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Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Ali H El-Far, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mahmoud A Gab Allah, Ibrahim Abu Reidah, Hazem M Shaheen, Iman Razeghian-Jahromi, Abd El-Wahab A Alsenosy, Ahmed E Noreldin, Soad K Al Jaouni, Shaker A Mousa
Phoenix dactylifera is a useful traditional medicinal plant, mainly the fruit is used, which is the edible part of the plant (Ajwa date). It is now considered to be a valuable source of natural medicinal products against various diseases. Phytochemical investigations have shown that the fruit contains anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, and flavonoids. The fruits are a rich source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. P. dactylifera is considered as a complete diet because it also contains different fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, and steroidal substances...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Masoud Honarvar
BACKGROUND: Beta vulgaris (family: Chenopodiacea) is now much used in the food industry as a rich source of sugar but it is much less considered in medicine. Beet has been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, decreased libido, gut and joint pain and dandruff. METHODS: This study introduced the benefits of Beta vulgaris by reviewing of Iranian traditional documents from 10th century until now and also compared modern phytotherapy of plant beet from the electronic data banks such as ISI, Pub Med and Scopus with findings that extracted from traditional literature...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Surendra S Agrawal, Tapasya P Yallatikar, Pravina N Gurjar
Brassica nigra belonging to the family Brassicaceae (syn - black mustard) comprises of dried seeds and is widely cultivated in Mediterranean region and various other countries like India and Europe. B. nigra contains glycosinolates which undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of myrosinase enzyme yields allyl isothiocyante. The bitter taste and pungent odor is due to the isothiocyanates. B. Nigra shows various activities that are medically important such as anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-helminthic, protection against renal and hepatic toxicity and can also be used in diabetes treatment...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Amirali Arian
OBJECTIVE: In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. METHODS: This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Suryakanta Swain, Rabinarayan Padhy, Bikash Ranjan Jena, Sitty Manohar Babu
BACKGROUND: Quality by Design is associated to the modern, systematic, scientific and novel approach which is concerned with pre-distinct objectives that not only focus on product, process understanding but also leads to process control. It predominantly signifies the design and product improvement and the manufacturing process in order to fulfill the predefined manufactured goods or final products quality characteristics. It is quite essential to identify desire and required product performance report such as Target Product Profile, typical Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) and Critical Quality attributes (CQA)...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Neelaveni Thangavel, Mohammad Al Bratty, Sadique Akhtar Javed, Waquar Ahsan, Hassan Al Hazmi
Design of novel PPAR-γ modulators with better binding efficiency and fewer side effects to treat type 2 diabetes is still a challenge for medicinal chemists. Cost and time efficient computational methods have presently become an integral part of research in nuclear receptors and their ligands, enabling hit to lead identification and lead optimization. This review will focus on cutting-edge technologies used in most recent studies on the design of PPAR- γ agonists and will discuss the chemistry of a few molecules which emerged successful...
February 27, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Samuel Mawuli Adadey, Michael Bright Yakass, Seth Agyemang, Samuel Duodu
Sepsis is a debilitating clinical syndrome of systemic inflammation in response to microorganisms especially Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. A minority of sepsis cases could be due to non-pathogenic insult such as trauma. Much of the tissue and organ injury observed among septic patients is a consequence of the inflammatory response. The search for effective treatments of sepsis has led to several studies by different research groups across the globe. Although many targets and molecules have been identified, there is still no effective treatment for sepsis...
February 27, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Elaheh Kashani-Amin, Ozra Tabatabaei-Malazy, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Bagher Larijani, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi
BACKGROUND: Prediction of proteins' secondary structure is one of the major steps in the generation of homology models. These models provide structural information which is used to design suitable ligands for potential medicinal targets. However, selecting a proper tool between multiple secondary structure prediction (SSP) options is challenging. The current study is an insight onto currently favored methods and tools, within various contexts. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review was performed for a comprehensive access to recent (2013-2016) studies which used or recommended protein SSP tools...
February 27, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Hamid Farhang, Laleh Sharifi, Mohammad Mahdi Soltan Dallal, Mona Moshiri, Zahra Norouzbabaie, Saied Bokaie, Somaye Aletaha, Seyed Jalal Zargar, Abbas Mirshafiey
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play crucial role in controlling of inflammatory diseases. But due to the vast side effects of NSAIDs, its use is limited. G2013 or α-L-Guluronic acid is a new NSAID with immunomodulatory features. Considering the leading role of TLRs in inflammatory responses, in this study we aimed to evaluate G2013 cytotoxicity and its effect on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. METHOD: HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR4 cells were cultured and seeded on 96-well cell plate and MTT assay was performed for detection the viability of the cells after treatment with different concentrations of G2013...
February 25, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
BACKGROUND: According to new studies, only 60% of depressed patients respond to pharmaceutical treatment while suffering from their side effects. Natural products as adjuvant or alternative therapies should be examined to find safer and more effective ways to cope with depression. OBJECTIVE: Finding out the potential benefits of a combined herbal drug based on Echium amoenum compared with citalopram in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. DESIGN AND SETTING: In psychiatry clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 50 patients who met the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder based on DSM-5 were studied in a parallel randomized controlled trial...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Kamal Niaz, Fazlullah Khan, Mohammad Abdollahi
INTRODUCTION: Peptides are fragments of proteins with significant biological activities. These peptides are encoded in the protein sequence. Initially, such peptides are inactive in their parental form, unless proteolytic enzymes are released. These peptides then exhibit various functions and play a therapeutic role in the body. OBJECTIVE: Besides the therapeutic and physiological activities of peptides, the main purpose of this study was to highlight the safety aspects of peptides...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Tahereh Farkhondeh, Hanieh Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Saeed Samarghandian
The therapeutic strategies to manage neurodegenerative diseases remain limited and it is necessary to discover new agents for their prevention and control. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a main role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Catechins, the major flavonoids in green tea, are powerful antioxidants and radical scavengers that possess the potential roles in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Catechins modulate the cellular and molecular mechanisms through the inflammation-related NF-кB and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Vishal Trivedi, Suman Jyoti Deka
PKC are a family of serine-threonine kinases which play crucial roles in the regulation of important signal transduction pathways in mammalian cell-biology. These enzymes are themselves regulated by various molecules that can serve as ligands to the regulatory domains and translocate PKC to membrane for activity. The role of PKC in the modulation of both proliferative and apoptotic signalling in cancer become a subject of intense interest after it was discovered that PKC regulates a myriad of enzymes and transcription factors involved in carcinogenic signalling...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Tejinder Kaur Marwaha, Ashwini Madgulkar, Mangesh Bhalekar, Kalyani Asgaonkar
In pharmaceutical research drug discovery and development process is time-consuming and expensive. In many cases, it produces incompetent results due to the failure of in vitro and in vivo conventional approaches. Before any new drug is placed in the market it must undergo rigorous testing to get FDA approval. Due to the several limitations imposed by the drug discovery process, in recent times in silico approaches are widely applied in this field. In this review we have compiled docking studies which has found it's applications to predict drug excipient interactions which in turn assist to increase protein stability; to determine enzyme peptide interactions which maybe further used in drug development studies; to determine the most stable drug inclusion complex; to analyze structure at molecular level that ascertain an increase in solubility, dissolution and in turn the bioavailability of the drug; to design a dosage form that amplify the drug discovery and development process...
February 18, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Dmitry Tarasov, Dmitry Tovbin, Dmitry Malakhov, Arseniy Aybush, Natalia Tserkovnikova, Marina Savelyeva, Dmitry Sychev, Natalia Drozd, Alla Savchenko
BACKGROUND: Factor Xa (FXa) is known to play a central role in a blood coagulation cascade and considered to be one of the most attractive targets for oral anticoagulants of new generation. OBJECTIVE: Our approach for the development of directly acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC), FXa inhibitors was demonstrated in this work. METHOD: Chemical synthesis is the base of our approach for the development of potential inhibitors. In this work, the substances like R1-(CONH)-R2-(CONH)-R3 are being developed, using previously described docking and screening methods, where R1, R2, R3 are some chemical groups, (CONH) are amid bonds connecting R1, R2 and R3...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Hossein Bakhtou, Asiie Olfatbakhsh, Abdolkhaegh Deezagi, Ghasem Ahangari
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the common causes of mortality for women in Iran and other parts of the world. The substantial increasing rate of breast cancer in both developed and developing countries warns the scientists to provide more preventive steps and therapeutic measures. This study is conducted to investigate the impact of neurotransmitters (e.g., Dopamine) through their receptors and the importance of cancers via damaging immune system. It also evaluates dopamine receptors gene expression in the women with breast cancer at stages II or III and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) related agonist and antagonist drug effects on human breast cancer cells, including MCF-7 and SKBR-3...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Younes Najafian, Zahra Mazloum, Mona Najaf Najafi, Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Marjan Mahjour, Zohre Feyzabadi
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the most common complications of diabetic patients. Mostly, non-healing DFU leads to infection, gangrene, amputation and even death. High costs and poor healing of the wounds need a new treatment such as alternative medicine. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe vera/ Plantago major gel (Plantavera gel) in healing of DFU. METHODS: Forty patients with DFU enrolled in a double-blind randomized clinical trial...
January 14, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Deepika Sharma, Anjleena Malhotra, Ranju Bansal
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine (ser/thr) kinase that was originally identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism and coupled with insulin signaling. Due to multifunctionality of this enzyme, it is found to play an important role in the onset and progression of various human diseases. Thiazole nucleus has received special attention by medicinal chemists because of its wide therapeutic potential. The objective of this review is to cover all the aspects of GSK-3β enzyme including its clinical implications, types of inhibitors with special reference to thiazole as GSK-3β inhibitor...
January 4, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Yuriy Shckorbatov, Dmitriy Miroshnik, Igor Kovalenko
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic which inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis intercalating DNA double helix and inducing free radicals. Doxorubicin is used in treatment of cancer diseases. The influence of Doxorubicin on human buccal cell was used as a model for assessment of toxic effects in vitro. OBJECTIVE: We studied the possibility of using the process of heterochromatinization in cell nuclei in toxicological investigations of drugs in vitro...
December 6, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Subhamay Panda, Leena Kumari, Santamay Panda
BACKGROUND: Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
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