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Current Vascular Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901848/pulmonary-hypertension-secondary-to-left-heart-disease
#1
Ghazal Kabbach, Debabrata Mukherjee
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) related to left heart disease (LHD) is the most common form of PH, accounting for more than two third of all PH cases. The hemodynamic abnormalities seen in PH-LHD are complex, and there are currently minimal evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. While it is accepted that PH in the context of left heart disease is a marker of worse prognosis, it remains unclear whether its primary treatment is beneficial or harmful. In this article, we discuss the prevalence and significance of PH in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) as well as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and those with valvular heart disease and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interrelationship in individuals with PH due to left heart disease...
September 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875831/animal-models-of-focal-cerebral-ischaemia-and-haemorrhagic-transformation-considerations-in-experimental-stroke-study-design
#2
Jennifer A Shearer, Andrew S Douglas, Brian P Kirby, Turgut Tatlisumak, Karen M Doyle
Ischaemic stroke is often complicated with haemorrhage within the infarct zone or in a remote location especially when treated with intravenous thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy. While these early recanalisation treatments are highly effective, some of the benefit is lost because of haemorrhagic complications and consequential neurological deterioration of the patients. A number of mechanisms have been described that mediate the haemorrhagic changes and several agents have been tested in experimental models for inhibiting post stroke haemorrhage...
September 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875830/is-there-an-association-between-periodontitis-and-atherosclerosis-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Anna Paula Costa Ponte Sousa Carvalho Almeida, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes Fagundes, Lucianne Cople Maia, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the cardiovascular system. It has been suggested that periodontitis, an infectious disease of oral cavity caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, could be linked to atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence between the association of periodontitis and atherosclerosis in adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in 7 databases up to January 2017, according to the Preferential Reports for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines...
August 30, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828980/single-pill-triple-fixed-dose-combination-therapy-with-single-component-drug-monitoring-in-treatment-resistant-hypertension-a-pilot-study
#4
Reinhold Kreutz, Jurgen Scholze, Antonios Douros
BACKGROUND: Single-pill fixed dose combination (FDC) therapies are widely used in the treatment of arterial hypertension. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a FDC therapy combined with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) on blood pressure (BP) in patients with treatment resistant hypertension. METHOD: The study population included patients with suspected treatment-resistant hypertension during treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs...
August 21, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828979/chronic-latent-magnesium-deficiency-in-obesity-decreases-positive-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-cardiometabolic-risk-indicators
#5
Edita Stokic, Andrea Romani, Branislava Ilincic, Aleksandar Kupusinac, Zoran Stosic, Esma R Isenovic
BACKGROUND: Obesity and micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases such are type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We examined the frequency of concomitant deficit of magnesium (Mg) and vitamin D in obese patients and evaluated the connection of these combined deficiencies with indicators of cardiometabolic risk in non-diabetic subjects. METHOD: Non-diabetic middle aged adults (n = 80; mean age 36 ± 4 years, 52% women) were recruited based on weight/adiposity parameters [i...
August 21, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820057/impact-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-angiotensin-receptors-blockers-on-mortality-in-acute-heart-failure-patients-with-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-the-middle-east-observations-from-the-gulf-acute-heart-failure-registry-gulf-care
#6
Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Kadhim Sulaiman, Jawad A Al-Lawati, Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali, Prashanth Panduranga, Khalid F AlHabib, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Wael Al-Mahmeed, Hussam AlFaleh, Abdelfatah Elasfar, Ahmed Al-Motarreb, Mustafa Ridha, Bassam Bulbanat, Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Nooshin Bazargani, Nidal Asaad, Haitham Amin
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) on in-hospital, 3- and 12-month all-cause mortality in acute heart failure (AHF) patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in 7 countries of the Middle East. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data was analysed from 2,683 consecutive patients admitted with AHF and low ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (<40%) from 47 hospitals from February to November, 2012...
August 17, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762307/oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-their-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-peripheral-artery-disease-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Salvatore Santo Signorelli, Niki Katsiki
Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a common vascular disease, has been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality as well as all-cause death. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) predisposes to PAD development. In T2DM patients, PAD further increases the risk for CV disease and death as well as foot morbidity and microvascular complications. The present narrative review discusses the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD with or without the presence of T2DM...
July 31, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745215/nitroxyl-anion-mediates-relaxation-in-mesenteric-arteries-from-angiotensin-ii-hypertensive-mice
#8
Brandi M Wynne, Hicham Labazi, Rita C Tostes, R Clinton Webb
AIMS: Nitroxyl anion (HNO) has recently become an emerging candidate in vascular regulation. NO- is a potent vasodilator of both conduit and small resistance vessels and mediates relaxation in a soluble guanylate cyclase-dependent manner. Interestingly, HNO activates voltage-dependent K+ (K+V) channels, whereas nitric oxide (NO) activates calcium-activated K+ channels. To date, there are few studies investigating the role of HNO in hypertension, and the possible mechanisms, which may be altered during this condition...
July 25, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707604/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-hyperlipidaemia-a-review-based-on-data-mining-from-1990-to-2016
#9
Liang Dai, Aiping Lu, Linda L D Zhong, Guang Zheng, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that the reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels provides cardiovascular protection; therefore LDL-C is considered to be a core therapeutic target in anti-hyperlipidaemia treatment. However, the LDL-C goal attainment is often not satisfied in China with conventional lipid-lowering agents. Many patients seek help from Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM). To further understand the current use of CHM in hyperlipidaemia, we conducted a review based on a systematic literature search and data mining...
July 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707603/ginseng-for-the-treatment-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#10
Hye Won Lee, Hyun- Ja Lim, Ji Hee Jun, Jiae Choi, Myeong Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Evidence of ginseng for reducing blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is controversial. This systematic review updated the previous reviews and evidence for it. METHODS: Ten databases were searched from their inception through October 2016, without language restriction. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included if any types of ginseng were tested as the sole treatment or as an adjunct to other treatments for pre-hypertension or hypertension...
July 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707602/ginkgo-biloba-extract-in-vascular-protection-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-applications
#11
Jinfan Tian, Yue Liu, Keji Chen
Background Leaves of Ginkgo biloba, a "living fossil," have been used as traditional herbal medicine for hundreds of years in China. Currently, its application in vascular protection is gaining much attention. Methods In this manuscript, preclinical studies were reviewed to discuss various mechanisms underlying the vascular protection by Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). Additionally, we reviewed clinical studies to present the application of GBE in the ischaemic disease. Results GBE, a commonly used as a dietary supplement, has been shown to act as an antioxidant and free-radical scavenger, a membrane stabilizer, an inhibitor of the platelet-activating factor, a vasodilator, and a regulator of metabolism...
July 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707601/potential-role-of-natural-compounds-as-anti-angiogenic-agents-in-cancer
#12
Muthu K Shanmugam, Sudha Warrier, Alan Prem Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Frank Arfuso
BACKGROUND: Neovascularization, also known as angiogenesis, is the process of capillary sprouting from pre-existing blood vessels. This physiological process is a hallmark event in normal embryonic development as blood vessels generally supply both oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body. Any disruption in this process can lead to the development of various chronic diseases, including cancer. In cancer, aberrant angiogenesis plays a prominent role in maintaining sustained tumor growth to malignant phenotypes and promoting metastasis...
July 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677510/the-management-of-dyslipidaemia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-receiving-lipid-lowering-drugs-a-sub-analysis-of-the-cepheus-findings
#13
Abdullah Shehab, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Mohamed Arafah, Ali T Al-Hinai, Wael Al Mahmeed, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Omer Al Tamimi, Shorook Al Herz, Faisal Al Anazi, Khalid Al Nemer, Othman Metwally, Akram Alkhadra, Mohammed Fakhry, Hossam Elghetany, Abdel Razak Medani, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Obaid Al Jassim, Omar Al Hallaq, Fahad Omar Ahmed S Baslaib, Mahmoud Alawadhi, Haitham Amin, Khamis Al-Hashmi, Abderrahim Oulhaj
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia is a risk factor for macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our aim was to assess the use of lipid lowering drugs (LLDs) in patients with T2DM and co-existing dyslipidaemia. METHOD: A multicentre, non-interventional survey conducted in 6 Middle Eastern countries (Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait). Patients with T2DM (n = 3338) who received LLD treatment for ≥3 months with no dose change for ≥6 weeks were enrolled...
July 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677509/therapy-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-children-an-emerging-role-of-electroanatomical-mapping-systems
#14
Casale Matteo, Mezzetti Maurizio, Tulino Viviana, Michele Scarano, Busacca Paolo, Dattilo Giuseppe
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrhythmias are challenging diseases in childhood. Most of them in pediatric subjects (90.2%) are atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias. The standard 12-lead ECG is a highly accurate diagnostic tool but an invasive electrophysiological study is often required. The main concern about this kind of procedures is their invasive nature and the need of radiations, so antiarrhythmic agents are currently the first line therapy...
July 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669329/effect-of-low-5-mg-vs-high-20-40-mg-rosuvastatin-dose-on-24h-arterial-stiffness-central-haemodynamics-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-optimally-controlled-arterial-hypertension
#15
Eudoxia Mitsiou, Chrysoula Boutari, Vasilios Kotsis, Eleni Georgianou, Michael Doumas, Asterios Karagiannis, Vasilios G Athyros
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness (AS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are 2 related, prevalent, risk predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the effect of low dose (5 mg/day) vs high dose (20-40 mg/day) rosuvastatin on aortic elasticity and central haemodynamics as well as on NAFLD in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). PATIENTS-METHODS: Forty patients with optimally controlled AH were randomised to 2 rosuvastatin doses and followed for 6 months...
June 30, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676022/patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-are-at-high-risk-prior-to-the-event-and-lipid-management-is-underachieved-pre-and-post-hospitalization
#16
C Vlachopoulos, G Andrikopoulos, D Terentes-Printzios, S Tzeis, E K Iliodromitis, D Richter, I Mantas, A Kartalis, V Vasilikos, D Stakos, S Patsilinakos, S Lampropoulos, D Symeonidis, C Kyrpizidis, N Marinakis, N Nikas, J Lekakis, D Tousoulis, P Vardas
BACKGROUND: Current European Guidelines suggest the use of cardiovascular risk categories and also recommend using high-intensity statins for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk of ACS patients prior to the event, as well as the overall use and intensity of statins. METHOD: We enrolled 687 ACS patients (mean age 63 years, 78% males). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels upon admission were used to assess attainment of LDL-C targets...
June 21, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676027/the-co-existence-of-nash-and-chronic-kidney-disease-boosts-cardiovascular-risk-are-there-any-common-therapeutic-options
#17
Marianna Papademetriou, Vasilios G Athyros, Eleni Geladari, Michael Doumas, Costas Tsioufis, Vasilios Papademetriou
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver disease. NAFLD may evolve to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is causally related to cirrhosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. There is no generally accepted effective treatment for NAFLD/NASH. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is relatively common and might co-exist with NAFLD/NASH, aggravate one another, and increase CVD risk. Common therapies could improve outcome. Potent statins at high doses, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, ameliorate NAFLD/NASH and reduce the mortality rates by half as compared with those on the same statins but without liver disease...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676026/a-critical-approach-of-guideline-therapeutic-recommendations-for-nafld
#18
Dragan B Djordjevic, Marija Zdravkovic, Aleksandar Nagorni, Athanasios Manolis, Costas Tsioufis, Dragan Lovic
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as progressive form of the disease are associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. When NAFLD is associated with cardiovascular disease, mortality of NAFLD patients is increased due to cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of NAFLD and NASH is high, but it seems that epidemic of the disease is under-recognized and under-appreciated. Linking pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and still not well understood...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676025/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-vs-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-pathological-and-clinical-implications
#19
Chrysoula Boutari, Petros Lefkos, Vasilios G Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis, Konstantinos Tziomalos
The implications and prognosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are substantially different. The aim of the present review is to describe and compare the pathological and clinical implications of these two conditions. Patients with NASH have a higher risk of progressing to cirrhosis than patients with NAFL but without steatohepatitis, who tend to have a non-progressive disease and only a minority progresses to NASH. Patients with NASH also are at greater risk to develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and NASH is the third commonest cause of HCC...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676024/nafld-nash-an-under-recognized-epidemic
#20
Joseph Jennings, Charles Faselis, Michael D Yao
First described in 1980, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become more common although the exact incidence and prevalence is unknown. While the exact prevalence varies from region to region, the overall trend shows an increased number of patients with NAFLD. Risk factors for the development of NAFLD includes advanced age, male gender, obesity, and having elements of the metabolic syndrome. There is also an association between the presence of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerosis. Persons of Hispanic descent tend to have higher rates of NAFLD when compared with other populations...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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