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Current Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676231/combating-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-the-plant-alkaloid-berberine-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#1
Dahua Fan, Liping Liu, Zhengzhi Wu, Meiqun Cao
Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most serious health problems affecting millions of people worldwide. Such diseases are characterized by a progressive degeneration and / or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Currently, there are no therapeutic approaches to cure or even halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the neuroprotective and anti-neurodegenerative activities of compounds isolated from natural products with high efficacy and low toxicity...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#2
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676229/viral-induced-oxidative-and-inflammatory-response-in-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-with-identification-of-potential-drug-candidates-a-systematic-review-using-systems-biology-approach
#3
Puneet Talwar, Renu Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal, Luciano Saso, Shrikant Kukreti, Ritushree Kukreti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676228/glaucoma-pathogenesis-and-neurotrophins-focus-on-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-therapeutic-prospects
#4
Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is a major feature of glaucoma pathology. Neuroprotective approaches that delay or halt the progression of RGC loss are needed to prevent vision loss which can occur even after conventional medical or surgical treatments to lower intraocular pressure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the progress in genetics and cellular mechanisms associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RGC dysfunction and cell death pathways in glaucoma...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663889/necroptosis-signaling-pathways-in-stroke-from-mechanisms-to-therapies
#5
Huang Jun-Long, Li Yi, Zhao Bao-Lian, Li Jia-Si, Zhang Ning, Ye Zhou-Heng, Sun Xue-Jun, Liu Wen-Wu
It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases...
April 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663888/functional-cross-talk-between-adenosine-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#6
David Agustin Leon-Navarro, Jose Luis Albasanz, Mairena Martin
G-protein coupled receptors are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in cells and their transduction pathways are mediated by controlling second messenger levels through different G-protein interactions. Many of these receptors have been described as involved in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases and even considered as potential targets for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Endogenous and synthetic allosteric and orthosteric selective ligands are able to modulate GPCRs at both gene and protein expression levels and can also modify their physiological function...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663887/the-role-of-ire1-signaling-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#7
Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
The accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen results in activation of an adaptive stress process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) possesses both Ser/Thr kinase and RNase activities that operates as a major stress sensor, mediating both adaptive and pro-apoptotic pathways under ER stress. Over the last three decades, a mounting body of evidence has shown that IRE1 signaling dysfunction is involved in pathology of various neurological disorders...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564977/transcranial-near-infrared-laser-therapy-in-improving-cognitive-recovery-of-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Xiyang Yao, Chenglin Liu, Dongxia Feng, Jun Yin, Gang Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is turned into a major health and socioeconomic problem affecting young people and military personnel. Numerous TBI patients experienced the sequela of brain injury called cognitive impairment, which reduced functions in attention, working memory, motivation, and execution. In recent years, transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (tNiRLT) as a possible therapy gradually applied in treating cognitive impairment post-TBI. In the present review, the biological mechanisms of transcranial tNiRLT for TBI are synthesized mainly based on the photonic impact to chronic mild TBI...
April 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651951/inflammatory-events-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-sah
#9
U C Schneider, R Xu, P Vajkoczy
Acute SAH from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm contributes for 30% of all hemorrhagic strokes. The bleeding itself occurs in the subarachnoid space. Nevertheless, injury to the brain parenchyma occurs as a consequence of the bleeding, directly, via several well-defined mechanisms and pathways, but also indirectly, or secondarily. This secondary brain injury following SAH has a variety of causes and possible mechanisms. Amongst others, inflammatory events have been shown to occur in parallel to, to contribute to, or even to initiate programmed cell death (PCD) within the central nervous system (CNS) in human and animal studies alike...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651950/roles-of-traf6-in-central-nervous-system
#10
Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651949/nerve-growth-factor-early-studies-and-recent-clinical-trials
#11
Maria Luisa Rocco, Marzia Soligo, Luigi Manni, Luigi Aloe
Since its discovery, nerve growth factor (NGF) has long occupied a critical role in developmental and adult neurobiology for its many important regulatory functions on the survival, growth and differentiation of nerve cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. NGF is the first discovered member of a family of neurotrophic factors, collectively indicated as neurotrophins, (which include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5). NGF was discovered for its action on the survival and differentiation of selected populations of peripheral neurons...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651948/therapeutic-potential-of-multifunctional-tacrine-analogues
#12
Maja Przybylowska, Szymon Kowalski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Tacrine is a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) that shows limiting clinical application by liver toxicity. In spite of this, analogues of tacrine are considered as model inhibitor of cholinesterases in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. The interest in these compounds is mainly related to a high variety of their structure and biological properties. In the present review, we have described the role of cholinergic transmission and treatment strategies in Alzheimer's disease as well as the synthesis and biological activity of several recently developed classes of multifunctional tacrine analogues and hybrids, which consist a new paradigm to treat Alzheimer's disease...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564976/antioxidant-properties-of-crocus-sativus-l-and-its-constituents-and-relevance-to-neurodegenerative-diseases-focus-on-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, Eleni Kakouri, George I Lambrou, Kostas Bethanis, Petros A Tarantilis
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which are collectively called reactive oxygen nitrogen species, are inevitable by-products of cellular metabolic redox reactions, such as oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, phagocytosis, reactions of biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous substrata in endoplasmic reticulum, eicosanoid synthesis, and redox reactions in the presence of metal with variable valence. Among medicinal plants there is growing interest in Crocus Sativus L...
March 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542413/changing-paradigm-from-one-target-one-ligand-towards-multi-target-directed-ligand-design-for-key-drug-targets-of-alzheimer-disease-an-important-role-of-insilco-methods-in-multi-target-directed-ligands-design
#14
Akhil Kumar, Ashish Tiwari, Ashok Sharma
Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542412/current-therapeutic-molecules-and-targets-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-based-on-in-silico-drug-design
#15
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521237/closed-loop-neuropharmacology-for-epilepsy-distant-dream-or-future-reality
#16
Irene Aicua-Rapun, Pascal Andre, Jan Novy
Epilepsy is considered the most frequent severe neurological condition but most patients treated with medication become seizure free. The management of treatment however is highly empirical, mainly relying on observation. A closed-loop therapy for epilepsy would be very valuable for more efficient treatment regimens. Here we discuss monitoring treatment (therapeutic drug monitoring) and the potential developments in this field, as well as providing a review of potential biomarkers that could be used to monitor the disease activity...
March 8, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521236/in-silico-studies-targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptors-for-drug-research-against-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Agostinho Lemos, Rita Meloc, Antonio J Preto, Jose G Almeida, Irina S Moreira, M Natalia D S Cordeiro
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a long-term neurodegenative brain disorder that mainly affects the motor system. The causes are still unknown, and even though currently there is no cure, several therapeutic options are available to manage its symptoms. The development of novel anti-parkinsonian agents and an understanding of their proper and optimal use are, indeed, highly demanding. For the last decades, L-3,4-DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine or levodopa (L-DOPA) has been the gold-standard therapy for the symptomatic treatment of motor dysfunctions associated to PD...
March 8, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512467/the-delicate-equilibrium-between-oxidants-and-antioxidants-in-brain-glioma
#18
Maria Jesus Ramirez-Exposito, Jose Manuel Martinez-Martos
Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors in adult population and unfortunately the adjuvant therapies are not effective. Brain tumorigenesis has been related both with the increased levels of free radicals as inductors of severe damages in healthy cells, but also with the reduced response of endogenous enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses. In turn, both processes induce the change to malignant cells. In this review we analyzed the role of the imbalance between free radicals production and antioxidant mechanism in the development and progression of gliomas but also the influence of redox status on the two major distinctive forms of programmed cell death related to cancer: apoptosis and autophagy...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512466/mitochondria-a-connecting-link-in-the-major-depressive-disorder-jigsaw
#19
Shilpa Sharma, Ravi Shankar Akundi
BACKGROUND: Depression is a widespread phenomenon with varying degrees of pathology in different patients. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the cause and continuance of depression. Some of these include, but not limited to, the monoamine hypothesis, the neuroendocrine hypothesis, and the more recent epigenetic and inflammatory hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review all the above hypotheses with a focus on the role of mitochondria as the connecting link...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512465/cell-death-mechanisms-in-stroke-and-novel-molecular-and-cellular-treatment-options
#20
Emine Sekerdag, Ihsan Solaroglu, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir
As a result of ischemia or hemorrhage, blood supply to neurons is disrupted which subsequently promotes a cascade of pathophysiological responses resulting in cell loss. Many mechanisms are involved solely or in combination in this disorder including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, and the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and inflammation. Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury...
March 1, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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