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Expert Review of Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148853/multi-stage-subunit-vaccines-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-an-alternative-to-the-bcg-vaccine-or-a-bcg-prime-boost
#1
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Saman Soleimanpour
More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115165/a-fuzzy-micmac-analysis-for-improving-supply-chain-performance-of-basic-vaccines-in-developing-countries
#2
Dheeraj Chandra, Dinesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, demand to improve child immunization coverage globally, and the development of the latest vaccines and technology has made the vaccine market very complex. The rise in such complexities often gives birth to numerous issues in the vaccine supply chain, which are the primary cause of its poor performance. Figuring out the cause of the performance problem can help you decide how to address it. The goal of the present study is to identify and analyze important issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required for child immunization in the developing countries...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053937/studies-with-herpes-zoster-vaccines-in-immune-compromised-patients
#3
Myron J Levin, Eddy Bresnitz, Zoran Popmihajlov, Adriana Weinberg, Kai-Li Liaw, English Willis, Jeffrey R Curtis
The active component of the herpes zoster vaccine (ZVL), licensed for people ≥50 years of age, is a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus. ZVL is contraindicated for immune compromised individuals, with limited regard to the degree of immunosuppression. Areas covered: This review evaluates phase I and II and observational studies for ZVL, and published reports of the off-label use of ZVL, for conditions and therapies for which investigators considered the risk-benefit for using ZVL to be favorable. It also discusses exploratory trials of ZVL for additional immune compromising conditions, and summarizes clinical guidelines from many countries and professional societies that are based upon recent investigations...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047317/varicella-and-herpes-zoster-vaccine-development-lessons-learned
#4
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Harriet Forbes, Judith Breuer
Before vaccination, varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is endemic worldwide, led to almost universal infection. This neurotropic virus persists lifelong by establishing latency in sensory ganglia, where its reactivation is controlled by VZV-specific T-cell immunity. Lifetime risk of VZV reactivation (zoster) is around 30%. Vaccine development was galvanised by the economic and societal burden of VZV, including debilitating zoster complications that largely affect older individuals. Areas covered: We describe the story of development, licensing and implementation of live attenuated vaccines against varicella and zoster...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047309/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-challenges-to-move-the-technology-into-the-fast-lane
#5
Alessandra Vitelli, Antonella Folgori, Elisa Scarselli, Stefano Colloca, Stefania Capone, Alfredo Nicosia
In recent years, replication-defective chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses have been extensively evaluated as genetic vaccines. These vectors share desirable properties with human adenoviruses like the broad tissue tropism and the ease of large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, chimpanzee adenoviruses have the advantage to overcome the negative impact of pre-existing anti-human adenovirus immunity. Areas covered: Here the authors review current pre-clinical research and clinical trials that utilize chimpanzee-derived adenoviral vectors as vaccines...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053938/development-of-a-nanogel-based-nasal-vaccine-as-a-novel-antigen-delivery-system
#6
Rika Nakahashi-Ouchida, Yoshikazu Yuki, Hiroshi Kiyono
Nasal vaccination is one of the most effective immunization methods because it can induce effective antigen-specific immune responses not only at the mucosal site of administration but also at distant mucosal surfaces, as well as in the systemic compartment. Based on this advantage, many nasal vaccines are being developed and some have been licensed and marketed for clinical use. However, some have been withdrawn because of unacceptable adverse events such as inactivated influenza vaccine administrated with a heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant...
October 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050523/microbiota-a-forgotten-relic-of-vaccination
#7
Johnathan R Lex, Ali Azizi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037086/measles-and-rubella-elimination-learning-from-polio-eradication-and-moving-forward-with-a-diagonal-approach
#8
James L Goodson, James P Alexander, Robert W Linkins, Walter A Orenstein
In 1988, an estimated 350,000 children were paralyzed by polio and 125 countries reported polio cases, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to achieve polio eradication by 2000, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established as a partnership focused on eradication. Today, following eradication efforts, polio cases have decreased >99% and eradication of all three types of wild polioviruses is approaching. However, since polio resources substantially support disease surveillance and other health programs, losing polio assets could reverse progress toward achieving Global Vaccine Action Plan goals...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041826/use-of-acellular-pertussis-vaccines-in-the-united-states-can-we-do-better
#9
Nicola P Klein, Ousseny Zerbo
Despite robust vaccination schedules and high vaccination rates, many countries, including the U.S., have seen large pertussis outbreaks with a shift in recent years in the distribution of disease burden towards adolescents and young adults. Areas covered: This perspective covers problems related to the increased incidence of pertussis among adolescents. Because the Tdap vaccine only protects against pertussis for 1-2 years after vaccination, we propose a new strategy which aims to optimize the benefit of Tdap in adolescents...
October 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972438/absence-of-association-between-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-hospitalizations-and-hpv-vaccine
#10
Geneviève Deceuninck, Chantal Sauvageau, Vladimir Gilca, Nicole Boulianne, Gaston De Serres
BACKGROUND: In 2008, a school-based human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program was implemented in the province of Québec. Grade 4 girls (9-10 years old) are routinely vaccinated and grade 9 to 12 girls (14-17 years old) were eligible for the catch-up vaccination. Vaccine coverage of the targeted cohorts was estimated at 76-81%. To assess if HPV vaccination is associated with an increase in GBS hospitalisation, we compared the hospitalization rates of GBS in HPV vaccination targeted and non-targeted groups...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956458/9-valent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-a-review-of-the-clinical-development-program
#11
Alain Luxembourg, Erin Moeller
The 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine covers the same HPV types (6/11/16/18) as the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and 5 additional cancer-causing types (31/33/45/52/58). Epidemiological studies indicate that the 9vHPV vaccine could prevent approximately 90% of cervical cancers, 70-85% of high-grade cervical dysplasia (precancers), 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers, and 90% of genital warts. Areas covered: Study design features and key findings from the 9vHPV vaccine clinical development program are reviewed...
October 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971707/a-review-of-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-europe-from-2000-2014-challenges-successes-and-the-contribution-of-hexavalent-combination-vaccines
#12
Shuchen Wang, Monica Tafalla, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain
The development of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine combinations culminated with hexavalent vaccines, the largest, most complex vaccine combinations in the immunization calendar. Hexavalent vaccines are used widely in Europe and are co-administered with multiple other recommended vaccines. Hib immunogenicity may reduce when combined with acellular pertussis antigens, or in some co-administrations. We reviewed the epidemiology of H. influenzae disease in Europe aiming to evaluate the current level of Hib control and indirectly assess the effectiveness against Hib of GSK's hexavalent vaccine in 10 countries where it is/has been used almost exclusively...
October 3, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931331/an-overview-of-fda-approved-vaccines-their-innovators
#13
Rebekah H Griesenauer, Michael S Kinch
A survey of FDA-approved biologicals focused upon the development of immunotherapies over time to gain insight on the challenges and trends of vaccine development today. Areas covered: A total of 135 different immune-based therapies were broadly divided into passive or active immunotherapies. Whereas just over half of passive immunotherapies targeted infectious diseases, the vast majority of active immunotherapy products (vaccines) were directed against a handful of viral and bacterial pathogens. We also analyze changes in vaccine strategy, including the use of viable antigens and subunit approaches...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879788/development-of-an-epitope-based-hiv-1-vaccine-strategy-from-hiv-1-lipopeptide-to-dendritic-based-vaccines
#14
Mathieu Surenaud, Christine Lacabaratz, Gérard Zurawski, Yves Lévy, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre
Development of a safe, effective and globally affordable Human Immunodeficiency Virus strain 1 (HIV-1) vaccine offers the best hope for future control of the HIV-1 pandemic. However, with the exception of the recent RV144 trial, which elicited a modest level of protection against infection, no vaccine candidate has shown efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection or in controlling virus replication in humans. There is also a great need for a successful immunotherapeutic vaccine since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eliminate the reservoir of HIV-infected cells...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838267/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-dna-mva-hiv-vaccines-in-rhesus-macaque-models
#15
Lynette Siv Chea, Rama Rao Amara
Despite 30 years of research on HIV, a vaccine to prevent infection and limit disease progression remains elusive. The RV144 trial showed moderate, but significant protection in humans and highlighted the contribution of antibody responses directed against HIV envelope as an important immune correlate for protection. Efforts to further build upon the progress include the use of a heterologous prime-boost regimen using DNA as the priming agent and the attenuated vaccinia virus, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), as a boosting vector for generating protective HIV-specific immunity...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832219/estimated-reductions-in-hospitalizations-and-deaths-from-childhood-diarrhea-following-implementation-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-africa
#16
Minesh P Shah, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda, A Duncan Steele, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea. 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines by 2016. We estimate reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths for countries using rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs and the potential of vaccine introduction across the continent. Areas covered: Regional rotavirus burden data were reviewed to calculate hospitalization rates, and applied to under-5 population to estimate baseline hospitalizations...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856924/review-of-current-typhoid-fever-vaccines-cross-protection-against-paratyphoid-fever-and-the-european-guidelines
#17
Jane N Zuckerman, Christoph Hatz, Anu Kantele
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination...
August 31, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#18
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937293/enhancing-tumor-specific-immune-responses-by-transcutaneous-vaccination
#19
Hanadi Saliba, Béatrice Heurtault, Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun, Vincent Flacher, Benoît Frisch, Sylvie Fournel, Soulaima Chamat
Our understanding of the involvement of the immune system in cancer control has increased over recent years. However, the development of cancer vaccines intended to reverse tumor-induced immune tolerance remains slow as most current vaccine candidates exhibit limited clinical efficacy. The skin is particularly rich with multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) that are involved to varying degrees in the induction of robust immune responses. Transcutaneous administration of cancer vaccines may therefore harness the immune potential of these DCs, however, this approach is hampered by the impermeability of the stratum corneum...
November 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929818/improving-accountability-in-vaccine-decision-making
#20
James Kenneth Timmis, Steven Black, Rino Rappuoli
Healthcare decisions, in particular those affecting entire populations, should be evidence-based and taken by decision-makers sharing broad alignment with affected stakeholders. However, criteria, priorities and procedures for decision-making are sometimes non-transparent, frequently vary considerably across equivalent decision-bodies, do not always consider the broader benefits of new health-measures, and therefore do not necessarily adequately represent the relevant stakeholder-spectrum. Areas covered: To address these issues in the context of the evaluation of new vaccines, we have proposed a first baseline set of core evaluation criteria, primarily selected by members of the vaccine research community, and suggested their implementation in vaccine evaluation procedures...
November 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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