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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807518/serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-25-oh-vitamin-d3-levels-in-hiv-1-and-tuberculosis-a-cross-sectional-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#1
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, B K Das, R M Pandey
Background Vitamin D is an immunomodulator, and its deficiency is associated with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a rich milieu of macrophages that forms the first line of defense against invading TB bacilli. Because there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in TB and human-immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subjects, we intend exploring the possibility of a localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in BALF of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the level of 25D3 in serum and BALF of subjects and look for a significant difference among patients and controls...
May 27, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804534/lopinavir-ritonavir-treatment-induces-oxidative-stress-and-caspase-independent-apoptosis-in-human-glioblastoma-u-87-mg-cell-line
#2
Rossella Gratton, Paola Maura Tricarico, Rafael Lima Guimaraes, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir and Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment is widely used to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. Nevertheless, studies related to the impact of these compounds on patients, in particular in the foetus and newborns, are strictly required due to the controversial findings reported in the literature concerning possible neurologic side effects following the administration of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: In our study, we evaluated the impact of LPV/r treatment on the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line...
May 27, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766813/coreceptor-tropism-and-maraviroc-sensitivity-of-clonally-derived-ethiopian-hiv-1c-strains-using-an-in-house-phenotypic-assay-and-commonly-used-genotypic-methods
#3
Amare Worku Kalu, Nigus Fikrie Telele, Shambhu Aralaguppe, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Anders Sonnerborg
OBJECTIVES: Genotypic tropism testing (GTT) tools are generally developed based on HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) and used for HIV-1C as well but with a large discordance of prediction between different methods. We used an established phenotypic assay for comparison with GTT methods and for determination of in vitro maraviroc sensitivity of pure R5-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1C. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from 58 HIV-1C infected Ethiopians. Envgp120 was cloned into a luciferase tagged NL4-3 plasmid...
May 15, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732988/appearance-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-the-dominant-hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae-in-maumere-indonesia
#4
Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin, Asep Purnama, Dwi Kurniawan, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate...
May 1, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651941/identification-of-adjacent-nnrti-binding-pocket-in-multi-mutated-hiv1-rt-enzyme-model-an-in-silico-study
#5
R F Kamil, U Debnath, S Verma, Y S Prabhakar
Introduction: A possible strategy to combat mutant strains is to have a thorough structural evaluation before and after mutations to identify the diversity in the non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket and their effects on enzyme-ligand interactions to generate novel NNRTI’s accordingly. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to find effects of multiple point mutations on NNRTI binding pocket. This study included the contribution of each individual mutation in NNIBP that propose an adjacent binding pocket which can be used to discover novel NNRTI derivatives...
April 12, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629663/the-effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-use-among-hiv-positive-children-on-the-hazard-of-aids-using-calendar-year-as-an-instrumental-variable
#6
Andrew Anglemyer, Amy Sturt, Yvonne Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to highlight the differences in effects of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes between applications of traditional and adapted IV analysis techniques...
April 9, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600767/identification-and-characterization-of-positively-selected-mutations-in-nef-of-four-hiv-1-major-subtypes-from-los-alamos-national-laboratory
#7
Elnaz Shadabi, Binhua Liang, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mutates rapidly to escape host immune pressure. This results in the generation of positively selected mutations (PSM) throughout the viral genome. Escape mutations in Nef, one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, which plays an important role in viral pathogenicity have previously been identified in several large cohort studies, but the evolution of PSMs overtime in various HIV-1 subtypes remains unknown. METHODS: 161 clade A1, 3093 clade B, 647 clade C and 115 clade D HIV-1 nef sequences were obtained from the HIV Database of Los Alamos National Laboratory and aligned using MEGA 6...
March 30, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708481/editorial-the-hiv-siv-envelope-protein-from-structure-to-function-to-host-evasion
#8
EDITORIAL
Ronald Swanstrom, Sarah B Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708480/preface
#9
Charles Wood, Avi Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#10
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high-throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468971/il-10-promoter-592-polymorphism-may-influence-susceptibility-to-hiv-infection-in-south-indian-population
#11
Murugesan Harishankar, Harini Ravikrishnan, Akshaya Ravishankar, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Soumya Swaminathan, Paramasivam Selvaraj, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. METHOD: Genomic DNA was isolated from healthy controls, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n=122) and HIV positive individuals (n=100) and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468970/comparative-genetic-variability-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-vpu-gene-in-early-age-groups-of-infants
#12
Uma Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Mohammad Husain
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed...
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268688/probing-structural-variation-and-dynamics-in-the-hiv-1-env-fusion-glycoprotein
#13
James B Munro, Kelly K Lee
Recent advances in structural characterization of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) have provided a high-resolution glimpse of the architecture of this target for neutralizing antibodies and the machinery responsible for mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion. These structures primarily capture the detailed organization of the receptor-naive, prefusion conformation of Env, but under native solution conditions Env is highly dynamic, sampling multiple conformational states as well as exhibiting local protein flexibility...
December 21, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268687/evolution-of-host-target-cell-specificity-during-hiv-1-infection
#14
Olivia D Council, Sarah B Joseph
Many details of HIV-1 molecular virology have been translated into life-saving antiviral drugs. Yet, we have an incomplete understanding of the cells in which HIV-1 replicates in untreated individuals and persists in during antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 entry into a target cell is determined by whether the viral receptor (CD4) and the coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) are expressed on that cell. Sustained HIV-1 replication in a cell type can produce viral lineages that are tuned to the CD4 density and coreceptor expressed on those cells; a fact that allows us to use Env protein entry phenotypes to infer information about the cells in which a viral lineage has been replicating and adapting...
December 21, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173180/the-neutralizing-antibody-response-to-the-hiv-1-env-protein
#15
Penny L Moore
BACKGROUND: A vaccine able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies capable of blocking infection by global viruses has not been achieved, and remains a key public health challenge. OBJECTIVE: During infection, a robust strain-specific neutralizing response develops in most people, but only a subset of infected people develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. Understanding how and why these broadly neutralizing antibodies develop has been a focus of the HIV-1 vaccine field for many years, and has generated extraordinary insights into the neutralizing response to HIV-1 infection...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173179/siv-coreceptor-specificity-in-natural-and-non-natural-host-infection-implications-for-cell-targeting-and-differential-outcomes-from-infection
#16
Katherine S Wetzel, Sarah T C Elliott, Ronald G Collman
Pathogenic HIV-1 infection of humans and SIVmac infection of macaques are the result of zoonotic transfer of primate immunodeficiency viruses from their natural hosts into non-natural host species. Natural host infections do not result in pathogenesis despite high levels of virus replication, and evidence suggests that differences in anatomical location and specific subsets of CD4+ T cells infected may underlie distinct outcomes from infection. The coreceptor CCR5 has long been considered the sole pathway for SIV entry and the key determinant of CD4+ cell targeting, but it has also been known that natural hosts express exceedingly low levels of CCR5 despite maintaining high levels of virus replication...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173176/the-siv-envelope-glycoprotein-viral-tropism-and-pathogenesis-novel-insights-from-nonhuman-primate-models-of-aids
#17
Adrienne E Swanstrom, Gregory Q Del Prete, Claire Deleage, Samra E Elser, Andrew A Lackner, James A Hoxie
BACKGROUND: Cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is closely linked to interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with CD4 and chemokine receptor family members, CCR5 and CXCR4. This interaction plays a key role in determining anatomic sites that are infected in vivo and the cascade of early and late events that result in chronic immune activation, immunosuppression and ultimately, AIDS. CD4+ T cells are critical to adaptive immune responses, and their early and rapid infection in gut lamina propria and secondary lymphoid tissues in susceptible hosts likely contributes to viral persistence and progression to disease...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197320/erratum-samhd1-polymorphisms-were-significantly-correlated-with-hiv-siv-virus-load-in-pbmc-from-chinese-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046159/pilot-integration-of-hiv-screening-and-healthcare-settings-with-multi-component-social-network-and-partner-testing-for-hiv-detection
#19
Michael F Rentz, Andrew H Ruffner, Rachel M Ancona, Kimberly W Hart, John R Kues, Christopher M Barczak, Christopher J Lindsell, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Michael S Lyons
BACKGROUND: Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate pilot implementation of multi-component, multi-venue TNT in conjunction with HIV screening by a healthcare setting...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990535/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-to-prevent-hiv-in-tanah-papua-indonesia-field-trial-to-assess-acceptability-and-feasibility
#20
M Ridwan Ansari, Elan Lazuardi, Frank Stephen Wignall, Constant Karma, Sylvanus A Sumule, Siti Nadia Tarmizi, Robert Magnani
BACKGROUND: Relatively little attention has been paid to the significant HIV prevention role that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) can play in populations with moderate levels of HIV prevalence. One such location is Tanah Papua, Indonesia, which in 2013 had a general population having HIV prevalence of 2.3% concentrated among indigenous Papuans (2.9% prevalence), very few of whom are circumcised. This article reports the findings of an implementation research study assessing the acceptability and feasibility of introducing VMMC for HIV prevention...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
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