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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651941/identification-of-adjacent-nnrti-binding-pocket-in-multi-mutated-hiv1-rt-enzyme-model-an-in-silico-study
#1
R F Kamil, U Debnath, S Verma, Y S Prabhakar
The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is an immunesuppressant disorder caused by human immunodeficiency virus, the upshot of which can be observed on affected individual's immune system. The salient role of HIV-1RT in progression & development of disease makes it a significant target. In current the study a 3D-model of HIV-1 RT enzyme having following multiple mutations K103N, Y181C and Y188L was developed through homology modeling with the aim to perceive effects of multiple mutations on binding pocket and binding interractions...
April 12, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629663/the-effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-use-among-hiv-positive-children-on-the-hazard-of-aids-using-calendar-year-as-an-instrumental-variable
#2
Andrew Anglemyer, Amy Sturt, Yvonne Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to highlight the differences in effects of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes between applications of traditional and adapted IV analysis techniques...
April 9, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600767/identification-and-characterization-of-positively-selected-mutations-in-nef-of-four-hiv-1-major-subtypes-from-los-alamos-national-laboratory
#3
Elnaz Shadabi, Binhua Liang, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mutates rapidly to escape host immune pressure. This results in the generation of positively selected mutations (PSM) throughout the viral genome. Escape mutations in Nef, one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, which plays an important role in viral pathogenicity have previously been identified in several large cohort studies, but the evolution of PSMs overtime in various HIV-1 subtypes remains unknown. METHODS: 161 clade A1, 3093 clade B, 647 clade C and 115 clade D HIV-1 nef sequences were obtained from the HIV Database of Los Alamos National Laboratory and aligned using MEGA 6...
March 30, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#4
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468971/il-10-promoter-592-polymorphism-may-influence-resistance-to-hiv-infection-in-south-indian-population
#5
Murugesan Harishankar, Harini Ravikrishnan, Akshaya Ravishankar, Luke Hanna Elizabeth, Soumya Swaminathan, Paramasivam Selvaraj, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. METHOD: Genomic DNA was isolated from healthy controls, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n=122) and HIV positive individuals (n=100) and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468970/comparative-genetic-variability-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-vpu-gene-in-early-age-groups-of-infants
#6
Uma Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Mohammad Husain
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268688/probing-structural-variation-and-dynamics-in-the-hiv-1-env-fusion-glycoprotein
#7
James B Munro, Kelly K Lee
Recent advances in structural characterization of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) have provided a high-resolution glimpse of the architecture of this target for neutralizing antibodies and the machinery responsible for mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion. These structures primarily capture the detailed organization of the receptor-naive, prefusion conformation of Env, but under native solution conditions Env is highly dynamic, sampling multiple conformational states as well as exhibiting local protein flexibility...
December 21, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268687/evolution-of-host-target-cell-specificity-during-hiv-1-infection
#8
Olivia D Council, Sarah B Joseph
Many details of HIV-1 molecular virology have been translated into life-saving antiviral drugs. Yet, we have an incomplete understanding of the cells in which HIV-1 replicates in untreated individuals and persists in during antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 entry into a target cell is determined by whether the viral receptor (CD4) and the coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) are expressed on that cell. Sustained HIV-1 replication in a cell type can produce viral lineages that are tuned to the CD4 density and coreceptor expressed on those cells; a fact that allows us to use Env protein entry phenotypes to infer information about the cells in which a viral lineage has been replicating and adapting...
December 21, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173180/the-neutralizing-antibody-response-to-the-hiv-1-env-protein
#9
Penny L Moore
BACKGROUND: A vaccine able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies capable of blocking infection by global viruses has not been achieved, and remains a key public health challenge. OBJECTIVE: During infection, a robust strain-specific neutralizing response develops in most people, but only a subset of infected people develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. Understanding how and why these broadly neutralizing antibodies develop has been a focus of the HIV-1 vaccine field for many years, and has generated extraordinary insights into the neutralizing response to HIV-1 infection...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173179/siv-coreceptor-specificity-in-natural-and-non-natural-host-infection-implications-for-cell-targeting-and-differential-outcomes-from-infection
#10
Katherine S Wetzel, Sarah T C Elliott, Ronald G Collman
Pathogenic HIV-1 infection of humans and SIVmac infection of macaques are the result of zoonotic transfer of primate immunodeficiency viruses from their natural hosts into non-natural host species. Natural host infections do not result in pathogenesis despite high levels of virus replication, and evidence suggests that differences in anatomical location and specific subsets of CD4+ T cells infected may underlie distinct outcomes from infection. The coreceptor CCR5 has long been considered the sole pathway for SIV entry and the key determinant of CD4+ cell targeting, but it has also been known that natural hosts express exceedingly low levels of CCR5 despite maintaining high levels of virus replication...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173176/the-siv-envelope-glycoprotein-viral-tropism-and-pathogenesis-novel-insights-from-nonhuman-primate-models-of-aids
#11
Adrienne E Swanstrom, Gregory Q Del Prete, Claire Deleage, Samra E Elser, Andrew A Lackner, James A Hoxie
BACKGROUND: Cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is closely linked to interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with CD4 and chemokine receptor family members, CCR5 and CXCR4. This interaction plays a key role in determining anatomic sites that are infected in vivo and the cascade of early and late events that result in chronic immune activation, immunosuppression and ultimately, AIDS. CD4+ T cells are critical to adaptive immune responses, and their early and rapid infection in gut lamina propria and secondary lymphoid tissues in susceptible hosts likely contributes to viral persistence and progression to disease...
November 24, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197320/erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046159/pilot-integration-of-hiv-screening-and-healthcare-settings-with-multi-component-social-network-and-partner-testing-for-hiv-detection
#13
Michael F Rentz, Andrew H Ruffner, Rachel M Ancona, Kimberly W Hart, John R Kues, Christopher M Barczak, Christopher J Lindsell, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Michael S Lyons
BACKGROUND: Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate pilot implementation of multi-component, multi-venue TNT in conjunction with HIV screening by a healthcare setting...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990535/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-to-prevent-hiv-in-tanah-papua-indonesia-field-trial-to-assess-acceptability-and-feasibility
#14
M Ridwan Ansari, Elan Lazuardi, Frank Stephen Wignall, Constant Karma, Sylvanus A Sumule, Siti Nadia Tarmizi, Robert Magnani
BACKGROUND: Relatively little attention has been paid to the significant HIV prevention role that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) can play in populations with moderate levels of HIV prevalence. One such location is Tanah Papua, Indonesia, which in 2013 had a general population having HIV prevalence of 2.3% concentrated among indigenous Papuans (2.9% prevalence), very few of whom are circumcised. This article reports the findings of an implementation research study assessing the acceptability and feasibility of introducing VMMC for HIV prevention...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990534/association-between-vitamin-d-status-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-viral-load-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#15
Tamires Flauzino, Andrea N C Simao, Elaine R D de Almeida, Helena K Morimoto, Sayonara R Oliveira, Daniela F Alfieri, Luiz T Ueda, Isaias Dichi, Edna M V Reiche
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between vitamin D and immunological, virological, and oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: The serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined in 314 HIV-1- infected individuals and 127 controls and the values ≥30 ng/mL defined a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) status, and <30 ng/mL defined the presence of hypovitaminosis D (HD)...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969567/long-term-treatment-with-raltegravir-is-associated-with-lower-triglycerides-and-platelets-count-in-the-older-hiv-population-results-from-the-ral-age-study
#16
Paolo Pavone, Noemi Giustini, Caterina Fimiani, Francesca Paoletti, Mario Falciano, Alessandra Salotti, Fiorella Di Sora, Samir Al Moghazi, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RAL) is considered one of the better-tolerated antiretroviral medications, due to limited side effects and minimal drug-drug interactions. Matherials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 96 HIV+, over 60 years old, experienced patients who had switched from any antiretroviral drug to raltegravir-based nuc-sparing or standard nucleoside-backbone regimens. A control group with patients aged under 60 years old was included. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 66 years (IQR 10...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969557/impact-of-high-protein-intake-on-viral-load-and-hematological-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients
#17
Evgeny Vlad Butorov
BACKGROUND: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933280/prevalence-of-hiv-seropositivity-and-associated-impact-on-mortality-among-injured-patients-from-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Adam R Aluisio, Soham Rege, Barclay T Stewart, John Kinuthia, Adam C Levine, Michael J Mello, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Although HIV and injury contribute substantially to disease burdens in lowand middle-income countries (LMIC), their intersection is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed the prevalence and associated mortality impact of HIVseropositivity among injured patients in LMIC. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, POPLINE and Cochrane databases through August 2016 was performed...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820066/mutational-impact-on-the-interaction-between-human-il27-and-gp130-in-silico-approach-for-defending-hiv-infection
#19
Arundhati Banerjee, Rakhi Dasgupta, Sujay Ray
INTRODUCTION: With advances in proteomics, it is essential to investigate the molecularlevel participation of IL27 and gp130 to hinder HIV infection. Their interaction causes cell-cycle arrest in HIV+ cells by activating the receptor-associated JAK signaling and causing apoptosis of cancerous cells. METHODOLOGY: The best human wild-type WT_IL27 model was prepared after varied molecular modeling techniques. The vital tyrosine residues in WT_IL27 were identified, mutated and IL27 was re-modeled...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814231/hiv-type-1-integrase-natural-polymorphisms-in-viral-variants-circulating-in-fsu-countries
#20
Ilya Lapovok, Vita Laga, Elena Kazennova, Marina Bobkova
BACKGROUND: Natural variability of integrase (IN) across HIV-1 variants may influence the emergence of resistant viruses. The most apparent explanation of this fact is the IN polymorphism and the associated differences in codon usage, which in turn, influence the probability and the terms of DRMs acquisition. Possible mechanisms by which polymorphisms affect DRMs emergence remain disputed and should still be clarified because these substitutions may be associated with a reduced activity of some INSTIs and may impact on ART regimen choice depending of HIV-1 subtype...
November 23, 2017: Current HIV Research
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