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Expert Review of Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929818/improving-accountability-in-vaccine-decision-making
#1
James Kenneth Timmis, Steven Black, Rino Rappuoli
Introduction Healthcare decisions, in particular those affecting entire populations, should be evidence-based and taken by decision-makers sharing broad alignment with affected stakeholders. However, criteria, priorities and procedures for decision-making are sometimes non-transparent, frequently vary considerably across equivalent decision-bodies, do not always consider the broader benefits of new health-measures, and therefore do not necessarily adequately represent the relevant stakeholder-spectrum. Areas covered To address these issues in the context of the evaluation of new vaccines, we have proposed a first baseline set of core evaluation criteria, primarily selected by members of the vaccine research community, and suggested their implementation in vaccine evaluation procedures...
September 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925296/vaccine-approaches-conferring-cross-protection-against-influenza-viruses
#2
Sai V Vemula, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
Annual vaccination is one of the most efficient and cost-effective strategies to prevent and control influenza epidemics. Most of the currently available influenza vaccines are strong inducers of antibody responses against viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), but are poor inducers of cell-mediated immune responses against conserved internal proteins. Moreover, due to the high variability of viral surface proteins because of antigenic drift or antigenic shift, many of the currently licensed vaccines confer little or no protection against drift or shift variants...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#3
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914112/socioeconomic-differences-in-childhood-vaccination-in-developed-countries-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#4
Aurélie Bocquier, Jeremy Ward, Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger
Introduction The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and its relation to individual socioeconomic status (SES) must be better understood. Areas covered This review focused on developed countries with programs addressing major financial barriers to vaccination access. We systematically reviewed differences by SES in uptake of publicly funded childhood vaccines and in cognitive determinants (beliefs, attitudes) of parental decisions about vaccinating their children. Using the PRISMA statement to guide this review, we searched three electronic databases from January 2000 through April 2016...
September 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899198/adaptive-immune-constraints-on-c-difficile-vaccination
#5
Mark L Lang, Binu Shrestha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879788/development-of-an-epitope-based-hiv-1-vaccine-strategy-from-hiv-1-lipopeptide-to-dendritic-based-vaccines
#6
Mathieu Surenaud, Christine Lacabaratz, Gérard Zurawski, Yves Lévy, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre
Development of a safe, effective and globally affordable Human Immunodeficiency Virus strain 1 (HIV-1) vaccine offers the best hope for future control of the HIV-1 pandemic. However, with the exception of the recent RV144 trial, which elicited a modest level of protection against infection, no vaccine candidate has shown efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection or in controlling virus replication in humans. There is also a great need for a successful immunotherapeutic vaccine since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eliminate the reservoir of HIV-infected cells...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870140/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-candidate-versus-inactivated-trivalent-influenza-vaccines-in-participants-3-years-of-age-a-double-blind-randomized-parallel-controlled-phase-iii-clinical-trial-in-china
#7
Shi-Yuan Wang, Liu Shu-Zhen, Kai Chu, Yue Zhao, Feng-Cai Zhu, Yue-Mei Hu, Fan-Yue Meng, Jing-Xin Li, Li Luo, Jia-Ying Yang, Pei Liu, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: Viruses from two antigenically distinct influenza B strains have co-circulated since the mid-1980s, yet inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) with either the Victoria or Yamagata lineage could only provide limited protection from influenza B strain. Quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) including both influenza B lineages can improve protection against circulating influenza B viruses. METHODS: Participants >/= 3 years of age were recruited, stratified by age, and then randomly allocated at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive one-injection of the experimental QIV, TIV-Victoria (Vic) or TIV-Yamagata (Yam)...
September 5, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838267/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-dna-mva-hiv-vaccines-in-rhesus-macaque-models
#8
Lynette Siv Chea, Rama Rao Amara
Despite 30 years of research on HIV, a vaccine to prevent infection and limit disease progression remains elusive. The RV144 trial showed moderate, but significant protection in humans and highlighted the contribution of antibody responses directed against HIV envelope as an important immune correlate for protection. Efforts to further build upon the progress include the use of a heterologous prime-boost regimen using DNA as the priming agent and the attenuated vaccinia virus, Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), as a boosting vector for generating protective HIV-specific immunity...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832219/estimated-reductions-in-hospitalizations-and-deaths-from-childhood-diarrhea-following-implementation-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-africa
#9
Minesh P Shah, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda, A Duncan Steele, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea. 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines by 2016. We estimate reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths for countries using rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs and the potential of vaccine introduction across the continent. Areas covered: Regional rotavirus burden data were reviewed to calculate hospitalization rates, and applied to under-5 population to estimate baseline hospitalizations...
September 4, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856924/review-of-current-typhoid-fever-vaccines-cross-protection-against-paratyphoid-fever-and-the-european-guidelines
#10
Jane N Zuckerman, Christoph Hatz, Anu Kantele
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination...
August 31, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803502/immunogenicity-antibody-persistence-and-safety-of-the-60%C3%A2-%C3%AE-g-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-parallel-controlled-trial
#11
Yongliang Feng, Xiaohong Shi, Jing Shi, Linying Gao, Guangming Liu, Yanpeng Cheng, Minghu Pan, Chunxia Li, Jun Wang, Xuxia Guo, Yawei Zhang, Xiaofeng Liang, Suping Wang
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and safety of the 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients in China. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial including 352 hemodialysis patients who were centrally randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to receive a 20 µg (IM20 group) or 60 µg (IM60 group) recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. RESULTS: The vaccine-elicited antibody responses peaked at month 7, and declined at month 12...
August 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745918/a-systematic-review-about-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-distribution-in-children-in-mainland-of-china-before-the-pcv13-was-licensed
#12
Shuang Lyu, Hui-Li Hu, Yong-Hong Yang, Kai-Hu Yao
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major pathogen of infectious diseases in children. Surveillance of the distribution of pneumococcus serotypes is important for immunization strategies of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Areas covered: This article is a systematic review of studies conducted from 2006 to 2016 that document serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolated from children less than 14 years old in the mainland of China. A total of 40 studies were included in this review. Serotypes 19F, 19A, 23F, 14 and 6B were the most common...
August 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#13
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783378/the-latest-advancements-in-zika-virus-vaccine-development
#14
Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou, Shibo Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770638/systematic-literature-review-comparing-rapid-3-dose-administration-of-the-gsk-tick-borne-encephalitis-vaccine-with-other-primary-immunization-schedules
#15
Ilaria Galgani, Eveline M Bunge, Lisa Hendriks, Christopher Schludermann, Cinzia Marano, Laurence De Moerlooze
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is endemic across large regions of Europe and Asia, is most effectively prevented through vaccination. Three-dose primary TBE vaccination schedules are either rapid (0,7,21-days) or conventional (0,28-84-days, 9-12-months). The second dose can also be administered at 14 days for faster priming and sero-protection). Areas covered: We used a three-step selection process to identify 21 publications comparing the immunogenicity and/or safety of different schedules. Expert commentary: Priming with two or three TBE vaccine doses was highly immunogenic...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730914/the-health-economic-studies-of-hpv-vaccination-in-southeast-asian-countries-a-systematic-review
#16
Didik Setiawan, Monika Puri Oktora, Raymond Hutubessy, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Maarten J Postma
The cervical cancer-related burden is an important problem in Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. However, only 3 out of 11 countries implement the comprehensive prevention program. Areas covered: This is a retrospective review from all relevant studies until 2015 from two main databases, MEDLINE/Pubmed and Embase in order to provide an evidence on the health economics of HPV vaccination in the region. Expert commentary: The implementation of HPV vaccination will generate substantial health and economic benefit in SEA countries since the number of cervical cancer cases in this region are generally high...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#17
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724336/vaccinations-among-athletes-evidence-and-recommendations
#18
Silvio Tafuri, Domenico Sinesi, Maria Serena Gallone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712326/calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-as-a-new-generation-vaccine-adjuvant
#19
Yahua Lin, Xin Wang, Xiaofen Huang, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Adjuvants are essential components in vaccine formulations to induce robust immunity against pathogens. The most widely used adjuvants in human vaccines are aluminum salts, that can effectively elicit a T helper type-2 (Th2)-biased humoral immune response for producing a high antibody titer but with a limited cellular immune response. Biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-NPs) with tunable characteristics have potentials to function as adjuvants for inducing more balanced T helper type-1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701102/mechanism-of-action-of-mrna-based-vaccines
#20
Carlo Iavarone, Derek T O'hagan, Dong Yu, Nicolas F Delahaye, Jeffrey B Ulmer
The present review summarizes the growing body of work defining the mechanisms of action of this exciting new vaccine technology that should allow rational approaches in the design of next generation mRNA vaccines. Areas covered: Bio-distribution of mRNA, localization of antigen production, role of the innate immunity, priming of the adaptive immune response, route of administration and effects of mRNA delivery systems. Expert commentary: In the last few years, the development of RNA vaccines had a fast growth, the rising number of proof will enable rational approaches to improving the effectiveness and safety of this modern class of medicine...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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