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Expert Review of Vaccines

Paula M Frew, Ian W Holloway, Cameron Goldbeck, Diane Tan, Elizabeth Wu, Juan Jauregui, Vincent L Fenimore, Laura A Randall, Chelsea S Lutz, Judith Mendel, Ann L Aikin, Glen J Nowak, Robert A Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Recent serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreaks led to meningococcal vaccine recommendations for Southern California men who have sex with men (MSM). Assessment of vaccine confidence is critical to improving vaccine coverage in the context of disease outbreaks wherein immunization(s) are recommended. METHODS: We surveyed MSM using venue-based sampling and began development of the vaccine confidence index (VCI) with 30 survey items corresponding to trust- and safety-related perceptions...
November 15, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Angela Huttner, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (GP) of Zaire Ebola virus (rVSV-ZEBOV) has proven immunogenic in humans and effective in field studies. Yet long-term durability of vaccine responses is unknown. Areas covered: We survey the evidence available in the literature for the durability of human responses to rVSV-ZEBOV. We also review determinants of initial responses and of their persistence. Expert commentary: Persistence of EBOV-GP-specific antibody responses is strong at 2 years - currently the longest post-vaccination interval studied - after a single injection...
November 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Omphile E Simani, Alane Izu, Marta C Nunes, Avy Violari, Mark F Cotton, Nadia Van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Shabir A Madhi
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated memory responses and antibody persistence to diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, whole-cell-pertussis (DTwP), and Hepatitis-B vaccines in HIV-unexposed, HIV-exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children previously randomized to initiate time-limited ART at 6-10 weeks (ART-Immed) or when clinically/immunologically indicated (ART-Def). METHODS: All children received DTwP booster at 15-18 months. Antibodies were measured for pertussis-toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid and hepatitis-B prior to booster, 1-2 weeks post-booster and at 24-months of age...
November 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Isabella Piassi Godói, Leonardo Vinicius Dias da Silva, Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Itamar Megiddo, Alec Morton, Brian Godman, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Marion Bennie, Augusto Afonso Guerra Junior
Dengue is a serious global health problem endemic in Brazil. Consequently, our aim was to measure the costs and disease burden of symptomatic dengue infections in Brazil from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) between 2000 and 2015, using Brazilian public health system databases. Specific age group incidence estimates were used to calculate the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to gain a better understanding of the disease burden. Areas covered: SUS spent almost USD159 million and USD10 million to treat dengue and severe dengue, respectively, between 2000-2015...
November 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
V Qendri, T M Schurink-van 't Klooster, J A Bogaards, J Berkhof
Girls-only vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 was implemented in the Netherlands in 2009. Despite the evidence on the efficacy against precancerous lesions, cross-protection induced by the vaccine and a greater potential for cancer prevention than cervical cancer only, vaccine coverage in the girls-only program has remained below target levels. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the literature from the Netherlands on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination since vaccine introduction, give an account of the coverage, safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccination as has been reported in the Dutch surveillance program and discuss challenges of the current HPV vaccination program...
November 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Gabriele Giorgianni, Mario Cuccia, Fabio Tramuto, Giovanni Corsello, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Vitale
BACKGROUND: Intussusception represents the most common cause of abdominal emergency among young children but nearly 75% of cases are still considered idiopathic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among Sicilian children aged 0-59 months with a hospital admission for intussusception between 2009 and 2015 to identify factors associated with intussusception onset. RESULTS: Overall, 125 cases and 190 controls were recruited for the study...
November 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Daniil Korenkov, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
One of the essential mechanisms of virus infection control is cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which can act in an antibody-dependent or -independent fashion and is provided by different effector cells. The role of CD8 T-cells in infection control and in affecting the pathological outcome of different types of infection has been demonstrated in numerous animal studies. Despite this, their role in controlling human influenza infection is not fully understood. Especially, knowledge about their induction and turnover in human influenza infection is limited...
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Ye Wang, Lei Deng, Sang-Moo Kang, Bao-Zhong Wang
The current seasonal influenza vaccine confers only limited protection due to waning antibodies or the antigenic shift and drift of major influenza surface antigens. A universal influenza vaccine which induces broad cross-protection against divergent influenza viruses with a comparable or better efficacy to seasonal influenza vaccines against matched strains will negate the need for an annual update of vaccine strains and protect against possible influenza pandemics. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the recent progress in nanoparticle-based universal influenza vaccine development...
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Tyler P Chavers, Lucia H de Oliveira, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
Latin American countries were among the first to adopt rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs; we reviewed one decade of their experience with rotavirus vaccination. Areas covered: We systematically reviewed manuscripts published January 1990-January 2018 to assess rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) via meta-analysis; describe trends in rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-associated hospitalizations and mortality before and after vaccine introduction; and estimate annual hospitalizations and deaths averted by rotavirus vaccination in Latin American and Caribbean children <5 years...
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Janos L Tanyi, Erin George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Eve Dubé, Dominique Gagnon, Noni MacDonald, Aurélie Bocquier, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger
While the scientific consensus on the benefits of vaccination is unambiguous, there is a growing proportion of the population that is skeptical about vaccination. The idea that vaccination programs are losing their momentum concerns public health agencies throughout the world. Many studies assessing determinants of vaccine acceptance have been published in the last decade. Areas covered. In this article, we review the existing qualitative literature on parents' attitudes toward childhood vaccination. Studies were included if they: (1) focused on the views, decision-making, or experiences of caregivers (hereafter, referred to as 'parents') regarding vaccinations for young children; (2) used qualitative methods for both data and data analysis; (3) were conducted in countries that ranked 'very high' on the 2016 United Nations Human Development Index; and (4) had been peer-reviewed...
October 25, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sandra E Talbird, Elizabeth M La, Josephine Mauskopf, Alexandra Altland, Vince Daniels, Lara J Wolfson
The exogenous boosting (EB) hypothesis posits that cell-mediated immunity is boosted for individuals reexposed to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Historically, mathematical models of the impact of universal childhood varicella vaccination (UVV) have used limited data to capture EB and often conclude that UVV will temporarily increase herpes zoster (HZ) incidence. Areas covered: We updated a 2013 systematic literature review of 40 studies to summarize new evidence from observational or modeling studies related to EB and its parameterization...
October 25, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Athina Kilpeläinen, Milena Maya-Hoyos, Narcís Saubí, Carlos Y Soto, Joan Joseph Munne
Introduction HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are responsible for most human deaths produced by infectious diseases worldwide. Vaccination against HIV requires generation of memory T cells and neutralizing antibodies, mucosal immunity, and stimulation of an innate immune responses. In this context, the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG as a live vaccine vehicle is a promising approach for T-cell induction. Areas covered In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the literature regarding immunogenicity studies in animal models performed since 2005...
October 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Kathryn M Frietze, Rebeccah Lijek, Bryce Chackerian
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), leads to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women. In this Perspective, we discuss the successful human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as a case study to inform Ct vaccine efforts. Areas covered: The immunological basis of HPV vaccine-elicited protection is high-titer, long-lasting antibody responses in the genital tract which provides sterilizing immunity. These antibodies are elicited through parenteral administration of a subunit vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of HPV...
October 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Swati B Gupta, Beth-Ann Coller, Mark Feinberg
The Ebola epidemic in West Africa from 2014 to 2016 was unique in its size, location, and duration; this article reviews the experiences and lessons learned for one vaccine candidate developed during the outbreak and discusses critical gaps that still exist today which will need to be addressed for successful end to end emerging infectious disease vaccine product development in the future. Areas Covered: Through the formation of numerous international partnerships, the rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine advanced through Phase I/II/III clinical trials which resulted in favorable Phase III efficacy results...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Susanna Esposito, Nicola Principi
Abuse and misuse of available antimicrobial drugs have increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with relevant adverse health and economic impacts. Several factors suggest that the influenza vaccine is a possible effective measure to control AMR through a significant reduction in antibiotic consumption. In this paper, aspects related will be discussed. Areas covered: Although the effectiveness of influenza immunization can significantly vary according to the study design, the circulating influenza viruses, the type of vaccine, the age of the enrolled subjects, the outcome measured and the season of the study, all experts agree that the influenza vaccine can significantly reduce the risk of contracting influenza in subjects of any age...
September 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Alicja E Grzegorzewska, Bartosz A Frycz, Hanna Winnicka, Wojciech Warchoł, Paweł P Jagodziński
BACKGROUND: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a negative regulator of the immune system. To approach reasons of variability in the generation of anti-HBs antibodies in response to HBV vaccination among hemodialysis (HD) subjects, we aimed to investigate whether the IDO gene (IDO1) transcript levels are associated with post-vaccination anti-HBs production and IDO1 polymorphic variants. METHODS: The IDO1 transcript was determined by qRT-PCR analysis in 110 HD patients...
September 25, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Don Jeffrey Diamond, Corinna La Rosa, Flavia Chiuppesi, Heidi Contreras, Sanjeet Dadwal, Felix Wussow, Supriya Bautista, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia
It has been almost fifty years since the Towne strain was used by Plotkin and collaborators as the first vaccine candidate for cytomegalovirus (CMV). While that approach showed partial efficacy, there have been a multitude of challenges to improve on the promise of a CMV vaccine. Efforts have been dichotomized into a therapeutic vaccine for patients with CMV-infected allografts, either stem cells or solid organ, and a prophylactic vaccine for congenital infection. Areas covered: This review will evaluate research prospects for a therapeutic vaccine for transplant recipients that recognizes CMV utilizing primarily T cell responses...
September 22, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
David Stubljar, Tomislav Jukic, Alojz Ihan
Helicobacter pylori infection results in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, or gastric cancer; therefore, eradication of this bacterium is essential. The strategy for developing effective vaccines against H. pylori entails immunization of mice with a combination of classical and recombinant H. pylori antigens, but this has proven to be onerous in all cases. Areas covered: We have reviewed literature databases in PubMed and Scopus using the key words H. pylori, vaccine, and vaccination and have conducted a systematic review of published clinical trials and animal model studies on vaccines against H...
September 21, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Pavitra Keshavan, Michele Pellegrini, Kumaran Vadivelu-Pechai, Michael Nissen
Menveo, quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine, was first licensed in 2010 in the United States and has a long track record of immunogenicity and safety in all age groups, including infants from 2 months of age. Areas covered: This review presents clinical and post-marketing experience with MenACWY-CRM from 32 studies conducted in 20 countries that included individuals aged from 2 months to 75 years. Expert commentary: This decade has seen an increased number of countries reporting serogroup W ST-11 clonal complex outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease...
September 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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