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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Alfonso Mate, Antonio J Blanca, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Pablo Stiefel, Luis Sobrevia, Carmen M Vázquez
Pregnancy hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) are strongly correlated with insulin resistance, a condition in which the metabolic handling of D-glucose is deficient. In addition, the impact of preeclampsia is enhanced by other insulin resistant disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity. For this reason, there is a clear association among maternal insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and the development of PE. However, whether PE is a consequence or the cause of these disorders is still unclear...
November 14, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Vasiliki Katsi, Spyridon Maragkoudakis, Maria Marketou, Costas Tsioufis, Fragkiskos Parthenakis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
In recent years, the Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor [Ang-(1-7)/Mas] sub-branch of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in the brain, as well as Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors (AT2R), have attracted scientific interest, as there is evidence that they constitute an essential pathway in cardiovascular regulation, in health and in disease. By acting centrally, the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis - that has been termed 'the axis of good'- can exert blood pressure-lowering effects, while also favourably altering baroreflex sensitivity and noradrenergic neurotransmission...
November 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Megan K Ford, John R Cohn
This paper provides an overview of the pathogenesis, presentation and diagnosis of clopidogrel hypersensitivity. The majority of clopidogrel hypersensitivity cases are due to a T cell mediated Gell and Coombs Type IV reaction. History, histology, and patch testing have shown consistency with a T cell mediated mechanism. Clopidogrel reactions most commonly present as a mild delayed maculopapular erythematous rash 5 to 10 days after introduction of the drug, and do not always require discontinuation of the drug...
October 31, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Lucas Moritz Wiggenhauser, Jens Kroll
Endothelial dysfunction is an initial pathophysiological mechanism of vascular damage and is further recognized as an independent predictor of a negative prognosis in diabetes-induced micro- and macrovascular complications. Insight into the capability of zebrafish to model metabolic disease like obesity and type II diabetes has increased and new evidence on the induction of vascular pathologies in zebrafish through metabolic disease is available. Here, we raise the question, if zebrafish can be utilized to study the initial impairments of vascular complications in metabolic disorders...
October 30, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Jeffrey Bulva, Ronald A Simon
The purpose of this section is to educate the reader on how to successfully manage patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to clopidogrel using desensitization protocol based on various published protocols. Additionally we will define drug desensitization, describe the possible mechanism of how desensitization may function, alternative medication. The indications/contraindications for desensitization will be reviewed. The different published clopidogrel desensitization protocols will be discussed. Based on those protocols, we recommend a protocol we feel is safe and efficacious...
October 30, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Abdulla Shehab, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Fayez Alshamsi, Juma Al Kaab, Khalid Bin Thani, Ridha Mustafa
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of traditional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are increasing in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, outcomes after ACS are worse in patients with DM. The high prevalence of DM and an early age at onset of ACS have been described in prior publications from the Gulf Coast Database. AIM: We aimed to define the effect of DM on total mortality following ACS presentation at 30-days and 1 year based on the Gulf COAST registry database...
October 23, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Khalid Al-Rasadi, Khalid F Alhabib, Faisal Al-Allaf, Khalid Al-Waili, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Ahmad AlSarraf, Wael Almahmeed, Nasreen AlSayed, Mohammad Alghamdi, Mohammed A Batais, Turky H Almigbal, Fahad Alnouri, Abdulhalim Kinsara, Ashraf Hammouda, Zuhier Awan, Heba Kary, Omer A Elamin, Fahad Zadjali, Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Abdullah Shehab, Hani Sabbour, Haitham Amin, Hani Altaradi
AIM: To determine the prevalence, genetic characteristics, current management and outcomes of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in the Gulf region. METHOD: Adult (18-70 years) FH patients were recruited from 9 hospitals and centres across 5 Arabian Gulf countries. The study was divided into 4 phases and included patients from 3 different categories. In Phase 1, suspected FH patients (category 1) were collected according to the lipid profile and clinical data obtained through hospital record systems...
October 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Goran Koracevic, Milan Stojkovic, Dragan Lovic, Milan Pavlovic, Tomislav Kostic, Marija Kutlesic, Sladjana Micic, Maja Koracevic, Milan Djordjevic
The intention of the paper is to give rationale and to suggest enlisting Cushing's syndrome (CS) amongst high cardiovascular (CV) risk conditions. A considerable amount of data refers to several-fold amplified mortality in CS. The causes are based on high occurrence of many CV risk factors in persons with CS (e.g., adiposity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as diabetes mellitus /DM/). Therefore, practically all individuals with CS have correspondingly the metabolic syndrome (MetSy), which is known as laden with high CV risk...
October 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
John C Stevenson, Sophia Tsiligiannis, Nick Panay
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol...
October 2, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Tamara Saez, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Insulin resistance plays a key role in cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders. In states of insulin resistance several circulating factors may contribute to a defective insulin sensitivity in different tissues, including the vasculature. One of these factors influencing the vascular insulin resistance are the extracellular vesicles. The extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies which are released to the circulation by different vascular cells...
October 1, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Saeid Golbidi, Lars Edvinsson, Ismail Laher
Cigarette smoking is one the most important health concerns worldwide. Even though the rate of smoking is declining in developed countries, it is still experiencing growth in developing regions. Many studies have examined the relationship between smoking, as an established risk factor, and cardiovascular diseases. We provide an updated review of the underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced cardiovascular diseases, with a focus on the relationship between smoking and oxidative stress, particularly from the perspective of endothelial cell dysfunction...
September 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Marco A Ramirez, Ana R Beltran, Jorge E Araya, Marcelo Cornejo, Fernando Toledo, Gonzalo Fuentes, Luis Sobrevia
The maintenance of the pH homeostasis is maintained by several mechanisms including the efflux of protons (H+) via membrane transporters expressed in almost all mammalian cells. Along these membrane transporters the sodium/H+ exchangers (NHEs), mainly NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), plays a key role in this phenomenon. NHE1 is under modulation by several environmental conditions (v.g., hyperglycaemia, protein kinase C activity) as well as hormones, including insulin. NHE1 activation causes intracellular alkalization in human endothelial cells leading to activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to generate NO...
September 10, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Evangelia Mareti, Christina Ampatzi, Stavroula A Paschou, Evangelia Voziki, Dimitrios G Goulis
INTRODUCTION: Menopause is associated with adverse effects on quality of life of peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women. It also has an impact on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hormonal treatments are the most effective medications for menopausal symptoms relief. Given the fact that hormonal treatments are contraindicated for many women, non-hormonal treatment, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine and phytoestrogens, constitute alternative treatments...
September 10, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sezcan Mumusoglu, Bulent Okan Yildiz
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises individual components including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension and it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The menopause per se increases the incidence of MetS in aging women. The effect(s) of menopause on individual components of MetS include: i) increasing central obesity with changes in the fat tissue distribution, ii) potential increase in insulin resistance, iii) changes in serum lipid concentrations, which seem to be associated with increasing weight rather than menopause itself, and, iv) an association between menopause and hypertension, although available data are inconclusive...
September 3, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Niki Katsiki, Filippos Triposkiadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
K Pafili, G Trypsianis, D Papazoglou, E Maltezos, N Papanas
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Their simultaneous development remains disputable. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between CAN and the presence/severity of DSPN in DM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects with type 1 (group A: n=51; mean age 40.4 years) and type 2 DM (group B: n=153; mean age 64...
August 29, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Camilla Krizhanovskii, Anders Franco-Cereceda
Epidemiological evidence supports reduced prevalence of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this negative association are unknown. Some studies support that hyperglycemia has effects on the extracellular matrix, resulting in collagen cross-links and altered proteolytic activity, which ultimately counteracts aneurysm formation. However, recent experimental research indicates that incretin-based anti-diabetic therapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may ameliorate formation of TAA...
August 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Irene Lambrinoudaki, Eleni Armeni
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of reproductive age. The hormonal alterations of PCOS have been linked with a higher risk of metabolic disturbances in young, reproductively active women. However, it remains to be clarified whether the presence of PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Aging ameliorates the clinical manifestations of PCOS; hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic abnormalities, however, persist beyond the menopause...
August 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Michael P Savage, David L Fischman
Clopidogrel is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. It plays an essential therapeutic role in a variety of vascular conditions including acute coronary syndromes, ischemic heart disease treated with coronary stents, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel are not uncommon and lead to its discontinuation in 1-2% of patients. Clopidogrel hypersensitivity is especially problematic in patients with newly implanted drug-eluting coronary stents. Premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy after recent coronary intervention is the most important risk factor for stent thrombosis...
August 20, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Julia Carracedo, Matilde Alique, Rafael Ramirez-Carracedo, Guillermo Bodega, Rafael Ramirez
Endothelial senescence-associated with aging or induced prematurely in pathological situations, such as diabetes, is a first step in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. The main mechanism that links endothelial senescence and the progression of CVD is the production of altered extracellular vesicles (EVs) by senescent endothelial cells among them, microvesicles (MVs). MVs are recognized as intercellular signaling elements that play a key role in regulating tissue homeostasis...
August 19, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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