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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929465/suicide-risk-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-exploration-of-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#1
Umberto Albert, Diana De Ronchi, Giuseppe Maina, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Historically, OCD has been considered to be associated with a relatively low risk of suicide. Recent studies, on the contrary, revealed a significant association between OCD and suicide attempts and ideation. A huge variation in prevalence rates, however, is reported. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence rates of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in individuals with OCD, and to identify predictors of suicide risk among subjects with OCD. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the literature on suicide risk (ideation and/or attempts) and OCD...
June 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895252/functional-and-structural-neural-changes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-after-pharmacotherapy
#2
Murad Atmaca
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology...
June 12, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#3
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766810/mst1-function-and-mechanism-in-brain-and-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Di Li, Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Mammalian STE20-like kinase-1 (Mst1) is a generally expressed apoptosis-promoting kinase and a key bridgebuilder of apoptotic signaling in the etiology of tissue injury. Despite the fact that the biological function of Mst1 and its role in the cell's signalling network have yet to be determined, however, there is a lot of evidence that Mst1 plays an important role in cell death which result from tissue injury. Previous studies have shown that Mst1 is not only a target for some apoptosis-related molecules such as caspase 3 and P53,but aslo act as an activator of these proteinases to magnify apoptosis signal pathways...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745335/experimental-drugs-for-neuropathic-pain
#5
Kinga Salat, Beata Gryzlo, Katarzyna Kulig
Background Neuropathic pain (NP) is an important public health problem and despite recent progress in the understanding, diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms and the treatment of NP, many patients remain refractory to pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: Currently used drugs have limited efficacy and dose-limiting adverse effects, and thus there is a substantial need for further development of novel medications for its treatment. Alternatively, drugs approved for the use in diseases other than NP can be applied as experimental for NP conditions...
May 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737252/does-ceruloplasmin-defend-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Bo Wang, Xiao-Ping Wang
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection...
May 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701157/pharmacological-treatment-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#7
Kevin Hong, Vera Nezgovorova, Genoveva Uzunova, Danya Schlussel, Eric Hollander
Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701156/diagnostic-issues-in-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-their-treatment-implications
#8
Elisabetta Burchi, Stefano Pallanti
BACKGROUND: The lifespan approach and recent shift in the conceptualization of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) promoted by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM5) along with novel insights into the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder are driving the development of new outcome measures and new treatments for a disease that, on the other hand, is characterized by high rates of refractoriness. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide a discussion of the translational evidence about Early Onset OCD (EO) in compliance with a neurodevelopmental and RdoC perspective...
April 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676231/combating-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-the-plant-alkaloid-berberine-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#9
Dahua Fan, Liping Liu, Zhengzhi Wu, Meiqun Cao
Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most serious health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. Such diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration and / or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Currently, there are no therapeutic approaches to cure or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the neuroprotective and anti-neurodegenerative activities of compounds isolated from natural products with high efficacy and low toxicity...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#10
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676229/viral-induced-oxidative-and-inflammatory-response-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-with-identification-of-potential-drug-candidates-a-systematic-review-using-systems-biology-approach
#11
Puneet Talwar, Renu Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal, Luciano Saso, Shrikant Kukreti, Ritushree Kukreti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676228/glaucoma-pathogenesis-and-neurotrophins-focus-on-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-therapeutic-prospects
#12
Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is a major feature of glaucoma pathology. Neuroprotective approaches that delay or halt the progression of RGC loss are needed to prevent vision loss which can occur even after conventional medical or surgical treatments to lower intraocular pressure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the progress in genetics and cellular mechanisms associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RGC dysfunction and cell death pathways in glaucoma...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663889/necroptosis-signaling-pathways-in-stroke-from-mechanisms-to-therapies
#13
Huang Jun-Long, Li Yi, Zhao Bao-Lian, Li Jia-Si, Zhang Ning, Ye Zhou-Heng, Sun Xue-Jun, Liu Wen-Wu
It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases...
April 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663888/functional-cross-talk-between-adenosine-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#14
David Agustin Leon-Navarro, Jose Luis Albasanz, Mairena Martin
G-protein coupled receptors are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in cells and their transduction pathways are mediated by controlling second messenger levels through different G-protein interactions. Many of these receptors have been described as involved in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases and even considered as potential targets for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Endogenous and synthetic allosteric and orthosteric selective ligands are able to modulate GPCRs at both gene and protein expression levels and can also modify their physiological function...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663887/the-role-of-ire1-signaling-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#15
Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
The accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen results in activation of an adaptive stress process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) possesses both Ser/Thr kinase and RNase activities that operates as a major stress sensor, mediating both adaptive and pro-apoptotic pathways under ER stress. Over the last three decades, a mounting body of evidence has shown that IRE1 signaling dysfunction is involved in pathology of various neurological disorders...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564977/transcranial-near-infrared-laser-therapy-in-improving-cognitive-recovery-of-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Xiyang Yao, Chenglin Liu, Dongxia Feng, Jun Yin, Gang Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is turned into a major health and socioeconomic problem affecting young people and military personnel. Numerous TBI patients experienced the sequela of brain injury called cognitive impairment, which reduced functions in attention, working memory, motivation, and execution. In recent years, transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (tNiRLT) as a possible therapy gradually applied in treating cognitive impairment post-TBI. In the present review, the biological mechanisms of transcranial tNiRLT for TBI are synthesized mainly based on the photonic impact to chronic mild TBI...
April 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651951/inflammatory-events-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-sah
#17
U C Schneider, R Xu, P Vajkoczy
Acute SAH from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm contributes for 30% of all hemorrhagic strokes. The bleeding itself occurs in the subarachnoid space. Nevertheless, injury to the brain parenchyma occurs as a consequence of the bleeding, directly, via several well-defined mechanisms and pathways, but also indirectly, or secondarily. This secondary brain injury following SAH has a variety of causes and possible mechanisms. Amongst others, inflammatory events have been shown to occur in parallel to, to contribute to, or even to initiate programmed cell death (PCD) within the central nervous system (CNS) in human and animal studies alike...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651950/roles-of-traf6-in-central-nervous-system
#18
Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651949/nerve-growth-factor-early-studies-and-recent-clinical-trials
#19
Maria Luisa Rocco, Marzia Soligo, Luigi Manni, Luigi Aloe
Since its discovery, nerve growth factor (NGF) has long occupied a critical role in developmental and adult neurobiology for its many important regulatory functions on the survival, growth and differentiation of nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. NGF is the first discovered member of a family of neurotrophic factors, collectively indicated as neurotrophins, (which include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5). NGF was discovered for its action on the survival and differentiation of selected populations of peripheral neurons...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651948/therapeutic-potential-of-multifunctional-tacrine-analogues
#20
Maja Przybylowska, Szymon Kowalski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Tacrine is a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) that shows limiting clinical application by liver toxicity. In spite of this, analogues of tacrine are considered as model inhibitor of cholinesterases in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. The interest in these compounds is mainly related to a high variety of their structure and biological properties. In the present review, we have described the role of cholinergic transmission and treatment strategies in Alzheimer's disease as well as the synthesis and biological activity of several recently developed classes of multifunctional tacrine analogues and hybrids, which consist a new paradigm to treat Alzheimer's disease...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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