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Current HIV Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521724/hiv-risk-behavior-and-prevention-considerations-among-military-personnel-in-three-caribbean-region-countries-belize-barbados-and-the-dominican-republic
#1
Nakisa Asefnia, Lisa Cowan, Rose Werth
We review research findings and the limitations of recent qualitative and quantitative studies of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in military populations in three Caribbean countries (Dominican Republic, Belize, and Barbados). This research shows how mental health issues, disordered substance use, and structuring aspects of the occupational field produce and reproduce patterns of risk behaviors. We discuss the use of formative research, the Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention framework, and the use of implementation science (including research methods that employ alternative methodological assumptions to better elucidate both cultural nuances and unknown components of program impact in different military populations) as a means to tailor individual prevention strategies to military populations...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521721/the-importance-of-military-conscripts-for-surveillance-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-risk-behavior-in-thailand
#2
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad Nelson, Ram Rangsin
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Thailand began in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. It soon spread to other populations, especially female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending STD clinics. Routine serologic surveillance for HIV began among military conscripts in 1991. The HIV seroprevalence data from military conscripts provided national surveillance data, since the entire population of 21 year old men were conscripted for 2 years' service in the military by a random process during which 10% of men were selected...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521720/the-role-of-il-27-and-its-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-aids-and-anti-viral-immune-response
#3
Yu-Huang Zheng, Shui-Ling Xiao, Bo He, Yan He, Hua-Ying Zhou, Zi Chen, Mei He, Hong-Yan Wang, Yi-He Lin, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Cytokines have been widely demonstrated to involve in the pathogenesis of AIDS and the mechanisms of antiretroviral therapy. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 cytokine family and has been shown to interfere HIV-1 virus replication with controversial findings. This study is to investigate the dynamic changes in plasma IL-27 level and cell surface IL-27 receptor expression in HIV/AIDS patients who underwent HAART. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 34 HIV-positive/AIDS patients 0, 6, and 12 months after initiation of HAART and 27 healthy subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521717/analysis-of-site-heterogeneity-and-hiv-outcomes-across-rural-and-urban-study-sites-in-phidisa-ii-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-antiretroviral-treatment-trial-in-a-south-african-military-cohort
#4
John Steytler, Pamela A Shaw, Alice K Pau, Paul Khabo, Gyan Joshi, Pieter Oelofse
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials frequently enroll subjects from different study sites. Few such studies provide analysis by individual site. Between 2004-2007, the South African Military Health System (SAMHS) established 6 research sites (3 urban, 3 rural) to build capacity for clinical research and HIV care. We explore differences in clinical, virologic and CD4 outcomes by site in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Phidisa-II is the first randomised controlled trial conducted in the South African military setting, which compared 4 antiretroviral regimens in treatment-naïve advanced HIV subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521716/building-a-successful-military-to-military-partnership-through-confronting-hiv-the-u-s-nigeria-experience
#5
Aladdin Shadyab, Darrell Singer, Lindsay Hughes, Robbie Nelson, Tahir Umar, Ogbonnaya Simon Njoku
The Nigerian Ministry of Defence-Walter Reed Army Institute of Research partnership was established in 2004 in response to the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Here we discuss the emergence of HIV in Nigeria, highlighting the initial barriers to treatment delivery, and outline the origins of the international military-to-military partnership developed to confront the disease. With financial support from the United States President's Plan for AIDS Relief and Nigerian Government Counterpart Funding, we demonstrate how this program led to a successful and sustainable response in the fight against HIV in Nigeria...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521725/hiv-and-syphilis-prevalence-and-associated-risks-in-the-cameroonian-armed-forces
#6
Michael Grillo, Bonnie Robin Tran, Ubald Tamoufe, Cyrille F Djoko, Karen Saylors, Kelly Woodland, Ltc Wangmene, Caroline Macera
BACKGROUND: Continued surveillance of the HIV epidemic is critical to monitor changes in trends and risk behaviors. A 2005 study in the Cameroonian Armed Forces (CAF) found an HIV prevalence of 11.3% among male and female service members. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 5-year change in the HIV prevalence, estimate the prevalence of syphilis, and examine factors associated with infection in the CAF. METHODS: Participants were male and female service members 18 years of age or older who were stationed at one of the 10 military garrisons selected for participation...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521723/hiv-aids-securitization-outcomes-and-current-challenges
#7
Aladdin H Shadyab, Braden R Hale, Richard A Shaffer
BACKGROUND: The securitization (i.e., framing of a health issue as a security threat) of HIV/AIDS by the United Nations Security Council in 2000 changed the belief that HIV/AIDS is only a health issue. Although now accepted that HIV/AIDS represents a security threat, the consequences of securitization are still not widely established. METHODS: The purpose of this paper was to present an evidence-based review of the outcomes and current challenges associated with HIV/AIDS securitization in the context of national security...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#8
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521719/virological-suppression-and-patterns-of-resistance-amongst-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-4-nigerian-military-hospitals
#9
Keshinro Babajide, Ayemoba Ojor, Terfa Kene, Ake Julie, Crowell Trevor A, Adamu Yakubu, Mohammed Tahir, Okoye Ifeanyi, Odeyemi Sunday, Crawford Keith, Hughes Lindsay, Akintunde Ezekiel, Umar Tahir, Hamm Tiffany E, Njoku Ogbonnaya S
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained settings, plasma HIV-1 RNA quantification has not been routinely available for the monitoring of response to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated virological suppression rates amongst patients on first-line ART in four Nigerian military hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 325 randomly selected adult clinic clients (≥18 years old) on first-line ART regimens at four Nigerian military hospitals. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed using a Roche COBAS TaqMan48 with High Pure System...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521718/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-rwanda-defense-force-members
#10
Michael P Grillo, Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Caroline A Macera, Charles Murego, Eugene Zimulinda, Marcellin Sebagabo, Valentin Gatsinzi
INTRODUCTION: Strong scientific evidence supports voluntary medical male circumcision as part of an overall HIV prevention strategy, but self-report information on circumcision status may be inaccurate. The study objectives were to obtain estimates of male circumcision within the Rwanda Defense Force (RDF), to assess the ability of soldiers to correctly report their own circumcision status, and to document the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in the RDF. METHODS: Data were collected from members of the Rwandan military during their annual physical examination...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521715/conducting-hiv-seroprevalence-and-behavioral-epidemiology-risk-surveys-sabers-among-partner-military-populations
#11
Caroline A Macera, Stanley I Ito, Braden R Hale, Richard A Shaffer, Anne G Thomas, Janet Dickieson
BACKGROUND: Characterizing HIV infection and associated risk behaviors within military populations is critical for understanding the epidemic and informing prevention activities. However, the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviors is often unknown. Further, militaries may not have the systems in place or the staff expertise to conduct HIV surveillance and risk behavior studies. METHODS: The Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US Department of Defense, provides technical assistance, management and administrative support for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment for approximately 65 partner militaries...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521714/development-and-implementation-of-the-dhapp-military-ehealth-information-network-system
#12
Mary Kratz, Anne Thomas, Ricardo Hora, Delphis Vera, Mickey Lutz, Mark D Johnson
As the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Global Fund, and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief focus on reaching 90-90-90 goals, military health systems are scaling up to meet the data demands of these ambitious objectives. Since 2008, the US Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) has been working with military partners in 14 countries on implementation and adoption of a Military eHealth Information Network (MeHIN). Each country implementation plan followed a structured process using international eHealth standards...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521713/global-hiv-prevention-testing-and-counseling-in-military-populations
#13
Michael P Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Richard Shaffer, Caroline A Macera, Marc Bulterys
BACKGROUND: Compared with the general population in low- and middle-income countries, military members tend to be male, young, travel more frequently away from their main sexual partners, drink more alcohol and have a consistent source of income. All of these factors may lead to an increased risk of contracting HIV. OBJECTIVE: In response, the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program advocates for the integration of HIV prevention "building blocks" into military health services to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV among foreign uniformed services...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494720/hla-c-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-associated-with-increased-viral-load-level-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-from-northeast-brazil
#14
Ronaldo Celerino da Silva, Ronald Rodrigues de Moura, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Luiz Cláudio Arraes, Lucas André Cavalcanti Brandão, Sergio Crovella, Rafael Lima Guimarães
In our study we analyzed genetic variations in Human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C), Zinc ribbon domain containing 1 (ZNRD1) and its antisense RNA (ZNRD1-AS1) genes, known to influence the HIV-1 replication and disease progression. We evaluated the distribution of HLA-C (rs10484554, rs9264942) and ZNRD1 (rs8321) and ZNRD1-AS1 (rs3869068), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 266 HIV-1-infected and 223 unexposed-uninfected individuals from Northeast Brazil. HLA-C SNPs were in Linkage Disequilibrium (D'=0.84), constituting four possible haplotypes...
May 11, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322167/antibody-functional-assays-as-measures-of-fc-receptor-mediated-immunity-to-hiv-new-technologies-and-their-impact-on-the-hiv-vaccine-field
#15
Bruce D. Wines, Hugh Billings, Milla R Mclean, Stephen J Kent, P Mark Hogarth
There is now intense interest in the role of HIV-specific antibodies and the engagement of FcγR functions in the control and prevention of HIV infection. The RV144 vaccine study, natural progression cohorts, and macaque studies all point to a role for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the control of HIV. However, reliable assays that can be reproducibly used across different laboratories to measure ADCC and other Fc-dependent functions of antibodies are limited. We recently developed a novel ELISA-based assay to detect the binding of viral antigen-specific antibodies to the ectodomains of homo-dimeric Fcγ receptors...
March 20, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302043/cul5-and-apobec3g-polymorphisms-are-partially-implicated-in-hiv-1-infection-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-brazilian-population
#16
Ronaldo Celerino da Silva, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Ronald Rodrigues Moura, Luiz Cláudio Arraes, Lucas André Cavalcanti Brandão, Rafael Lima Guimarães, Sérgio Crovella
BACKGROUND: Host restriction factors are cellular proteins able to diminish or block viral replication in a cell-specific way. Objetive and Method: We evaluated the distribution of selected SNPs in APOBEC3G (rs3736685, rs2294367) and CUL5 (rs7117111, rs7103534, rs11212495) genes, among 264 HIV-1 infected (HIV-1+) and 259 unexposed uninfected individuals from Northeast Brazil, looking for a possible association with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, viral load, CD4+ T cell count and success of antiretroviral therapy...
March 15, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215175/cd4-t-cell-count-may-not-be-a-useful-strategy-to-monitor-antiretroviral-therapy-response-in-htlv-1-hiv-co-infected-patients
#17
Alain Vandormael, Filipe Rego, Siva Danaviah, Luiz Alcantara, David Boulware, Tulio de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: HTLV-1/HIV co-infection is known to elevate the CD4+ T-cell counts of treatment-naïve persons. We investigated whether HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients continued to have elevated CD4+ T-cell counts after developing virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: The data comes from a drug resistance study located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. All participants (N=383) presented for repeated CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load level testing between January 2006 and March 2014...
February 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176645/prevention-interventions-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-military-settings
#18
Michael Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Caroline Macera, Richard Shaffer
Military prevention programs and healthy living programs were developed in the mid-1980s to manage and support newly HIV-positive military personnel in the US military. Since then, a program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with support from the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), called Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention (PHDP), is currently being rolled out by DHAPP in partner militaries. The program, designed to reduce HIV transmission, is a package of interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV), including risk reduction counseling, condom provision, disclosure counseling, testing of sexual partner(s) and children, adherence counseling, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and provision of family planning services...
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176644/withdrawn-sexual-and-gender-based-violence-attitudes-and-experiences-among-nine-sub-saharan-african-militaries
#19
(no author information available yet)
Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher.
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176643/withdrawn-short-term-transfer-of-knowledge-assessment-in-the-military-international-hiv-training-program-mihtp
#20
(no author information available yet)
Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher.
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
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