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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Saeid Golbidi, Lars Edvinsson, Ismail Laher
Cigarette smoking is one the most important health concerns worldwide. Even though the rate of smoking is declining in developed countries, it is still experiencing growth in developing regions. Many studies have examined the relationship between smoking, as an established risk factor, and cardiovascular diseases. We provide an updated review of the underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced cardiovascular diseases, with a focus on the relationship between smoking and oxidative stress, particularly from the perspective of endothelial cell dysfunction...
September 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Marco A Ramirez, Ana R Beltran, Jorge E Araya, Marcelo Cornejo, Fernando Toledo, Gonzalo Fuentes, Luis Sobrevia
The maintenance of the pH homeostasis is maintained by several mechanisms including the efflux of protons (H+) via membrane transporters expressed in almost all mammalian cells. Along these membrane transporters the sodium/H+ exchangers (NHEs), mainly NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), plays a key role in this phenomenon. NHE1 is under modulation by several environmental conditions (v.g., hyperglycaemia, protein kinase C activity) as well as hormones, including insulin. NHE1 activation causes intracellular alkalization in human endothelial cells leading to activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to generate NO...
September 10, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Evangelia Mareti, Christina Ampatzi, Stavroula A Paschou, Evangelia Voziki, Dimitrios G Goulis
INTRODUCTION: Menopause is associated with adverse effects on quality of life of peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women. It also has an impact on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hormonal treatments are the most effective medications for menopausal symptoms relief. Given the fact that hormonal treatments are contraindicated for many women, non-hormonal treatment, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine and phytoestrogens, constitute alternative treatments...
September 10, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sezcan Mumusoglu, Bulent Okan Yildiz
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises individual components including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension and it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The menopause per se increases the incidence of MetS in aging women. The effect(s) of menopause on individual components of MetS include: i) increasing central obesity with changes in the fat tissue distribution, ii) potential increase in insulin resistance, iii) changes in serum lipid concentrations, which seem to be associated with increasing weight rather than menopause itself, and, iv) an association between menopause and hypertension, although available data are inconclusive...
September 3, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Niki Katsiki, Filippos Triposkiadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
K Pafili, G Trypsianis, D Papazoglou, E Maltezos, N Papanas
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Their simultaneous development remains disputable. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between CAN and the presence/severity of DSPN in DM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects with type 1 (group A: n=51; mean age 40.4 years) and type 2 DM (group B: n=153; mean age 64...
August 29, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Camilla Krizhanovskii, Anders Franco-Cereceda
Epidemiological evidence supports reduced prevalence of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this negative association are unknown. Some studies support that hyperglycemia has effects on the extracellular matrix, resulting in collagen cross-links and altered proteolytic activity, which ultimately counteracts aneurysm formation. However, recent experimental research indicates that incretin-based anti-diabetic therapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may ameliorate formation of TAA...
August 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Irene Lambrinoudaki, Eleni Armeni
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of reproductive age. The hormonal alterations of PCOS have been linked with a higher risk of metabolic disturbances in young, reproductively active women. However, it remains to be clarified whether the presence of PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Aging ameliorates the clinical manifestations of PCOS; hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic abnormalities, however, persist beyond the menopause...
August 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Michael P Savage, David L Fischman
Clopidogrel is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. It plays an essential therapeutic role in a variety of vascular conditions including acute coronary syndromes, ischemic heart disease treated with coronary stents, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel are not uncommon and lead to its discontinuation in 1-2% of patients. Clopidogrel hypersensitivity is especially problematic in patients with newly implanted drug-eluting coronary stents. Premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy after recent coronary intervention is the most important risk factor for stent thrombosis...
August 20, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Julia Carracedo, Matilde Alique, Rafael Ramirez-Carracedo, Guillermo Bodega, Rafael Ramirez
Endothelial senescence-associated with aging or induced prematurely in pathological situations, such as diabetes, is a first step in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. The main mechanism that links endothelial senescence and the progression of CVD is the production of altered extracellular vesicles (EVs) by senescent endothelial cells among them, microvesicles (MVs). MVs are recognized as intercellular signaling elements that play a key role in regulating tissue homeostasis...
August 19, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Asim N Cheema
Clopidogrel remains a widely used antiplatelet agent for patients with established or high risk of atherothrombotic disease, particularly those treated with coronary, carotid or peripheral endovascular stenting. Clopidogrel hypersensitivity is an uncommon but well established adverse drug reaction presenting a challenge for patient management. The clinical presentation ranges from focal or diffuse cutaneous manifestations in most patients to angioedema in some and a systemic immune response in rare cases. The treatment options include drug discontinuation with or without desensitization therapy, switching to alternate ADP receptor antagonists or administration of oral steroids while continuing clopidogrel in patients at high risk of adverse events with clopidogrel discontinuation...
August 19, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
James K Liao, Adam Oesterle
Statins, 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have been used for decades for the prevention of coronary artery disease and stroke. They act primarily by lowering serum cholesterol through the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver, which results in the upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver. This results in the removal of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Studies have suggested that statins may demonstrate additional effects that are independent of their effects on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol...
August 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Varut Lohsiriwat, Vincent G Wilson, John H Scholefield, Michael R Dashwood
OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and protein levels in human haemorrhoids and rectal tissue Methods: Protein expression of NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 were compared between haemorrhoids (n=14) and normal rectal submucosa (n=6) using Western blot analysis. Localisation of all NOS isoforms to specific structures was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed median (interquartile range) protein levels of all NOS isoforms were 1...
July 29, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
A Ather, C J Beavers
Clopidogrel is a widely used agent for secondary prevention of vascular events and is a cornerstone of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) post coronary stent implantation. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel are well documented and may range from localized to systemic in presentation. This can lead to discontinuation of therapy, thus increasing the risk of vascular events. The authors have developed recommendations for potential alternative agents for the management of clopidogrel hypersensitivity reactions...
July 29, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Alec Vishnevsky, Michael P Savage, David L Fischman
Despite the advent of newer antiplatelet therapies, clopidogrel remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with cardiovascular disease, especially those who undergo coronary stent implantation. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel that develop soon after stenting present a significant clinical challenge. The widespread use of clopidogrel in the management of patients with coronary artery disease necessitates awareness of treatment options in the setting of an allergic reaction. It has been demonstrated that clopidogrel hypersensitivity can be successfully managed without interrupting clopidogrel therapy...
July 29, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
S Mohammad, Hoang Nguyen, M Nguyen, M Abdel-Rasoul, V Nguyen, C D Nguyen, K T Nguyen, L Li, J P Kitzmiller
BACKGROUND: Statins are effective for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. They also have systemic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties suggesting potential utility for improving clinical outcomes for a wide range of diseases. The literature provides data suggesting benefit in patients with comorbidities associated with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, head injury, neurological disease (e...
July 23, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Francesca Cortese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Vasiliki Venetsanaki, Stergios A Polyzos
There is increasing evidence that menopause is associated with the progression and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Estrogen deficiency worsens non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice models with fatty liver. The prevalence of NAFLD seems to be higher in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Although more data are needed, lower serum estradiol levels are associated with NASH in postmenopausal women. Apart from estrogen deficiency, relative androgen excess and decrease in sex hormone-binding protein are observed in postmenopausal women...
July 11, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A Paschou, Niki Katsiki, Dimitrios Krikidis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Dimitrios G Goulis
Transition to menopause is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, mainly attributed to lipid and glucose metabolism dysregulation, as well as to body fat redistribution, leading to abdominal obesity. Indeed, epidemiological evidence suggests that both early menopause (EM, defined as age at menopause <45 years) and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, defined as age at menopause <40 years) are associated with 1.5-2-fold increase in CVD risk. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) exerts a favorable effect on CVD risk factors (with subtle differences regarding estrogen dose, route of administration, monotherapy or combination with progestogen and type of progestogen)...
July 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Gabriella Ricci, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Paola Giordano, Francesca Cortese
Cardiovascular diseases secondary to atherosclerosis are the primary causes of early death and disability worldwide and dyslipidaemia represents one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Among lipid abnormalities that define it, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary target of therapy, since multiple randomized controlled trials have shown the positive impact of its reduction on atherosclerosis development. For their ability to lower LDL-C levels, statins are the most studied drugs in cardiovascular disease prevention, of proven utility in slowing the progression or even determining regression of atherosclerosis...
July 6, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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