Read by QxMD icon Read

Current HIV Research

Prosanta Mondal, Hyun J Lim, Ohtn Cohort Study Team
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic is increasing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and the risk for AIDSdefining cancer (ADC) is higher among them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of MSM and CD4+ count on time to cancer AIDS (ADC) and non-cancer AIDS in competing risks setting in the HAART era. METHOD: Using Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study data, HIV-positive adults diagnosed between January 1997 and October 2012 having baseline CD4+ counts ≤ 500 cells/mm3 were evaluated...
December 5, 2018: Current HIV Research
Bahareh Rostami, Shiva Irani, Azam Bolhassani, Reza Ahangari Cohan
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier. METHODS: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E.coli expression system for delivery into the HEK-293T mammalian cell line using a novel cell penetrating peptide, M918, in a non-covalent fashion...
December 5, 2018: Current HIV Research
Sanjeev Sinha, Ashish Agarwal, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, Mitul Jain, Roger Detels, Karabi Nandy, Michelle A DeVos, S K Sharma, N Manoharan, P K Julka, G K Rath, Richard F Ambinder, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
Background and objectives People living with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of developing cancer. The goals of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of HIV in the cancer population and vice versa at a major tertiary care cancer and HIV center in North India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 3-year period from July 2013 to June 2016, wherein successive HIV positive patients from an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center were screened for malignancy. Simultaneously, successive cancer patients at the cancer center were screened for HIV...
October 18, 2018: Current HIV Research
Khurshid Iqbal, Muhammad Imran, Shafi Ullah, Muhsin Jamal, Yasir Waheed, Qaisar Ali
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global health burden which ultimately results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are multiple host factors which are capable of limiting HIV-1 replication. One of the most important host factors which inhibit HIV-1 DNA synthesis is apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G). Any genetic variation of this important host factor may influence host susceptibility to viral infection...
October 18, 2018: Current HIV Research
Lisa K Smith, Thomas B Kuhn, Jack Chen, James R Bamburg
The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the primary means of treatment for HIV infection has achieved a dramatic decline in deaths attributed to AIDS and the reduced incidence of severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in infected individuals. Despite these advances, milder forms of HAND persist and prevalence of these forms of neurocognitive impairment are rising with the aging population of HIV infected individuals. HIV enters the CNS early in the pathophysiology establishing persistent infection in resident macrophages and glial cells...
October 3, 2018: Current HIV Research
Huda Ansari
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir is specific reversible inhibitors of the enzyme HIV protease with mean oral bioavailability of less than 20% due to extensive hepatic metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4. The reported half-life of Lopinavir is 5-6 hours and the maximum recommended daily dose is 400 mg/day. All the marketed tablet and capsule formulations of lopinavir are generally combined with Ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, to minimize presystemic metabolism of lopinavir. Hence, to overcome limitations associated with oral administration of lopinavir and to promote single drug administration, utilization of vesicular nanocarriers through topical route could prove to be effective, as the approach combines the inherent advantages of topical route and the drug carrying potential of vesicular nanocarriers across the tough and otherwise impervious skin barrier layer, i...
September 23, 2018: Current HIV Research
Uluhan Sili, Burak Aksu, Aysun Tekin, Ufuk Hasdemir, Guner Soyletir, Volkan Korten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces morbidity and mortality caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, the emergence of drug-resistant strains poses an important obstacle to treatment success. Using conventional sequencing methods to determine antiretroviral resistance, mutations present in ≥20% of quasispecies can be identified, but drug-resistant minority variants can lead to virologic failure. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) within minority variants using ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS)...
2018: Current HIV Research
Vanessa D Urbano, Elisa De Crignis, Maria Carla Re
Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In the presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). RFs are dominant proteins that target different essential steps of the viral cycle, thereby providing an early line of defense against the virus...
2018: Current HIV Research
Jessica Jaiswal, Marybec Griffin, Stuart N Singer, Richard E Greene, Ingrid Lizette Zambrano Acosta, Saara K Kaudeyr, Farzana Kapadia, Perry N Halkitis
BACKGROUND: Despite decreasing rates of HIV among many populations, HIV-related health disparities among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men persist, with disproportional percentages of new HIV diagnoses among racial and ethnic minority men. Despite increasing awareness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP use remains low. In addition to exploring individual-level factors for this slow uptake, structural drivers of PrEP use must also be identified in order to maximize the effectiveness of biomedical HIV prevention strategies...
2018: Current HIV Research
J M Sales, R J Steiner, J L Brown, A Swartzendruber, A S Patel, A N Sheth
BACKGROUND: Atlanta has been identified as an HIV "hot spot" for Black women and ranks 5th in the US with new infections. Yet little is known about PrEP eligibility or interest among young Black women in Atlanta. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1,261 Black women (ages 14-24 years) were recruited from two settings: community venues and sexual health clinics. They provided self-reported sexual behavior data and specimens for laboratory testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infections...
2018: Current HIV Research
Charles D Mitchell, Sady Dominguez, Margaret Roach, Varghese George, Stefano Rinaldi, Margaret Fischl, Jonell Potter, Brittany Tyson, Savita Pahwa
BACKGROUND: Immune Activation (IA) has been previously documented in both pregnant (PG) and non-PG HIV-1 infected (HIV+) women as well as in HIV- uninfected PG women; the latter as a result of the fetal allograft. To determine whether the combined effects of HIV and pregnancy result in increased IA and whether IA is associated with Microbial Translocation (MT), we performed a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study during pregnancy and the postpartum (PP) period. METHODS: HIV+ PG women had biomarkers of IA and MT tested at 12-20 weeks (T1), and 24-36 weeks (T2) of pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks Postpartum (T3)...
2018: Current HIV Research
J Ranin, D Salemovic, B Brmbolic, J Marinkovic, I Boricic, Pavlovic I Pesic, S Zerjav, M Stanojevic, D Jevtovic
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to correlate the status of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with clinical and demographic data prior to starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and assess the impact of HCV and HBV co-infection on the natural history of HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved a total of 836 treatment-naive patients with available serological status for HBV and HCV at the point of therapy initiation...
2018: Current HIV Research
Watson Mtonga, Aaron Mujajati, Derick Munkombwe, Aubrey Kalungia, Lungwani Tyson Muungo, John West, Charles Wood, Owen Ngalamika
The incidence of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains high in Zambia in the antiretroviral therapy era. The most efficacious treatment regimen for KS has yet to be established. In both developed and developing countries, treatment regimens have had limited efficacy. Late presentation in Africa affects therapeutic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine therapeutic outcomes of epidemic KS patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after completion of six cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, and Vincristine (ABV) chemotherapy...
2018: Current HIV Research
Yunxiao Lei, Kaili Zhang, Xueling Xiao, Chulei Tang, Xianhong Li, Honghong Wang
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and sexual roles may be important factors related to it. This study aims to describe the sexual roles, risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among MSM, and to determine associated factors for HIV prevalence. METHODS: A convenient sampling method was used to recruit participants in a non-government organization in Changsha, China. The participants were asked to complete a 38-item self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and risky sexual behaviours before collecting blood samples for HIV testing...
2018: Current HIV Research
Wei Jiang, Zhenwu Luo, Lisa Martin, Zhuang Wan, Pingfu Fu, Amanda Wagner, Binhua Ling, Sonya L Heath, Azizul Haque, Aimee McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: The role and mechanism of drug use or abuse in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)-treated HIV disease are not completely known. METHODS: To investigate the impact of drug use on HIV pathogenesis without confounding by HIV replication and ART adherence, we first analyzed the data from our clinical database in 103 HIV+ subjects with viral-suppressed ART treatment by a multiple regression test. RESULTS: We found that HIV+ drug users had lower CD4+ T cell counts but higher CD8+ T cell counts compared to HIV+ non-drug users, and both drug use and nadir CD4+ T cell counts was independently associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after controlling for sex and age...
2018: Current HIV Research
Chao Chun Liu, Hezhao Ji
The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled greater resolution of viral diversity and improved feasibility of full viral genome sequencing allowing routine HIV-1 full genome sequencing in both research and diagnostic settings. Regardless of the sequencing platform selected, successful PCR amplification of the HIV-1 genome is essential for sequencing template preparation. As such, full HIV-1 genome amplification is a crucial step in dictating the successful and reliable sequencing downstream. Here we reviewed existing PCR protocols leading to HIV-1 full genome sequencing...
2018: Current HIV Research
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, B K Das, R M Pandey
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is an immunomodulator, and its deficiency is associated with Tuberculosis (TB) infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a rich milieu of macrophages that form the first line of defense against invading TB bacilli. As there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in TB and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subjects, we intend exploring the possibility of a localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in BALF of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the level of 25D3 in serum and BALF of subjects and look for a significant difference among patients and controls...
2018: Current HIV Research
Rossella Gratton, Paola Maura Tricarico, Rafael Lima Guimaraes, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir and Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment is widely used to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. Nevertheless, studies related to the impact of these compounds on patients, in particular in the foetus and newborns, are strictly required due to the controversial findings reported in the literature concerning possible neurologic side effects following the administration of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: In our study, we evaluated the impact of LPV/r treatment on the human glioblastoma U- 87 MG cell line...
2018: Current HIV Research
Amare Worku Kalu, Nigus Fikrie Telele, Shambhu G Aralaguppe, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Anders Sonnerborg
OBJECTIVES: Genotypic Tropism Testing (GTT) tools are generally developed based on HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) and used for HIV-1C as well but with a large discordance of prediction between different methods. We used an established phenotypic assay for comparison with GTT methods and for the determination of in vitro maraviroc sensitivity of pure R5-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1C. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from 58 HIV-1C infected Ethiopians. Envgp120 was cloned into a luciferase tagged NL4-3 plasmid...
2018: Current HIV Research
Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin, Asep Purnama, Dwi Kurniawan, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate...
2018: Current HIV Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"