sympathetic skin responses evoked by train of stimuli (TSSR). Twenty patients with severe PH (five female, median age 24, range 18-36) were examined regularly over 3 months after receiving 50 UI BT in each palm. TSSR were recorded from the palms after sensory stimulation by a train of three supramaximal electric pulses 3 millisecond apart...
July 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
C R Newey, J R Martin
In a rat model, the baroreceptor reflex can be assessed by graded infusions of either phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside with continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) into the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHN) evokes an increase in mean arterial pressure and a change in heart rate. Lower doses of CCh evoke only tachycardia, whereas middle and higher doses evoke a biphasic change in heart rate of tachycardia followed by bradycardia. The bradycardia following the microinjection of CCh into the PHN can be attenuated by the previous administration of the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2 )5 Tyr(Me)] arginine vasopressin (AVPX)...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
H A Alsufyani, J R Docherty
We have studied gender differences in the direct and indirect sympathomimetic cardiovascular effects of the stimulant cathinone (from Khat) (and for comparison methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and the archetypal indirect sympathomimetic agent tyramine, employing male and female Wistar rats. Animals were sympathectomized by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with vehicle. In male and female vehicle-treated pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, all three agonists (0.001-1 mg/kg) produced significant tachycardia, tyramine produced large pressor, and in high doses small depressor responses, MDMA produced small pressor responses, and cathinone produced only minor pressor effects...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Siyavash Joukar, Mohammad-Moein Dehesh
Dry stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) are well known in world as a popular flavouring and therapeutic agent. The anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of saffron suggest that it may affect the autonomic control of the heart. This study assessed its safety on cardiac sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability in rat. Experimental groups were control, Saf50, Saf100, Saf200 (received saffron at dosages of 50 and 100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally, respectively) and Amio (received 30 mg/mL/kg/d of amiodarone, orally, for 7 days) groups...
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Peter E Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
J M Keppel Hesselink
The increase of knowledge in a particular field (endocrinology) can be understood if one follows how certain key concepts were constructed and transformed over time. To explore such construction and transformation (shifts in meaning), we studied the use of the concepts 'autacoid' and 'chalone' in a period of one century (1916-2016), since the introduction of these concepts by the British professor of physiology Sir Sharpey-Schäfer. We could identify that the use of 'autacoid' shifted from a very broad category encompassing both stimulating and inhibiting hormones, in the period 1916-1960, to a much more specific use of the term for locally produced bioactive molecules, from the 1960s onwards...
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
M Winder, C Wasén, P Aronsson, D Giglio
We wanted to assess whether β-adrenoceptors mediate proliferation in the normal and malignant urothelial cell lines UROtsa and T24, respectively. Urothelial cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of the β-adrenoceptor agonists isoprenaline (β1/2/3 ), dobutamine (β1 ), salbutamol (β2 ), BRL 37344 (β3 ), CGP 12177 (a partial β-agonist) or β-adrenoceptor antagonists (metoprolol; β1 , propranolol; β1/2 ). Phosphorylation of kinases was screened with a Human Phospho-Kinase Array Kit (R&D systems)...
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
I A Gallardo-Ortíz, S N Rodríguez-Hernández, J J López-Guerrero, L Del Valle-Mondragón, P López-Sánchez, R M Touyz, R Villalobos-Molina
The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses...
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
V L Kumar, B Guruprasad, P Chaudhary, S M A Fatmi, R S B Oliveira, M V Ramos
The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation...
July 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
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