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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Abdulla Shehab, Khalid F AlHabib, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathul, Ahmad Hersi, Hussam Alfaleh, Mostafa Q Alshamiri, Anhar Ullah, Khadim Sulaiman, Wael Almahmeed, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Alwai A Alsheikh-Ali, Haitham Amin, Mohammed Al Jarallah, Amar M Salam
BACKGROUND: Most of the available literature on ST-Elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women was conducted in the developed world and data from Middle-East countries was limited. AIM: To examine the clinical presentation, patient management, quality of care, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of women with acute STEMI compared with men using data from a large STEMI registry from the Middle East. METHODS: Data were derived from the third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps), a prospective, multinational study of adults with acute STEMI from 36 hospitals in 6 Middle-Eastern countries...
March 14, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Yan Sun, Xiao-Li Liu, Dai Zhang, Fang Liu, Yu-Jing Cheng, Yue Ma, Yu-Jie Zhou, Ying-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intraplaque angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels mediated by endothelial cells, contributes to plaque growth, intraplaque hemorrhage, and thromboembolic events. Platelet-derived exosomes (PLT-EXOs) affect angiogenesis in multiple ways. The ability of miR-126, one of the best-characterized miRNAs that regulates angiogenesis, carried by PLT-EXOs to influence angiogenesis via the regulation of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Panos Xaplanteris, Georgios Lazaros, Dimitrios Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Recent data advocate adoption of a more intensive treatment strategy for management of blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the overall effects of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) are applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. METHOD: In a post-hoc analysis we analyzed data from SPRINT that randomly assigned 9361 individuals to a systolic BP (SBP) target of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or <140 mmHg (standard treatment)...
March 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Zewen Chen, Lei Wang, Jun Ke, DaLiao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and experimental studies have demonstrated that intrauterine adverse environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. However, whether an individual develops a cardiovascular dysfunctional phenotype may depend on genetic background, age, and sex. METHODS: In this review, we summarize some of the recent experimental animal studies in the developmental programming of adult CVD with an emphasis on sex differences and the potential role of estrogen in mediating sexual dimorphism...
March 1, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sonja Zafirovic, Emina Sudar-Milovanovic, Milan Obradovic, Jelena Djordjevic, Nebojsa Jasnic, Milica Labudovic Borovic, Esma R Isenovic
BACKGROUND: Oestradiol is an important regulatory factor with several positive effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. We evaluated the molecular mechanism of the in vivo effects of oestradiol on the regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and activity. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with oestradiol (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and after 24 h the animals were sacrificed. The concentrations of NO and L-Arginine (L-Arg) were determined spectrophotometrically...
February 12, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Djordje Radak, Igor Atanasijevic, Mihailo Neskovic, Esma Isenovic
Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a highly prevalent condition in the general population, and it has a significant impact on quality of life. While it is usually manifested by obvious signs, such as varicose veins and venous ulcers, other symptoms of the disease are less specific. Among the other symptoms, which include heaviness, swelling, muscle cramps and restless legs, pain is the symptom that most frequently compels CVeD patients to seek medical aid. However, there is a substantial discrepancy between pain severity and clinically detectable signs of CVeD, questioned by several opposing studies...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Theodosios D Filippatos, Angelos Liontos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
Over the last 3 decades, hypolipidaemic treatment has significantly reduced both cardiovascular (CV) risk and events, with statins being the cornerstone of this achievement. Nevertheless, residual CV risk and unmet goals in hypolipidaemic treatment make novel options necessary. Recently marketed monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have shown the way towards innovation, while other ways of PCSK9 inhibition like small interfering RNA (Inclisiran) are already being tested...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Abolfazl Shakeri, Natalie Ward, Yunes Panahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa that has various pharmacological activities, including, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. The anticancer effect of curcumin is attributed to activation of apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, as well as inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis in the tumour microenvironment and suppression of tumour metastasis. Angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a fundamental step in tumour growth and expansion...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Mojca Lunder, Miodrag Janic, Miso Sabovic
In diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance progressively lead to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Whereas the incidence of microvascular complications is closely related to tight glycaemic control, this does not apply to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia influences many interweaving molecular pathways that initially lead to increased oxidative stress, increased inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The latter represents the initial in both types of vascular complications; it represents the "obligatory damage" in microvascular complications development and only "introductory damage" in macrovascular complications development...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sara Mankoc Ramus, Danijel Petrovic
Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a greater than 10-fold risk of cardiovascular disease in their lifetime. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate marker for the presence and progression of atherosclerosis, predicts future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review focuses on genetic variants that contribute to the pathobiology of subclinical atherosclerosis in the setting of T2DM...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Shanshan Wang, Brian P Head
Cardiovascular disease and associated cerebral stroke are a global epidemic attributed to genetic and epigenetic factors, such as diet, life style and an increasingly sedentary existence due to technological advances in both the developing and developed world. There are approximately 5.9 million stroke-related deaths worldwide annually. Current epidemiological data indicate that nearly 16.9 million people worldwide suffer a new or recurrent stroke yearly. In 2014 alone, 2.4% of adults in the United States (U...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Ana Peterlin, Danijel Petrovic, Borut Peterlin
Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. Currently, most of the individuals carrying a strong predisposition to complications of atherosclerosis because of monogenic dyslipidaemias remain undiagnosed and consequently are not given an opportunity for prevention. Therefore, one of the main public health challenges remains the identification of individuals with significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis due to monogenic predisposition. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genetic testing in symptomatic patients...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Fabjan Andrej, Bajrovic F Fajko
Coagulation factors can affect cellular processes that include inflammatory signaling by acting on endothelial protease activated receptors, vascular smooth muscle and inflammatory cells beyond the coagulation cascade. This is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, experimental data points to beneficial effects of coagulation protease inhibitors on the attenuation of atherosclerosis progression in animal models. However, available clinical data do not support the use of anticoagulants as an add-on treatment of atherosclerosis...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Jan Machal, Ota Hlinomaz
BACKGROUND: Various antiplatelet drugs are used following acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Of them, adenosine diphosphate receptor P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are currently used for post-ACS long-term treatment. Although they act on the same receptor, they differ in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Several enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism of P2Y12 inhibitors show genetic variability with functional impact. This includes P-glycoprotein, carboxylesterase 1 and, most notably, CYP2C19 that is important in clopidogrel activation...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Abdulla Shehab, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Tamrat Befakadu Abebe, Tadessa Melaku Abegaz, Asim Ahmed Elnour, Hani M Sabbour, Masood Uzzafer, Ahmad Hersi, Adel Khalifa Hamad
AIM: Real-world evidence from published observational studies of adherence to novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) medications and associated clinical outcome events in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, was reviewed systematically. METHODS: Observational studies assessing patient adherence to NOACs conducted on AF patients between September 2010 and June 2016 were identified by systematic searching keywords to locate eligible studies, in accordance with Cochrane guidelines...
January 22, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Thomas F Whayne
The non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that appear to be of most clinical interest include: apolipoprotein A (ApoA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 (IL1), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], the density of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, the LDL particle number, tissue/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and uric acid. These non-traditional risk factors may be of value in adding further confirmation and attention to suspected significant CV risk...
January 22, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Oliver Ian Brown, Jennifer A Rossington, Gill Louise Buchanan, Giuseppe Patti, Angela Hoye
Background and objectives The majority of patients included in trials of anti-platelet therapy are male. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether, in addition to aspirin, P2Y12 blockade is beneficial in both women and men with acute coronary syndromes. Methods Electronic databases were searched and nine eligible randomised controlled studies were identified that had sex-specific clinical outcomes (n=107,126 patients). Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke (MACE), and a safety endpoint of major bleeding for each sex...
January 22, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Hassan Al-Thani, Moamena El-Matbouly, Maryam Al-Sulaiti, Noor Al-Thani, Mohammed Asim, Ayman El-Menyar
We hypothesized that perioperative HbA1c influenced the pattern and outcomes of lower extremity amputation (LEA). A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients who underwent LEA between 2000 and 2013. Patients were categorized into 5 groups according to their perioperative HbA1c values [Group 1 (<6.5%), Group 2 (6.5-7.4%), Group 3 (7.5-8.4%), Group 4 (8.5-9.4%) and Group 5 (≥9.5%)]. We identified 848 patients with LEA; perioperative HbA1c levels were available in 547 cases (Group 1: 18.8%, Group 2: 17...
January 22, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Mohamed Farag, Nikolaos Spinthakis, Manivannan Srinivasan, Diana Adrienne Gorog
BACKGROUND: The very significant benefit of P2Y12 receptor inhibitor administration in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in reducing future ischaemic events and stent thrombosis, is undisputed. Morphine analgesia is very frequently co-administered to these patients for pain relief, along with antiplatelet therapy, at the time of presentation, and prior to reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Research and online content related to opiates use in STEMI was reviewed...
January 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Tobias Geisler, Michal Droppa, Karin Mueller, Oliver Borst
Transvascular aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a treatment option in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are inoperable and has recently been evaluated in patients with intermediate surgical risk. The number of procedures is increasing worldwide in parallel with the demographic changes in industrial countries. The risk for cerebral embolism is of main concern and represents a major determinant for prognosis and quality of live after TAVR. The empiric antithrombotic therapy consists of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT); however the risk-benefit of this approach is lacking evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials regarding choice and duration of antithrombotic treatment...
January 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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