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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062969/prep-eligibility-and-interest-among-clinic-and-community-recruited-young-black-women-in-atlanta-georgia-usa
#1
J M Sales, R J Steiner, J L Brown, A Swartzendruber, A S Patel, A N Sheth
BACKGROUND: Atlanta has been identified as an HIV "hot spot" for Black women and ranks 5th in the US with new infections. Yet little is known about PrEP eligibility or interest among young Black women in Atlanta. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1,261 Black women (ages 14-24 years) were recruited from two settings: community venues and sexual health clinics. They provided self-reported sexual behavior data and specimens for laboratory testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infections...
July 31, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062968/microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-1-infected-pregnant-women
#2
Charles D Mitchell, Sady Dominguez, Margaret Roach, Varghese George, Stephano Rinaldi, Margaret Fischl, Jonell Potter, Brittany Tyson, Savita Pahwa
BACKGROUND: Immune Activation (IA) has been previously documented in both pregnant (PG) and non-PG HIV-1 infected(HIV+) women as well as in HIV- uninfected PG women; the latter as a result of the fetal allograft. To determine whether the combined effects of HIV and pregnancy result in increased IA and whether IA is associated with Microbial Translocation (MT), we performed a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study during pregnancy and the postpartum (PP) period. METHODS: HIV+ PG women had biomarkers of IA and MT tested at 12-20 weeks (T1), and 24-36 weeks (T2) of pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks Postpartum (T3) ...
July 31, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062970/structural-barriers-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-among-young-sexual-minority-men-the-p18-cohort-study
#3
Jessica Jaiswal, Marybec Griffin, Stuart N Singer, Richard E Greene, Ingrid Lizette Zambrano Acosta, Saara K Kaudeyr, Farzana Kapadia, Perry N Halkitis
BACKGROUND: Despite decreasing rates of HIV among many populations, HIV-related health disparities among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men persist, with disproportional percentages of new HIV diagnoses among racial and ethnic minority men. Despite increasing awareness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP use remains low. In addition to exploring individual level factors for this slow uptake, structural drivers of PrEP use must also be identified in order to maximize the effectiveness of biomedical HIV prevention strategies...
July 30, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014804/comparison-of-demographic-epidemiological-immunological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-hiv-mono-infection-versus-patients-co-infected-with-hcv-or-and-hbv-a-serbian-cohort-study
#4
J Ranin, D Salemovic, B Brmbolic, J Marinkovic, I Boricic, I Pesic Pavlovic, S Zerjav, M Stanojevic, D Jevtovic
OBJECTIVE: To correlating the status of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with clinical and demographic data prior to starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and assess the impact of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) co-infections on the natural history of HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved a total of 836 treatment naive patients with available serological status for HBV and HCV at the point of therapy initiation...
July 16, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992888/therapeutic-outcomes-in-aids-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-with-chemotherapy-at-two-tertiary-hospitals-in-lusaka-zambia
#5
Watson Mtonga, Aaron Mujajati, Derick Munkombwe, Aubrey Kalungia, Lungwani Tyson Muungo, John West, Charles Wood, Owen Ngalamika
The incidence of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains high in Zambia in the antiretroviral therapy era. The most efficacious treatment regimen for KS has yet to be established. In both developed and developing countries, treatment regimens have had limited efficacy. Late presentation in Africa affects therapeutic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine therapeutic outcomes of epidemic KS patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after completion of six cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, and Vincristine (ABV) chemotherapy...
July 10, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992887/sexual-roles-risk-sexual-behaviours-and-hiv-prevalence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-seeking-hiv-testing-in-changsha-china
#6
Yunxiao Lei, Kaili Zhang, Xueling Xiao, Chulei Tang, Xianhong Li, Honghong Wang
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSMs), and sexual roles may be important factors related to it. This study aims to describe the sexual roles, risk sexual behaviours and HIV prevalence among MSMs, and to determine associated factors for HIV prevalence. METHODS: A convenient sampling method was used to recruit participants in a non-government organization in Changsha, China. The participants were asked to complete a 38-item self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and risk sexual behaviours before collecting blood samples for HIV testing...
July 10, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968539/drug-use-is-associated-with-anti-cd4-igg-mediated-cd4-t-cell-death-and-poor-cd4-t-cell-recovery-in-viral-suppressive-hiv-infected-individuals-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Wei Jiang, Zhenwu Luo, Lisa Martin, Zhuang Wan, Pingfu Fu, Amanda Wagner, Binhua Ling, Sonya Heath, Azizul Haque, Aimee McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: The role and mechanism of drug use or abuse in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV disease are not completely known. METHODS: To investigate the impact of drug use on HIV pathogenesis without confounding by HIV replication and ART adherence, we first analyzed the data from our clinical database in 103 HIV+ subjects with viral-suppressed ART treatment by a multiple regression test. RESULTS: We found that HIV+ drug users had lower CD4+ T cell counts but higher CD8+ T cell counts compared to HIV+ non-drug users, and both drug use and nadir CD4+ T cell counts was independently associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after controlling for sex and age...
July 3, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943704/pcr-amplification-strategies-towards-full-length-hiv-1-genome-sequencing
#8
Chao Chun Liu, Hezhao Ji
The advent of next generation sequencing has enabled greater resolution of viral diversity and improved feasibility of full viral genome sequencing allowing routine HIV-1 full genome sequencing in both research and diagnostic settings. Regardless of the sequencing platform selected, successful PCR amplification of the HIV-1 genome is essential for sequencing template preparation. As such, full HIV-1 genome amplification is a crucial step in dictating the successful and reliable sequencing downstream. Here we reviewed existing PCR protocols leading to HIV-1 full genome sequencing...
June 26, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807518/serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-25-oh-vitamin-d3-levels-in-hiv-1-and-tuberculosis-a-cross-sectional-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#9
Sanjeev Sinha, Kartik Gupta, Dibyakanti Mandal, B K Das, R M Pandey
Background Vitamin D is an immunomodulator, and its deficiency is associated with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a rich milieu of macrophages that forms the first line of defense against invading TB bacilli. Because there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in TB and human-immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subjects, we intend exploring the possibility of a localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in BALF of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the level of 25D3 in serum and BALF of subjects and look for a significant difference among patients and controls...
May 27, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804534/lopinavir-ritonavir-treatment-induces-oxidative-stress-and-caspase-independent-apoptosis-in-human-glioblastoma-u-87-mg-cell-line
#10
Rossella Gratton, Paola Maura Tricarico, Rafael Lima Guimaraes, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir and Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment is widely used to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. Nevertheless, studies related to the impact of these compounds on patients, in particular in the foetus and newborns, are strictly required due to the controversial findings reported in the literature concerning possible neurologic side effects following the administration of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: In our study, we evaluated the impact of LPV/r treatment on the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line...
May 27, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766813/coreceptor-tropism-and-maraviroc-sensitivity-of-clonally-derived-ethiopian-hiv-1c-strains-using-an-in-house-phenotypic-assay-and-commonly-used-genotypic-methods
#11
Amare Worku Kalu, Nigus Fikrie Telele, Shambhu Aralaguppe, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Anders Sonnerborg
OBJECTIVES: Genotypic tropism testing (GTT) tools are generally developed based on HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) and used for HIV-1C as well but with a large discordance of prediction between different methods. We used an established phenotypic assay for comparison with GTT methods and for determination of in vitro maraviroc sensitivity of pure R5-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1C. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from 58 HIV-1C infected Ethiopians. Envgp120 was cloned into a luciferase tagged NL4-3 plasmid...
May 15, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732988/appearance-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-the-dominant-hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae-in-maumere-indonesia
#12
Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin, Asep Purnama, Dwi Kurniawan, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate...
May 1, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651941/identification-of-adjacent-nnrti-binding-pocket-in-multi-mutated-hiv1-rt-enzyme-model-an-in-silico-study
#13
R F Kamil, U Debnath, S Verma, Y S Prabhakar
Introduction: A possible strategy to combat mutant strains is to have a thorough structural evaluation before and after mutations to identify the diversity in the non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket and their effects on enzyme-ligand interactions to generate novel NNRTI’s accordingly. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to find effects of multiple point mutations on NNRTI binding pocket. This study included the contribution of each individual mutation in NNIBP that propose an adjacent binding pocket which can be used to discover novel NNRTI derivatives...
April 12, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629663/the-effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-use-among-hiv-positive-children-on-the-hazard-of-aids-using-calendar-year-as-an-instrumental-variable
#14
Andrew Anglemyer, Amy Sturt, Yvonne Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to highlight the differences in effects of antiretroviral therapy on clinical outcomes between applications of traditional and adapted IV analysis techniques...
April 9, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600767/identification-and-characterization-of-positively-selected-mutations-in-nef-of-four-hiv-1-major-subtypes-from-los-alamos-national-laboratory
#15
Elnaz Shadabi, Binhua Liang, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mutates rapidly to escape host immune pressure. This results in the generation of positively selected mutations (PSM) throughout the viral genome. Escape mutations in Nef, one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, which plays an important role in viral pathogenicity have previously been identified in several large cohort studies, but the evolution of PSMs overtime in various HIV-1 subtypes remains unknown. METHODS: 161 clade A1, 3093 clade B, 647 clade C and 115 clade D HIV-1 nef sequences were obtained from the HIV Database of Los Alamos National Laboratory and aligned using MEGA 6...
March 30, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708481/editorial-the-hiv-siv-envelope-protein-from-structure-to-function-to-host-evasion
#16
EDITORIAL
Ronald Swanstrom, Sarah B Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708480/preface
#17
Charles Wood, Avi Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#18
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high-throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468971/il-10-promoter-592-polymorphism-may-influence-susceptibility-to-hiv-infection-in-south-indian-population
#19
Murugesan Harishankar, Harini Ravikrishnan, Akshaya Ravishankar, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Soumya Swaminathan, Paramasivam Selvaraj, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. METHOD: Genomic DNA was isolated from healthy controls, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n=122) and HIV positive individuals (n=100) and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468970/comparative-genetic-variability-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-vpu-gene-in-early-age-groups-of-infants
#20
Uma Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Mohammad Husain
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics. METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). A total of 77 PCR positive samples, amplified for vpu gene, were sequenced and analyzed...
2018: Current HIV Research
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