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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#1
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925885/spreading-depolarization-waves-in-neurological-diseases-a-short-review-about-its-pathophysiology-and-clinical-relevance
#2
Yağmur Çetin Taş, İhsan Solaroğlu, Yasemin Gürsoy-Özdemir
Lesion growth following acutely injured brain tissue after stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury is an important issue and a new target area for promising therapeutic interventions. Spreading depolarization or peri-lesion depolarization waves were demonstrated as one of the significant contributors of continued lesion growth. In this short review, we discuss the pathophysiology for SD forming events and try to list findings detected in neurological disorders like migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in both human as well as experimental studies...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925884/prevention-and-treatment-for-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-therapies-based-on-cipn-mechanisms
#3
Lang-Yue Hu, Wen-Li Mi, Gen-Cheng Wu, Yan-Qing Wang, Qi-Liang Mao-Ying
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible adverse effect of many antineoplastic agents, among which sensory abnormities are common and the most suffering issues. The pathogenesis of CIPN has not been completely understood, and strategies for CIPN prevention and treatment are still open problems for medicine. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to review the mechanism-based therapies against sensory abnormities in CIPN...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#4
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925882/why-are-antidepressant-drugs-effective-smoking-cessation-aids
#5
Mohammed Shoaib, Yazead Buhidma
Before the advent of varenicline, antidepressant drugs were reported to exhibit better clinical efficacy than nicotine replacement therapy as smoking cessation aids. The most studied is bupropion, a clinically-effective antidepressant, the first to be marketed throughout Europe for smoking cessation. The mechanisms behind bupropion's efficacy as a smoking cessation compound remains unclear. Since depression and tobacco smoking have a high incidence of co-occurrence, this would implicate an underlying link between these two conditions...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925881/coping-with-stress-during-aging-the-importance-of-a-resilient-brain
#6
P Sampedro-Piquero, P Álvarez-Suárez, A Begega
BACKGROUND: Resilience is the ability to achieve a positive outcome when we are in the face of adversity. It supposes an active resistance to adversity by coping mechanisms in which genetic, molecular, neural and environmental factors are involved. Resilience has been usually studied in early ages and few is known about it during aging. METHODS: In this review, we will address the age-related changes in the brain mechanisms involved in regulating the stress response...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901278/neuroinflammation-and-the-immune-kynurenine-pathway-in-anxiety-disorders
#7
Yong-Ku Kim, Sang Won Jeon
BACKGROUND: Recently, neuroinflammation and the immune-kynurenine pathway have received increased attention in the psychoimmunology field of major depressive disorder (MDD), while studies related to anxiety disorders have been very limited. OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed possible mechanisms by which stress or inflammation modulate anxiety through tryptophan metabolism and the kynurenine pathway. METHOD: Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed...
September 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901281/review-5-ht1-5-ht2-5-ht3-and-5-ht7-receptors-and-their-role-in-the-modulation-of-pain-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
José Luis Cortes-Altamirano, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime, Paul Carrillo-Mora, Cindy Bandala, S Reyes-Long, Alfonso Alfaro-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901280/neuronal-and-extraneuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#9
Michele Zoli, Susanna Pucci, Antonietta Vilella, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a super-family of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels that respond to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or other cholinergic ligands. These receptors are also the targets of drugs such as nicotine (the main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke) and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression and/or function of nAChRs is compromised in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901279/role-of-physical-exercise-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-depressive-illness-in-the-elderly
#10
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano Sacchetti, Vittoria Nicolis di Robilant, Debora Cutuli
BACKGROUND: In adulthood, depression is the most common type of mental illness and will be the second leading cause of disease by 2020. Major depression dramatically affects the function of the central nervous system and degrades life quality, especially during aging. Several mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of depressive illness, given it has a multifactorial etiology. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that depression is mainly associated with imbalances in neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations, brain volume changes, neurogenesis dysfunction, and dysregulation of inflammatory pathways...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875832/structure-gating-and-basic-functions-of-the-ca2-activated-k-channel-of-intermediate-conductance
#11
Luigi Sforna, Alfredo Megaro, Mauro Pessia, Fabio Franciolini, Luigi Catacuzzeno
The KCa3.1 channel is the intermediate-conductance member of the Ca2+-activated K channel superfamily. Expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells, the KCa3.1 channel is voltage independent, its opening being exclusively gated by the binding of intracellular Ca2+ to calmodulin, a Ca2+-binding protein constitutively associated with the C-terminus of each KCa3.1 channel α subunit. Upon Ca2+ binding, the KCa3.1 channel activates with high affinity and in highly coordinated fashion giving steep Hill functions and relatively low EC50 values (100-350 nM)...
August 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847296/neuron-glia-interaction-as-a-possible-pathophysiological-mechanism-of-bipolar-disorder
#12
Jairo Vinícius Pinto, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Diego Librenza-Garcia, Grasiela Marcon, Maiko Abel Schneider, João Henrique Conte, João Pedro Abreu da Silva, Luiza Pereira Lima, André Quincozes-Santos, Márcia Kauer-Sant'Anna, Flávio Kapczinski
Accumulating evidence has shown the importance of glial cells in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines have been pointed out as potential biomarkers of bipolar disorder. Indeed, recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder involves microglial activation in the hippocampus and alterations in peripheral cytokines, suggesting a potential link between neuroinflammation and peripheral toxicity. These abnormalities may also be the biological underpinnings of outcomes related to neuroprogression, such as cognitive impairment and brain changes...
August 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847295/combination-therapy-for-multi-target-manipulation-of-secondary-brain-injury-mechanisms
#13
Mahadevabharath R Somayaji, R Mahadevabharath, Przekwas, J Andrzej, Gupta, K Raj
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major healthcare problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Despite advances in understanding and developing preventative and treatment strategies using preclinical animal models, clinical trials to date have failed, and a "magic bullet" for effectively treating TBI-induced damage does not exist. Thus, novel pharmacological strategies to effectively manipulate the complex and heterogeneous pathophysiology of secondary injury mechanisms are needed. Given that goal, this paper discusses the relevance and advantages of combination therapies (COMTs) for "multi-target manipulation" of the injury cascade by administering multiple drugs to achieve an optimal therapeutic window of opportunity (e...
August 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847294/therapeutic-strategies-for-treatment-of-inflammation-related-depression
#14
Miroslav Adzic, Zeljka Brkic, Milos Mitic, Ester Francija, Milica J Jovicic, Jelena Radulovic, Nadja P Maric
Mounting evidence demonstrates enhanced systemic levels of inflammatory mediators in depressed patients, indicating that inflammation may play a role in the etiology and course of mood disorders. Indeed, proinflammatory cytokines induce a behavioral state of conservation-withdrawal resembling human depression, characterized by negative mood, fatigue, anhedonia, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite, and cognitive deficits. Mechanisms of cytokine actions on behavior involve activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain, resulting in changes of neurotransmitter metabolism (monoamine, glutamate), neuroendocrine function, and neuronal plasticity...
August 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847293/correlation-between-blood-and-oral-fluid-psychoactive-drug-concentrations-and-cognitive-impairment-in-driving-under-the-influence-of-drugs
#15
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Manuela Pellegrini, Angelo Montana, Alfredo Fabrizio Lo Faro, Simona Zaami, Silvia Graziano
Licit and illicit drugs affecting the central nervous system have the potential to impair driving ability. The effects of drugs on driving performance should be checked with drug concentration in the brain and at the same time with the evaluation of both the behavioural and neurophysiological effects. The best accessible indicator of this information is the concentration of the drug and/or metabolites in blood and, to a certain extent, oral fluid. Neurocognitive tasks under the influence of drugs should be also monitored...
August 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847297/ngf-and-bdnf-alterations-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#16
Valentina Carito, Mauro Ceccanti, Giampiero Ferraguti, Roberto Coccurello, Stefania Ciafrè, Paola Tirassa, Marco Fiore
BACKGROUND: It is now widely established the devastating effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the embryo and fetus development causing marked cognitive and neurobiological deficits in the newborns. The negative effects of the gestational alcohol use have been well documented and known for some time. However, also the subtle role of alcohol consumption by fathers prior to mating is drawing special attention. OBJECTIVE: Both paternal and maternal alcohol exposure have been shown to affect the neurotrophins' signalling pathways in the brain and in target organs of ethanol intoxication...
August 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831921/in-silico-studies-in-drug-research-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
Farahnaz Rezaei Makhouri, Jahan B Ghasemi
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive neurodegenerative forms of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cerebellar ataxias, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy are described by slow and selective dysfunction and degeneration of neurons and axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Computer-aided or in silico design methods have matured into powerful tools for reducing the number of ligands that should be screened in experimental assays...
August 22, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820054/qsar-modeling-of-histamine-h3r-antagonists-inverse-agonists-as-future-drugs-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Michelle Fidelis Corrêa, João Paulo Dos Santos Fernandes
Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is associated with several neuropsychological diseases. It is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system as presynaptic receptor, especially in regions associated with cognition and behavior, and is responsible for modulate the synthesis and release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, H3R is an important target involved in several CNS disorders, such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820053/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-stress-resilience-and-implications-for-the-aged-population
#19
Charlène Faye, Josephine C Mcgowan, Christine A Denny, Denis J David
Stress is a common reaction to an environmental adversity, but a dysregulation of the stress response can lead to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Yet, not all individuals exposed to stress will develop psychiatric disorders; those with enhanced stress resilience mechanisms have the ability to adapt successfully to stress without developing persistent psychopathology. Notably, the potential to enhance stress resilience in at-risk populations may prevent the onset of stress-induced psychiatric disorders...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820052/new-insights-on-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-as-targets-for-pain-and-inflammation-a-focus-on-%C3%AE-7-nachrs
#20
Deniz Bagdas, Mine S Gurun, Pamela Flood, Roger L Papke, M Imad Damaj
Nicotine and nicotinic receptors have been explored for the past three decades as targets for pain control. Accumulating evidences suggest that selective ligands for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) hold promise in the treatment of chronic pain conditions as they lack many of side effects associated with other nicotinic receptor types. This review provides the reader recent insights on α7 nAChRs from structure and function to the latest findings on the pharmacology and therapeutic targeting of these receptors for the treatment of pain and inflammation...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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