journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neurocritical Care

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916998/emergency-neurologic-life-support-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#1
David F Gaieski, Nicole F O'Brien, Ricardo Hernandez
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because of the value of early recognition and treatment, meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment are discussed...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916970/caring-for-patients-families-or-lack-of-family-in-neurocritical-care
#2
EDITORIAL
David Y Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916943/emergency-neurological-life-support-acute-non-traumatic-weakness
#3
Anna Finley Caulfield, Oliver Flower, Jose A Pineda, Shahana Uddin
Acute non-traumatic weakness may be life-threatening if it involves the respiratory muscles and/or is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Most patients presenting with acute muscle weakness have a worsening neurological disorder that requires a rapid, systematic evaluation and detailed neurological exam to localize the disorder. Urgent laboratory tests and neuroimaging are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Because acute weakness is a common presenting sign of neurological emergencies, it was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913819/emergency-neurologic-life-support-spinal-cord-compression
#4
Kristine H O'Phelan
There are many causes of acute myelopathy including multiple sclerosis, systemic disease, and acute spinal cord compression (SCC). SCC should be among the first potential causes considered given the significant permanent loss of neurologic function commonly associated with SCC. This impairment can occur over a short period of time, and may be avoided through rapid and acute surgical intervention. Patients with SCC typically present with a combination of motor and sensory dysfunction that has a distribution referable to a spinal level...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913813/pharmacotherapy-pearls-for-emergency-neurological-life-support
#5
Gretchen M Brophy, Theresa Human
The appropriate use of medications during Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is essential to optimize patient care. Important considerations when choosing the appropriate agent include the patient's organ function and medication allergies, potential adverse drug effects, drug interactions and critical illness and aging pathophysiologic changes. Critical medications used during ENLS include hyperosmolar therapy, anticonvulsants, antithrombotics, anticoagulant reversal and hemostatic agents, anti-shivering agents, neuromuscular blockers, antihypertensive agents, sedatives, vasopressors and inotropes, and antimicrobials...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913811/emergency-neurological-life-support-third-edition-updates-in-the-approach-to-early-management-of-a-neurological-emergency
#6
Kristine H O'Phelan, Chad M Miller
Emergency Neurologic Life Support (ENLS) is an educational program designed to provide users advisory instructions regarding management for the first few hours of a neurologic emergency. The content of the course is divided into 14 modules, each addressing a distinct category of neurological injury. The course is appropriate for practitioners and providers from various backgrounds who work in environments of variable medical complexity. The focus of ENLS is centered on a standardized treatment algorithm, checklists, to guide early patient care, and a structured format for communication of findings and concerns to other healthcare professionals...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913754/emergency-neurological-life-support-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Rachel Garvin, Halinder S Mangat
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and is a leading cause of death in both the developed and developing world. The need for a systematic evidence-based approach to the care of severe TBI patients within the emergency setting has led to its inclusion as an Emergency Neurological Life Support topic. This protocol was designed to enumerate the practice steps that should be considered within the first critical hours of neurological injury from severe TBI.
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913751/emergency-neurological-life-support-airway-ventilation-and-sedation
#8
Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Becky Riggs, David B Seder
Airway management and ventilation are central to the resuscitation of the neurologically ill. These patients often have evolving processes that threaten the airway and adequate ventilation. Furthermore, intubation, ventilation, and sedative choices directly affect brain perfusion. Therefore, Airway, Ventilation, and Sedation was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. Topics include airway management, when and how to intubate with special attention to hemodynamics and preservation of cerebral blood flow, mechanical ventilation settings and the use of sedative agents based on the patient's neurological status...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913720/emergency-neurological-life-support-acute-ischemic-stroke
#9
Hartmut Gross, Noah Grose
Acute ischemic stroke is a neurological emergency that can be treated with time-sensitive interventions, including both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular approaches to thrombus removal. Extensive study has demonstrated that rapid, protocolized, assessment and treatment is essential to improving neurological outcome. For this reason, acute ischemic stroke was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. The protocol focuses on the first hour of medical care following the acute onset of a neurological deficit...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913711/emergency-neurological-life-support-resuscitation-following-cardiac-arrest
#10
Jonathan Elmer, Kees H Polderman
Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. An organized bundle of neurocritical care interventions can improve chances of survival and neurological recovery in patients who are successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. Key aspects of successful early post-arrest management include: prevention of secondary brain injury; identification of treatable causes of arrest in need of emergent intervention; and, delayed neurological prognostication...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913708/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#11
J Claude Hemphill, Arthur Lam
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to spontaneous bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, proper diagnosis, and early management of several specific issues such as blood pressure, coagulopathy reversal, and surgical hematoma evacuation for appropriate patients. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) protocol because intervention within the first hours may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913694/emergency-neurological-life-support-traumatic-spine-injury
#12
Deborah M Stein, William A Knight
Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Though the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department (ED) clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, are also covered...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913634/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracranial-hypertension-and-herniation
#13
Rhonda Cadena, Michael Shoykhet, Jonathan J Ratcliff
Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913624/emergency-neurological-life-support-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Brian L Edlow, Owen Samuels
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency because it may lead to sudden neurological decline and death and, depending on the cause, has treatment options that can return a patient to normal. Because there are interventions that can be life-saving in the first few hours after onset, SAH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) protocol.
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913605/emergency-neurological-life-support-status-epilepticus
#15
Jan Claassen, Joshua N Goldstein
Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min should be considered to be in status epilepticus (SE) and receive immediate resuscitation. Although there are few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first line therapy, as well as accelerated second line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913601/emergency-neurological-life-support-approach-to-the-patient-with-coma
#16
Rhonda S Cadena, Aarti Sarwal
Coma is an acute failure of neuronal systems governing arousal and awareness and represents a medical emergency. When encountering a comatose patient, the clinician must have an organized approach to detect easily remediable causes, prevent ongoing neurologic injury, and determine a hierarchical plan for diagnostic tests, treatments, and neuromonitoring. Coma was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because timely medical and surgical interventions can be life-saving, and the initial work-up of such patients is critical to establishing a correct diagnosis...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875429/regional-differences-in-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-after-cardiac-arrest-and-resuscitation-in-rats-using-18-f-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-and-autoradiography
#17
Alessandro Putzu, Silvia Valtorta, Giuseppe Di Grigoli, Matthias Haenggi, Sara Belloli, Antonio Malgaroli, Marco Gemma, Giovanni Landoni, Luigi Beretta, Rosa Maria Moresco
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Brain injury severity and prognosis of cardiac arrest patients are related to the cerebral areas affected. To this aim, we evaluated the variability and the distribution of brain glucose metabolism after cardiac arrest and resuscitation in an adult rat model. METHODS: Ten rats underwent 8-min cardiac arrest, induced with a mixture of potassium and esmolol, and resuscitation, performed with chest compressions and epinephrine...
September 5, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831717/a-randomized-trial-of-brief-versus-extended-seizure-prophylaxis-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Theresa Human, Michael N Diringer, Michelle Allen, Gregory J Zipfel, Michael Chicoine, Ralph Dacey, Rajat Dhar
BACKGROUND: Seizures occur in 10-20% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly in the acute phase. However, anticonvulsant prophylaxis remains controversial, with studies suggesting a brief course may be adequate and longer exposure may be associated with worse outcomes. Nonetheless, in the absence of controlled trials to inform practice, patients continue to receive variable chemoprophylaxis. The objective of this study was to compare brief versus extended seizure prophylaxis after aneurysmal SAH...
August 22, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828726/levetiracetam-pharmacokinetics-in-a-critically-ill-anephric-patient-on-intermittent-hemodialysis
#19
Patrick M Wieruszewski, Kianoush B Kashani, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Erin Frazee
BACKGROUND: In patients requiring hemodialysis, the extracorporeal circuit is expected to remove the majority of serum levetiracetam. The preferred levetiracetam dosing regimen in critically ill patients exhibiting complex pharmacokinetic profiles undergoing hemodialysis is unknown. The objective of this case is to describe levetiracetam pharmacokinetics in a critically ill anephric patient receiving intermittent hemodialysis. METHODS: This is a case report of a single patient...
August 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828556/primary-posterior-fossa-lesions-and-preserved-supratentorial-cerebral-blood-flow-implications-for-brain-death-determination
#20
Panayiotis N Varelas, Paul Brady, Mohammed Rehman, Arash Afshinnik, Chandan Mehta, Tamer Abdelhak, Eelco F Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions may clinically meet brain death criteria, but may retain supratentorial brain function or blood flow. These patients could be declared brain-dead in the United Kingdom (UK), but not in the United States of America (USA). We report the outcome of adult patients with primary posterior fossa lesions without concurrent major supratentorial injury. METHODS: Henry Ford Hospital database was reviewed over a period of 88 months in order to identify all adult patients with isolated brainstem or posterior fossa lesions...
August 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
journal
journal
40302
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"