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Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology

P E Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
J Y Al-Hashel, D Youssry, H M Rashaed, T Shamov, R T Rousseff
Objective assessment of the effect of botulinum toxin A (BT) treatment in primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is attempted by different methods. We decided to use for this purpose sympathetic skin responses evoked by train of stimuli (TSSR). Twenty patients with severe PH (five female, median age 24, range 18-36) were examined regularly over 3 months after receiving 50 UI BT in each palm. TSSR were recorded from the palms after sensory stimulation by a train of three supramaximal electric pulses 3 millisecond apart...
July 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
C R Newey, J R Martin
In a rat model, the baroreceptor reflex can be assessed by graded infusions of either phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside with continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) into the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHN) evokes an increase in mean arterial pressure and a change in heart rate. Lower doses of CCh evoke only tachycardia, whereas middle and higher doses evoke a biphasic change in heart rate of tachycardia followed by bradycardia. The bradycardia following the microinjection of CCh into the PHN can be attenuated by the previous administration of the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2 )5 Tyr(Me)] arginine vasopressin (AVPX)...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
H A Alsufyani, J R Docherty
We have studied gender differences in the direct and indirect sympathomimetic cardiovascular effects of the stimulant cathinone (from Khat) (and for comparison methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) and the archetypal indirect sympathomimetic agent tyramine, employing male and female Wistar rats. Animals were sympathectomized by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with vehicle. In male and female vehicle-treated pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats, all three agonists (0.001-1 mg/kg) produced significant tachycardia, tyramine produced large pressor, and in high doses small depressor responses, MDMA produced small pressor responses, and cathinone produced only minor pressor effects...
January 2016: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Siyavash Joukar, Mohammad-Moein Dehesh
Dry stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) are well known in world as a popular flavouring and therapeutic agent. The anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of saffron suggest that it may affect the autonomic control of the heart. This study assessed its safety on cardiac sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability in rat. Experimental groups were control, Saf50, Saf100, Saf200 (received saffron at dosages of 50 and 100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally, respectively) and Amio (received 30 mg/mL/kg/d of amiodarone, orally, for 7 days) groups...
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
Peter E Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
J M Keppel Hesselink
The increase of knowledge in a particular field (endocrinology) can be understood if one follows how certain key concepts were constructed and transformed over time. To explore such construction and transformation (shifts in meaning), we studied the use of the concepts 'autacoid' and 'chalone' in a period of one century (1916-2016), since the introduction of these concepts by the British professor of physiology Sir Sharpey-Schäfer. We could identify that the use of 'autacoid' shifted from a very broad category encompassing both stimulating and inhibiting hormones, in the period 1916-1960, to a much more specific use of the term for locally produced bioactive molecules, from the 1960s onwards...
December 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
M Winder, C Wasén, P Aronsson, D Giglio
We wanted to assess whether β-adrenoceptors mediate proliferation in the normal and malignant urothelial cell lines UROtsa and T24, respectively. Urothelial cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of the β-adrenoceptor agonists isoprenaline (β1/2/3 ), dobutamine (β1 ), salbutamol (β2 ), BRL 37344 (β3 ), CGP 12177 (a partial β-agonist) or β-adrenoceptor antagonists (metoprolol; β1 , propranolol; β1/2 ). Phosphorylation of kinases was screened with a Human Phospho-Kinase Array Kit (R&D systems)...
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
I A Gallardo-Ortíz, S N Rodríguez-Hernández, J J López-Guerrero, L Del Valle-Mondragón, P López-Sánchez, R M Touyz, R Villalobos-Molina
The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses...
September 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
V L Kumar, B Guruprasad, P Chaudhary, S M A Fatmi, R S B Oliveira, M V Ramos
The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation...
July 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
S Torkan, F Khamesipour, S Katsande
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Echinacea hydroethanolic extract on the dog's immune system. The study was performed on 14 dogs that were referred to the veterinary clinic. These dogs were randomly allocated to two equal treatment groups. The first group received 1 ml of 5% Echinacea hydroethanolic extract two times a day for 2 months, and the second group received a placebo (water). To do haematology and immunology tests, the dogs were bled on days 0, 30 and 60. Blood tests, including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), counting neutrophils (Nut), lymphocytes (Lym), monocytes (Mon), eosinophils (Eos), basophils (Baso) and B cell, were performed...
July 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
B J Davis, M Wiener, C R Chapple, D J Sellers, R Chess-Williams
Alpha1 -adrenoceptor antagonists can cause ejaculatory dysfunction as an adverse effect. Contractions of the human vas deferens are mediated via α1A -adrenoceptors, and this study investigated whether the low affinity state of this receptor (α1L -adrenoceptor) is involved in mediating contractions of this tissue. The potency of agonists and the affinity of receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in functional experiments and in [(3) H]tamsulosin binding experiments to identify the α1 -adrenoceptor subtype population present in the human vas deferens...
April 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
H A Peredo, H Lee, A S Donoso, V Andrade, N Sánchez Eluchans, A M Puyó
In the rat, a high-fat (HF) plus fructose (F) diet produces cardiovascular and metabolic alterations that resemble human metabolic syndrome. Prostanoids (PR), cyclo-oxygenase-derived arachidonic acid metabolites, have vasoactive properties and mediate inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of a HF+F diet on blood pressure (BP), metabolic parameters and mesenteric vascular bed PR production in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups were studied over 9 weeks (n = 6 each): control (C), standard diet (SD) and tap water to drink; F+SD and 10% w/v F solution to drink; HF 50% (w/w) bovine fat added to SD and tap water; and HFF, both treatments...
April 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
K V Viana-Cardoso, M T B Silva, A A Peixoto-Junior, L S Marinho, N S Matias, P M G Soares, A A Santos, G A C Brito, F H Rola, F de A A Gondim
Preclinical and clinical studies show that gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation can evoke sensory changes occasionally far from the original inflammatory site. Animal models of colitis with either trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) or mustard oil (MO) produce distinct patterns of somatic and visceral sensory changes. We evaluated the effects of four doses of i.v. vincristine 150 μg kg(-1) (total of 600 μg kg(-1) ) treatment on the somatic (thermal nociceptive threshold) and colonic (morphological) changes induced by TNBS or MO in rats...
April 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
P J Fitzgerald
1 A growing body of evidence suggests that the signalling molecule, noradrenaline (NA), plays a pathophysiological role in a broad range of psychiatric, neurological and peripheral disorders. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest that elevated NA signalling may be involved in the aetiology of major diseases such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus. 2 The molecular pathways by which NA may cause the manifestation of disease remain poorly understood, although they may include G protein-coupled receptor modulation of the Ras/MAP kinase, Stat3 and PI3K pathways, among others...
April 2015: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
F Rezania, L Mohaghegh Shalmani, R Rahimian, A R Dehpour, S Ejtemaei Mehr
Considering the existence of cross-tolerance between clonidine and morphine besides the same interaction between morphine and WIN 55,212-2 persuaded us to verify this fact between WIN 55,212-2 and clonidine in guinea pig ileum, which is a well-known model to examine the mode of action of cannabinoids and α2 -adenoceptor agonists The rectangular pulses were passed to the 0.5 g stretched ileum segments that were fixed in 20-ml organ bath. PowerLab system and Graphpad Prism were applied to record twitches and analyse the data...
January 2014: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
E H Juárez, F Ochoa-Cortés, M Miranda-Morales, R Espinosa-Luna, L M Montaño, C Barajas-López
The three most common Cys-loop receptors expressed by myenteric neurons are nACh, 5-HT3 and GABAA . To investigate the function of these proteins researchers have used channel inhibitors such as hexamethonium (antagonist of nACh receptors), ondansetron (antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors), picrotoxin and bicuculline (both antagonists of GABAA receptors). The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of these inhibitors on Cys-loop receptors of primary cultured neurons obtained from the guinea-pig small intestine...
January 2014: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
J R Docherty
(1) We have investigated α1 -adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions to noradrenaline in epididymal portions of rat vas deferens. (2) Contractions to noradrenaline were investigated in the absence or presence of the noradrenaline transporter blocker cocaine. (3) In the absence of cocaine, contractions to noradrenaline were potently antagonized by RS100329, but not by BMY7378, and so are mediated mainly by α1A -adrenoceptors. (4) In the presence of cocaine, noradrenaline potency was increased, particularly in terms of low concentrations and phasic contractions...
October 2013: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
H A Peredo, V Andrade, A S Donoso, H J Lee, A M Puyó
(1) Fructose (F) overload produces elevated blood pressure (BP), hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, resembling human metabolic syndrome. Previously, we found altered vascular prostanoid (PR) production in this model. (2) Sodium molybdate (Mo), as well as sodium tungstate, causes insulin-like effects and normalizes plasma glucose levels in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. We studied the effects of Mo on BP, metabolic parameters and release of PR from the mesenteric vascular bed (MVB) in F-overloaded rats...
October 2013: Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology
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