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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721821/current-perspectives-for-the-use-of-gonane-progesteronergic-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-central-hypoventilation-syndromes
#1
Camille Loiseau, Florence Cayetanot, Fanny Joubert, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Philippe Cardot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alain Frugiere, Christian Straus, Laurence Bodineau
BACKGROUND: Central alveolar hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) encompass neurorespiratory diseases resulting from congenital or acquired neurological disorders. Hypercapnia, acidosis, and hypoxemia resulting from CHS negatively affect physiological functions and can be life-threatening. To date, the absence of pharmacological treatment implies that the patients must receive assisted ventilation throughout their lives. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relevance of determining conditions in which using gonane synthetic progestins could be of potential clinical interest for the treatment of CHS...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721823/genetic-risk-factors-for-glaucoma-and-exfoliation-syndrome-identified-by-genome-wide-association-studies
#2
Yoichi Sakurada, Fumihiko Mabuchi
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve axons. According to its anatomical features, glaucoma is mainly subdivided into primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and glaucoma (XFG) are characterized by the accumulation of extracellular materials in ocular tissues, particularly the lens surface and pupillary border. In addition to the two major forms of glaucoma, XFG is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721822/opioid-antagonists-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-are-they-relevant
#3
Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Andrew Spiers, Pascal Caillet, Mélanie Bruneau, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Background To date, no drugs have been approved for gambling disorder. Numerous publications have described the value of opioid antagonists. Indeed, the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been suggested as the underlying cause of reward-seeking behaviour, and it is modulated by the opioid system. Objective This study aims to evaluate the relevance of opioid antagonists for treating GD. Method A systematic literature review was conducted. A search of the PubMed electronic database, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database without any limits was performed...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714395/five-decades-of-cuprizone-an-updated-model-to-replicate-demyelinating-diseases
#4
Jose M Vega-Riquer, Gerardo Mendez-Victoriano, Raul A Morales-Luckie, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others comprise a group of demyelinating diseases characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter of the brain. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology of these diseases...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714394/nanoparticle-mediated-delivery-of-neuroprotective-substances-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
Rosario Amato, Massimo Dal Monte, Matteo Lulli, Vittoria Raffa, Giovanni Casini
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of diabetes, characterized by extensive vascular pathology leading to vision loss. Neuronal suffering and death are also present in the diabetic retina as a result of different molecular mechanisms that are compromised or modified in response to high glucose and that mainly include excitotoxicity, advanced glycation, inflammation and oxidative stress. Recent data indicate that the vascular changes may be secondary to damage of retinal neurons and that neurodegeneration is likely to play a primary role in the development of DR...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714396/differential-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-the-hippocampus-across-lifespan
#6
Dana Zeid, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine exposure affects the hippocampus through activation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are present throughout excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuitry. The role of cholinergic functioning in the hippocampus varies across developmental stages so that nicotine exposure differentially affects this region depending upon timing of exposure, producing developmentally distinct changes in structure, function, and behavior. The hippocampus continues to mature well into adolescence, and this development is modulated by cholinergic activity...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707595/functional-roles-of-the-ca2-activated-k-channel-kca3-1-in-brain-tumors
#7
Giuseppina D' Alessandro, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and deadly brain tumor, with low disease-free period even after surgery and combined radio and chemotherapies. Among the factors contributing to rapid tumor growth in the brain are the elevated proliferation and invasion rate, and the ability to induce a local immunosuppressive environment. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed on glioblastoma cells and in tumor-infiltrating cells. In tumor cells, the functional expression of KCa3.1 is important to modulate cell invasion and proliferation...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699486/stress-depression-resilience-and-ageing-a-role-for-the-lpa-lpa1-pathway
#8
Moreno-Fernández Román D, Tabbai Sara, Castilla-Ortega Estela, Pérez-Martín Margarita, Estivill-Torrús Guillermo, Rodríguez de Fonseca Fernando, Santín Luis J, Pedraza Carmen
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress affects health and the quality of life, with its effects being particularly relevant in ageing due to the psychobiological characteristics of this population. However, while some people develop psychiatric disorders, especially depression, others seem very capable of dealing with adversity. There is no doubt that along with the identification of neurobiological mechanisms involved in developing depression, discovering which factors are involved in positive adaptation under circumstances of extreme difficulty will be crucial for promoting resilience...
July 10, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685671/experimental-models-for-aging-and-their-potential-for-novel-drug-discovery
#9
Jaume Folch, Oriol Busquets, Miren EttchetoElena Sánchez-López, Mercè Pallàs, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Miguel Marin, Gemma Casadesus, Jordi Olloquequi, Carme Auladell, Antoni Camins
The development of antiaging drugs is an interesting area of scientific research. In order to evaluate the beneficial effects of new potential drugs, it is necessary to gather the specific knowledge on the adequate preclinical models that are available. This review focuses on invertebrate and vertebrate preclinical models used to evaluate the efficacy of antiaging compounds, with the objective to extend lifespan and health span. Dietary restriction (DR), a common experimental process to extend lifespan in all organisms, is also discussed...
July 7, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677495/strategies-to-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-glaucoma-patients
#10
M D Pinazo-Durán, K Shoaie-Nia, V Zanón-Moreno, S M Sanz-González, Benítez Del Castillo J, J J García-Medina
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial pathology involving a variety of pathogenic mechanisms, including oxidative/nitrosative stress. This latter is the consequence of the imbalance between excessive formation and insufficient protection against reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Our main goal is to gather molecular information to better managing variants that may determine the individual susceptibility to oxidative/nitrosative stress and POAG. We also review the experimental glaucoma models as well as the clinical trials that may help understanding the role of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, natural compounds and other similar strategies for counteracting oxidative/nitrosative stress in glaucoma that may modulate disease susceptibility or attenuate its progression...
July 5, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676016/resilience-dysregulation-in-major-depressive-disorder-focus-on-glutamatergic-imbalance-and-microglial-activation
#11
Gislaine Z Réus, Airam B de Moura, Ritele H Silva, Wilson R Resende, João Quevedo
Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental and clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function exerts antidepressant effects. Glutamatergic system is involved with memory establishment and function, and it regulates plasticity in the brain. Microglial cells play pivotal role to the brain functions; however, under chronic inflammation status microglial could be turn activated and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676015/effects-of-resveratrol-and-other-polyphenols-on-sirt1-relevance-to-brain-function-during-aging
#12
F Sarubbo, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Classically the oxidative stress and more recently inflammatory processes have been identified as the major causes of brain aging. Oxidative stress and inflammation affect each other, but there is more information about the effects of oxidative stress on aging than regarding the contribution of inflammation on it. In the intense research for methods to delay or mitigate the effects of aging, are interesting polyphenols, natural molecules synthesized by plants (e.g. resveratrol). Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties become them useful molecules in the prevention of aging...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676014/citicoline-and-retinal-ganglion-cells-effects-on-morphology-and-function
#13
Vincenzo Parisi, Francesco Oddone, Lucia Ziccardi, Gloria Roberti, Gianluca Coppola, Gianluca Manni
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the nervous retinal elements that connect the visual receptors to the brain forming the nervous visual system. Functional and/or morphological involvement of RGCs occurs in several ocular and neurological disorders and therefore these cells are targeted in neuroprotective strategies. Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine or Citicoline is an endogenous compound that acts in the biosynthesis of phospholipids of cell membranes and increases neurotransmitters' levels in the Central Nervous System...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676013/the-challenge-of-microrna-as-a-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#14
Yihong Ma
Epilepsy is one of chronic severe neurological disorders possess to recurring seizures which product abnormal and synchronous in the brain neurons other characteristic is including upregulate mortality rate, and decreased social participation and quality of life. Epilepsy as well as ictogenesis included treatments. But anti-epileptic drugs are only effective in less than one third of epilepsy patients, and biomarkers predicting are not available when the specific antiepileptic drugs treated. Advanced studies have showed that miRNA may be a key in the pathogenesis of epilepsy beginning in the early 2000 years...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676012/statins-and-the-brain-more-than-lipid-lowering-agents
#15
Anna Fracassi, Martina Marangoni, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Pallottini, Marco Fioramonti, Silvia Siteni, Marco Segatto
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a class of medications widely prescribed to efficiently treat dyslipidemia. These drugs inhibit 3-βhydroxy 3β-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Besides cholesterol, MVA pathway leads to the production of several other compounds, which are essential in the regulation of a plethora of biological activities, including in the central nervous system. For these reasons, statins are able to induce pleiotropic actions, and acquired increased interest as potential and novel modulators in brain processes, especially during pathological conditions...
July 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676017/antipsychotic-drugs-from-receptor-binding-profiles-to-metabolic-side-effects
#16
Spyridon Siafis, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Myrto Samara, Georgios Papazisis
Antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects are major concerns in psychopharmacology and clinical psychiatry. Their pathogenetic mechanisms are still not elucidated. Antipsychotic drugs seem to interfere with feeding behaviors and energy balance processes that control metabolic regulation. Reward and energy balance centers in central nervous system constitute the central level of metabolic regulation. The peripheral level consists of skeletal muscles, the liver, the pancreas, the adipose tissue and neuroendocrine connections...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676011/resilience-dysregulation-in-major-depressive-disorder-focus-on-glutamatergic-imbalance-and-microglial-activation
#17
Gislaine Z Réus, Airam B de Moura, Ritele H Silva, Wilson R Resende, João Quevedo
Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental and clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function exerts antidepressant effects. Glutamatergic system is involved with memory establishment and function, and it regulates plasticity in the brain. Microglial cells play pivotal role to the brain functions; however, under chronic inflammation status microglial could be turn activated and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676010/kca3-1-channel-modulators-as-potential-therapeutic-compounds-for-glioblastoma
#18
Brandon M Brown, Brandon Pressley, Heike Wulff
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is widely expressed in cells of the immune system such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and microglia, but also found in dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and many cancer cells including pancreatic, prostate, leukemia and glioblastoma. In all these cell types KCa3.1 plays an important role in cellular activation, migration and proliferation by regulating membrane potential and Ca2+ signaling. KCa3.1 therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for diseases involving excessive proliferation or activation of one more of these cell types and researchers both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry have developed several potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of KCa3...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#19
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606040/recent-advances-in-pathophysiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Parmeet Kaur, Saurabh Sharma
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes the primary reason for mortality and morbidity in persons worldwide below 45 years of age. 1.7 million Traumatic events occur yearly in the United States alone, considering for 50,000 deaths. In severe traumatic brain injury sufferers, a considerable achievement attained in treating short-term consequences; but till date, huge failures are occurring in researcher's capability to render severe traumatic brain injury sufferers to an elevated degree of performing. Initial damage force results in Primary brain injury, causing tissue destruction and distortion in the early post-injury period...
June 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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