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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
Rainer Kraehenmann
A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. However, the mechanisms of therapeutic action are still not fully explained. Given that an altered state of consciousness is a common denominator that characterizes all classical psychedelics and given that both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and psychedelics modulate perception, mental imagery, emotion activation, fear memory extinction, and sense of self and body, in the present article, these two states of consciousness are systematically compared, and therapeutically relevant conclusions are drawn based on available evidence...
June 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606040/recent-advances-in-pathophysiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Parmeet Kaur, Saurabh Sharma
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes the primary reason for mortality and morbidity in persons worldwide below 45 years of age. 1.7 million Traumatic events occur yearly in the United States alone, considering for 50,000 deaths. In severe traumatic brain injury sufferers, a considerable achievement attained in treating short-term consequences; but till date, huge failures are occurring in researcher's capability to render severe traumatic brain injury sufferers to an elevated degree of performing. Initial damage force results in Primary brain injury, causing tissue destruction and distortion in the early post-injury period...
June 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606039/the-progress-of-epilepsy-after-stroke
#3
Yinghao Zhao, Xiangyan Li, Kun Zhang, Ti Tong, Ranji Cui
Epilepsy is the second most common disease caused by multiple factors and characterized by an excessive discharge of certain neurons in the nervous system. Cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, is viewed as the most common cause of epilepsy in the elderly population, accounting for 30%-50% of the newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy cases in this age group. Depending on the underlying cerebrovascular disease, 3%-30% of patients after stroke may develop post-stroke epilepsy (PSE), which has a negative effect on stroke prognosis and the quality of life...
June 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571546/chromatin-changes-associated-with-neuronal-maintenance-and-their-pharmacological-application
#4
Jang Ho Lee, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Sunhong Kim, Kyoung Sang Cho, Sung Bae Lee
The transcriptional control of neuronal specification and early development has been intensively studied over the past few decades. However, relatively little is known about transcriptional programs associated with the maintenance of terminally differentiated neuronal cells with respect to their functions, structures, and cell type-specific identity features. Notably, largely because of the recent advances in related techniques such as next generation sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, the physiological implications of system-wide regulation of gene expression through changes in chromatin states have begun to be extensively studied in various contexts and systems, including the nervous system...
June 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571545/potential-medications-or-compounds-acting-on-toll-like-receptors-in-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Man Li, Jing Liu, Ying Bi, Jixiang Chen, Lei Zhao
Toll-like receptors have been suggested to play an integral role in the process of inflammatory response after ischemic injury. Of all 9 TLRs presenting in brain, functions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 have been studied in recent years. The MyD88 pathway and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon pathway are involved in these pathophysiological changes. Since the important role, the therapeutic potential of strategies acting on TLRs should be evaluated. Feasible approaches may function in the following respects, methods acting on TLRs directly, modulations of MyD88 or TRIF signaling pathway, and the ischemic tolerance induced by the preconditioning or postconditioning with TLR ligands or minor cerebral ischemia...
June 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571544/programmed-cell-death-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Tobias Bobinger, Petra Burkardt, Hagen B Huttner, Anatol Manaenko
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for up to 15% of all strokes and is characterized by high rates of mortality and morbidity. At present, treatment of ICH patients is based on oral anticoagulant reversal and management of blood pressure and other medical complications. The primary damage is caused by the hematoma's extensive effects, which cause disruption and mechanical deformation of the cellular architecture. Damage secondary to the primary insult is induced by mitochondrial dysfunction, microglia activation and neurotransmitter and inflammatory mediator release...
June 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554312/calcium-signaling-pkc-gamma-ip3r1-and-car8-link-spinocerebellar-ataxias-and-purkinje-cell-dendritic-development
#7
Etsuko Shimobayashi, Josef P Kapfhammer
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of cerebellar diseases characterized by progressive ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. The common symptoms of the SCAs result from damage to the cerebellum and/or its neuronal connections and share some clinical and neuropathological features such as Purkinje cell degeneration. The most common forms of SCAs are caused by expansion of CAG repeats similar to other polyglutamine disorders like Huntington's disease while several other forms of SCAs are caused by missense mutations or deletions in genes related to calcium signaling in Purkinje cells...
May 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554311/the-role-of-sigma-1-receptor-an-intracellular-chaperone-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Botond Penke, Lívia Fülöp, Mária Szűcs, Ede Frecska
Widespread protein aggregation occurs in the living system under stress or during aging, owing to disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis. Many neurodegenerative diseases may have a common mechanism: the failure of protein homeostasis. Perturbation of ER results in unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged chronical UPR may activate apoptotic pathways and cause cell death. ER is associated to mitochondria by the mitochondria-associated ER-membrane, MAM. The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a well-known ER-chaperone localizes in the MAM...
May 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521704/dopamine-d2-receptors-dimers-how-can-we-pharmacologically-target-them
#9
Marco Carli, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Stefano Aringhieri, Mario Rossi, Luca Giovannini, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
Dopamine D2 and D3 receptors are important pharmacological targets in Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Intriguingly, many studies have shown that they form homo- and heterodimers, and they can be targeted in specific tissues with new drugs. In this direction, many efforts have been made to develop new molecules that are able to interact with these receptor dimeric complexes. Among various strategies for targeting dopamine receptors dimers, two distinct classes of compounds, such as bivalent and bitopic ligands, have gained particular attention and their use in pharmacology looks promising...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#10
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521702/role-of-ectonucleotidases-in-the-synapse-formation-during-brain-development-physiological-and-pathological-implications
#11
Ivana Grković, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN)...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#12
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521671/the-anticonvulsant-effects-of-ketogenic-diet-on%C3%A2-epileptic-seizures-and-potential-mechanisms
#13
Yifan Zhang, Jingwei Xu, Yingchao Zhang, Wei Yang, Bingjin Li
Epilepsy is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurologic disorders with characteristics of epileptic seizures. Although the multitude of anticonvulsant drugs has been developed, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and contribute to the serious morbidity worldwide. Recently, increasing studies have established the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on epileptic seizure reduction. Both basic experiments and clinical trials demonstrated that KD significantly reduced seizure frequency with mild adverse effects...
May 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494719/levodopa-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-status-and-future-developments
#14
N Tambasco, M Romoli, P Calabresi
Ever since the pioneering reports in the 60s, L-3,4-Dioxyphenylalanine (levodopa) has represented the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, long-term levodopa (LD) treatment is frequently associated with fluctuations in motor response, often challenging to resolve, with serious impact on patients quality of life. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of LD are pivotal to such motor fluctuations: discontinuous drug delivery, short half-life, poor bioavailability, and narrow therapeutic window are all crucial for such fluctuations...
May 10, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486926/5-ht3-receptors-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#15
Hongyan Zhao, Pu Wang, Shurui Chen, Xin Li, Hongliang Huo
Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction caused by spontaneous, abnormal discharge. Many anti-epileptic drugs have developed in past decades. 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of the human body which is involved in a number of physiological activities, such as sensation, movement, and behavior. 5-HT subtype have been divided into seven sub-groups from 5-HT1 to 5HT7. An increasing number of studies have shown that the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can inhibit epileptic seizures, while inhibition of the 5HT3 receptor can promote spike waves...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486925/the-mutual-interaction-between-sleep-and-epilepsy-on-the-neurobiological-basis-and-therapy
#16
Yi-Qun Wang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Rui Li, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Sleep and epilepsy are mutually related in a complex, bidirectional manner. However, our understanding of this relationship remains unclear. In this paper, we address the issues involved in these phenomena and also discuss the various therapies used to modify them. The literatures of the neurobiological basis of the interactions between sleep and epilepsy indicate that non-rapid eye movement sleep and idiopathic generalized epilepsy share the same thalamocortical networks. Neuromodulators-such as adenosine, melatonin, prostaglandin D2, serotonin, and histamine-promote wakefulness and are considered to have antiepilepsy effects; antiepileptic drugs, in turn, also have effects on sleep...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474565/drug-resistant-epilepsy-and-surgery
#17
Jiyao Sheng, Shui Liu, Hanjiao Qin, Bingjin Li, Xuewen Zhang
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that is caused by various factors and characterized by recurrent, episodic and temporary central nervous system dysfunction which results due to excessive discharge of brain neurons. In the past decades, despite the continuous development of antiepileptic drugs, there are still many patients with epilepsy progressing to drug-resistant epilepsy. Currently, surgical treatment is the only possible way to cure drug-resistant epilepsy. However, surgical treatment alone often results in postoperative recurrence of epilepsy...
May 4, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474564/substance-p-regulation-in-epilepsy
#18
Guangfan Chi, Zhehao Huang, Xianglan Li, Guangquan Li
Substance P (SP), an undecapeptide, is a member of the tachykinin family, and is encoded by the preprotachykinin-a gene. SP is widely distributed in the regions of the central nervous system associated with epilepsy and it contributes to the initiation and maintenance phases of epilepsy. In vivo, SP binds to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and modulates the biological activity of the receptor. Although NK-1 receptor antagonists have anti-epileptic properties in animal models, the clinical efficacy of these drugs has not yet been verified...
May 4, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474563/opioids-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-dynamic-interaction-with-consequences-on-drug-disposition-in-brain
#19
Catarina Chaves, Fernando Remião, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves
Opioids are widely used in pain management whose effects are due to binding to classical opioid receptors and/or Toll-like receptors (TLR) present at the central nervous system (CNS). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), several influx and/or efflux transporters are expressed, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP, ABCC) transporters, and solute carrier transporters (SLC), and are responsible for the transport of many xenobiotics from the brain into the bloodstream or vice versa...
May 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440188/trp-channels-as-novel-targets-for-endogenous-ligands-focus-on-endocannabinoids-and-nociceptive-signalling
#20
Maksim V Storozhuk, Alexander V Zholos
The endocannabinoid system is gaining steadily increasing research interest as its important role in the regulation of many fundamental physiological processes becomes more and more evident. One area which received particularly significant attention concerns targeting the endocannabinoid system as a useful strategy in pain control, especially in refractory, difficult to treat cases of chronic pain. Apart from the classical targets of cannabinoids, the CB1 and CB2 receptors, several members of the large TRP family of Ca2+-permeable cation channels have been designated as "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors" to highlight their role in cannabinoid signalling...
April 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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