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Current Neuropharmacology

Anju Sharma, Rajnish Kumar, Imlimaong Aier, Rahul Semwal, Pankaj Tyagi, Pritish Varadwaj
Olfaction, the sense of smell detects and discriminate odors as well as social cues which influence our innate responses. The olfactory system in human beings is found to be weak as compare to other animals; however, it seems to be very precise. It can detect and discriminate millions of chemical moieties (odorants) even in minuscule quantities. The process initiates with the binding of odorants to specialized olfactory receptors, encoded by a large family of Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Nicolás Toro-Urrego, Diego Julián Vesga-Jiménez, María Inés Herrera, Juan Pablo Luaces, Francisco Capani
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a complex network of factors, which is mainly characterized by a decrease in levels of oxygen concentration and blood flow, which lead to an inefficient supply of nutrients to the brain. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury can be found in perinatal asphyxia and ischemic-stroke, which represent one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in children and adults worldwide. Therefore, knowledge on underlying mechanisms triggering these insults may help establish neuroprotective treatments...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Allison L Germann, Joe Henry Steinbach, Gustav Akk
The co-agonist concerted transition model is a simple and practical solution to analyzing various aspects of GABAA receptor function. Several model-based predictions have been verified experimentally in previous reports. We review here the practical implications of the model and demonstrate how it enables simplification of the experimental procedure and data analysis to characterize the effects of mutations or properties of novel ligands. Specifically, we show that the value of EC50 and the magnitude of current response are directly affected by basal activity, and that coapplication of a background agonist acting at a distinct site or use of a gain-of-function mutation can be employed to enable studies of weak activators or mutated receptors with impaired gating...
December 5, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Iván Carrera, Ramón Cacabelos
The research progress of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet lead to the development of some clinical approaches intended to treat cognitive and behavioral symptoms, such as memory and perception disorders. Despite the major advances in different genetic causes and risk factors for PD, which share common pathways to cell dysfunction and death, there is not yet a complete model of PD that can be used to accurately predict the effect of drugs on disease progression...
November 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Maxime Lévesque, David Ragsdale, Massimo Avoli
The synchronized activity of neuronal networks under physiological conditions is mirrored by specific oscillatory patterns of the EEG that are associated with different behavioral states and cognitive functions. Excessive synchronization can however lead to focal epileptiform activity characterized by interictal and ictal discharges in epileptic patients and animal models. This review focusses on studies that have addressed epileptiform synchronization in temporal lobe regions by employing in vitro and in vivo recording techniques...
November 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Louise Penzenstadler, Carina Soares, Laurent Karila, Yasser Khazaal
The concept of food addiction attracts much interest by the scientific community. Research is mainly based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), a tool developed to assess food addiction. Substance use disorder criteria have been used to develop this scale. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical significance of food addiction diagnoses made with the YFAS and to discuss the results in light of the current debate on behavioral addictions. Method We performed a systematic review of the studies that assessed food addiction with the YFAS published between January 2014 and July 2017 by searching the electronic databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES...
November 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Georgios D Kotzalidis, Antonio Del Casale, Maurizio Simmaco, Lucia Pancheri, Roberto Brugnoli, Marco Paolini, Ida Gualtieri, Stefano Ferracuti, Valeria Savoja, Ilaria Cuomo, Lavinia De Chiara, Alessio Mosca, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili, Chiara Rapinesi, On Behalf Of The Sapienza Group For The Study Of The Placebo Effect In Psychiatric Disorders
BACKGROUND: Placebo response appears to be increasing in antidepressant, antipsychotic and various internal medicine trials. A similar trend has been reported for OCD during 1989-1999. Placebo response is generally considered as the extent to which placebo treatment is associated with core symptom improvement. In this analysis we used Joinpoint regression to assess the time trend of both placebo response and placebo responder rates according to year of publication with no time restriction in OCD drug trials...
October 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Carmen Pena-Bautista, Miguel Baquero, Maximo Vento, Consuelo Chafer-Pericas
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in adulthood, has a great medical, social, and economic impact worldwide. Available treatments result in symptomatic relief, and most of them are indicated from early stages of the disease. Therefore, there is an increasing body of research developing accurate and early diagnoses, as well as disease-modifying therapies. OBJECTIVE: Advancing the knowledge of AD physiopathological mechanisms, imporoving early diagnosis and developing effective treatments from omics-based biomarkers...
September 26, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Gjumrakch Aliev, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Jerzy Leszek, Kazimierz Gasiorowski, Alfiya Makhmutovа, Saleh Salem Baeesa, Marco Avila-Rodriguez, Aleksey A Ustyugov, Sergey O Bachurin
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of neurons. It is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population accompanied by pathological degeneration of neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are formed with beta-amyloid, hyperphosphoryled tau protein, apolipoprotein E and presenilin associated with protease activity [amyloid beta (Aβ), gamma-secretase (γS)]. The molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration include apoptosis, oxidative shock (free radical generation), inflammation, immune activation, and others...
September 18, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs), a clinical entity reported for the first time in the 1980s, include gluten ataxia (GA), paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations (PCDs), anti-glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD) antibody-associated cerebellar ataxia, post-infectious cerebellitis, and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS). These IMCAs share common features with regard to therapeutic approaches. When certain factors trigger immune processes, elimination of the antigen(s) becomes a priority: e.g., gluten-free diet in GA and surgical excision of the primary tumor in PCDs...
September 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Arti Rana, Shamsher Singh, Ruchika Sharma, Anoop Kumar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main reason of lifelong disability and casualty worldwide. In the United state alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur yearly, out of which 50,000 results in deaths. Injury to the brain could alter various biological signaling pathways such as excitotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis which can result in various neurological disorders such as Psychosis, Depression, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, etc. In literature, various reports have indicated the alteration of these pathways after traumatic brain injury but the exact mechanism is still unclear...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Ianara Mendonça Costa, Francisca Overlania V Lima, Luciana Cristina B Fernandes, Bianca Norrara, Francisca Idalina Neta, Rodrigo Dias Alves, José Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Eudes Euler S Lucena, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Amalia Cinthia M Rego, Irami Araujo Filho, Dinalva Brito Queiroz, Marco Aurelio M Freire, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen
Neurological disorders constitute a growing worldwide concern due to the progressive aging of the population and the risky behavior they represent. Herbal medicines have scientific relevance in the treatment of these pathologies. One of these substances, Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), is the main active compound present in the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge, a Chinese medicinal herb with neuroprotective properties. </p> <p> Objective: In the present study we performed a systematic review that sought to comprehend the neuroprotective effect presented by AS-IV in experimental models of neurological disorders...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Muneeb U Rehman, Adil Farooq Wali, Anas Ahmad, Sheeba Shakeel, Saiema Rasool, Rayeesa Ali, Shazada Mudasir Rashid, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Rehan Khan
Nature has bestowed mankind with surplus resources (natural products) on land and water. Natural products have significant role in prevention of disease and boosting of health in humans and animals. These natural products have been experimentally documented to possess various biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In vitro and in vivo studies have further established the usefulness of natural products in various preclinical models of neurodegenerative disorders...
September 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Yulia A Sidorova, Konstantin P Volcho, Nariman F Salahytdinov
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, the lifetime risk of developing this disease is 1.5%.Motor diagnostic symptoms of PD are caused by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. There is no cure for PD and current therapy is limited to supportive care that partially alleviates disease signs and symptoms. As diagnostic symptoms of PD result from progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons, drugs restoring these neurons may significantly improve treatment of PD...
September 4, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Roger Kalla, Michael Strupp
Cerebellar ataxia is a frequent and often disabling syndrome severely impairing motor functioning and quality of life. Patients suffer from reduced mobility, and restricted autonomy, experiencing an even lower quality of life than, e.g., stroke survivors. Aminopyridines have been demonstrated viable for the symptomatic treatment of certain forms of cerebellar ataxia. This article will give an outline of the present pharmacotherapy of different cerebellar disorders. As a current key-therapy for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is suggested for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus (5-10 mg Twice a day [TID]), a frequent type of persisting nystagmus , due to a compromise of the vestibulo-cerebellum...
September 4, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Marika Alborghetti, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Three inhibitors of type-B monoamine oxidase (MAOB), selegiline, rasagiline, and safinamide, are used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). All three drugs improve motor signs of PD, and are effective in reducing motor fluctuations in patients undergoing long-term L-DOPA treatment. Their effect of MAOB inhibitors on non-motor symptoms is not uniform and may not be class-related. Selegiline and rasagiline are irreversible inhibitors forming a covalent bond within the active site of MAOB . In contrast, safinamide is a reversible MAOB inhibitor, and also inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels and glutamate release Safinamide is the prototype of a new generation of multi-active MAOB inhibitors, which includes the antiepileptic drug, zonisamide...
August 29, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Coralie Creupelandt, Fabien D'Hondt, Pierre Maurage
Visuoperceptive impairments are among the most frequently reported deficits in alcohol-use disorders, but only very few studies have investigated their origin and interactions with other categories of dysfunctions. Besides, these deficits have generally been interpreted in a linear bottom-up perspective, which appears very restrictive with respect to the new models of vision developed in healthy populations. Indeed, new theories highlight the predictive nature of the visual system and demonstrate that it interacts with higher-level cognitive functions to generate top-down predictions...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Mahmood Ahmad Khan, Qamre Alam, Absarul Haque, Mohammad Ashafaq, Mohd Jahir Khan, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mahboob Ahmad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β within the brain parenchyma resulting into a significant decline in cognitive functions during the late stage of the disease. The disease patho- physiological conditions is recognized by the perturbation of synaptic function, energy and lipid metabolism. Deposition of amyloid plaques triggers inflammation upon the induction of microglia. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors known to play important role in the regulation of glucose absorption, homeostasis of lipid metabolism and further involves in repressing the expression of genes related to inflammation...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Aribert Rothenberger, Veit Roessner
While Behavioral Therapy (BT) should be recommended as the first step in the treatment of OCD as well as TS, medication can be added for augmentation and in certain situations (e.g. family preference, BT not available or feasible) the priority may even reverse. This narrative review is given on the complexity of drug treatment in patients comorbid for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic problems. OCD with TS is a co-occuring combination of two generally delimitable, but in detail also overlapping disorders which wax and wane with time but have different courses and necessities and options of treatment...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Melina A Throuvala, Mark D Griffiths, Mike Rennoldson, Daria J Kuss
Adolescents' media use represents a normative need for information, communication, recreation and functionality, yet problematic Internet use has increased. Given the arguably alarming prevalence rates worldwide and the increasingly problematic use of gaming and social media, the need for an integration of prevention efforts appears to be timely. The aim of this systematic literature review is (i) to identify school-based prevention programmes or protocols for Internet Addiction targeting adolescents within the school context and to examine the programmes' effectiveness, and (ii) to highlight strengths, limitations, and best practices to inform the design of new initiatives, by capitalizing on these studies' recommendations...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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