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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820066/mutational-impact-on-the-interaction-between-human-il27-and-gp130-in-silico-approach-for-defending-hiv-infection
#1
Arundhati Banerjee, Rakhi Dasgupta, Sujay Ray
INTRODUCTION: With advances in proteomics, it is essential to investigate the molecular-level participation of IL27 and gp130 to hinder HIV infection. Their interaction causes cell-cycle arrest in HIV+ cells by activating the receptor-associated JAK signaling and causing apoptosis of cancerous cells. METHODOLOGY: The best human wild-type WT_IL27 model was prepared after varied molecular modeling techniques. The vital tyrosine residues in WT_IL27 were identified, mutated and IL27 was re-modeled...
August 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814231/hiv-type-1-integrase-natural-polymorphisms-in-viral-variants-circulating-in-fsu-countries
#2
Ilya Lapovok, Vita Laga, Elena Kazennova, Marina Bobkova
BACKGROUND: Natural variability of integrase (IN) across HIV-1 variants may influence the emergence of resistant viruses. The most apparent explanation of these fact is the IN polymorphism and the associated differences in codon usage, which, in turn, influence the probability and the terms of DRMs acquisition. Possible mechanisms by which polymorphisms affect DRMs emergence remain disputed and should still be clarified because these substitutions may be associated with a reduced activity of some INSTIs and may impact on ART regimen choice depending of HIV-1 subtype...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745207/hiv-drug-resistance-testing-in-a-resource-limited-setting-with-high-viral-diversity-the-first-twenty-eight-months-experience
#3
Elodie Teclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Emmanuel Akongnwi, Robert Banaï, Laure Ngono, Richard Njouom, Charles Felix Bilong-Bilong, Anfumbom Kfutwah
BACKGROUND: First line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting consists of nucleotide and non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors are the hub of second line therapy. The decision to change antiretroviral therapy for a patient is frequently presumptive because of the lack of genotypic resistance tests in routine follow-up. We describe here the resistance profiles observed in patients with varying terms of antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon after implementation of HIV genotypic resistance testing in routine practice...
July 25, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685670/milk-donor-blood-screening-for-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-markers-in-a-brazilian-human-milk-bank-prevalence-time-trends-over-the-2005-2015-period
#4
Emil Kupek, Estela Olivo Savi
BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been promoted to provide donated breast milk for at-risk children whose mothers cannot breastfeed them but this effort was hindered by the advent of HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B in the blood of human milk donors registered in a major maternity hospital in the northern region of the Santa Catarina State, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study included serological tests for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B screening of milk donor candidates in the 2005-2015 period...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675993/deficient-phagocytosis-among-hiv-1-infected-adults-over-time-even-in-haart-setting
#5
Olga Tsachouridou, Lemonia Skoura, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Apostolia Margariti, Adamantini Georgiou, Maria Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios Bougiouklis, Pantelis Zebekakis, Symeon Metallidis
BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis is regarded to be impaired in HIV-1 infected adults, leading to high frequency and severity of several infections in this population. Data is contradictory with regards to individual facets in HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the phagocytic activity during the natural course of HIV infection. METHOD: It is a longitudinal study assessing natural course and impairment of neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis in both naïve and HAART treated patients...
July 4, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606034/high-seroprevalence-of-human-herpesvirus-8-infection-in-hiv-positive-homosexual-men-in-jiangsu-province-china
#6
Jiayan Li, Jinyun Song, Guolei Tan, Jianfang Wang, Zhenxian Zhou, Xuping Wu
BACKGROUD: HIV-infected homosexual men are more frequently diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma. With the increase of HIV-infected homosexual men in China, we urgently need to know the KS-related human herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) seroprevalence in this population. To investigate the HHV-8 prevalence among HIV-positive homosexual men, we recruited 183 patients naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART) whose blood samples present HIV-antibody positive confirmed by western blot. METHODS: HIV viral load was tested using Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test Version 2...
June 12, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558641/high-incidence-of-infections-in-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#7
A Calcagno, A Lucchini, D Caracciolo, R Balbiano, M Bracchi, F Sordella, G Gregori, F Lipani, S Audagnotto, M Chiriotto, G Cavaglià, V Ghisetti, G Di Perri, S Bonora
BACKGROUND: Lymphoproliferative disorders are frequently diagnosed in HIV-positive patients and severe infections may occur during antineoplastic treatments: the incidence and impact of such events are not well-characterized. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and mortality of incident infections in HIV-positive individuals treated for lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS: A retrospective study in HIV-positive adults with lymphoproliferative disorders (2000-2012) who were hospitalised to receive antineoplastic chemotherapy; as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis with alternate day co-trimoxazole (800/160 mg)...
May 30, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176645/prevention-interventions-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-military-settings
#8
Michael P. Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Caroline A. Macera, Richard A. Shaffer
Background: Military HIV prevention programs and healthy living programs were developed in the mid-1980s to manage and support newly HIV-positive military personnel in the US military. Since then, a program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with support from the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), called Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention (PHDP), is currently being rolled out by DHAPP in partner militaries. The program, designed to reduce HIV transmission, is a package of interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV), including risk reduction counseling, condom provision, disclosure counseling, testing of sexual partner(s) and children, adherence counseling, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and provision of family planning services...
May 25, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521724/hiv-risk-behavior-and-prevention-considerations-among-military-personnel-in-three-caribbean-region-countries-belize-barbados-and-the-dominican-republic
#9
Nakisa Asefnia, Lisa Cowan, Rose Werth
We review research findings and the limitations of recent qualitative and quantitative studies of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in military populations in three Caribbean countries (Dominican Republic, Belize, and Barbados). This research shows how mental health issues, disordered substance use, and structuring aspects of the occupational field produce and reproduce patterns of risk behaviors. We discuss the use of formative research, the Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention framework, and the use of implementation science (including research methods that employ alternative methodological assumptions to better elucidate both cultural nuances and unknown components of program impact in different military populations) as a means to tailor individual prevention strategies to military populations...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521721/the-importance-of-military-conscripts-for-surveillance-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-risk-behavior-in-thailand
#10
Kenrad Nelson, Ram Rangsin
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Thailand began in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. It soon spread to other populations, especially female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending STD clinics. Routine serologic surveillance for HIV began among military conscripts in 1991. The HIV seroprevalence data from military conscripts provided national surveillance data, since the entire population of 21 year old men were conscripted for 2 years' service in the military by a random process during which 10% of men were selected...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#11
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521717/analysis-of-site-heterogeneity-and-hiv-outcomes-across-rural-and-urban-study-sites-in-phidisa-ii-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-antiretroviral-treatment-trial-in-a-south-african-military-cohort
#12
John Steytler, Pamela A Shaw, Alice K Pau, Paul Khabo, Gyan Joshi, Pieter Oelofse
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials frequently enroll subjects from different study sites. Few such studies provide analysis by individual site. Between 2004-2007, the South African Military Health System (SAMHS) established 6 research sites (3 urban, 3 rural) to build capacity for clinical research and HIV care. We explore differences in clinical, virologic and CD4 outcomes by site in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Phidisa-II is the first randomised controlled trial conducted in the South African military setting, which compared 4 antiretroviral regimens in treatment-naïve advanced HIV subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521716/building-a-successful-military-to-military-partnership-through-confronting-hiv-the-u-s-nigeria-experience
#13
Darrell E Singer, Robbie Nelson, C M Smith, Tahir O Umar, Ogbonnaya Simon Njoku
The Nigerian Ministry of Defence-Walter Reed Army Institute of Research partnership was established in 2004 in response to the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Here we discuss the emergence of HIV in Nigeria, highlighting the initial barriers to treatment delivery, and outline the origins of the international military-to-military partnership developed to confront the disease. With financial support from the United States President's Plan for AIDS Relief and Nigerian Government Counterpart Funding, we demonstrate how this program led to a successful and sustainable response in the fight against HIV in Nigeria...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176643/short-term-transfer-of-knowledge-assessment-in-the-military-international-hiv-training-program-mihtp
#14
Michael Grillo, Kelly Woodland, Gregory Talavera, Richard Shaffer, Stephanie Brodine
BACKGROUND: The Military International HIV Training Program (MIHTP) was established in 2002 to address the overwhelming needs of international military personnel concerning HIV and AIDS prevention, care, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine short-term knowledge transfer in trainees attending the MIHTP by comparing data collected from pre-training and posttraining knowledge assessments. METHODS: We used identical 40-question multiple choice pre-training and post-training assessments to determine the short-term transfer of knowledge of international HIV military physicians attending the MIHTP...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521725/hiv-and-syphilis-prevalence-and-associated-risks-in-the-cameroonian-armed-forces
#15
Michael Grillo, Bonnie Robin Tran, Ubald Tamoufe, Cyrille F Djoko, Karen Saylors, Kelly Woodland, Ltc Wangmene, Caroline Macera
BACKGROUND: Continued surveillance of the HIV epidemic is critical to monitor changes in trends and risk behaviors. A 2005 study in the Cameroonian Armed Forces (CAF) found an HIV prevalence of 11.3% among male and female service members. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 5-year change in the HIV prevalence, estimate the prevalence of syphilis, and examine factors associated with infection in the CAF. METHODS: Participants were male and female service members 18 years of age or older who were stationed at one of the 10 military garrisons selected for participation...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521723/hiv-aids-securitization-outcomes-and-current-challenges
#16
Aladdin H Shadyab, Braden R Hale, Richard A Shaffer
BACKGROUND: The securitization (i.e., framing of a health issue as a security threat) of HIV/AIDS by the United Nations Security Council in 2000 changed the belief that HIV/AIDS is only a health issue. Although now accepted that HIV/AIDS represents a security threat, the consequences of securitization are still not widely established. METHODS: The purpose of this paper was to present an evidence-based review of the outcomes and current challenges associated with HIV/AIDS securitization in the context of national security...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#17
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521719/virological-suppression-and-patterns-of-resistance-amongst-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-4-nigerian-military-hospitals
#18
Babajide Keshinro, Ojor Ayemoba, Kene Terfa, Julie Ake, Trevor A Crowell, Yakubu Adamu, Tahir Mohammed, Ifeanyi Okoye, Sunday Odeyemi, Keith Crawford, Lindsay Hughes, Ezekiel Akintunde, Tahir Umar, Tiffany E Hamm, Ogbonnaya S Njoku
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained settings, plasma HIV-1 RNA quantification has not been routinely available for the monitoring of response to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated virological suppression rates amongst patients on first-line ART in four Nigerian military hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 325 randomly selected adult clinic clients (≥18 years old) on first-line ART regimens at four Nigerian military hospitals. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed using a Roche COBAS TaqMan48 with High Pure System...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521718/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-rwanda-defense-force-members
#19
Michael P Grillo, Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Caroline A Macera, Charles Murego, Eugene Zimulinda, Marcellin Sebagabo, Valentin Gatsinzi
INTRODUCTION: Strong scientific evidence supports voluntary medical male circumcision as part of an overall HIV prevention strategy, but self-report information on circumcision status may be inaccurate. The study objectives were to obtain estimates of male circumcision within the Rwanda Defense Force (RDF), to assess the ability of soldiers to correctly report their own circumcision status, and to document the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in the RDF. METHODS: Data were collected from members of the Rwandan military during their annual physical examination...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521715/conducting-hiv-seroprevalence-and-behavioral-epidemiology-risk-surveys-sabers-among-partner-military-populations
#20
Caroline A Macera, Stanley I Ito, Braden R Hale, Richard A Shaffer, Anne G Thomas, Janet Dickieson
BACKGROUND: Characterizing HIV infection and associated risk behaviors within military populations is critical for understanding the epidemic and informing prevention activities. However, the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviors is often unknown. Further, militaries may not have the systems in place or the staff expertise to conduct HIV surveillance and risk behavior studies. METHODS: The Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US Department of Defense, provides technical assistance, management and administrative support for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment for approximately 65 partner militaries...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
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