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Expert Review of Vaccines

Krystal Herline, Eleanor Drummond, Thomas Wisniewski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by protein aggregates of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau. These proteins have normal physiological functions, but in AD they undergo a conformational change and aggregate as toxic oligomeric and fibrillar species with a high β-sheet content. Areas covered: Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches are among the most attractive methods for targeting misfolded Aβ and tau. Promising preclinical testing of various immunotherapeutic approaches have yet to translate to cognitive benefits in human clinical trials...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
James E Meiring, Pratiksha Patel, Priyanka Patel, Melita A Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Shabir A Madhi
Introduction Vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy could provide protection against disease in the mother, foetus and newborn. Immunity through trans-placental acquired antibodies in the newborns could persist through early infancy, reducing the risk of early-onset (<7 days age) and late-onset (7-89 days age) disease. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) vaccine to assess its safety and immunogenicity in pregnant and non-pregnant adults...
July 2, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Mingjuan Yin, Lingfen Huang, Yan Zhang, Na Yu, Xiaojia Xu, Yaping Liang, Jindong Ni
Available influenza vaccine is insufficient to prevent influenza-related complications in older adults and dual pneumococcal and influenza vaccination is recommended for adults aged ≥65 years. However, the advantages of dual pneumococcal and influenza vaccination have not been clarified and controversy remains regarding their optimal use. Areas covered: This meta-analysis was conducted on 25 January 2018 using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Seventeen studies were selected ultimately for meta-analysis using a multi-step approach by two separate authors...
June 30, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
José de la Fuente, Margarita Villar, Agustin Estrada-Peña, José A Olivas
The incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) is growing worldwide, and vaccines appear as the most effective and environmentally sound intervention for the prevention and control of TBDs. Areas covered: The vaccinomics approach combines omics technologies and bioinformatics for the characterization of tick-host-pathogen molecular interactions and the development of next-generation vaccines. The two main challenges of the vaccinomics approach are the integration and analysis of omics datasets, and the development of screening platforms for the identification of candidate protective antigens...
June 28, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Mana Mahapatra, Satya Parida
Lack of cross protection between foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) serotypes as well as incomplete protection between some subtypes of FMDV affect the application of vaccine in the field. Further, the emergence of new variant FMD viruses periodically makes the existing vaccine inefficient. Consequently, periodical vaccine strain selection either by in vivo methods or in vitro methods become an essential requirement to enable utilisation of appropriate and efficient vaccines. Areas covered: Here we describe the cross reactivity of the existing vaccines with the global pool of circulating viruses and the putative selected vaccine strains for targeting protection against the two major circulating serotype O and A FMD viruses for East Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia...
June 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Scott Preiss, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Lin H Chen, Cinzia Marano, Philippe Buchy, Rosa van Hoorn, Marije Vonk Noordegraaf, Piyali Mukherjee
Fifteen million people each year receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent rabies, yet the disease remains neglected and highly under-reported. Areas covered: In this systematic literature review, we assessed the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of a purified chick embryo cell-culture rabies vaccine (PCECV) for PEP against rabies by intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) administration. We performed meta-analyses to compare immunogenicity according to the route of vaccine administration, study population, and PEP regimen, such as number of doses, and concomitant rabies immunoglobulin...
June 25, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jan Dolhain, Winnie Janssens, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Frederik Fierens
Combination vaccines improve vaccine uptake and open the infant immunization space for additional vaccines. Hexavalent vaccines have been marketed since 2000. Infanrix hexa (combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine, DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GSK) is longest on the market, providing 16 years post-marketing experience. Each DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine component is licensed alone and/or in smaller combination vaccines. Programmatic considerations sometimes require an interchange between vaccines due to unavailability, program change or mixed schedules (when the number of required antigens differs across scheduled primary vaccination visits)...
June 19, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Talia Pindyck, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jan T Poolman, Annaliesa S Anderson
Bacteremia and healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to rise in industrialized countries, in line with population ageing and increased healthcare needs. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens causing HAI and bacteremia. Areas covered: This review discusses risk factors in the healthcare setting contributing to the rise in bacteremia and other invasive bacterial HAI in older populations in general, and attributed to E. coli and S. aureus. Treatment of infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to emerging antimicrobial resistance...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Lars Hviid, Thomas Lavstsen, Anja Tr Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Gregory A Poland
I propose that influenza vaccine failure be defined as receipt of a properly stored and administered vaccine with the subsequent development of documented influenza. Several mechanisms of vaccine failure occur and can-sometimes in combination-lead to what is termed "vaccine failure." Influenza vaccine failure occurs for a variety of reasons, many of which are not true failures of the vaccine (e.g., improper vaccine storage and handling). Areas covered: In this article, I discuss common causes of "vaccine failure" that are appropriately or inappropriately attributed to vaccines...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines worldwide. In addition to providing protection against tuberculosis, it has non-specific (heterologous) immunomodulatory effects. Areas covered: In our systematic review, we found eight studies, involving 2439 participants, investigating the influence of BCG vaccination on the humoral response to 16 different vaccines. A beneficial effect of BCG on vaccine responses was reported in five of the eight studies. Previous or concurrent administration of BCG was associated with significantly higher levels of antibodies against hepatitis B, polio virus type 1, pneumococcus and influenza in some studies...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
John L Perez, Judith Absalon, Johannes Beeslaar, Paul Balmer, Kathrin U Jansen, Thomas R Jones, Shannon Harris, Laura J York, Qin Jiang, David Radley, Annaliesa S Anderson, Graham Crowther, Joseph J Eiden
Given the characteristics of meningococcal carriage and transmission and the sudden, often severe onset and long-term consequences of disease, vaccination can most effectively provide large-scale control of invasive disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y) cause nearly all meningococcal disease globally. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines can prevent serogroups A, C, W, and Y disease. More recently, recombinant protein vaccines for preventing serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) disease have become available, with a major target of vaccine-induced immune response for both vaccines being bacterial factor H binding protein (FHbp)...
June 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Awnish K Singh, Abram L Wagner, Jyoti Joshi, Bradley F Carlson, Satinder Aneja, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: India has implemented the World Health Organization's revised Causality Assessment Protocol for adverse events following immunization (AEFI). We describe the number and types of serious/severe AEFIs, including deaths. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis of causality classification of reported serious/severe AEFIs from 1 January 2012 to 7 January 2016 was done. Classification includes (A) consistent with causal association to immunization; (B) indeterminate; (C) coincidental association; or (D) unclassifiable...
June 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Farshid Jalalvand, Kristian Riesbeck
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has attracted more interest in recent years due to an increased prevalence of infections caused by the pathogen. This upsurge is at least partly ascribed to the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines that has resulted in an aetiological shift in NTHi's favor with respect to upper respiratory tract infections. Moreover, an increased antimicrobial resistance has been associated with the pathogen, a fact that further strengthens the case for novel vaccine development...
June 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Talía Malagón, Cassandra Laurie, Eduardo L Franco
Vaccine herd effects are the indirect protection that vaccinated persons provide to those who remain susceptible to infection, due to the reduced transmission of infections. Herd effects have been an important part of the discourse on how to best implement human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and prevent HPV-related diseases. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the theory of HPV vaccine herd effects derived from mathematical models, give an account of observed HPV vaccine herd effects worldwide, and examine the implications of vaccine herd effects for future cervical cancer screening efforts...
May 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Christine Stabell Benn, Ane Bærent Fisker, Andreas Rieckmann, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Peter Aaby
Emerging evidence suggests that vaccines, in addition to their disease-specific effects, have important non-specific effects (NSEs), which contribute to their overall effect on mortality and morbidity. Immunological studies have shown that NSEs are biologically plausible. Many advocate that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overall mortality or morbidity as the outcome are the only way forward to confirm or refute NSEs. Areas covered: We discuss the limitations of using RCTs only as a tool to evaluate NSEs of vaccines...
May 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jason K H Lee, Gary K L Lam, Thomas Shin, Jiyeon Kim, Anish Krishnan, David P Greenberg, Ayman Chit
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for a significant disease burden annually, especially in older adults. This study reviews the relative vaccine efficacy or effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) compared to standard-dose influenza vaccines (SD-IIV3) in adults ≥65 against influenza-associated outcomes to inform evidence-based decision-making to shift clinical practice and standard of care in this population. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for studies assessing the rVE of HD-IIV3 against probable/laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI), hospital admissions, and death in adults ≥65...
May 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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