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Ocular Surface

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807793/interests
#1
EDITORIAL
J Daniel Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807792/anti-science-in-the-21st-century
#2
LETTER
Gary D Novack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797892/the-tfos-dry-eye-workshop-ii-executive-summary
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer P Craig, J Daniel Nelson, Dimitri T Azar, Carlos Belmonte, Anthony J Bron, Sunil K Chauhan, Cintia S de Paiva, José A P Gomes, Katherine M Hammitt, Lyndon Jones, Jason J Nichols, Kelly K Nichols, Gary D Novack, Fiona J Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox, James S Wolffsohn, David A Sullivan
This article presents an Executive Summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the 10-chapter TFOS DEWS II report. The entire TFOS DEWS II report was published in the July 2017 issue of The Ocular Surface. A downloadable version of the document and additional material, including videos of diagnostic and management techniques, are available on the TFOS website: www.TearFilm.org.
August 7, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789979/conjunctival-subepithelial-fibrosis-and-meibomian-gland-atrophy-in-ocular-graft-versus-host-disease
#4
Yael Kusne, M'hamed Temkit, Nandita Khera, Dharmendra R Patel, Joanne F Shen
PURPOSE: Dry eye symptoms greatly impact patients' quality of life in ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). Various ocular surface changes have been reported in oGVHD, including meibomian gland atrophy (MGA) and clinical conjunctival scarring or subepithelial fibrosis (CSEF). The relationships between CSEF, MGA, and other ocular surface changes in oGVHD were examined. METHODS: Charts of 21 consecutive GVHD patients examined by a single ophthalmologist were retrospectively reviewed...
August 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782653/a-maximal-incremental-effort-alters-tear-osmolarity-depending-on-the-fitness-level-in-military-helicopter-pilots
#5
Jesús Vera Vilchez, Raimundo Jimenez, Iker Madinabeitia, Nerijus Masiulis, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. METHODS: Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill...
August 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698011/clinical-and-morphological-manifestations-of-aniridia-associated-keratopathy-on-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-and-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy
#6
Anna Voskresenskaya, Nadezhda Pozdeyeva, Tatyana Vasilyeva, Yevgeniy Batkov, Aleksandr Shipunov, Boris Gagloev, Rena Zinchenko
PURPOSE: The study aimed to evaluate clinical and morphological changes in the limbal palisades of Vogt (POV) at different stages of aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) and to assess possible utility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the visualization of limbal progenitor structures as it correlates to laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) data. METHODS: The study involved 32 patients (59 eyes) with congenital aniridia. AAK stage was defined based on biomicroscopy...
July 8, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662943/discovery-of-novel-antimycobacterial-drug-therapy-in-biofilm-of-pathogenic-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-keratitis
#7
Thet Tun Aung, Wei Hong Jeff Chor, Joey Kuok Hoong Yam, Michael Givskov, Liang Yang, Roger W Beuerman
PURPOSE: The potential of slow-growing mycobacteria to form biofilms in human tissues contributes to the problem of establishing an effective treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine new antibiotic strategies to enhance current treatment options for these infections. METHODS: Sensitivities of Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 49404 and Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 were evaluated for different antimicrobials singly and in combination using broth microdilution and FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index) synergy screening...
June 26, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602948/emerging-strategies-for-antimicrobial-drug-delivery-to-the-ocular-surface-implications-for-infectious-keratitis
#8
REVIEW
Ajay Sharma, Jonathan Taniguchi
Infectious keratitis is a medical emergency that can cause severe visual morbidity if not treated promptly. Depending upon the causative microorganism, effective management of infectious keratitis requires frequent application of antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral eye drops, which may have low bioavailability, undesirable side effects, and poor patient compliance. Ocular formulations of antimicrobials that can increase corneal permeation and provide extended presence on ocular surface are being developed...
June 7, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736340/tfos-dews-ii-pathophysiology-report
#9
REVIEW
Anthony J Bron, Cintia S de Paiva, Sunil K Chauhan, Stefano Bonini, Eric E Gabison, Sandeep Jain, Erich Knop, Maria Markoulli, Yoko Ogawa, Victor Perez, Yuichi Uchino, Norihiko Yokoi, Driss Zoukhri, David A Sullivan
The members of the TFOS DEWS II Pathophysiology Subcommittee reviewed the mechanisms involved in the initiation and perpetuation of dry eye disease. The Subcommittee also recommended areas for future research to advance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the TFOS DEWS II membership.
May 31, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576753/the-function-of-regulatory-t-cells-at-the-ocular-surface-review
#10
REVIEW
William Foulsham, Anna Marmalidou, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Giulia Coco, Yihe Chen, Reza Dana
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical modulators of immune homeostasis. Tregs maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmune disease. Furthermore, Tregs suppress excessive immune responses deleterious to the host. Recent research has deepened our understanding of how Tregs function at the ocular surface. This manuscript describes the classification, the immunosuppressive mechanisms, and the phenotypic plasticity of Tregs. We review the contribution of Tregs to ocular surface autoimmune disease, as well as the function of Tregs in allergy and infection at the ocular surface...
May 30, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572031/environmental-impact-on-ocular-surface-disorders-possible-epigenetic-mechanism-modulation-and-potential-biomarkers-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Anna Busanello, Daniela Santucci, Stefano Bonini, Alessandra Micera
Throughout life, external and the internal environments interact in normal development and tissue homeostasis as well as in onset of disease. Epigenetic modifications occur in response to environmental changes and play a fundamental role in controlling gene expression without modification of the DNA base sequence. Aging, inflammation, drugs, infections and ultraviolet exposure may have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger susceptibility to diseases. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in regulating the physiopathology of the ocular surface...
May 29, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736344/tfos-dews-ii-clinical-trial-design-report
#12
REVIEW
Gary D Novack, Penny Asbell, Stefano Barabino, Michael V W Bergamini, Joseph B Ciolino, Gary N Foulks, Michael Goldstein, Michael A Lemp, Stefan Schrader, Craig Woods, Fiona Stapleton
The development of novel therapies for Dry Eye Disease (DED) is formidable, and relatively few treatments evaluated have been approved for marketing. In this report, the Subcommittee reviewed challenges in designing and conducting quality trials, with special reference to issues in trials in patients with DED and present the regulatory perspective on DED therapies. The Subcommittee reviewed the literature and while there are some observations about the possible reasons why so many trials have failed, there is no obvious single reason other than the lack of correlation between signs and symptoms in DED...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736343/tfos-dews-ii-management-and-therapy-report
#13
REVIEW
Lyndon Jones, Laura E Downie, Donald Korb, Jose M Benitez-Del-Castillo, Reza Dana, Sophie X Deng, Pham N Dong, Gerd Geerling, Richard Yudi Hida, Yang Liu, Kyoung Yul Seo, Joseph Tauber, Tais H Wakamatsu, Jianjiang Xu, James S Wolffsohn, Jennifer P Craig
The members of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee undertook an evidence-based review of current dry eye therapies and management options. Management options reviewed in detail included treatments for tear insufficiency and lid abnormalities, as well as anti-inflammatory medications, surgical approaches, dietary modifications, environmental considerations and complementary therapies. Following this extensive review it became clear that many of the treatments available for the management of dry eye disease lack the necessary Level 1 evidence to support their recommendation, often due to a lack of appropriate masking, randomization or controls and in some cases due to issues with selection bias or inadequate sample size...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736335/tfos-dews-ii-definition-and-classification-report
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer P Craig, Kelly K Nichols, Esen K Akpek, Barbara Caffery, Harminder S Dua, Choun-Ki Joo, Zuguo Liu, J Daniel Nelson, Jason J Nichols, Kazuo Tsubota, Fiona Stapleton
The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736334/tfos-dews-ii-introduction
#15
REVIEW
J Daniel Nelson, Jennifer P Craig, Esen K Akpek, Dimitri T Azar, Carlos Belmonte, Anthony J Bron, Janine A Clayton, Murat Dogru, Harminder S Dua, Gary N Foulks, José A P Gomes, Katherine M Hammitt, Juha Holopainen, Lyndon Jones, Choun-Ki Joo, Zuguo Liu, Jason J Nichols, Kelly K Nichols, Gary D Novack, Virender Sangwan, Fiona Stapleton, Alan Tomlinson, Kazuo Tsubota, Mark D P Willcox, James S Wolffsohn, David A Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528957/proteasomes-in-corneal-epithelial-cells-and-cultured-autologous-oral-mucosal-epithelial-cell-sheet-caomecs-graft-used-for-the-ocular-surface-regeneration
#16
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce, Richard Hoft, Imara Meepe, Julio Garcia, Kumar Tiger, Andrew Wood, Amanda Laporte, Derek Pan, Andrew Makalinao, Robert Niihara, Joan Oliva, Arjie Florentino, Amber M Gorce, Jeremy Stark, Daileen Cortez, Samuel W French, Yutaka Niihara
PURPOSE: This study focuses on characterizing proteasomes in corneal epithelial cells (CEC) and in cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets (CAOMECS) used to regenerate the ocular surface. METHODS: Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) was surgically induced in rabbit corneas. CAOMECS was engineered and grafted onto corneas with LSCD to regenerate the ocular surface. RESULTS: LSCD caused an increase in inflammatory cells in the ocular surface, an increase in the formation of immunoproteasomes (IPR), and a decrease in the formation of constitutive proteasome (CPR)...
May 18, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736337/tfos-dews-ii-epidemiology-report
#17
REVIEW
Fiona Stapleton, Monica Alves, Vatinee Y Bunya, Isabelle Jalbert, Kaevalin Lekhanont, Florence Malet, Kyung-Sun Na, Debra Schaumberg, Miki Uchino, Jelle Vehof, Eloy Viso, Susan Vitale, Lyndon Jones
The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms...
May 12, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736341/tfos-dews-ii-iatrogenic-report
#18
REVIEW
José Alvaro P Gomes, Dimitri T Azar, Christophe Baudouin, Nathan Efron, Masatoshi Hirayama, Jutta Horwath-Winter, Terry Kim, Jodhbir S Mehta, Elisabeth M Messmer, Jay S Pepose, Virender S Sangwan, Alan L Weiner, Steven E Wilson, James S Wolffsohn
Dry eye can be caused by a variety of iatrogenic interventions. The increasing number of patients looking for eye care or cosmetic procedures involving the eyes, together with a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of dry eye disease (DED), have led to the need of a specific report about iatrogenic dry eye within the TFOS DEWS II. Topical medications can cause DED due to their allergic, toxic and immuno-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. Preservatives, such as benzalkonium chloride, may further aggravate DED...
May 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483646/micrornas-in-ocular-surface-and-dry-eye-diseases-good-bad-and-healing-situations
#19
REVIEW
Diane Meyre Rassi, Cintia S De Paiva, Lara Cristina Dias, Carolina Maria Módulo, Leidiane Adriano, Marina Zilio Fantucci, Eduardo Melani Rocha
Since the first description of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the nineties of last century, more than 60 papers have described the role of miRNAs on the ocular surface and lacrimal gland. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in several physiological events and also as mediators of diseases. They inhibit the gene expression by blocking the messenger RNA. Diseases as Sjögren Syndrome (SS), ocular surface neoplasias and infections are known to increase or reduce the expression of specific miRNAs. These miRNAs play key activities in modulating inflammation, delaying or enhancing wound healing, cell differentiation metabolism, and survival...
May 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736342/tfos-dews-ii-diagnostic-methodology-report
#20
REVIEW
James S Wolffsohn, Reiko Arita, Robin Chalmers, Ali Djalilian, Murat Dogru, Kathy Dumbleton, Preeya Gupta, Paul Karpecki, Sihem Lazreg, Heiko Pult, Benjamin D Sullivan, Alan Tomlinson, Louis Tong, Edoardo Villani, Kyung Chul Yoon, Lyndon Jones, Jennifer Craig
The role of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) II Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee was 1) to identify tests used to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease (DED), 2) to identify those most appropriate to fulfil the definition of DED and its sub-classifications, 3) to propose the most appropriate order and technique to conduct these tests in a clinical setting, and 4) to provide a differential diagnosis for DED and distinguish conditions where it is a comorbidity. Symptom screening with the DEQ-5 or OSDI confirms that a patient might have DED and triggers the diagnostic tests of (ideally non-invasive) breakup time, osmolarity and ocular surface staining with fluorescein and lissamine green (observing the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelid margin)...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
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