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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924729/conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomers-exert-differential-effects-on-an-adipocyte-model-of-hiv-associated-lipodystrophy
#1
Cathríona R Loonam, Sandra D O Dell, Anne Mullen
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is associated with decreased expression of PPAR-γ in adipose tissue. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12) are putative PPAR-γ agonists, but have not previously been investigated in the context of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in the presence of ritonavir (20 μM as per previous experimental models) and 100 μM cis9,trans11, trans10,cis12 or vehicle control, DMSO...
December 7, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917706/the-changes-of-positive-selection-within-env-gene-of-hiv-1-b-crf07_bc-and-crf08_bc-from-china-over-time
#2
Tingting Li, Binlian Sun, Yanyan Jiang, Haiyan Zeng, Yanpeng Li, Yan Wang, Rongge Yang
: It is not clear about the possible evolutionary changes of the three predominant strains of HIV-1 in China over the course of the epidemic. Envelope (env) gene of HIV-1 is a good target for this evolutionary pressure for its enriched epitopes. METHODS: We collected 159 full or part of env sequences sampled between 1997 and 2010 from database of China, we calculated the genetic distance, detected the positively selected sites by PAML suite and then compared the number using Fisher's exact test between the early period 1997 to 2003and the late period2004 to 2010...
December 5, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897109/effect-of-the-modification-of-p24-peptide-antigen-on-dendritic-cell-uptake-and-t-cell-activation
#3
P L Smith, K J Norgate, E Hegarty, N Grageda, E Heelas, M Sommerfelt, T Lange, Arnt-Ove Hovden, B Sørenson, A Dalgleish, M Bodman-Smith
BACKGROUND: Vacc-4x is a candidate therapeutic vaccine consisting of 4 modified peptides based on conserved regions of HIV-1 p24Gag. Vacc4x has been shown to induce long term cellular immunity in immunized infected individuals resulting a reduction in viral load on treatment interruption. OBJECTIVE: Vacc-4x peptides are modified. In this study the effect of modification on uptake of the peptides into PBMC, their subsequent presentation and antigenicity was tested...
November 29, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829329/comparison-of-antibody-immune-responses-to-different-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mutants
#4
Jian-Dong Liu, Li Ren, Bin Ju, Wei Song, Xiang-Yang Ge, Kun-Xue Hong, Ying Liu, Wei Xu, Yan-Ling Hao, Yi-Ming Shao
The identification of immunogens is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development. In our previous study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)attenuated vaccine enhance immunogenicity, both for DNA immunization alone and as a combined DNA prime-vaccinia boost immunization. An RV144 clinical trial has demonstrated that an envelope protein boost may provide some degree of protection against HIV-1 infection. In order to explore the antibody immune responses to two HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the EIAV vaccine and wild-type envelope glycoprotein, mice and guinea pigs were immunized using a DNA prime-protein boost immunization strategy...
November 8, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774892/atazanavir-plus-cobicistat-week-48-and-week-144-subgroup-analyses-of-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-trial
#5
Joel E Gallant, Graeme Moyle, Juan Berenguer, Peter Shalit, Huyen Cao, Ya-Pei Liu, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Lingfeng Yang, Javier Szwarcberg
OBJECTIVES: Cobicistat (COBI) enhances atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetic parameters similarly to ritonavir (RTV) in both healthy volunteers and HIV-infected adults. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this Phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve adults (GS-US-216-0114/NCT01108510) demonstrated that ATV+COBI was non-inferior to ATV+RTV, each in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), at Weeks 48 and 144, with high rates of virologic success for both regimens (85...
October 21, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758709/samhd1-polymorphisms-were-significantly-correlated-with-hiv-siv-virus-load-in-pbmc-from-chinese-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#6
Dan-Dan He, Shao-Long Mao, Wei Wang, Ya-Bin Jin, Hui-Ling Zhang, Fei Ling
Background-Sterile alpha motif and histidine aspartate domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) is one of the novel restriction factors that potently supresses HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells at an early stage in the viral replication cycle. SAMHD1 activity is blocked by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx), which targets and recruits SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, in the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage. Objective-The impact of SAMHD1 polymorphisms on viral replication in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (CR) and cynomolgus macaques of Vietnamese origin (CM) have not been reported until now...
October 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719662/the-importance-of-military-conscripts-for-surveillance-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-risk-behavior-in-thailand
#7
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad E Nelson, Ram Rangsin
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand was first recognized in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. Soon thereafter, HIV infections were reported among female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Routine serological surveillance for HIV began in 1991 among young men who were conscripted annually into the Royal Thai Army (RTA). The data from these populations provided a national population-based sample to determine sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among sexually active young men...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697032/prevalence-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-mutations-in-nepal
#8
Nirajan Bhusal, Ruengpung Sutthent, Navin Horthongkham, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: There have been very few reports of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) from Nepal which is geographically located between two high-prevalence HIV-1 infection countries, China and India. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of acquired and transmitted DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes in Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1 seropositive samples from central region of Nepal were collected in 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups, antiretroviral (ARV) drug naïve group (n=15) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) group (n=20), 90% (18/20) of them received zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) regimen...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697031/reactivation-of-latent-hiv-1-in-latently-infected-cells-by-coumarin-compounds-hymecromone-and-scoparone
#9
Xian Li, Hanxian Zeng, Pengfei Wang, Lu Lin, Lin Liu, Panpan Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral treatment (ART) cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the presence of latent viral reservoirs. The "shock and kill" strategy is a promising approach to eliminate the viral reservoir. However, there are various limits existing in current latency-reversing agents, searching for new activators are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the ability of hymecromone and scoparone for activating HIV-1 from latent reservoirs...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492726/hiv-infection-and-myocardial-infarction
#10
Leonardo Calza
After the advent of the potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has declined dramatically and HIV infection became a chronic disease with a significant increase in the life expectancy of HIV-positive people. Consequently, chronic comorbidities as coronary heart disease raised an increasing concern in this population. An increased risk of myocardial infarction has been reported among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population, but the pathogenic mechanism of this accelerated atherosclerotic process is complex and certainly multifactorial...
August 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492727/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-aids-incidence-among-adults-in-brazil
#11
Elisângela Elisângela Aparecida da Silva Lizzia, Altacilio Aparecido Nunes, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez
: AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. METHODS: This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis...
August 2, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450546/design-based-peptidomimetic-ligand-discovery-to-target-hiv-tar-rna-using-comparative-analysis-of-different-docking-methods
#12
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Yao Dai, Xin Qi
Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA...
July 19, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197616/naringin-ameliorates-hiv-1-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity
#13
Oluwafeyisetan Adebiyi, Olubunmi Adebiyi, Peter Owira
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and defective oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) have been proposed as possible mechanisms underlying the development of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)-induced mitochondrial toxicities. Available options in managing these complications have, so far, produced controversial results, thus necessitating further research into newer agents with promise. Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging effects of naringin, a plant-derived flavonoid, have previously been demonstrated...
May 20, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189027/effects-of-antiretroviral-molecules-on-survival-and-gene-expression-of-an-osteoblast-like-cell-line
#14
Anna Miserocchi, Giuseppina Musumeci, Isabella Bon, Silvia Morini, Serena Longo, Marco Borderi, Davide Gibellini, Maria Carla Re
Background The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy effectively undermined the evolution of HIV disease. Nevertheless, clinical observations indicated a clear association between therapy and the impairment of bone mineral density. Objective We selected some antiretroviral compounds used in clinical practice, to study their impact on bone health and their possible implication in the onset of bone disease. Method Scalar concentrations of several antiretroviral drugs (used in single and in combination) were tested on an osteoblast-like cell line, HOBIT cells, to analyse cell survival and gene expression of selected bone markers...
May 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009099/opioids-and-opioid-maintenance-therapies-their-impact-on-monocyte-mediated-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#15
Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Rebecca Wilson, Loreto Carvallo, Joan W Berman
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 enters the CNS within two weeks after peripheral infection and results in chronic neuroinflammation that leads to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in more than 50% of infected people. HIV enters the CNS by transmigration of infected monocytes across the blood brain barrier. Intravenous drug abuse is a major risk factor for HIV-1 infection, and opioids have been shown to alter the progression and severity of HAND. Methadone and buprenorphine are opioid derivates that are used as opioid maintenance therapies...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009097/mechanisms-of-hiv-transcriptional-regulation-by-drugs-of-abuse
#16
Mudit Tyagi, Michael Bukrinsky, Gary L Simon
BACKGROUND: There is a strong correlation between the use and abuse of illicit drugs and the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is well established that illicit drugs users are a high risk population for infection with HIV with an increased rate of HIV transmission and replication. Cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, heroin and morphine stand out as the most frequently abused illicit drugs and their use correlates well with HIV infection and AIDS progression. Notably, the high incidence of HIV infection in illicit drug abusers is primarily due to high risk activities such as needle sharing and unprotected sex...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009096/hiv-1-induced-cns-dysfunction-current-overview-and-research-priorities
#17
Jeymohan Joseph, Deborah A Colosi, Vasudev R Rao
BACKGROUND: Over the past three decades, the clinical presentation of HIV infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) has evolved. Prior to wide spread use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), more than a third of infected individuals exhibited a range of neurocognitive and motor deficits that frequently progressed to severe dementia and paralysis. However, the use of ART has significantly decreased the prevalence of severe forms of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009095/multiple-faceted-roles-of-cocaine-in-potentiation-of-hand
#18
Yu Cai, Lu Yang, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
BACKGROUND: While the advancement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic condition, the prevalence of a constellation of neurological disorders collectively termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to persist in these patients. HAND is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, depression, impaired memory and/or deficits in motor skills. The underlying factors leading to HAND have been the subject of extensive research and are thought to be associated with HIV infection in the CNS combined with robust immune activation of resident cells of the CNS...
March 24, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855616/editorial-thematic-issue-neuroaids-past-present-and-future
#19
Pankaj Seth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719664/overview-on-the-tricks-of-hiv-tat-to-hit-the-blood-brain-barrier
#20
Sunit K Singh
HIV infection among AIDS patients is associated with dysfunctions in the central nervous system (CNS) at the late stages of the disease. HIV Tat protein is released extracellularly from the productively infected cells and play important role in successful HIV replication and activates the neighboring uninfected cells in the bystander fashion. The structural flexibility of Tat protein is one of the unique features, responsible for the diverse functions. The RNA binding ability and interacting domains are very important characteristic of the HIV-Tat protein...
2016: Current HIV Research
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