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Current Vascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595561/sexual-dysfunction-cardiovascular-risk-and-effects-of-pharmacotherapy
#1
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Asterios Karagiannis, Vasilios G Athyros
Sexual dysfunction affects millions of people with an increasing prevalence, worldwide. The pathophysiology of the disease shares several similarities with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, structural vascular damage and subclinical inflammation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) and female sexual dysfunction are common among patients with CVD and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Given the common pathogenesis of the diseases, ED is an independent prognostic factor of future ED events...
June 9, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595560/vitamin-d-is-related-to-markers-of-vulnerable-plaque-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Nahuel Fernandez Machulsky, Magalí Barchuk, Juan Gagliardi, Diego González, Micaela Lombardo, Alejandro García Escudero, Gerardo Gigena, Federico Blanco, Laura Schreier, Bibiana Fabre, Gabriela Berg
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin involved in calcium and bone metabolism; recently its deficiency has been related to cardiovascular disease. In cardiac tissue, vitamin D suppresses metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, enzymes directly associated with vulnerable plaque. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between vitamin D and leptin is related to markers of vulnerable plaque, such as MMPs in patients with acute myocardial infarction...
June 9, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554308/lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#3
Magdaléna Dušejovská, Barbora Staňková, Marek Vecka, Jana Rychlíková, Magdaléna Mokrejšová, Ivan Rychlík, Aleš Žák
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit high morbidity as well as mortality for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, we investigated differences in individual lipoprotein classes and subclasses in ESRD patients under chronic high volume hemodiafiltration (HV-HDF) in comparison with a control group. We also assessed the prognosis of these patients and analyzed these parameters after 5 years follow-up. METHODS: 57 patients and 50 controls were enrolled...
May 29, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552072/alterations-in-plasma-triglyceride-concentrations-following-two-oral-meals-with-different-fat-content-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Paraskevi Gavra, Andreas Mellidonis, Stella Iraklianou, Constantinos Mihas, Vana Kolovou, Sophie Mavrogeni, George Dimitriadis, Loukianos Rallidis, Kaliopi Vasaramva, Eleni Boutati, Niki Katsiki, Genovefa Kolovou
BACKGROUND: Enhanced postprandial lipaemia has been reported in patients with obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We compared 2 oral fat meal tests (LIPOLD: 149g of fat, 56g of carbohydrates and 11.7g of proteins administrated per 2m2 of body surface) and LIPOTEST: 75g of fat, 25g of carbohydrates and 10g of protein with the addition of 15g common sugar) with regard to changes in triglycerides (TGs) as well as other cardiometabolic parameters between baseline and 4 h after the meals METHODS: We studied 21 men [median age (interquartile range; IQR) = 65 (16) years] with well-controlled T2DM [median glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (IQR) = 6...
May 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552071/vitamin-d-levels-in-middle-aged-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome
#5
K Archontogeorgis, E Nena, N Papanas, A Zissimopoulos, A Voulgaris, M Xanthoudaki, V Manolopoulos, M Froudarakis, P Steiropoulos
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (Vit D) insufficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), a disorder associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, has been associated with lowered Vit D levels, but reports are inconclusive. AIM: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of Vit D status, and anthropometric and sleep characteristics of OSAS patients and to compare those levels between OSAS patients and non-apnoeic controls...
May 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552070/lifestyle-changes-among-acs-survivors-in-arabian-gulf-countries-gulf-coast-registry
#6
F Al-Roomi, A Khesroh, I Al-Zakwani, S Attur, W Rashed, M Zubaid
We described lifestyle changes one year after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among patients in Arabian Gulf countries. Data of patients admitted to 29 hospitals in 4 countries with the diagnosis of ACS were analysed from Gulf citizens with ACS events (Gulf COAST) registry. A total of 3565 ACS patients recruited in the Gulf COAST registry had a one-year follow up available. There was a significant correlation between return to work and the age of patient (p < .001). At one-year post ACS, the majority were performing their usual activities (93%), but only 39% were exercising...
May 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595535/current-evidence-and-future-perspectives-on-anti-platelet-and-statin-pharmacotherapy-for-patients-with-symptomatic-peripheral-arterial-disease
#7
Panagiotis Kitrou, Konstantinos Katsanos, Dimitris Karnabatidis, Lazaros Reppas, Elias Brountzos, Stavros Spiliopoulos
Pharmacotherapy is of increasing interest in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), with novel therapies aiming at different factors contributing to the disease. For antiplatelet therapy, there is no unanimous agreement regarding the nature or duration of optimal antiplatelet therapy so as to reduce major adverse cardiovascular and limb-related events (e.g. repeat interventions and amputations). However, evidence on novel more potent antithrombotic agents, drug combinations and personalized antiplatelet therapy for PAD patients is accumulating...
May 4, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490313/radial-vs-femoral-approach-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#8
Matteo Nardin, Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Alon Schaffer, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Substantial improvements have been achieved with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Nevertheless, bleeding still affects outcomes. The radial approach for PCI has shown important benefits on access site complications, but is still not achieving universal consensus as first choice in acute settings. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing radial vs femoral approach in PCI for ACS...
May 4, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464775/renoprotection-by-direct-renin-inhibition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Nikolaos Louvis, James Coulson
Even mild abnormalities of the renal structure or function can increase the risk of mortality and complications in other organs. Therefore, safe and effective treatments are necessary in order to influence the progression of renal disease. We used 2 methods to assess the renoprotective effects of aliskiren: 1) a statistical analysis of clinical trials that investigated aliskiren-induced renoprotection, in terms of changes in serum creatinine concentration (sCr) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and, 2) clinical trials that investigated the renoprotective effects of aliskiren with respect to changes in albuminuria or proteinuria...
May 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462724/non-pharmacological-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-for-heart-failure-treatment-where-do-we-stand
#10
Costas Tsioufis, Panayiotis Iliakis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Dragan Lovic, Dimitrios Petras, Michalis Doumas, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a central pathophysiologic mechanism in heart failure (HF) and has been a principal target of treatment in these patients. Traditional pharmacologic agents do not provide specific modulation of discrete arms of the ANS, while side effects may lead to poor tolerance. Technological advances have provided a series of invasive methods that may provide a focused effect on the ANS in selected patient groups. Renal denervation, initially targeted for patients with resistant hypertension, has given positive preliminary results in terms of heart structure and function...
April 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460626/capillary-degeneration-and-right-ventricular-remodeling-due-to-hypoxic-stress-with-sugen5416
#11
Eiki Woo, Ryuji Kato, Hideki Imano, Yuji Fujiwara, Yoshio Ijiri, Yoshikatsu Okada, Takehiro Yamaguchi, Yasukatsu Izumi, Minoru Yoshiyama, Takahiro Katsumata, Tetsuya Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Sugen5416 (semaxinib) is an inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor. A rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), created with Sugen5416 and chronic hypoxia, is known to have similar histological findings as those of PAH patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling due to hypoxic stress with Sugen5416 in vivo. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia (10±1% O2) for 2 weeks after a single injection of Sugen5416 (SU-hypoxia group) or the vehicle (V-hypoxia group)...
April 27, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462715/clinical-value-of-measuring-the-renin-aldosterone-levels-optimising-the-management-of-uncontrolled-resistant-hypertension
#12
Michalis Doumas, Chrysoula Boutari, Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Areti Triantafyllou, Stella Douma
Resistant hypertension (HT) is a common clinical entity with debilitating cardiovascular consequences. The highly heterogeneous nature of resistant HT requires a meticulous work-up to exclude 'pseudo-resistance' and secondary forms of arterial HT. Resistant HT has recently gained wide scientific interest due to the introduction of interventional methods (renal sympathetic denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation) for blood pressure (BP) reduction in this patient population. Despite however the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and the clinical characteristics of the disease, the appropriate management of resistant HT remains elusive...
April 26, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462714/renal-denervation-therapy-can-it-contribute-to-better-blood-pressure-control-in-hypertension
#13
Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Athanasios Kordalis, Michalis Doumas, Dimitris Konstantinidis, Theodoros Kalos, Felix Mahfoud, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Although the first results from studies suggested important benefits regarding blood pressure (BP) control in resistant hypertension by the use of diverse systems of renal denervation (RDN) in the setting of resistant hypertension, the Symplicity HTN-3, randomized sham-controlled trial reduced the enthusiasm and led to a more critical approach towards this neuromodulation innovative therapy. Nowadays there is an ongoing research attempt to justify the pathophysiological background of RDN since overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system is one of the key mechanisms leading to the development and progression of the hypertensive and cardiovascular diseases...
April 26, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413970/optimizing-the-management-of-uncontrolled-resistant-hypertension-the-importance-of-sleep-apnoea-syndrome
#14
Jacek Wolf, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) constitutes the most prevalent form of abnormal respiratory control during sleep in adults. Evidence linked OSA to cardiovascular disease, and the role of OSA in abnormal blood pressure (BP) control has been extensively studied. Although longitudinal trials suggest a causative role of OSA in the development of hypertension, the evidence is not fully consistent. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) applied during sleep is well documented and a highly efficient therapeutic aid to eliminate OSA...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413969/optimizing-the-management-of-uncontrolled-hypertension-what-do-triple-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-add
#15
Costas Thomopoulos, Georgios Katsimagklis, Stefanos Archontakis, Georgios Skalis, Thomas Makris
Fixed-dose triple drug combinations represent one of the latest innovations of pharmacotherapy for hypertension (HT). They combine a traditional renin-angiotensin system blocker, a diuretic and a calcium channel blocker. The main benefit is the simplification of treatment regimen because 3 different agents are combined at different doses in a single pill. Improving adherence to treatment partly explains why this kind of combination may effectively reduce blood pressure (BP). BP lowering by a single-pill triple-drug combination can be approximately predicted, by using appropriate formulas described in previous meta-analysis of randomized trials...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413968/hypertension-and-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-connecting-the-dots
#16
Costas Tsioufis, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Dimitrios Oikonomou, Costas Thomopoulos, Niki Katsiki, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Christina Chrysochoou, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Theodoros Kalos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) accounts for approximately 50% of HF cases and its prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF is rising. Hypertension (HT) is the most common co-morbidity in HFpEF patients and it is implicated in both the pathogenesis and the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, HT is a modifiable risk factor of high yield in HFpEF. We reviewed the literature for epidemiologic data supporting the co-aggregation of the two entities as well as patho-physiologic mechanisms linking HT to HFpEF...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413967/uncontrolled-hypertension-and-oncology-clinical-%C3%AE-ips
#17
Rigas G Kalaitzidis, Moses S Elisaf
Angiogenesis is fundamental for tumour development and progression. Thus, anti-angiogenic agents have been developed and are mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors. However, these agents commonly exhibit cardiac and renal toxicity, proteinuria and hypertension (HT). In fact, with the use of anti-angiogenic agents a rapiddose-dependent increaseof blood pressure (BP) is observed. Thepossible mechanisms of VEGF inhibitors-induced HTinclude systemic endothelial dysfunction, renal impairment as well as vascular micro- and macroangiopathy...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in more than 80% of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-dialytic interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412912/the-socioeconomic-effects-of-uncontrolled-hypertension
#19
Kostas Athanasakis
Hypertension (HT), albeit a modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, remains one of the main contributors to the total disease burden internationally and, thus, inevitably one of the basic cost drivers in healthcare systems. Taking the above into account, this brief narrative review aims at presenting the main findings of the international health economics literature on HTwith regards to four key areas: a) the costs attributable to HT, b) the effects of HTon patient well-being, c) the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions against high blood pressure, and, d) the costs and benefits of preventive measures against HT...
April 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412911/pharmacological-therapy-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-an-update
#20
Yi-Dong Wang, Zhen-Jie Liu, Jun Ren, Mei-Xiang Xiang
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a progressive segmental abdominal aortic dilation, is associated with high mortality. AAA is characterized by inflammation, smooth muscle cell (SMC) depletion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Surgical intervention and endovascular therapy are recommended to prevent rupture of large AAAs. Unfortunately, there is no reliable pharmacological agent available to limit AAA expansion. In the past decades, extensive investigations and a body of ongoing clinical trials aimed at defining potent treatments to inhibit and even regress AAA growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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