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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101714/school-based-prevention-for-adolescent-internet-addiction-prevention-is-the-key-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
Melina A Throuvala, Mark D Griffiths, Mike Rennoldson, Daria J Kuss
Adolescents' media use represents a normative need for information, communication, recreation and functionality, yet problematic Internet use has increased. Given the arguably alarming prevalence rates worldwide and the increasingly problematic use of gaming and social media, the need for an integration of prevention efforts appears to be timely. The aim of this systematic literature review is (i) to identify school-based prevention programmes or protocols for Internet Addiction targeting adolescents within the school context and to examine the programmes' effectiveness, and (ii) to highlight strengths, limitations, and best practices to inform the design of new initiatives, by capitalizing on these studies' recommendations...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101713/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#2
Antonio Del Casale, Serena Sorice, Alessio Padovano, Maurizio Simmaco, Stefano Ferracuti, Dorian A Lamis, Chiara Rapinesi, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with affective and cognitive symptoms causing personal distress and reduced global functioning. These have considerable societal costs due to healthcare service utilization. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in OCD and clinical guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of this field. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with drug treatment of OCD, with a specific focus on clinical guidelines, treatments with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, off-label medications, and pharmacogenomics...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081787/the-action-of-polyphenols-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-common-agent-for-overlapping-pathologies
#3
Ana C Silveira, Jane Pires Dias, Vanessa M Santos, Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Marco G Alves, Luis Rato, Branca M Silva
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two prevalent diseases in modern societies, which are caused mainly by current lifestyle, aging and genetic alterations. It has already been demonstrated that these two diseases are associated since individuals suffering from DM are prone to develop AD. Conversely, it is also known that individuals with AD are more susceptible to DM, namely type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, these two pathologies, although completely different in terms of symptomatology, end up sharing several mechanisms at the molecular level, being the most obvious the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081786/molecular-mechanism-of-aniline-induced-spleen-toxicity-and-neuron-toxicity-in-experimental-rat-exposure-a-review
#4
Pouran Makhdoumi, Mojtaba Limoee, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Hooshyar Hossini
Aniline exposure leads to neuron and spleen toxicity specifically and makes diverse neurological effects and sarcoma that is defined by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, and fibrosis and tumors formation at the end. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of aniline-induced spleen toxicity is not understood well, previous studies have represented that aniline exposure results in iron overload and initiation of oxidative/nitrosative disorder stress and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA subsequently, in the spleen...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962346/modulation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-a-new-perspective-for-the-treatment-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Giuseppina Talarico, Alessandro Trebbastoni, Giuseppe Bruno, Carlo de Lena
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is somewhat complex and has yet to be fully understood. As the effectiveness of the therapy currently available for AD has proved to be limited, the need for new drugs has become increasingly urgent. The modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECBS) is one of the potential therapeutic approaches that is attracting a growing amount of interest. The ECBS consists of endogenous compounds and receptors. The receptors CB1 and CB2 have already been well characterized: CB1 receptors, which are abundant in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum, regulate memory function and cognition...
July 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956632/role-of-estradiol-in-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-serotonin-neurotransmission-implications-for-female-depression
#6
Olivia Tania Hernandez-Hernandez, Lucia Martinez-Mota, Jose Jaime Herrera-Perez, Graciela Jimenez-Rubio
BACKGROUND: In women, changes in estrogen levels may increase incidence and/or symptomatology of depression and affect the response to antidepressant treatments. Estrogen therapy in females may provide some mood benefits as a single treatment, or might augment clinical response to antidepressants that inhibit serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the mechanisms of estradiol action involved in the regulation of gene expression that modulate serotonin neurotransmission implicated in depression...
June 28, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956631/estrogen-and-serotonin-complexity-of-interactions-and-implications-for-epileptic-seizures-and-epileptogenesis
#7
Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Noushad Javed, Md Abul Barkat, Md Sabir Alam, Javed Ashraf Nowshehri, Dhafer Mahdi Alshayban, Mohammad Azam Ansari
A burgeoning literature documents the confluence of ovarian steroids and central serotonergic systems in the injuction of epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Estrogen administration in animals reduces neuronal death from seizures by up regulation of the prosurvival molecule i.e. Bcl-2, anti-oxidant potential and protection of NPY interneurons. Serotonin modulates epileptiform activity in either direction i.e administration of 5-HT agonists or reuptake inhibitors leads to activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors tending to impede focal and generalized seizures, while depletion of brain 5-HT along with destruction of serotonergic terminals leads to expanded neuronal excitability hence abatement of seizure threshold in experimental animal models...
June 28, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929465/suicide-risk-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-exploration-of-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#8
Umberto Albert, Diana De Ronchi, Giuseppe Maina, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Historically, OCD has been considered to be associated with a relatively low risk of suicide. Recent studies, on the contrary, revealed a significant association between OCD and suicide attempts and ideation. A huge variation in prevalence rates, however, is reported. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence rates of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in individuals with OCD, and to identify predictors of suicide risk among subjects with OCD. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the literature on suicide risk (ideation and/or attempts) and OCD...
June 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895252/functional-and-structural-neural-changes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-after-pharmacotherapy
#9
Murad Atmaca
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology...
June 12, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#10
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766810/mst1-function-and-mechanism-in-brain-and-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Di Li, Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Mammalian STE20-like kinase-1 (Mst1) is a generally expressed apoptosis-promoting kinase and a key bridgebuilder of apoptotic signaling in the etiology of tissue injury. Despite the fact that the biological function of Mst1 and its role in the cell's signalling network have yet to be determined, however, there is a lot of evidence that Mst1 plays an important role in cell death which result from tissue injury. Previous studies have shown that Mst1 is not only a target for some apoptosis-related molecules such as caspase 3 and P53,but aslo act as an activator of these proteinases to magnify apoptosis signal pathways...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745335/experimental-drugs-for-neuropathic-pain
#12
Kinga Salat, Beata Gryzlo, Katarzyna Kulig
Background Neuropathic pain (NP) is an important public health problem and despite recent progress in the understanding, diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of NP, many patients remain refractory to pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: Currently used drugs have limited efficacy and dose-limiting adverse effects, and thus there is a substantial need for further development of novel medications for its treatment. Alternatively, drugs approved for the use in diseases other than NP can be applied as experimental for NP conditions...
May 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737252/does-ceruloplasmin-defend-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Bo Wang, Xiao-Ping Wang
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection...
May 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701157/pharmacological-treatment-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#14
Kevin Hong, Vera Nezgovorova, Genoveva Uzunova, Danya Schlussel, Eric Hollander
Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701156/diagnostic-issues-in-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-their-treatment-implications
#15
Elisabetta Burchi, Stefano Pallanti
BACKGROUND: The lifespan approach and recent shift in the conceptualization of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) promoted by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM5) along with novel insights into the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder are driving the development of new outcome measures and new treatments for a disease that, on the other hand, is characterized by high rates of refractoriness. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide a discussion of the translational evidence about Early Onset OCD (EO) in compliance with a neurodevelopmental and RdoC perspective...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676231/combating-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-the-plant-alkaloid-berberine-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#16
Dahua Fan, Liping Liu, Zhengzhi Wu, Meiqun Cao
Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most serious health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. Such diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration and / or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Currently, there are no therapeutic approaches to cure or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the neuroprotective and anti-neurodegenerative activities of compounds isolated from natural products with high efficacy and low toxicity...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#17
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676229/viral-induced-oxidative-and-inflammatory-response-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-with-identification-of-potential-drug-candidates-a-systematic-review-using-systems-biology-approach
#18
Puneet Talwar, Renu Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal, Luciano Saso, Shrikant Kukreti, Ritushree Kukreti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663889/necroptosis-signaling-pathways-in-stroke-from-mechanisms-to-therapies
#19
Huang Jun-Long, Li Yi, Zhao Bao-Lian, Li Jia-Si, Zhang Ning, Ye Zhou-Heng, Sun Xue-Jun, Liu Wen-Wu
It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases...
April 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663888/functional-cross-talk-between-adenosine-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#20
David Agustin Leon-Navarro, Jose Luis Albasanz, Mairena Martin
G-protein coupled receptors are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in cells and their transduction pathways are mediated by controlling second messenger levels through different G-protein interactions. Many of these receptors have been described as involved in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases and even considered as potential targets for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Endogenous and synthetic allosteric and orthosteric selective ligands are able to modulate GPCRs at both gene and protein expression levels and can also modify their physiological function...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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