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Expert Review of Vaccines

Pavitra Keshavan, Michele Pellegrini, Kumaran Vadivelu-Pechai, Michael Nissen
Menveo, quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine, was first licensed in 2010 in the United States, and has a long track record of immunogenicity and safety in all age groups, including infants from 2 months of age. Areas covered: This review presents clinical and post-marketing experience with MenACWY-CRM from 32 studies conducted in 20 countries that included individuals aged from 2 months to 75 years. Expert commentary: This decade has seen an increased number of countries reporting serogroup W ST-11 clonal complex outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease...
September 10, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Tomas Mrkvan, Stephen I Pelton, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Arto A Palmu, Dorota Borys
Pneumococcal diseases (including septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia, and upper respiratory infections) constitute a major public health problem. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization of young children worldwide. Areas covered: We reviewed evidence on the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), which is used in childhood immunization programs in over 45 countries or regions. The effectiveness of PHiD-CV against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, and acute otitis media was assessed...
September 6, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Braeden Donaldson, Zabeen Lateef, Greg F Walker, Sarah L Young, Vernon K Ward
Virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines face significant challenges in their translation from laboratory models, to routine clinical administration. While some VLP vaccines thrive and are readily adopted into the vaccination schedule, others are restrained by regulatory obstacles, proprietary limitations, or finding their niche amongst the crowded vaccine market. Often the necessity to supplant an existing vaccination regimen possesses an immediate obstacle for the development of a VLP vaccine, despite any preclinical advantages identified over the competition...
September 3, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Federica Sicca, Sam Neppelenbroek, Anke Huckriede
Antibodies directed against influenza virus execute their protective function by exploiting a variety of effector mechanisms. Neutralizing antibodies have been thoroughly studied because of their pivotal role in preventing influenza virus infection and their presence in host serum is correlated with protection. Influenza antibodies can also exploit non-neutralizing effector mechanisms, which until recently have been largely overlooked. Areas covered: Here, we discuss the antibody response to influenza virus in its entire breadth...
September 3, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Claire P Mattison, Cristina V Cardemil, Aron J Hall
Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, account for approximately one-fifth of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases globally, and cause a substantial economic burden. Candidate norovirus vaccines are in development, but there is currently no licensed vaccine. Areas covered: Noroviruses cause approximately 684 million cases and 212,000 deaths per year across all age groups, though burden estimates vary by study and region. Challenges to vaccine research include substantial and rapidly evolving genetic diversity, short-term and homotypic immunity to infection, and the absence of a single, well-established correlate of protection...
August 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Chih-Yeu Fang, Chia-Chyi Liu
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood illness commonly caused by enterovirus A. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the most commonly identified viruses associated with HFMD. Recently, outbreaks caused by different enterovirus A including CV-A6 and CV-A10 are increasing. Being available now to protect against EV-A71 infection, inactivated EV-A71 vaccines cannot prevent coxsackievirus infections, thus limiting their general application in controlling HFMD. Multivalent HFMD vaccines are suggested to have broad cross-neutralizing responses against these emerging enteroviruses...
August 22, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Harriet L Robinson, Andrea Marzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Elsebeth Lynge, Malene Skorstengaard, Charlotte Lynderup Lübker, Lise Thamsborg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Shabir A Madhi
Vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy could provide protection against disease in the mother, fetus, and newborn. Immunity through transplacental acquired antibodies in the newborns could persist through early infancy, reducing the risk of early-onset (<7 days age) and late-onset (7-89 days age) disease. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) vaccine to assess its safety and immunogenicity in pregnant and nonpregnant adults. Areas covered: We searched literature databases PubMed (Medline), Scopus, and the Cochrane library and identified 25 unique records on GBS CPS vaccines with or without conjugant protein...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Kaori Sano, Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Hideki Hasegawa
Intranasal influenza vaccines are expected to confer protection among vaccine recipients by successful induction of mucosal immune response in the upper respiratory tract. Though only live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIVs) are licensed and available for intranasal use in humans today, intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are currently under reconsideration as a promising intranasal influenza vaccine. Areas covered: This review addresses the history of intranasal IIV research and development, along with a summary of the studies done so far to address the mechanism of action of intranasal IIVs...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jesus Zepeda-Cervantes, Luis Vaca
Recently, subunit vaccines are replacing some of the traditional vaccines because they offer a higher margin of safety. However, generally subunit vaccines have low antigenicity. Adjuvants are used in vaccine formulations to increase their immunogenicity, but current research suggests that adjuvants could induce serious side effects in susceptible individuals; therefore, the improvement of antigens and adjuvants is important. Areas covered: Here we reviewed some self-aggregating peptides (SAPs) used as antigen delivery systems...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-Rene Reinert, Bradford Gessner, Luis Jodar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Bruce A Mungall, Javier Nieto, Lamine Soumahoro, Bernard Hoet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Laurent Coudeville, Nicolas Baurin, Gustavo Olivera-Botello
BACKGROUND: A case-cohort study, using a novel assay and data from three dengue vaccine efficacy trials, highlighted differences in vaccination outcomes according to baseline serostatus. Based on these results, we explored, with a model, the benefits and risks associated with vaccination. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Parameters of a previously developed transmission model were estimated with subject-level data from a case-cohort study. The model was used to assess vaccination outcomes for a range of transmission settings over 5-30 years, with or without indirect protection...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Yusen Zhou, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du
Six years have passed since Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a newly emerging infectious virus, was first reported in 2012. Although MERS-CoV has had a consistently high mortality rate in humans, no vaccines have been approved to prevent MERS-CoV infection in humans. MERS-CoV spike (S) protein is a key target for development of MERS vaccines. Areas covered: In this review, we illustrate the structure and function of S protein as a vaccine target, describe available animal models for evaluating MERS vaccines, and summarize recent progress on MERS-CoV S-based vaccines, focusing on their ability to elicit antibody and/or cellular immune responses, neutralizing antibodies, and protection against MERS-CoV infection in different models...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Julie M Collins, Jason M Redman, James L Gulley
Multiple immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that modulate immune cells in the periphery and the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been approved, as have the therapeutic cancer vaccines sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for metastatic melanoma. These developments provide rationale for combining these modalities to improve response rates and durability of responses in a variety of cancers. Preclinical data have shown that vaccines can induce immune responses that turn a tumor from 'cold' to 'hot,' but vaccines do not appear to be highly active as monotherapy...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
Ending all cases of poliomyelitis requires successful cessation of all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), but the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners should consider the possibility of an OPV restart. Areas covered: We review the risks of continued live poliovirus transmission after OPV cessation and characterize events that led to OPV restart in a global model that focused on identifying optimal strategies for OPV cessation and the polio endgame. Numerous different types of events that occurred since the globally coordinated cessation of serotype 2-containing OPV in 2016 highlight the possibility of continued outbreaks after homotypic OPV cessation...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Krystal Herline, Eleanor Drummond, Thomas Wisniewski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by protein aggregates of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau. These proteins have normal physiological functions, but in AD, they undergo a conformational change and aggregate as toxic oligomeric and fibrillar species with a high β-sheet content. Areas covered: Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches are among the most attractive methods for targeting misfolded Aβ and tau. Promising preclinical testing of various immunotherapeutic approaches has yet to translate to cognitive benefits in human clinical trials...
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
James E Meiring, Pratiksha Patel, Priyanka Patel, Melita A Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Nicolas Lecrenier, Pierre Beukelaers, Romulo Colindres, Desmond Curran, Carine De Kesel, Jean-Philippe De Saegher, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Edouard Y Ledent, Johann F Mols, Tomas Mrkvan, Marie Normand-Bayle, Lidia Oostvogels, Fernanda Tavares Da Silva, Ventzislav Vassilev, Carlota Vinals, Alain Brecx
GSK has developed a two-dose adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (Shingrix, RZV) to protect people aged ≥50 years (50+) against herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. RZV showed >90% efficacy against HZ, sustained over 4 years of follow-up, in all studied age groups. Areas covered: This article reviews the scientific rationale underlying the design of RZV; the clinical evidence demonstrating immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy in persons 50+; and the public health implications and cost-effectiveness...
July 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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