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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Francesca Cortese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Vasiliki Venetsanaki, Stergios A Polyzos
There is increasing evidence that menopause is associated with the progression and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Estrogen deficiency worsens non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice models with fatty liver. The prevalence of NAFLD seems to be higher in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Although more data are needed, lower serum estradiol levels are associated with NASH in postmenopausal women. Apart from estrogen deficiency, relative androgen excess and decrease in sex hormone-binding protein are observed in postmenopausal women...
July 11, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A Paschou, Niki Katsiki, Dimitrios Krikidis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Dimitrios G Goulis
Transition to menopause is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, mainly attributed to lipid and glucose metabolism dysregulation, as well as to body fat redistribution, leading to abdominal obesity. Indeed, epidemiological evidence suggests that both early menopause (EM, defined as age at menopause <45 years) and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, defined as age at menopause <40 years) are associated with 1.5-2-fold increase in CVD risk. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) exerts a favorable effect on CVD risk factors (with subtle differences regarding estrogen dose, route of administration, monotherapy or combination with progestogen and type of progestogen)...
July 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Gabriella Ricci, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Paola Giordano, Francesca Cortese
Cardiovascular diseases secondary to atherosclerosis are the primary causes of early death and disability worldwide and dyslipidaemia represents one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Among lipid abnormalities that define it, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary target of therapy, since multiple randomized controlled trials have shown the positive impact of its reduction on atherosclerosis development. For their ability to lower LDL-C levels, statins are the most studied drugs in cardiovascular disease prevention, of proven utility in slowing the progression or even determining regression of atherosclerosis...
July 6, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Karlis, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Gerasimos Siasos, Christina Chrysohoou, Georgia Vogiatzi, Stathis Dimitropoulos, Georgios Charalambous, Evangelia Kouskouni, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Cardiac performance depends on optimum ventriculoarterial coupling which is impaired in patients with heart failure (HF). Galectin-3 is a mediator of myocardial fibrosis and remodeling, and is associated with clinical status in patients with chronic HF. We examined the association of arterial stiffness with galectin-3 levels in patients with HF of ischemic etiology. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 40 patients with stable ischemic HF and reduced ejection fraction...
July 2, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Monica Verdoia, Gennaro Galasso, Pasquale Perrone Filardi, Giuseppe De Luca
Elderly patients represent a rising social problem, due to the exponential growth of persons in these age groups and their atherothrombotic burden. The management of this population still raises several challenges, requiring a balance between elevated cardiovascular risk, clinical complexity, frailty and co-morbidities. Statins represent a main pillar in cardiovascular prevention, lowering serum cholesterol and reducing mortality and ischemic events, especially in high-risk patients. Yet, elderly patients have often been excluded from major clinical trials of statins, thus limiting the experience with these drugs in advanced age...
June 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Dimitra I Pavlou, Andromachi Vryonidou, Dimitrios G Goulis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
The aim of this review is to present, critically appraise and qualitatively synthesize current evidence on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development during menopause, the management of climacteric symptoms in women with T2DM and the management of T2DM in postmenopausal women. Menopause represents the end of reproductive life in women, as a result of ovarian aging. It is characterized by substantial decrease in the endogenous oestrogen concentrations and it is accompanied by alterations in body weight, adipose tissue distribution and energy expenditure, as well as insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and activity that can predispose to the development of T2DM, independently of, and additively to, aging...
June 25, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Matina Kouvari, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Christina Chrysohoou, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Venetia Notara, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christos Pitsavos, The Attica Greecs Studies Investigators
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle remains a huge driving force of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) onset/progression. Lifestyle-patterns are highly dependent on gender-related attitudes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender-specific association of lifestyle-related factors (adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity (PA), smoking) on 10-year first and recurrent CVD events. METHOD: Two prospective studies, the ATTICA (2002-2012, n=3,042 subjects free-of-CVD) and GREECS (2004-2014, n=2,172 subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) were used...
June 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Kallirroi I Kalantzi, Ioannis V Ntalas, Vasileios G Chantzichristos, Maria E Tsoumani, Dimitrios Adamopoulos, Christos Asimakopoulos, Adamantios Bourdakis, Petros Darmanis, Alexandra Dimitriadou, Stefanos Gkiokas, Konstantinos Ipeirotis, Kyriaki Kitikidou, Ioannis Klonaris, Aglaia Kostaki, Dimitrios Logothetis, Konstantinos Mainas, Theodoros Mais, Athanasios Maragiannis, Konstantina Martiadou, Konstantinos Mavronasos, Ioannis Michelongonas, Dimitrios Mitropoulos, Georgios Papadimitriou, Achilleas Papadopoulos, Miltiadis Papaioakeim, Kosmas Sofillas, Sotiria Stabola, Emmanouil Stefanakis, Dimitrios Stergiou, Maria Thoma, Alexandros Zenetos, Stergios Zisekas, John A Goudevenos, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Alexandros D Tselepis
BACKGROUND: Triflusal has demonstrated an efficacy similar to aspirin in the prevention of vascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (ΜΙ) and ischaemic stroke but with less bleeding events. OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomised, multicentre, phase 4 clinical trial to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of triflusal versus aspirin, administered for 12 months in patients eligible to receive a cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor. METHOD: Patients with stable coronary artery disease or with a history of non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke were randomly assigned to receive either triflusal 300 mg twice or 600 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily for 12 months...
June 4, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
George Kassimis, Tushar Raina, Dimitrios Alexopoulos
Aspirin plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with well recognised benefits of reducing recurrent myocardial infarction and minimising the risk of stent thrombosis for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Dual antiplatelet therapy is mandated for patients undergoing PCI and typically consists of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Aspirin hypersensitivity poses a significant clinical dilemma, as the safety and efficacy of oral antiplatelet combinations that exclude aspirin have not been validated...
June 3, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
M Kidawa, A Gluba-Brzozka, M Zielinska, B Franczyk, M Banach, J Rysz
BACKGROUND: There is a close relationship between lipid metabolism disorders and atherosclerosis. Guidelines focus on lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, it should be kept in mind that LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) consist of subfractions which can affect the progression of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the concentration of LDL and HDL subfractions in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on LDL and HDL subfractions was also analysed...
May 31, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Munehisa Bekki, Nobuhiro Tahara, Atsuko Tahara, Sachiyo Igata, Akihiro Honda, Yoichi Sugiyama, Tomohisa Nakamura, Jiahui Sun, Yuki Kumashiro, Takanori Matsui, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
BACKGROUND: We have found that anagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4) significantly ameliorates arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared with an equivalent hypoglycaemic agent, glimepiride. However, it remains unclear whether switching DPP-4 inhibitors to tofogliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) improves arterial stiffness in T2DM patients. METHODS: Nineteen T2DM patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitors for at least 1 year were enrolled in this study...
May 15, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Abdulla Shehab, Khalid F AlHabib, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Ahmad Hersi, Hussam Alfaleh, Mostafa Q Alshamiri, Anhar Ullah, Khadim Sulaiman, Wael Almahmeed, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Alwai A Alsheikh-Ali, Haitham Amin, Mohammed Al Jarallah, Amar M Salam
BACKGROUND: Most of the available literature on ST-Elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women was conducted in the developed world and data from Middle-East countries was limited. AIM: To examine the clinical presentation, patient management, quality of care, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of women with acute STEMI compared with men using data from a large STEMI registry from the Middle East. METHODS: Data were derived from the third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps), a prospective, multinational study of adults with acute STEMI from 36 hospitals in 6 Middle-Eastern countries...
March 14, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Yan Sun, Xiao-Li Liu, Dai Zhang, Fang Liu, Yu-Jing Cheng, Yue Ma, Yu-Jie Zhou, Ying-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intraplaque angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels mediated by endothelial cells, contributes to plaque growth, intraplaque hemorrhage, and thromboembolic events. Platelet-derived exosomes (PLT-EXOs) affect angiogenesis in multiple ways. The ability of miR-126, one of the best-characterized miRNAs that regulates angiogenesis, carried by PLT-EXOs to influence angiogenesis via the regulation of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Panos Xaplanteris, Georgios Lazaros, Dimitrios Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Recent data advocate adoption of a more intensive treatment strategy for management of blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the overall effects of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) are applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. METHOD: In a post-hoc analysis we analyzed data from SPRINT that randomly assigned 9361 individuals to a systolic BP (SBP) target of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or <140 mmHg (standard treatment)...
March 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Zewen Chen, Lei Wang, Jun Ke, DaLiao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and experimental studies have demonstrated that intrauterine adverse environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. However, whether an individual develops a cardiovascular dysfunctional phenotype may depend on genetic background, age, and sex. METHODS: In this review, we summarize some of the recent experimental animal studies in the developmental programming of adult CVD with an emphasis on sex differences and the potential role of estrogen in mediating sexual dimorphism...
March 1, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sonja Zafirovic, Emina Sudar-Milovanovic, Milan Obradovic, Jelena Djordjevic, Nebojsa Jasnic, Milica Labudovic Borovic, Esma R Isenovic
BACKGROUND: Oestradiol is an important regulatory factor with several positive effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. We evaluated the molecular mechanism of the in vivo effects of oestradiol on the regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and activity. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with oestradiol (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and after 24 h the animals were sacrificed. The concentrations of NO and L-Arginine (L-Arg) were determined spectrophotometrically...
February 12, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Djordje Radak, Igor Atanasijevic, Mihailo Neskovic, Esma Isenovic
Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a highly prevalent condition in the general population, and it has a significant impact on quality of life. While it is usually manifested by obvious signs, such as varicose veins and venous ulcers, other symptoms of the disease are less specific. Among the other symptoms, which include heaviness, swelling, muscle cramps and restless legs, pain is the symptom that most frequently compels CVeD patients to seek medical aid. However, there is a substantial discrepancy between pain severity and clinically detectable signs of CVeD, questioned by several opposing studies...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Theodosios D Filippatos, Angelos Liontos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
Over the last 3 decades, hypolipidaemic treatment has significantly reduced both cardiovascular (CV) risk and events, with statins being the cornerstone of this achievement. Nevertheless, residual CV risk and unmet goals in hypolipidaemic treatment make novel options necessary. Recently marketed monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have shown the way towards innovation, while other ways of PCSK9 inhibition like small interfering RNA (Inclisiran) are already being tested...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Abolfazl Shakeri, Natalie Ward, Yunes Panahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa that has various pharmacological activities, including, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. The anticancer effect of curcumin is attributed to activation of apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, as well as inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis in the tumour microenvironment and suppression of tumour metastasis. Angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a fundamental step in tumour growth and expansion...
February 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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