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Expert Review of Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882801/rapid-assessment-of-the-reactogenicity-of-a-2016-2017-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-results-from-a-feasibility-study
#1
Anke L Stuurman, Thomas Verstraeten, Antoon De Schryver
BACKGROUND: ​​The European Medicines Agency (EMA) calls for a strategy for enhanced safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the feasibility of collecting reactogenicity data within one month of the start of the vaccination campaign in Belgium. METHODS: One hundred subjects aged 18 to 65 years who had received inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in occupational setting were enrolled. For 7 days after vaccination, subjects received a daily SMS with a link to a web-based questionnaire where reactogenicity events and their severity were solicited...
December 1, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807989/the-whole-story-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-hpv-vaccination-including-non-cervical-hpv-associated-diseases
#2
Anita W M Suijkerbuijk, Robine Donken, Anna K Lugnér, G Ardine de Wit, Chris J L M Meijer, Hester E de Melker, Johannes A Bogaards
Many economic evaluations of HPV vaccination have been published, but most have focused on the prevention of cervical disease as a primary health outcome. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination is likely to be underestimated if not all HPV-associated diseases are taken into account. In this review, we assess the influence of non-cervical HPV-associated diseases on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of preadolescent HPV vaccination. Areas covered: We systematically searched the literature and identified 18 studies that included non-cervical diseases in the estimates of cost-effectiveness of HPV-vaccination...
November 24, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820969/the-global-meningococcal-initiative-global-epidemiology-the-impact-of-vaccines-on-meningococcal-disease-and-the-importance-of-herd-protection
#3
Ray Borrow, Pedro Alarcón, Josefina Carlos, Dominique A Caugant, Hannah Christensen, Roberto Debbag, Philippe De Wals, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Jamie Findlow, Chris Head, Daphne Holt, Hajime Kamiya, Samir K Saha, Sergey Sidorenko, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Caroline Trotter, Julio A Vázquez Moreno, Anne von Gottberg, Marco A P Sáfadi
The 2015 Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) meeting discussed the global importance of meningococcal disease (MD) and its continually changing epidemiology. Areas covered: Although recent vaccination programs have been successful in reducing incidence in many countries (e.g. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup [Men]C in Brazil, MenA in the African meningitis belt), new clones have emerged, causing outbreaks (e.g. MenW in South America, MenC in Nigeria and Niger). The importance of herd protection was highlighted, emphasizing the need for high vaccination uptake among those with the highest carriage rates, as was the need for boosters to maintain individual and herd protection following decline of immune response after primary immunization...
November 22, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841687/immunopathogenesis-associated-with-formaldehyde-inactivated-rsv-vaccine-in-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#4
Abenaya Muralidharan, Changgui Li, Lisheng Wang, Xuguang Li
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is responsible for one-third of deaths of acute lower respiratory infection in children less than one-year-old. The formaldehyde-inactivated RSV vaccine trial conducted in the 1960s predisposed the vaccinees to more serious RSV infection instead of protection. Better understanding of the underlying mechanism is of critical importance for better designing of safe and effective RSV vaccines. Areas covered: PubMed was searched to review immunopathology induced by RSV vaccines...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801602/a-potent-adjuvant-effect-of-a-cd1d-binding-nkt-cell-ligand-in-human-immune-system-mice
#5
Xiangming Li, Jing Huang, Izumi Kaneko, Min Zhang, Shiroh Iwanaga, Masao Yuda, Moriya Tsuji
OBJECTIVES: A CD1d-binding invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, namely 7DW8-5, is shown to enhance the efficacy of radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS)-based malaria vaccine in mice. In the current study, we aim to determine whether 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect in human immune system (HIS) mice. METHODS: HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, which possess both functional human iNKT cells and CD8+ T cells, were generated by the transduction of NSG mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 9 expressing genes that encode human CD1d molecules and HLA-A*0201, followed by the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells...
November 16, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797598/the-unrecognized-burden-of-typhoid-fever
#6
Stephen K Obaro, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Eric Daniel Mintz
Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions...
November 16, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841689/the-rts-s-as01-malaria-vaccine-in-children-5-to-17-months-of-age-at-first-vaccination
#7
Pascale Vandoolaeghe, Lode Schuerman
The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine received a positive scientific opinion from the European Medicines Agency in July 2015. The World Health Organization recommended pilot implementation of the vaccine in children at least 5 months of age according to an initial 3-dose schedule given at least 1 month apart, and a 4th dose 15-18 months post-dose 3. Clinical trials and mathematical modeling demonstrated that the partial protection provided by RTS,S/AS01 against malaria has the potential to provide substantial public health benefit when used in parallel with other malaria interventions, especially in highly endemic regions...
November 14, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813430/fluzone%C3%A2-high-dose-influenza-vaccine
#8
Corwin A Robertson, Carlos A DiazGranados, Michael D Decker, Ayman Chit, Monica Mercer, David P Greenberg
Fluzone® High-Dose (IIV3-HD) is a trivalent, inactivated, split-virus influenza vaccine indicated for use in older adults (≥65 years of age). It contains 60 µg hemagglutinin of each influenza strain, which is four times the hemagglutinin content of standard-dose influenza vaccines, including Fluzone (IIV3-SD). IIV3-HD has been licensed for use in older adults in the US since December 2009 and in Canada since February 2016. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize postlicensure studies on the immunogenicity, safety, and effectiveness of IIV3-HD and estimates of its cost-effectiveness in older adults...
November 14, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817213/progress-and-future-opportunities-in-the-development-of-vaccines-against-atherosclerosis
#9
Dania Govea-Alonso, Josué Beltrán-López, Jorge A Salazar-González, Juan Vargas-Morales, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Atherosclerosis represents a serious global health problem that demands new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. Considering that atherosclerosis has autoimmune and inflammatory components, immunotherapy is a possible focus to treat this disease. Areas covered: Based on the analysis of the current biomedical literature, this review describes the status on the development of vaccines against atherosclerosis. Several targets have been identified including sequences of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), heat shock proteins (HSP), extracellular matrix proteins, T cell receptor β chain variable region 31 (TRBV31), the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), and the outer membrane protein 5 (Pomp5) from Chlamydia pneumoniae...
November 6, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809689/two-decades-of-pharmacovigilance-and-clinical-experience-with-highly-purified-rabies-immunoglobulin-f-ab-2-fragments
#10
Elisa Reveneau, Pascale Cottin, Anvar Rasuli
Rabies is a worldwide zoonotic viral disease with no specific treatment once symptoms occur; manifest disease is almost always fatal. WHO recommendations for exposed individuals include immediate attention to the wound and use of rabies immunoglobulin and/or vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Here, we provide an overview of the clinical experience with a highly purified preparation of F(ab')2 fragments from equine rabies immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 pERIG; Favirab(TM)) in rabies PEP. Areas covered: Our review comprises a retrospective analysis of adverse event reports in the Sanofi Pasteur global pharmacovigilance database for F(ab')2 pERIG, including adverse event reports from eight Sanofi Pasteur-sponsored clinical trials and post-market surveillance data collected between 1995 and 2014...
November 4, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805467/improving-immunization-approaches-to-cholera
#11
Amit Saha, Alexander Rosewell, Andrew Hayen, C Raina MacIntyre, Firdausi Qadri
Cholera's impact is greatest in resource-limited countries. In the last decade several large epidemics have led to a global push to improve and implement the tools for cholera prevention and control. Areas covered: PubMed, Google Scholar and the WHO website were searched to review the literature and summarize the current status of cholera vaccines to make recommendations on improving immunization approaches to cholera. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in endemic, outbreak response and emergency settings, highlighting their potential for wider adoption...
November 2, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792416/licensure-strategy-for-pre-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-biothrax-vaccine-the-first-vaccine-licensed-using-the-fda-animal-rule
#12
Janice Longstreth, Mario H Skiadopoulos, Robert J Hopkins
The availability of a licensed anthrax vaccine that is safe, effective, and easy to administer for both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis is critical to successfully manage and prevent potential anthrax attacks. BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; AVA) is the only licensed anthrax vaccine in the US. Areas Covered: Recent licensed improvements to BioThrax vaccine for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have included an intramuscular (IM) five-dose schedule (in 2008) and a three-dose IM primary series at 0, 1 and 6 months (in 2012)...
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786560/varicella-prevention-in-costa-rica-impact-of-a-one-dose-schedule-universal-vaccination
#13
María L Avila-Aguero, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Kattia Camacho-Badilla, Alejandra Soriano-Fallas, Roberto Arroba-Tijerino, Ana Morice-Trejos
To describe the impact following a 1-dose Varicella vaccination schedule introduced in Costa Rica in September 2007. Areas covered: This is a retrospective review using epidemiologic surveillance national databases of varicella cases and hospitalizations, period 2000-2015. We analyzed age-related varicella incidence cases and hospitalization trends before and after the vaccine introduction. Expert commentary: Varicella vaccine coverage among children 16 months age increased from 76% in 2008 to 95% in 2015...
October 27, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744721/the-risks-of-using-allogeneic-cell-lines-for-vaccine-production-the-example-of-bovine-neonatal-pancytopenia
#14
Lindert Benedictus, Charlotte R Bell
Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a hemorrhagic disease that emerged in calves across Europe in 2007. Its occurrence is attributed to immunization of the calf's mother with a vaccine produced using an allogeneic cell line. Vaccine-induced alloantibodies specific for major-histocompatibility class I antigens are transferred from the mother to the calf via colostrum, leading to profound depletion of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells that is often fatal. Areas covered: Pubmed and Web of Science were used to search for literature relevant to BNP and the use of allogeneic vaccine cell lines...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680425/evaluating-the-costs-and-benefits-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-adults
#15
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653543/m2-based-influenza-vaccines-recent-advances-and-clinical-potential
#16
Annasaheb Kolpe, Bert Schepens, Walter Fiers, Xavier Saelens
Current influenza vaccines can prevent disease caused by influenza viruses but require annual administration and almost yearly reformulation. An attractive alternative approach would be to use a vaccine that provides broad and, ideally, lifelong protection against all influenza A and B virus strains. The extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) of influenza A viruses is conserved and thus fits well in such a broadly protective vaccine. Areas covered: Recent advances in M2e vaccine design, the mode of action of M2e-based immunity and clinical progress of M2-based influenza vaccines...
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686267/vaccine-profile-of-ppv23-beijing-minhai-biotech-23-valent-pneumococcal-vaccine
#17
Qi Liang, Gui-Fan Li, Feng-Cai Zhu
Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major public health problem worldwide, which can be effectively prevented by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23). Areas covered: The Beijing Minhai PPV23 showed good safety and immunogenicity profiles in clinical trials. The immunogenicity of Beijing Minhai PPV23 was non-inferior to other licensed PPVs. Although PPV23 has been proved to be highly efficient and cost-effective, and was recommended for vaccination in high-risk populations in industrialized countries, the coverage of PPV23 vaccination was relatively low in developing countries...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690704/a-review-of-measles-supplementary-immunization-activities-and-the-implications-for-pacific-island-countries-and-territories
#18
C John Clements, Taniela Sunia Soakai, Nahad Sadr-Azodi
Standard measles control strategies include achieving high levels of measles vaccine coverage using routine delivery systems, supplemented by mass immunization campaigns as needed to close population immunity gaps. Areas covered: This review looks at how supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) have contributed to measles control globally, and asks whether such a strategy has a place in Pacific Islands today. Expert commentary: Very high coverage with two doses of measles vaccine seems to be the optimal strategy for controlling measles...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690701/calcium-phosphate-a-substitute-for-aluminum-adjuvants
#19
Jean-Daniel Masson, Michel Thibaudon, Laurent Bélec, Guillemette Crépeaux
Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690686/vaccines-for-piscirickettsiosis-salmonid-rickettsial-septicaemia-srs-the-chile-perspective
#20
Kevin Maisey, Ruth Montero, Myron Christodoulides
Piscirickettsia salmonis (P. salmonis) is the aetiological bacterium of the contagious disease piscirickettsiosis or salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) and causes significant economic losses to aquaculture production in Chile. Current strategies to control infection are i) indiscriminate antibiotic use and ii) vaccination with predominantly P. salmonis bacterin vaccines that do not provide acceptable levels of protection against piscirickettsiosis. Areas covered: This review covers the basic biology of P...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
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