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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210654/glaucoma-and-alzheimer-disease-a-single-age-related-neurodegenerative-disease-of-the-brain
#1
Mancino Raffaele, Martucci Alessio, Cesareo Massimo, Giannini Clarissa, Corasaniti Maria Tiziana, Bagetta Giacinto, Nucci Carlo
Open Angle Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is considered an important risk factor for glaucoma, however a subset of patients experience disease progression even in presence of normal intraocular pressure values. This implies that risk factors other than intraocular pressure are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A possible relationship between glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer Disease has been suggested. In this regard, we have recently described a high prevalence of alterations typical of glaucoma, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph-3 (HRT-3), in a group of patients with Alzheimer Disease...
December 6, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189169/computer-aided-drug-design-applied-to-parkinson-targets
#2
Hamilton M Ishiki, Jose Maria Barbosa Filho, Marcelo S da Silva, Marcus T Scotti, Luciana Scotti
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by debilitating motor deficits, as well as autonomic problems, cognitive declines, changes in affect and sleep disturbances. Although the scientific community has performed great efforts in the study of PD, and from the most diverse points of view, the disease remains incurable. The exact mechanism underlying its progression is unclear, but oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are thought to play major roles in the etiology...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189168/targeting-cytokines-for-morphine-tolerance-a-narrative-review
#3
Dai-Qiang Liu, Ya-Qun Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Despite its various side effects, morphine has been widely used in clinics for decades due to its powerful analgesic effect. Morphine tolerance is one of the major side effects which hinders its long-term usage for pain therapy. Currently, the thorough cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance remain largely uncertain. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database with Medical subject headings (MeSH) including 'morphine tolerance', 'cytokines', 'interleukin 1', 'interleukin 1 beta', 'interleukin 6', 'tumor necrosis factor alpha', 'interleukin 10', 'chemokines'...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189167/3d-qsar-and-in-silico-studies-of-natural-products-and-related-derivatives-as-monoamine-oxidase-inhibitors
#4
Priyanka Dhiman, Neelam Malik, Anurag Khatkar
The computational development of human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors led to advancement in drug design and the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. Different natural heterocyclic structures are reported to display selective MAO inhibitory activity by preclinical and in-silico modeling. Currently, the major interest is devoted to the study of natural based therapeutic agents from the different categories. Therefore, we presenting the review to critically discuss and outline the recent advances in our knowledge on the importance of natural and natural based ligand-MAO in-silico methods for novel MAO inhibitors...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189166/oxytocin-and-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-on-emerging-findings-and-perspectives
#5
Katrin Giel, Stephan Zipfel, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189165/childhood-medulloblastoma-current-therapies-emerging-molecular-landscape-and-newer-therapeutic-insights
#6
Soumen Khatua, Anne Song, Divyaswathi Citla Sridhar, Stephen C Mack
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, currently treated uniformly based on histopathology and clinico-radiological risk stratification. This approach has been undermined by unpredictable relapses and therapeutic failures. Research endeavors over the last decade have clearly identified four molecular variants (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) and their demographic, genomic, and epigenetic profile. Improved understanding of the signaling pathways and key oncogenic drivers in these subgroups, has shed light on the reasons for suboptimal clinical outcome and mechanisms of therapeutic resistance...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189164/alzheimer-a-decade-of-drug-design-why-molecular-topology-can-be-an-extra-edge
#7
Riccardo Zanni, Ramon Garcia-Domenech, Maria Galvez-Llompart, Jorge Galvez
The last decade was characterized by a growing awareness about the severity of dementia in the field of age-related and no age-related diseases and about the importance to invest resources in the research of new, effective treatments. Among the dementias, Alzheimer's stands out because of its extremely high incidence and fatality. Several pharmacological strategies have been tried but up to day, Alzheimer keeps being an untreatable disease. In literature, the number of QSAR-related Alzheimer's new drug design attempts is huge, but only few results can be considered noteworthy...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189163/alpha-synuclein-proteotoxicity-and-parkinson-s-disease-search-for-neuroprotective-therapy
#8
Upasana Ganguly, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Upinder Kaur, Anwesha Mukherjee, Sasanka Chakrabarti
There is a growing body of evidence in animal and cell based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) to suggest that overexpression and / or abnormal accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein can trigger neuronal death. This important role of α-synuclein in PD pathogenesis is supported by the fact that duplication, triplication and mutations of α-synuclein gene cause familial forms of PD. The overexpression and accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons may involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including a decreased degradation of the protein through proteasomal or autophagic processes...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#9
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173174/autophagy-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-can-cell-death-be-good
#10
Wing-Mann Ho, Onat Akyol, Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Devin McBride, Claudius Thome, John Zhang
Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintains cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Though autophagy is prosurvival and aids in repair, deregulated or excessive autophagy results in increased cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#11
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Elzbieta Miller, Agnieszka Morel, Justyna Redlicka, Igor Miller, Joanna Saluk
Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119932/relevance-of-cyp2c9-function-in-valproate-therapy
#13
Katalin Monostory, Andrea Nagy, Katalin Toth, Tamas Budi, Adam Kiss, Mate Deri, Gabor Csukly
Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes can substantially modify the pharmacokinetics of a drug and eventually its efficacy or toxicity; however, inferring a patient's drug metabolizing capacity merely from his or her genotype can lead to false prediction. Non-genetic host factors (age, sex, disease states) and environmental factors (nutrition, co-medication) can transiently alter the enzyme expression and activities resulting in genotype-phenotype mismatch. Although valproic acid is a well-tolerated anticonvulsant, pediatric patients are particularly vulnerable to valproate injury that can be partly attributed to the age-related differences in metabolic pathways...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119931/extend-pathomechanism-and-clinical-consequences-of-brain-volume-changes-in-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Jochen Seitz, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
INTRODUCTION: Brain volume deficits of grey (GM) and white matter (WM) are often found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, until recently, little was known about the influencing factors of these brain volume alterations, nor their exact quantification and rehabilitation. METHODS: This review addresses these open questions and further explores what is now known about the underlying pathobiology and the clinical consequences including human studies as well as animal studies mimicking anorexia nervosa in rodents...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119930/anti-oxidant-drugs-novelties-and-clinical-implications-in-cerebellar-ataxias
#15
Emanuele Barca, Valentina Emmanuele, Salvatore DiMauro, Antonio Toscano, Catarina M Quinzii
Background Hereditary cerebellar ataxias are a group of disorders characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations, progressive clinical course and diverse genetic causes. No disease modifying treatments are yet available for many of these disorders. Oxidative stress has been recurrently identified in different progressive cerebellar diseases, and it represents a widely investigated target for treatment. Objective To review the main aspects and new perspectives of antioxidant therapy in cerebellar ataxias ranging from bench to bedside Method This article is a summary of the state-of-the-art on the use of antioxidant molecules in cerebellar ataxia treatments...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119929/mean-diffusivity-in-the-dopaminergic-system-and-neural-differences-related-to-dopaminergic-system
#16
Hikaru Takeuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
The mean diffusivity (MD) parameter obtained by diffusion tensor imaging provides a measure of how freely water molecules move in brain tissue. Greater tissue density conferred by closely arrayed cellular structures is assumed to lower MD by inhibiting the free diffusion of water molecules. In this paper, we review studies showing MD variation among regions of the brain dopaminergic system (MDDS), especially subcortical structures such as the putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus, in different conditions with known associations to dopaminergic system function or dysfunction...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119928/rational-basis-for-nutraceuticals-in-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#17
Morrone Luigi Antonio, Rombola Laura, Adornetto Annagrazia, Corasaniti Maria Tiziana, Russo Rossella
Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons degeneration and death. The pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG), the most common type, is still largely unknown and it is often associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) although IOP-independent mechanisms play also a role. Neurodegenerative process, including oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation, and an impaired ocular blood flow are examples of mechanisms supposed to contribute to the IOP independent deterioration in OAG...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119927/gene-environment-interactions-in-late-life-linking-psychosocial-stress-with-brain-aging
#18
Anthony S Zannas
Gene-environment interactions (GxE) can have lasting consequences on brain structure and function, potentially contributing to diverse neuropsychiatric phenotypes. This has been extensively demonstrated by studies examining GxE in childhood and early adulthood, whereas much fewer studies have addressed this question in late life. The relative paucity of studies examining GxE in late life may stem from the working hypothesis that brains become less malleable to environmental inputs as life progresses. However, while some components of brain plasticity decline with increasing age, others are retained and may even become more pronounced in old ages...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119926/-the-role-of-cxcr3-in-neurological-diseases
#19
Ya-Qun Zhou, Dai-Qiang Liu, Shu-Ping Chen, Jia Sun, Xue-Rong Zhou, Cui Xing, Da-Wei Ye, Yu-Ke Tian
Neurological diseases have become an obvious challenge due to insufficient therapeutic intervention. Therefore, novel drugs for various neurological disorders are in desperate need. Recently, compelling evidence has demonstrated that chemokine receptor CXCR3, which is a G protein-coupled receptor in the CXC chemokine receptor family, may play a pivotal role in the development of neurological diseases. The expression level of CXCR3 in T cells was significantly elevated in several neurological diseases, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of CXCR3 antagonists...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110618/cognitive-effects-of-nicotine-recent-progress
#20
Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Cigarette smoking is the main cause of preventable death in developed countries. Given the limited effectiveness of currently available treatments, there is a great need to identify new treatment approaches for tobacco use disorder (TUD). While the direct positive behavioral reinforcing effect of nicotine has historically been considered the primary mechanism driving the development of TUD, accumulating contemporary research suggests that the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine may also significantly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of TUD, especially in individuals with pre-existing cognitive deficits...
November 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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