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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366418/ayahuasca-psychological-and-physiologic-effects-pharmacology-and-potential-uses-in-addiction-and-mental-illness
#1
Jonathan Hamill, Jaime Hallak, Serdar M Dursun, Glen Baker
Ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian decoction with psychoactive properties, is made from bark of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine (contains beta-carboline alkaloids) and leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush (supply the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)). Originally used by indigenous shamans for the purposes of spirit communication, magical experiences, healing, and religious rituals, across several South American countries ayahuasca has been incorporated into folk medicine and spiritual healing, and several Brazilian churches use it routinely to foster spiritual experience...
January 24, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357805/protein-c-reactive-as-biomarker-predictor-of-schizophrenia-phases-of-illness-a-systematic-review
#2
Laura Orsolini, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Michele Fornaro, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Alessandro Valchera, Marco Di Nicola, Alessandro Carano, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Giampaolo Perna, Luigi Olivieri, Domenico De Berardis
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex illness in which genetic, environmental, and epigenetic components have been implicated. However, recently, psychiatric disorders appear to be related to a chronic inflammatory state, at the level of specific cerebral areas which have been found as well impaired and responsible of the schizophrenia symptomatology. Hence, a role of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has been as well supposed. Accordingly, it has been recently investigated the role of an acute inflammatory phase protein, the C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345582/is-the-impact-of-starvation-on-the-gut-microbiota-specific-or-unspecific-to-anorexia-nervosa-a-narrative-review-based-on-a-systematic-literature-search
#3
Isabelle Mack, John Penders, Jessica Cook, Jaslyn Dugmore, Nazar Mazurak, Paul Enck
BACKGROUND: The role of the gut microbiota in Anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been neglected by researchers, although the former is known to play an important role in health, disease and weight regulation. Overweight and underweight due to natural states of starvation and refeeding are normal in many vertebrates in their ecological niches. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the similarities and differences between the gut microbiota in eating disorders with conditions of fasting and refeeding in other vertebrates...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345581/premorbid-and-illness-related-social-difficulties-in-eating-disorders-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-treatment-developments
#4
Valentina Cardi, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338678/supplementation-with-curcuma-longa-reverses-neurotoxic-and-behavioral-damage-in-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
Ianara Mendonca da Costa, Marco Aurelio de Moura Freire, Jose Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Dayane Pessoa de Araujo, Bianca Norrara, Isleania Maria Marques Moreira Rosa, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do Rego, Irami Araujo Filho, Fausto Pierdona Guzen
BACKGROUND: The formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of the tau protein are the main pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current therapies for AD offer discrete benefits to the clinical symptoms and do not prevent the continuing degeneration of neuronal cells. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies have long been investigated, where curcumin (Curcuma longa) has shown some properties that can prevent the deleterious processes involved in neurodegenerative diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#6
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308739/neurostimulation-in-clinical-and-sub-clinical-eating-disorders-a-systematic-update-of-the-literature
#7
Bethan Dalton, Savani Bartholdy, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Whilst psychological therapies are the main approach to treatment of eating disorders (EDs), advances in aetiological research suggest the need for the development of more targeted, brain-focused treatments. A range of neurostimulation approaches, most prominently repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), are rapidly emerging as potential novel interventions. We have previously reviewed these techniques as potential treatments of EDs...
January 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256353/putative-mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-use-of-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-a-critical-review
#8
Simone Pisano, Marco Pozzi, Gennaro Catone, Giulia Scrinzi, Emilio Clementi, Giangennaro Coppola, Annarita Milone, Carmela Bravaccio, Paramala Santosh, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in adults, but its mechanism of action is still far from clear. Furthermore, evidences of its use in pediatric populations are sparse, not only for bipolar disorders, but also for other possible indications. OBJECTIVES: To provide a synthesis of published data on the possible mechanisms of action of lithium, as well as on its use in pediatric samples, including pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety data...
December 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210654/glaucoma-and-alzheimer-disease-a-single-age-related-neurodegenerative-disease-of-the-brain
#9
Raffaele Mancino, Alessio Martucci, Massimo Cesareo, Clarissa Giannini, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Carlo Nucci
Open Angle Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is considered an important risk factor for glaucoma, however a subset of patients experience disease progression even in presence of normal intraocular pressure values. This implies that risk factors other than intraocular pressure are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A possible relationship between glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer Disease has been suggested. In this regard, we have recently described a high prevalence of alterations typical of glaucoma, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph-3 (HRT-3), in a group of patients with Alzheimer Disease...
December 6, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189169/computer-aided-drug-design-applied-to-parkinson-targets
#10
Hamilton M Ishiki, Jose Maria Barbosa Filho, Marcelo S da Silva, Marcus T Scotti, Luciana Scotti
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by debilitating motor deficits, as well as autonomic problems, cognitive declines, changes in affect and sleep disturbances. Although the scientific community has performed great efforts in the study of PD, and from the most diverse points of view, the disease remains incurable. The exact mechanism underlying its progression is unclear, but oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are thought to play major roles in the etiology...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189168/targeting-cytokines-for-morphine-tolerance-a-narrative-review
#11
Dai-Qiang Liu, Ya-Qun Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Despite its various side effects, morphine has been widely used in clinics for decades due to its powerful analgesic effect. Morphine tolerance is one of the major side effects which hinders its long-term usage for pain therapy. Currently, the thorough cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance remain largely uncertain. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database with Medical subject headings (MeSH) including 'morphine tolerance', 'cytokines', 'interleukin 1', 'interleukin 1 beta', 'interleukin 6', 'tumor necrosis factor alpha', 'interleukin 10', 'chemokines'...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189167/3d-qsar-and-in-silico-studies-of-natural-products-and-related-derivatives-as-monoamine-oxidase-inhibitors
#12
Priyanka Dhiman, Neelam Malik, Anurag Khatkar
The computational development of human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors led to advancement in drug design and the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. Different natural heterocyclic structures are reported to display selective MAO inhibitory activity by preclinical and in-silico modeling. Currently, the major interest is devoted to the study of natural based therapeutic agents from the different categories. Therefore, we presenting the review to critically discuss and outline the recent advances in our knowledge on the importance of natural and natural based ligand-MAO in-silico methods for novel MAO inhibitors...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189166/oxytocin-and-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-on-emerging-findings-and-perspectives
#13
Katrin Giel, Stephan Zipfel, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189165/childhood-medulloblastoma-current-therapies-emerging-molecular-landscape-and-newer-therapeutic-insights
#14
Soumen Khatua, Anne Song, Divyaswathi Citla Sridhar, Stephen C Mack
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, currently treated uniformly based on histopathology and clinico-radiological risk stratification. This approach has been undermined by unpredictable relapses and therapeutic failures. Research endeavors over the last decade have clearly identified four molecular variants (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) and their demographic, genomic, and epigenetic profile. Improved understanding of the signaling pathways and key oncogenic drivers in these subgroups, has shed light on the reasons for suboptimal clinical outcome and mechanisms of therapeutic resistance...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189164/alzheimer-a-decade-of-drug-design-why-molecular-topology-can-be-an-extra-edge
#15
Riccardo Zanni, Ramon Garcia-Domenech, Maria Galvez-Llompart, Jorge Galvez
The last decade was characterized by a growing awareness about the severity of dementia in the field of age-related and no age-related diseases and about the importance to invest resources in the research of new, effective treatments. Among the dementias, Alzheimer's stands out because of its extremely high incidence and fatality. Several pharmacological strategies have been tried but up to day, Alzheimer keeps being an untreatable disease. In literature, the number of QSAR-related Alzheimer's new drug design attempts is huge, but only few results can be considered noteworthy...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189163/alpha-synuclein-proteotoxicity-and-parkinson-s-disease-search-for-neuroprotective-therapy
#16
Upasana Ganguly, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Upinder Kaur, Anwesha Mukherjee, Sasanka Chakrabarti
There is a growing body of evidence in animal and cell based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) to suggest that overexpression and / or abnormal accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein can trigger neuronal death. This important role of α-synuclein in PD pathogenesis is supported by the fact that duplication, triplication and mutations of α-synuclein gene cause familial forms of PD. The overexpression and accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons may involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including a decreased degradation of the protein through proteasomal or autophagic processes...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#17
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173174/autophagy-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-can-cell-death-be-good
#18
Wing-Mann Ho, Onat Akyol, Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Devin McBride, Claudius Thome, John Zhang
Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintains cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Though autophagy is prosurvival and aids in repair, deregulated or excessive autophagy results in increased cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403342/meet-our-regional-editor
#19
EDITORIAL
Nobuhisa Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301484/editorial-recent-advances-in-pathophysiological-studies-and-treatment-of-epilepsy
#20
EDITORIAL
Guanghao Yin, Gang Yao, Kun Zhang, Bingjin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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