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Ocular Surface

Kazuo Tsubota, Norihiko Yokoi, Jun Shimazaki, Hitoshi Watanabe, Murat Dogru, Masakazu Yamada, Shigeru Kinoshita, Hyo-Myung Kim, Hung-Won Tchah, Joon Young Hyon, Kyung-Chul Yoon, Kyoung Yul Seo, Xuguang Sun, Wei Chen, Lingyi Liang, Li Mingwu, Zuguo Liu
For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage...
October 7, 2016: Ocular Surface
Priscilla A Mathewson, Geraint P Williams, Stephanie L Watson, James Hodson, Anthony J Bron, Saaeha Rauz
PURPOSE: Unifying terminology for the description of ocular surface disease (OSD) is vital for determining treatment responses and ensuring robust clinical trial outcomes. To date, there are no agreed parameters describing 'activity' and 'damage' phases of disease. METHODS: A working group of international experts in OSD, oculoplastics, and uveitis from a range of backgrounds (university, teaching, district general and private hospitals) participated in a modified Delphi consensus-building exercise (October 31, 2011 to March 20, 2015)...
September 24, 2016: Ocular Surface
Yvonne T Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S Zhu, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
PURPOSE: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. METHODS: P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h...
September 23, 2016: Ocular Surface
Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Medi Eslani, Zeeshan Haq, Ebrahim Shirzadeh, Michael J Huvard, Ali R Djalilian
Chemical injuries frequently result in vision loss, disfigurement, and challenging ocular surface complications. Acute interventions are directed at decreasing the extent of the injury, suppressing inflammation, and promoting ocular surface re-epithelialization. Chronically, management involves controlling inflammation along with rehabilitation and reconstruction of the ocular surface. Future therapies aimed at inhibiting neovascularization and promoting ocular surface regeneration should provide more effective treatment options for the management of ocular chemical injuries...
September 17, 2016: Ocular Surface
Edward Lum, Blanka Golebiowski, Helen A Swarbrick
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in corneal subbasal nerve fiber density and orientation during a 3-month orthokeratology (OK) lens wear period and their relationship with concurrent changes in corneal sensitivity. METHODS: Sixteen subjects wore overnight OK lenses for 90 days and were assessed at baseline, Day 30, and Day 90. Nerve images at the corneal apex and temporal mid-periphery were captured from the right eye only using in vivo confocal microscopy and analyzed to calculate nerve fiber density (NFD) and global nerve fiber orientation (GNFO)...
September 8, 2016: Ocular Surface
Alessandro Lambiase, Benjamin D Sullivan, Tannin A Schmidt, David A Sullivan, Gregory Jay, Edward R Truitt, Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Flavio Mantelli
PURPOSE: The objective of this clinical trial (NCT02507934) was to assess the efficacy and safety of recombinant human lubricin as compared to a 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (HA) eye drop in subjects with moderate dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: DEWS Grade 2-3 subjects were randomized to use lubricin (N=19, 51.9±11.8 years) or HA (N=20, 61.8±13.3 years). After a saline washout period, subjects administered BID therapy for 7 days, followed by instillation as needed (2-6 drops per eye) for 7 days...
September 7, 2016: Ocular Surface
Gary D Novack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Ocular Surface
J Daniel Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Ocular Surface
Cirous Dehghani, Nicola Pritchard, Katie Edwards, Anthony W Russell, Rayaz A Malik, Nathan Efron
PURPOSE: To assess if diabetes alters corneal epithelial, anterior stromal and subbasal nerve plexus morphology and to determine the associations between these and other clinical variables. METHODS: A cohort of 78 participants with diabetes (39 with Type 1 and 39 with Type 2 diabetes) and 29 age-matched healthy controls underwent laser-scanning confocal microscopy of the central cornea. Intermediate cell density (ICD), basal cell density (BCD), anterior stromal cell density (ASCD), corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) and nerve fiber length (CNFL) were quantified...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
James V Jester, Eric Potma, Donald J Brown
PURPOSE: Previous reports suggest that age-related meibomian gland atrophy is associated with decreased expression of the lipid-sensitive nuclear receptor, PPARγ. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of PPARγ in modulating meibocyte lipid synthesis. METHODS: Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from meibomian glands of young (2M) and old (2Y) C57Bl6 mice were probed using antibodies specific for PPARγ. Mouse meibocytes were cultured, immortalized using a SV40 lentiviral vector, and evaluated for lipid synthesis using LipidTox staining and CARS/Raman microspectroscopy...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
Ian A Sigal, Jessica Steele, Scott Drexler, Kira L Lathrop
PURPOSE: The Palisades of Vogt (POV) constitute the corneal epithelial stem cell niche, but identification of this region in ex vivo tissue is difficult. Here we introduce a simple, direct method of identifying the POV in unsectioned, ex vivo human tissue. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes were studied, four whole and eighteen rims. Orientation of whole eyes was determined and the eyes were marked to maintain their cardinal orientation prior to dissection. Samples were imaged with brightfield, linearly polarized light and transmitted circularly polarized light (CPL), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes were acquired in all twelve clock hrs around the limbus...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
Victor Charoenrook, Ralph Michael, Maria Fideliz de la Paz, Angela Ding, Rafael I Barraquer, Jose Temprano
PURPOSE: To analyze the anatomical and functional results of keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft. METHODS: We reviewed 113 charts of patients who underwent tibial bone osteokeratoprothesis implantation at the Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer. Kaplan-Meier survival curves with 95% confidence interval were calculated for functional success, defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥0.05 on the decimal scale, and for anatomical success, defined as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
Jennifer Rossen, Alec Amram, Behrad Milani, Dongwook Park, Jennifer Harthan, Charlotte Joslin, Timothy McMahon, Ali Djalilian
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a pathologic condition caused by the dysfunction and/or destruction of stem cell precursors of the corneal epithelium, typified clinically by corneal conjunctivalization. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss a less well-known cause of limbal stem cell disease: contact lens (CL) wear. A literature search was conducted to include original articles containing patients with CL-induced LSCD. This review describes epidemiology, diagnostic strategies, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities for this condition...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
Austin K Mircheff, Yanru Wang, Joel E Schechter, Meng Li, Warren Tong, Mayssa Attar, Murty Chengalvala, Joe Harmuth, Jeffery J Prusakiewicz
PURPOSE: To investigate lacrimal gland (LG) immunophysiological and immune-mediated inflammatory process (IMIP) phenotype diversity METHODS: Ex vivo matured dendritic cells (mDC) were loaded with acinar cell microparticles (MP). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were activated in mixed cell reactions with mDC and injected directly into autologous, unilateral LG (1°ATD-LG) of two rabbit cohorts, one naïve, one immunized with a LG lysate membrane fraction (Pi). Autoimmune IgG titers were assayed by ELISA, MCR PBL stimulation indices (SI) by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation...
July 13, 2016: Ocular Surface
Samiyyah M Sledge, Hussain Khimji, Douglas Borchman, Alexandria Oliver, Heidi Michael, Emily K Dennis, Dylan Gerlach, Rahul Bhola, Elsa Stephen
PURPOSE: The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. METHODS: Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (11-24 carbons in length) and human meibum were studied. Reflex tears were obtained from a 62-year-old male. RESULTS: The Raman scattering intensity of the lipid film deviated by about 7 % for hydroxyl lipids and varied by 21 % for meibum films across the entire film at a resolution of 5 μm(2)...
July 6, 2016: Ocular Surface
Alja Crnej, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Ai Ren, Andrew Mullins, Alenka Lavric, Kunal Suri, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: Although it has been known that patients' perspectives on their disease can significantly affect their level of functional disability as well as disease outcome, limited data are available on patients' perceptions of their dry eye disease (DED). The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to evaluate patients' perspectives on their DED. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with DED. In addition to clinical evaluation, all patients completed a questionnaire to evaluate their perspectives on their DED...
July 6, 2016: Ocular Surface
Gary D Novack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Ocular Surface
J Daniel Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Ocular Surface
Stefano Barabino, Marc Labetoulle, Maurizio Rolando, Elisabeth M Messmer
Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common reasons for patients (particularly those over the age of 50) to seek ophthalmic care. There is a wide array of causes for DED that can induce an alteration of the ocular surface system and determine the chronicity of the disease, including low blink rates (eg, computer use), systemic and topical drugs, autoimmune diseases, contact lens wear, and cataract and refractive surgery. Patients with dry eye experience numerous symptoms that can reduce their productivity and overall quality of life...
July 2016: Ocular Surface
Abirami Kugadas, Mihaela Gadjeva
The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near future. In addition, we discuss how microbiota at sites other than the eye may influence ocular immune responses...
July 2016: Ocular Surface
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