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Current HIV Research

Fei Ling, Dan-Dan He, Wei Wang, Ya-Bin Jin, Hui-Ling Zhang
Background-Sterile alpha motif and histidine aspartate domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) is one of the novel restriction factors that potently supresses HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells at an early stage in the viral replication cycle. SAMHD1 activity is blocked by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx), which targets and recruits SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, in the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage. Objective-The impact of SAMHD1 polymorphisms on viral replication in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (CR) and cynomolgus macaques of Vietnamese origin (CM) have not been reported until now...
October 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
Sunit K Singh
HIV-Tat protein displays an array of functions, essential for successful HIV replication. The structural flexibility of Tat protein has been regarded as one of the unique features responsible for sustaining diverse functions, ranging from cell membrane-crossing ability to strong affinity for RNA binding. RNA binding ability and presence of multiple interacting domains in the same protein is very important property of HIV-Tat protein. Tat protein has shown great ability to influence cellular and viral gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Guan-Han Li, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-to-cell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have ability directly bind to CXCR4 triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad E Nelson, Ram Rangsin
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand was first recognized in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. Soon thereafter, HIV infections were reported among female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Routine serological surveillance for HIV began in 1991 among young men who were conscripted annually into the Royal Thai Army (RTA). The data from these populations provided a national population-based sample to determine sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among sexually active young men...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Nirajan Bhusal, Ruengpung Sutthent, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) from Nepal which is geographically located between two high-prevalence HIV-1 infection countries, China and India. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of acquired and transmitted DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes in Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1 seropositive samples from central region of Nepal were collected in 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naïve group (n=15) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) group (n=20), 90% (18/20) of them received zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) regimen...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
Xian Li, Hanxian Zeng, Pengfei Wang, Lu Lin, Lin Liu, Panpan Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral treatment (ART) cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the presence of latent viral reservoirs. The "shock and kill" strategy is a promising approach to eliminate the viral reservoir. However, there are various limits existing in current latency-reversing agents, searching for new activators are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the ability of hymecromone and scoparone for activating HIV-1 from latent reservoirs...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
Leonardo Calza
After the advent of the potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has declined dramatically and HIV infection became a chronic disease with a significant increase in the life expectancy of HIV-positive people. Consequently, chronic comorbidities as coronary heart disease raised an increasing concern in this population. An increased risk of myocardial infarction has been reported among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population, but the pathogenic mechanism of this accelerated atherosclerotic process is complex and certainly multifactorial...
August 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
Elisângela Elisângela Aparecida da Silva Lizzia, Altacilio Aparecido Nunes, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez
: AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. METHODS: This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis...
August 2, 2016: Current HIV Research
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Yao Dai, Xin Qi
Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA...
July 19, 2016: Current HIV Research
Oluwafeyisetan Adebiyi, Olubunmi Adebiyi, Peter Owira
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and defective oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) have been proposed as possible mechanisms underlying the development of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)-induced mitochondrial toxicities. Available options in managing these complications have, so far, produced controversial results, thus necessitating further research into newer agents with promise. Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects of naringin, a plant-derived flavonoid, have previously been demonstrated...
May 20, 2016: Current HIV Research
Anna Miserocchi, Giuseppina Musumeci, Isabella Bon, Silvia Morini, Serena Longo, Marco Borderi, Davide Gibellini, Maria Carla Re
Background The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy effectively undermined the evolution of HIV disease. Nevertheless, clinical observations indicated a clear association between therapy and the impairment of bone mineral density. Objective We selected some antiretroviral compounds used in clinical practice, to study their impact on bone health and their possible implication in the onset of bone disease. Method Scalar concentrations of several antiretroviral drugs (used in single and in combination) were tested on an osteoblast-like cell line, HOBIT cells, to analyse cell survival and gene expression of selected bone markers...
May 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
Francesco Bellissimo, Marilia Rita Pinzone, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Bruno Cacopardo, Giuseppe Nunnari
The reversal of CD4/CD8 ratio is considered an independent predictor of death in the general population, where the ratio physiologically decreases with aging. Despite effective cART, CD4/CD8 normalization does not always occur in HIV-positive subjects. In the setting of HIV, low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio correlates with immune activation and non-AIDS events. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate and predictors of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
April 14, 2016: Current HIV Research
Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Rebecca Wilson, Loreto Carvallo, Joan W Berman
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 enters the CNS within two weeks after peripheral infection and results in chronic neuroinflammation that leads to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in more than 50% of infected people. HIV enters the CNS by transmigration of infected monocytes across the blood brain barrier. Intravenous drug abuse is a major risk factor for HIV-1 infection, and opioids have been shown to alter the progression and severity of HAND. Methadone and buprenorphine are opioid derivates that are used as opioid maintenance therapies...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Shaily Malik, Eliseo A Eugenin
BACKGROUND: One of the major complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is the development of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HANDs) in approximately 50-60% of HIV/AIDS patients. Despite undetectable viral loads in the periphery owing to highly active anti-retroviral therapy, neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment are still prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients. Several studies indicate that the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities observed in HIV infected individuals are not a direct effect of viral replication in the CNS, rather these neurological abnormalities are associated with amplification of HIV pathogenesis by unknown mechanisms...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Mudit Tyagi, Michael Bukrinsky, Gary L Simon
BACKGROUND: There is a strong correlation between the use and abuse of illicit drugs and the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is well established that illicit drugs users are a high risk population for infection with HIV with an increased rate of HIV transmission and replication. Cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, heroin and morphine stand out as the most frequently abused illicit drugs and their use correlates well with HIV infection and AIDS progression. Notably, the high incidence of HIV infection in illicit drug abusers is primarily due to high risk activities such as needle sharing and unprotected sex...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Jeymohan Joseph, Deborah A Colosi, Vasudev R Rao
BACKGROUND: Over the past three decades, the clinical presentation of HIV infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) has evolved. Prior to wide spread use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), more than a third of infected individuals exhibited a range of neurocognitive and motor deficits that frequently progressed to severe dementia and paralysis. However, the use of ART has significantly decreased the prevalence of severe forms of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
BACKGROUND: While the advancement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic condition, the prevalence of a constellation of neurological disorders collectively termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to persist in these patients. HAND is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, depression, impaired memory and/or deficits in motor skills. The underlying factors leading to HAND have been the subject of extensive research and are thought to be associated with HIV infection in the CNS combined with robust immune activation of resident cells of the CNS...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Prasun K Datta, Rafal Kaminski, Wenhui Hu, Vanessa Pirrone, Neil T Sullivan, Michael R Nonnemacher, Will Dampier, Brian Wigdahl, Kamel Khalili
BACKGROUND: It is well established that antiretroviral therapy (ART), while highly effective in controlling HIV replication, cannot eliminate virus from the body. Therefore, the majority of HIV-1-infected individuals remain at risk for developing AIDS due to persistence of infected reservoir cells serving as a source of virus re-emergence. Several reservoirs containing replication competent HIV-1 have been identified, most notably CD4+ T cells. Cells of the myeloid lineage, which are the first line of defense against pathogens and participate in HIV dissemination into sanctuary organs, also serve as cellular reservoirs of HIV-1...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
Viola Guardigni, Mario Luca Morieri, Daniela Segala, Laura Sighinolfi
BACKGROUND: Late diagnosis represents a major challenge in the control of HIV epidemics. The rate of disease progression is higher among late presenters. In Europe, HIV Clinical Indicator Diseases (CIDs) have been proposed to improve early diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: Our observational study evaluated the presence of these HIV CIDs prior to HIV diagnosis among a population of late presenters and assessed its correlation to disease progression. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in HIV late presenters diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 at University Hospital of Ferrara (Italy)...
2016: Current HIV Research
Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar Sharma, Thiyam Ramsing Singh, Khuraijam Ranjana Devi, Lisam Shanjukumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Manipur is one of the highest HIV prevalence states of India because of its geographical location at the international border near the golden triangle of South-East Asia, but no study on drug resistance associated mutations (DRAMs) has been reported yet. OBJECTIVE: A population-based study on DRAMs of HIV-1 among the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur was conducted. METHODS: 110 HIV-1 positive individuals who had initially exposed to first line anti-HIV drugs were recruited for the surveillance of DRAMs...
2016: Current HIV Research
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