Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Neuropharmacology

Julian A Michely, Sascha K Manier, Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Jason Wallach, Hans H Maurer
3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) and 3-methoxyrolicyclidine (3-MeO-PCPy) are two new psychoactive substances (NPS). The aims of the present study were the elucidation of their metabolic fate in rat and pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), the identification of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved, and the detectability using standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) after intake of common users' doses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-MSn), and liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS)...
October 18, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Giulio Perugi, Pierpaolo Medd, Pierpaolo Medd, Cristina Toni, Michela Giorgi Mariani, Chiara Socci, Mauro Mauri
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in a large sample of bipolar patients with drug resistant depression, mania, mixed state and catatonic features. METHOD: 522 consecutive patients with DSM-IV-TR BD were evaluated prior to and after the ECT course. Responders and nonresponders were compared in subsamples of depressed and mixed patients. Descriptive analyses were reported for patients with mania and with catatonic features...
October 17, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Fernando Peña-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the resident immunocompetent cells of the CNS and also constitute a unique cell type that contributes to neural network homeostasis and function. Understanding microglia cell-signaling not only will reveal their diverse functions but also will help to identify pharmacological and non-pharmacological tools to modulate the activity of these cells. METHODS: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature to identify microglial activators and their cell-specificity...
September 28, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Zoltán Rihmer, Xénia Gonda, Péter Döme
Beyond both being biphasic/bidirectional disorders (hypo)mania and essential hypertension share a surprising number of similarities and an overlap between their genetics, biological background, underlying personality and temperamental factors, precipitating factors, comorbidity and response to treatment, indicating a possibly partially shared biological background. Based on theoretical knowledge, similarities related to characteristics, manifestation and course, and the results of pharmacological studies related to the effects and side effects of pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of these two distinct disorders, the authors outline a hypothesis discussing the similar origins of these two phenomena and thus mania being the hypertension of mood in memory of Athanasios Koukopoulos, one of the greatest researchers and theoreticists of mania of all time...
September 2, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Susan Lehman Cullman, Allison L Isola, Suzie Chen
Exosomes are small vesicles comprised of a lipid bilayer containing various proteins, RNAs and bioactive lipids. They act as intercellular messengers that give the ability to communicate between both cells of the same type and other cell types. They are released by healthy cells, both constitutively and upon cell activation and play an important role in immune system function. Exosomes are essential for healthy physiological conditions, however under pathological circumstances, they act to potentiate cellular stress and damage...
August 25, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Valentina Colonnello, Nicola Petrocchi, Marina Farinelli, Cristina Ottaviani
In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of positive social interactions on health. The present work aims to review animal and human studies linking social interactions and health throughout the lifespan, with a focus on current knowledge of the possible mediating role of opioids and oxytocin. During the prenatal period, a positive social environment contributes to regulating maternal stress response and protecting the fetus from exposure to maternal active glucocorticoids. Throughout development, positive social contact with the caregiver acts as a "hidden regulator" and promotes infant neuro affective development...
August 16, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Ben-Skowronek Iwona
Neurodegeneration is an initial process in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). High quantity of glutamate, oxidative stress, the induction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the elevated levels of RAGE is crucial element in the retinal neurodegeneration caused by diabetes mellitus. At least , there is emerging proofs to indicate that the equilibrium between the neurotoxic and neuroprotective components will influence on the state of the retinal neurons. Somatostatin (SST), pigment epithelium- derived factor (PEDF), erythropoietin (Epo) are endogenous neuroprotective peptides that are decreased in the eye of diabetic persons and play a essential role in retinal homeostasis...
August 13, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Mariely Hernandez, Ciro Marangoni, Marie C Grant, Jezelle Estrada, Gianni L Faedda
OBJECTIVES: Objectives: Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. METHODS: Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology...
August 1, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Bruno A Marichal-Cancino, Alfonso Fajardo-Valdéz, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Oscar Prospéro-García
The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a mammalian orphan receptor whose functions in the central nervous system (CNS) have been scarcely elucidated. Several endogenous lipids (cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid) may activate GPR55; these facts have raised a discussion about its nature as a putative cannabinoid receptor. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a non-endocannabinoid lipid with activity as a full and potent agonist of GPR55. Beyond this controversy, it is known the endocannabinoid system and GPR55 are highly related both in anatomical localization and function...
July 29, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Imre L Szabo, Jozsef Czimmer, Gyula Mozsik
BACKGROUND: The significant difference in the long lasting actions of surgical and chemical (atropine) vagotomy in peptic ulcer patients has been known for half century. OBJECTIVE: Authors establishing human clinical pharmacology aimed to know more details of the acute and chronic effects of surgical vagotomy and atropine treatment on gastrointestinal mucosal biochemisms and their actions altered by bioactive compounds and scavengers. METHOD: The observations were carried out in pylorus-ligated vagotomised or atropine treated rats under various experimental ulcer models, together with application of various mucosal protecting compounds...
July 19, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Francesca Demontis, Francesca Serra, Gino Serra
BACKGROUND: Mania seems to be associated with an increased dopamine (DA) transmission. Antidepressant treatments can induce mania in humans and potentiated DA transmission in animals, by sensitizing DA D2 receptors in the mesolimbic system. We have suggested that the sensitization of D2 receptors may be responsible of antidepressant-induced mania. This review aims to report the experimental evidence that led to the hypothesis that antidepressant-induced DA receptors dysregulation can be considered an animal model of bipolar disorder...
July 15, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Wissem Deraredj Nadim, Viorel Simion, Hélène Bénédetti, Chantal Pichon, Patrick Baril, Séverine Morisset-Lopez
Neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders are multifactorial diseases (i.e., involving neurodevelopmental, genetic, age or environmental factors) that are characterized by an abnormal development affecting neuronal function and integrity. Recently, an increasing number of studies revealed that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the etiology of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington's diseases, Schizophrenia and Autism spectrum disorders. MiRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through a base pairing mechanism with their target mRNAs, thereby inducing translational repression or mRNA degradation...
July 8, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Valeria Savoja, Ilaria Cuomo, Alessio Simonetti, Elisa Ambrosi, Isabella Panaccione, Silvia Gubbini, Pietro De Rossi, Lavinia De Chiara, Delfina Janiri, Gabriele Sani, Alexia E Koukopoulos, Giovanni Manfredi, Flavia Napoletano, Matteo Caloro, Lucia Pancheri, Antonella Puzella, Gemma Callovini, Gloria Angeletti, Antonio Del Casale
BACKGROUND: Athanasios Koukopoulos proposed the primacy of mania hypothesis (PoM) in a 2006 book chapter and later, in two peer-reviewed papers with Nassir Ghaemi and other collaborators. This hypothesis supports that in bipolar disorder, mania leads to depression, while depression does not lead to mania. OBJECTIVE: To identify evidence in literature that supports or falsifies this hypothesis. METHOD: We searched the medical literature (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) for peer-reviewed papers on the primacy of mania, the default mode function of the brain in normal people and in bipolar disorder patients, and on illusion superiority until 6 June, 2016...
July 8, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Koji Takeuchi, Naoko Abe, Aiko Kumano
We examined the influence of adrenalectomy on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage in rats and investigated the possible involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in the protective effects of urocortin I, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist. Male SD rats without fasting were administered indomethacin s.c. and killed 24 h later in order to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Urocortin I (20 µg/kg) was given i.v. 10 min before the administration of indomethacin. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed a week before the experiment...
June 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Viorel Simion, Wissem Deraredj Nadim, Hélène Benedetti, Chantal Pichon, Severine Morisset-Lopez, Patrick Baril
Given the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating brain functions and their implications in neurocognitive disorders there are currently significant efforts devoted in the field of miRNA-based therapeutics to correct and/or to treat these brain diseases. The observation that miRNA 29a/b-1 cluster, miRNA 10b and miRNA 7, for instance, are frequently deregulated in the brains of patients with neurocognitive diseases and in animal models of Alzheimer, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, suggest that correction of miRNA expression using agonist or antagonist miRNA oligonucleotides might be a promising approach to correct or even to cure such diseases...
June 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
S Nassir Ghaemi, Paul A Vohringer
BACKGROUND: Athanasios Koukopoulos provided a radical model for understanding depressive and manic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To review, explain, and analyze Koukopoulos' concept of the primacy of mania, with special attention to the role of antidepressants. METHOD: A conceptual review of Koukopoulos' writings and lectures on this topic is given. RESULTS: Koukopoulos held that depressive states are caused by manic states; the former do not occur without the latter...
June 21, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Han-Sen Chen, Su-Hua Qi, Jian-Gang Shen
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the only FDA approved drug for acute ischemic stroke treatment, but its clinical use is limited due to the narrow therapeutic time window and severe adverse effects, including hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and neurotoxicity. One of the potential resolutions is to use adjunct therapies to reduce the side effects and extend t-PA's therapeutic time window. However, therapies modulating single target seems not satisfying, and a multi-target strategy is warranted to resolve such complex disease...
June 19, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Giulio Perugi, Elie Hantouche, Giulia Vannucchi
Contrary to DSM-5 definition, based on the recurrence of hypomanic and depressive symptoms for a period of 2 years, cyclothymia is better defined in a neurodevelopmental perspective as a pathological variant of cyclothymic temperament. Emotional dysregulation with extreme mood instability and reactivity are the core features of the complex symptomatology. Available epidemiological and clinical data showed the frequent association of cyclothymia with anxiety, impulse control, substance use and cluster B and C personality disorders, suggesting a high prevalence in clinical samples and supporting its validity as a distinct form of bipolarity...
June 16, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Debora Cutuli
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are structural components of the brain and are indispensable for neuronal membrane synthesis. Along with decline in cognition, decreased synaptic density and neuronal loss, normal aging is accompanied by a reduction in n-3 PUFA concentration in the brain in both humans and rodents. Recently, many clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of n-3 PUFA in counteracting neurodegeneration and age-related dysfunctions. This review will focus on the neuroprotective effects of n-3 PUFA on cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration during normal aging...
June 13, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"