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Expert Review of Vaccines

Július Rajcáni, Ferenc Bánáti, Kálmán Szenthe, Susan Szathmary
Despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent Alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2) nor against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirus. Areas covered: Since the DNAs of both HSVs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than prevention of primary infection. Here we describe the design of a purified subunit vaccine (a mix of at least 3 glycoproteins) as well as the preparation and efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the gD ectodomain from our domestic attenuated HSV1 strain HSZP...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Ann J Hessell, Delphine C Malherbe, Nancy L Haigwood
Prevention of infection remains the ultimate goal for HIV vaccination, and there is compelling evidence that antibodies directed to Envelope are necessary to block infection. Generating antibodies that are sufficiently broad, potent, and sustained to block infection by the diverse HIV-1 strains circulating worldwide remains an area of intense study. Areas Covered: In this review, we have summarized progress from publications listed as PubMed citations in 2016-17 in the areas of passive antibody studies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in nonhuman primates, HIV Envelope vaccine development and active vaccination studies to generate potent neutralizing antibodies...
January 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Piyada Angsuwatcharakon, Sumana Khomvilai, Kornvika Limsuwan, Natchaya Ratananpinit, Apinya Khamchat, Teeranit Sanitnai, Terapong Tantawichien
Children are at risk of rabies exposure in many Asian countries. The safety and immunogenicity profile of the WHO-approved two-site intradermal Thai Red Cross regimen (modified TRC-ID regimen; 2-2-2-0-2) with a new chromatographically purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (CPRV) is lacking. Area covered: We studied the safety and immunogenicity of the TRC-ID regimen with a new CPRV in non-immunized Thai children with possible or proven rabies exposure. Thirty-nine seronegative patients (age range 2-14 years) with rabies exposure (WHO categories II or III) received two 0...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Seth M Pollack
Synovial Sarcoma (SS) and Myxoid Round Cell Liposarcoma (MRCL) are devastating sarcoma subtypes with few treatment options and poor outcomes in the advanced setting. However, both these diseases may be ideal for novel immunotherapies targeting the cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the novel NY-ESO-1 targeted vaccine regimen, CMB305. This regimen uses a unique integration-deficient, dendritic-cell targeting lentiviral vector from the ZVex® platform, LV305, in order to prime NY-ESO-1 specific T cells...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Paolo Bonanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Maria L Ávila-Agüero, Sandra Beltrán, José Brea-Del Castillo, María Esther Castillo Díaz, Luis Eduardo Chaparro, Carmen Deseda, Roberto Debbag, Carlos Espinal, Luiza Helena Falleiros-Arlant, Antonio José González Mata, Mercedes Macías Parra, Fabiano Marques-Rosa, María Catalina Pírez, Mirella Vázquez-Rivera
The Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE), with the support of the Americas Health Foundation (AHF), has developed a position paper on varicella prevention in Latin America and Caribbean countries (LAC). This article summarizes the most relevant aspects of varicella in LAC, and emphasizes the need to include the varicella vaccine in the national immunization programs in the Region and evaluate its impact disease burden. Areas covered: A systematic review was conducted of the medical evidence published and presented at various regional medical conferences on the disease burden in LAC, the advances made by prevention programs, the available vaccines in the Region, and their immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety...
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Daniel E Velasquez, Umesh Parashar, Baoming Jiang
Oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective when given to infants in low-income compared with high-income countries, limiting their potential public health impact. Identifying the specific factors in developing countries that decrease and/or compromise the protection that rotavirus vaccines offer, could lead to a path for designing new strategies for the vaccines' improvement. Areas covered: We accessed PubMed to identify rotavirus vaccine performance studies (i.e., efficacy, effectiveness and immunogenicity) and correlated performance with several risk factors...
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Michael Barry
Traditional inactivated and protein vaccines generate strong antibodies, but struggle to generate T cell responses. Attenuated pathogen vaccines generate both, but risk of causing the disease they aim to prevent. Newer gene-based vaccines drive both responses and avoid the risk of infection. While these vaccines work well in small animals, they can be weak in humans because they do not replicate antigen genes like more potent replication-competent (RC) vaccines. RC vaccines generate substantially stronger immune responses, but also risk causing their own infections...
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Patricia Izurieta, Priti Bahety, Richard Adegbola, Christopher Clarke, Bernard Hoet
Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact studies have reported substantial reductions in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after implementation of childhood PCV programs. Heterogeneity in surveillance systems, local epidemiology and PCV programs hampers comparisons between studies. We aimed to better understand the impact of childhood PCV programs on overall IPD and serotype distribution. Areas covered We analyzed the impact of PCV programs on the incidence of overall IPD, and the distribution of vaccine serotypes (VT) and non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) in children <5 years and adults ≥65 years old...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Bart W Faber, Gerrit Koopman, Edmond Joseph Remarque
Polymorphism in vaccine antigens poses major challenges to vaccinologists. The Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) poses such a challenge. We found that immunization with a mixture of three variants yielded functional antibody levels to all variants comparable to levels induced by monovalent immunization. The mechanism behind the observed broadening was shown to be an increase in the fraction of cross-reactive antibodies, most likely because strain-specific epitopes are present at lower frequency relative to conserved epitopes...
December 11, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Olugbenga Akindele Silas, Chad J Achenbach, Robert Leo Murphy, Lifang Hou, Solomon Atiene Sagay, Edmund Banwat, Adeyi A Adoga, Jonah Musa, Dustin Douglas French
Low and middle income countries (LMICs) bear more than 50% of the current cervical cancer burden over the last decade with linkages to lack of HPV vaccination, high levels of poverty, illiteracy and nonexistent or poor screening programs. Governments of LMICs need enough convincing evidence that HPV vaccination will be more cost-effective in reducing the scourge of cervical cancer. Area covered: A systematic review to identify suitable studies from MEDLINE(via PubMed), EMBASE and Electronic search through GOOGLE for original and review articles from 2007 to 2014 on cost-effectiveness of human papilloma virus vaccination of pre-adolescent girls in LMICs was conducted...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Raul E Isturiz, Cassandra Hall-Murray, John M McLaughlin, Vincenza Snow, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, Chris Webber, Allison Thompson, Daniel A Scott
Adults, particularly those with underlying chronic conditions, eg, cardiovascular, liver, and pulmonary diseases and diabetes mellitus, have a persistent pneumococcal disease burden. Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended in the United States for all adults aged ≥65 years and immunocompromised adults aged <65 years to protect against vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia. PCV13 is not recommended for immunocompetent adults aged ≥18 years with comorbidities associated with increased pneumococcal disease risk...
November 29, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Richard Aspinall, Pierre Olivier Lang
To improve the ability of vaccines to protect older individuals we can no longer consider those over 65 years of age to be an homogenous population termed the "elderly" displaying a condition termed immunosenescence. Area Covered: The most recent figures from the US Census Bureau indicate that the global population exceeds 7,400 million. Of these more than 657 million are currently over 65, an age often designated by policy makers as permitting them access to concessions, pensions and social care benefits. But the spill-over consequences of these policies are the impact they have on access to different vaccine formulations...
November 28, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Matthew Wasserman, Heather Sings, Dylan Jones, Sarah Pugh, Margaret Moffatt, Raymond Farkouh
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have provided a significant clinical and economic impact globally. The majority of countries which have implemented an infant PCV program have observed a substantial reduction in the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) due to vaccine serotypes. After 17 years of use, many countries have evaluated and re-evaluated the value of their vaccine program using cost-effectiveness analyses; however, many of these analyses do not reflect the current body of evidence...
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Saman Soleimanpour
More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants...
November 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Viviane Gresset-Bourgeois, Phillip S Leventhal, Stéphanie Pepin, Rosalind Hollingsworth, Marie-Pierre Kazek-Duret, Iris De Bruijn, Sandrine I Samson
VaxigripTetra™ (IIV4; Sanofi Pasteur) is a quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine approved in Europe in 2016 for individuals ≥ 3 years of age. IIV4 builds on the well-established record of the trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip®). Areas covered: This literature review summarizes the rationale for developing quadrivalent influenza vaccines and discusses the phase III clinical trial results supporting the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of IIV4. Expert Commentary: IIV4 is immunogenic and well tolerated...
November 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Dheeraj Chandra, Dinesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, demand to improve child immunization coverage globally, and the development of the latest vaccines and technology has made the vaccine market very complex. The rise in such complexities often gives birth to numerous issues in the vaccine supply chain, which are the primary cause of its poor performance. Figuring out the cause of the performance problem can help you decide how to address it. The goal of the present study is to identify and analyze important issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required for child immunization in the developing countries...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Alessandra Vitelli, Antonella Folgori, Elisa Scarselli, Stefano Colloca, Stefania Capone, Alfredo Nicosia
In recent years, replication-defective chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses have been extensively evaluated as genetic vaccines. These vectors share desirable properties with human adenoviruses like the broad tissue tropism and the ease of large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, chimpanzee adenoviruses have the advantage to overcome the negative impact of pre-existing anti-human adenovirus immunity. Areas covered: Here the authors review current pre-clinical research and clinical trials that utilize chimpanzee-derived adenoviral vectors as vaccines...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Rika Nakahashi-Ouchida, Yoshikazu Yuki, Hiroshi Kiyono
Nasal vaccination is one of the most effective immunization methods because it can induce effective antigen-specific immune responses not only at the mucosal site of administration but also at distant mucosal surfaces, as well as in the systemic compartment. Based on this advantage, many nasal vaccines are being developed and some have been licensed and marketed for clinical use. However, some have been withdrawn because of unacceptable adverse events such as inactivated influenza vaccine administrated with a heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant...
October 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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