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Current Neuropharmacology

Carmen Pena-Bautista, Miguel Baquero, Maximo Vento, Consuelo Chafer-Pericas
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in adulthood, has a great medical, social, and economic impact worldwide. Available treatments result in symptomatic relief, and most of them are indicated from early stages of the disease. Therefore, there is an increasing body of research developing accurate and early diagnoses, as well as disease-modifying therapies. OBJECTIVE: Advancing the knowledge of AD physiopathological mechanisms, imporoving early diagnosis and developing effective treatments from omics-based biomarkers...
September 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Gjumrakch Aliev, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Jerzy Leszek, Kazimierz Gasiorowski, Alfiya Makhmutovа, Saleh Salem Baeesa, Marco Avila-Rodriguez, Aleksey A Ustyugov, Sergey O Bachurin
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of neurons. It is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population accompanied by pathological degeneration of neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are formed with beta-amyloid, hyperphosphoryled tau protein, apolipoprotein E and presenilin associated with protease activity [amyloid beta (Aβ), gamma-secretase (γS)]. The molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration include apoptosis, oxidative shock (free radical generation), inflammation, immune activation, and others...
September 18, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs), a clinical entity reported for the first time in the 1980s, include gluten ataxia (GA), paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations (PCDs), anti-glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD) antibody-associated cerebellar ataxia, post-infectious cerebellitis, and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS). These IMCAs share common features with regard to therapeutic approaches. When certain factors trigger immune processes, elimination of the antigen(s) becomes a priority: e.g., gluten-free diet in GA and surgical excision of the primary tumor in PCDs...
September 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Arti Rana, Shamsher Singh, Ruchika Sharma, Anoop Kumar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main reason of lifelong disability and casualty worldwide. In the United state alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur yearly, out of which 50,000 results in deaths. Injury to the brain could alter various biological signaling pathways such as excitotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis which can result in various neurological disorders such as Psychosis, Depression, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, etc. In literature, various reports have indicated the alteration of these pathways after traumatic brain injury but the exact mechanism is still unclear...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Ianara Mendonça Costa, Francisca Overlania V Lima, Luciana Cristina B Fernandes, Bianca Norrara, Francisca Idalina Neta, Rodrigo Dias Alves, José Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Eudes Euler S Lucena, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Amalia Cinthia M Rego, Irami Araujo Filho, Dinalva Brito Queiroz, Marco Aurelio M Freire, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen
Neurological disorders constitute a growing worldwide concern due to the progressive aging of the population and the risky behavior they represent. Herbal medicines have scientific relevance in the treatment of these pathologies. One of these substances, Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), is the main active compound present in the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge, a Chinese medicinal herb with neuroprotective properties. </p> <p> Objective: In the present study we performed a systematic review that sought to comprehend the neuroprotective effect presented by AS-IV in experimental models of neurological disorders...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Muneeb U Rehman, Adil Farooq Wali, Anas Ahmad, Sheeba Shakeel, Saiema Rasool, Rayeesa Ali, Shazada Mudasir Rashid, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Rehan Khan
Nature has bestowed mankind with surplus resources (natural products) on land and water. Natural products have significant role in prevention of disease and boosting of health in humans and animals. These natural products have been experimentally documented to possess various biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In vitro and in vivo studies have further established the usefulness of natural products in various preclinical models of neurodegenerative disorders...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Yulia A Sidorova, Konstantin P Volcho, Nariman F Salahytdinov
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, the lifetime risk of developing this disease is 1.5%.Motor diagnostic symptoms of PD are caused by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. There is no cure for PD and current therapy is limited to supportive care that partially alleviates disease signs and symptoms. As diagnostic symptoms of PD result from progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons, drugs restoring these neurons may significantly improve treatment of PD...
September 4, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Roger Kalla, Michael Strupp
Cerebellar ataxia is a frequent and often disabling syndrome severely impairing motor functioning and quality of life. Patients suffer from reduced mobility, and restricted autonomy, experiencing an even lower quality of life than, e.g., stroke survivors. Aminopyridines have been demonstrated viable for the symptomatic treatment of certain forms of cerebellar ataxia. This article will give an outline of the present pharmacotherapy of different cerebellar disorders. As a current key-therapy for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is suggested for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus (5-10 mg Twice a day [TID]), a frequent type of persisting nystagmus , due to a compromise of the vestibulo-cerebellum...
September 4, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Marika Alborghetti, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Three inhibitors of type-B monoamine oxidase (MAOB), selegiline, rasagiline, and safinamide, are used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). All three drugs improve motor signs of PD, and are effective in reducing motor fluctuations in patients undergoing long-term L-DOPA treatment. Their effect of MAOB inhibitors on non-motor symptoms is not uniform and may not be class-related. Selegiline and rasagiline are irreversible inhibitors forming a covalent bond within the active site of MAOB . In contrast, safinamide is a reversible MAOB inhibitor, and also inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels and glutamate release Safinamide is the prototype of a new generation of multi-active MAOB inhibitors, which includes the antiepileptic drug, zonisamide...
August 29, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Coralie Creupelandt, Fabien D'Hondt, Pierre Maurage
Visuoperceptive impairments are among the most frequently reported deficits in alcohol-use disorders, but only very few studies have investigated their origin and interactions with other categories of dysfunctions. Besides, these deficits have generally been interpreted in a linear bottom-up perspective, which appears very restrictive with respect to the new models of vision developed in healthy populations. Indeed, new theories highlight the predictive nature of the visual system and demonstrate that it interacts with higher-level cognitive functions to generate top-down predictions...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Mahmood Ahmad Khan, Qamre Alam, Absarul Haque, Mohammad Ashafaq, Mohd Jahir Khan, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mahboob Ahmad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β within the brain parenchyma resulting into a significant decline in cognitive functions during the late stage of the disease. The disease patho- physiological conditions is recognized by the perturbation of synaptic function, energy and lipid metabolism. Deposition of amyloid plaques triggers inflammation upon the induction of microglia. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors known to play important role in the regulation of glucose absorption, homeostasis of lipid metabolism and further involves in repressing the expression of genes related to inflammation...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Aribert Rothenberger, Veit Roessner
While Behavioral Therapy (BT) should be recommended as the first step in the treatment of OCD as well as TS, medication can be added for augmentation and in certain situations (e.g. family preference, BT not available or feasible) the priority may even reverse. This narrative review is given on the complexity of drug treatment in patients comorbid for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic problems. OCD with TS is a co-occuring combination of two generally delimitable, but in detail also overlapping disorders which wax and wane with time but have different courses and necessities and options of treatment...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Melina A Throuvala, Mark D Griffiths, Mike Rennoldson, Daria J Kuss
Adolescents' media use represents a normative need for information, communication, recreation and functionality, yet problematic Internet use has increased. Given the arguably alarming prevalence rates worldwide and the increasingly problematic use of gaming and social media, the need for an integration of prevention efforts appears to be timely. The aim of this systematic literature review is (i) to identify school-based prevention programmes or protocols for Internet Addiction targeting adolescents within the school context and to examine the programmes' effectiveness, and (ii) to highlight strengths, limitations, and best practices to inform the design of new initiatives, by capitalizing on these studies' recommendations...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Antonio Del Casale, Serena Sorice, Alessio Padovano, Maurizio Simmaco, Stefano Ferracuti, Dorian A Lamis, Chiara Rapinesi, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with affective and cognitive symptoms causing personal distress and reduced global functioning. These have considerable societal costs due to healthcare service utilization. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in OCD and clinical guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of this field. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with drug treatment of OCD, with a specific focus on clinical guidelines, treatments with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, off-label medications, and pharmacogenomics...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Ana C Silveira, Jane Pires Dias, Vanessa M Santos, Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Marco G Alves, Luis Rato, Branca M Silva
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer&#039;s disease (AD) are two prevalent diseases in modern societies, which are caused mainly by current lifestyle, aging and genetic alterations. It has already been demonstrated that these two diseases are associated since individuals suffering from DM are prone to develop AD. Conversely, it is also known that individuals with AD are more susceptible to DM, namely type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, these two pathologies, although completely different in terms of symptomatology, end up sharing several mechanisms at the molecular level, being the most obvious the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Pouran Makhdoumi, Mojtaba Limoee, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Hooshyar Hossini
Aniline exposure leads to neuron and spleen toxicity specifically and makes diverse neurological effects and sarcoma that is defined by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, and fibrosis and tumors formation at the end. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of aniline-induced spleen toxicity is not understood well, previous studies have represented that aniline exposure results in iron overload and initiation of oxidative/nitrosative disorder stress and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA subsequently, in the spleen...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Giuseppina Talarico, Alessandro Trebbastoni, Giuseppe Bruno, Carlo de Lena
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is somewhat complex and has yet to be fully understood. As the effectiveness of the therapy currently available for AD has proved to be limited, the need for new drugs has become increasingly urgent. The modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECBS) is one of the potential therapeutic approaches that is attracting a growing amount of interest. The ECBS consists of endogenous compounds and receptors. The receptors CB1 and CB2 have already been well characterized: CB1 receptors, which are abundant in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum, regulate memory function and cognition...
July 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Olivia Tania Hernandez-Hernandez, Lucia Martinez-Mota, Jose Jaime Herrera-Perez, Graciela Jimenez-Rubio
BACKGROUND: In women, changes in estrogen levels may increase incidence and/or symptomatology of depression and affect the response to antidepressant treatments. Estrogen therapy in females may provide some mood benefits as a single treatment, or might augment clinical response to antidepressants that inhibit serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the mechanisms of estradiol action involved in the regulation of gene expression that modulate serotonin neurotransmission implicated in depression...
June 28, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Noushad Javed, Md Abul Barkat, Md Sabir Alam, Javed Ashraf Nowshehri, Dhafer Mahdi Alshayban, Mohammad Azam Ansari
A burgeoning literature documents the confluence of ovarian steroids and central serotonergic systems in the injuction of epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Estrogen administration in animals reduces neuronal death from seizures by up regulation of the prosurvival molecule i.e. Bcl-2, anti-oxidant potential and protection of NPY interneurons. Serotonin modulates epileptiform activity in either direction i.e administration of 5-HT agonists or reuptake inhibitors leads to activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors tending to impede focal and generalized seizures, while depletion of brain 5-HT along with destruction of serotonergic terminals leads to expanded neuronal excitability hence abatement of seizure threshold in experimental animal models...
June 28, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Umberto Albert, Diana De Ronchi, Giuseppe Maina, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Historically, OCD has been considered to be associated with a relatively low risk of suicide. Recent studies, on the contrary, revealed a significant association between OCD and suicide attempts and ideation. A huge variation in prevalence rates, however, is reported. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence rates of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in individuals with OCD, and to identify predictors of suicide risk among subjects with OCD. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the literature on suicide risk (ideation and/or attempts) and OCD...
June 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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