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Expert Review of Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697286/vaccines-for-healthcare-associated-infections-present-future-and-expectations
#1
Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Frédéric Lucht, Odile Launay, Philippe Berthelot, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers
In spite of the widespread implementation of preventive strategies, the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remains high. HAIs are associated with multidrug resistant organisms, and in the post-antibiotic era, alternative strategies such as vaccines are needed for their management. Areas covered: Vaccines to prevent HAIs could be proposed to at-risk patients, or to healthcare workers (HCWs) to prevent cross-transmission. After searches in Pubmed and clinicaltrials.gov, existing vaccines and vaccines under clinical development are presented in this narrative review...
May 7, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715059/human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-the-role-of-herd-effects-in-future-cancer-control-planning-a-review
#2
Talía Malagón, Cassandra Laurie, Eduardo L Franco
Vaccine herd effects are the indirect protection that vaccinated persons provide to those who remain susceptible to infection, due to the reduced transmission of infections. Herd effects have been an important part of the discourse on how to best implement human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and prevent HPV-related diseases. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the theory of HPV vaccine herd effects derived from mathematical models, give an account of observed HPV vaccine herd effects worldwide, and examine the implications of vaccine herd effects for future cervical cancer screening efforts...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715057/how-to-evaluate-potential-non-specific-effects-of-vaccines-the-quest-for-randomized-trials-or-time-for-triangulation
#3
Christine Stabell Benn, Ane Bærent Fisker, Andreas Rieckmann, Aksel Georg Jensen, Peter Aaby
Emerging evidence suggests that vaccines, in addition to their disease-specific effects, have important non-specific effects (NSEs), which contribute to their overall effect on mortality and morbidity. Immunological studies have shown that NSEs are biologically plausible. Many advocate that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overall mortality or morbidity as the outcome are the only way forward to confirm or refute NSEs. Areas covered: We discuss the limitations of using RCTs only as a tool to evaluate NSEs of vaccines...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715054/efficacy-and-effectiveness-of-high-dose-versus-standard-dose-influenza-vaccination-for-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Jason K H Lee, Gary K L Lam, Thomas Shin, Jiyeon Kim, Anish Krishnan, David P Greenberg, Ayman Chit
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for a significant disease burden annually, especially in older adults. This study reviews the relative vaccine efficacy or effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) compared to standard-dose influenza vaccines (IIV3) in adults ≥65 against influenza-associated outcomes to inform evidence-based decision-making to shift clinical practice and standard of care in this population. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted for studies assessing the rVE of HD-IIV3 against probable/laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI), hospital admissions, and death in adults ≥65...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715051/immunization-during-pregnancy
#5
Paul Loubet, Olivia Anselem, Odile Launay
Vaccination in pregnancy has been shown to be effective for the prevention of influenza and pertussis in infants, providing support for similar strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections that represent a large burden in pediatric population. Areas covered: This review addresses the principle of maternal immunization, efficacy and safety of both pertussis and seasonal influenza vaccines and presents available data on group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus that are in development for administration during pregnancy...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580106/flagellin-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant
#6
Baofeng Cui, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Bacterial flagellin, as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), can activate both innate and adaptive immunity. Its unique structural characteristics endow an effective and flexible adjuvant activity, which allow the design of different types of vaccine strategies to prevent various diseases. This review will discuss recent progress in the mechanism of action of flagellin and its prospects for use as a vaccine adjuvant. Areas covered: Herein we summarize various types of information related to flagellin adjuvants from PubMed, including structures, signaling pathways, natural immunity, and extensive applications in vaccines, and it discusses the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of flagellin-adjuvanted vaccines in clinical trials...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589966/vaccine-candidates-against-leishmania-under-current-research
#7
Salvador Iborra, José Carlos Solana, José María Requena, Manuel Soto
The search for vaccines to prevent human leishmaniasis is an active field of investigation aimed to prevent the devastating effects of this family of diseases on human health. The design and commercialization of several vaccines against canine leishmaniasis is a hopeful advance toward the achievement of a human vaccine. Areas covered: This review includes a summary of the most relevant immunological aspects accompanying leishmaniasis in natural hosts as well as a description of the latest advances in the multiple strategies that are being followed to develop leishmanial prophylactic vaccines...
March 28, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569498/educating-children-and-adolescents-about-vaccines-a-review-of-current-literature
#8
Alexander R Maisonneuve, Kumanan Wilson, Holly Witteman, Jamie Brehaut, Ève Dubé
Until recently, research on vaccine hesitancy has focused primarily on parent populations. Although adolescent knowledge and views are gaining momentum within the literature, particularly as they pertain to the Human Papillomavirus and influenza, children remain a virtually unstudied population with regards to vaccine hesitancy. Areas Covered: This review focuses on the lack of literature in this area and argues for more vaccine hesitancy research involving child and adolescent populations. It also outlines special issues to consider when framing health promotion messages for children and adolescents...
March 23, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561216/vaccination-post-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-what-is-feasible
#9
Anne Conrad, Vincent Alcazer, Florent Valour, Florence Ader
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major curative treatment option for malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases, but is associated with an increased risk for infections, of which some are preventable by vaccination. Vaccination guidelines recommend repeated doses of most inactivated vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. However, the efficacy of immunization is often hampered by graft-versus-host disease or severe opportunistic infections. Areas covered: This review summarizes the vaccine recommendations for adult allogeneic HSCT recipients and discusses the challenges and future directions regarding vaccine immunization in these patients...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560746/virus-like-antigen-display-for-cancer-vaccine-development-what-is-the-potential
#10
Adam F Sander, Pier-Luigi Lollini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478347/waning-immunity-of-one-dose-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-to-mumps-in-children-from-kindergarten-to-early-school-age-a-prospective-study
#11
Yuanbao Liu, Zhihao Liu, Xiuying Deng, Ying Hu, Zhiguo Wang, Peishan Lu, Hongxiong Guo, Xiang Sun, Yan Xu, Fenyang Tang, Feng-Cai Zhu
BACKGROUND: In China, one dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) was administered to children aged 18-24 months. The mumps incidence was still high. Data on the waning immunity to mumps after MMR vaccination are limited. This study aimed to describe the waning immunity to mumps in kindergarten and primary school children to provide a scientific basis for confirming an optimal age for a second dose. METHODS: An observational, prospective study on one-dose MMR in children in kindergarten and primary school was conducted from 2015 to 2016...
March 12, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463143/estimated-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-hospitalizations-and-deaths-from-rotavirus-diarrhea-among-children-5-in-asia
#12
Eleanor Burnett, Jacqueline E Tate, Carl D Kirkwood, E Anthony S Nelson, Mathuram Santosham, A Duncan Steele, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Of the 215,000 global deaths from rotavirus estimated in 2013, 41% occur in Asian countries. However, despite a recommendation for global rotavirus vaccination since 2009, only eight countries in Asia have introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization program as of September 2017. To help policy makers assess the potential value of vaccination, we projected the reduction in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths following a hypothetical national introduction of rotavirus vaccines in all countries in Asia using data on national-level rotavirus mortality, <5 population, rotavirus hospitalizations rates, routine vaccination coverage, and vaccine effectiveness...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697290/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611439/response-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-latin-america-are-pcv10-and-pcv13-similar-in-terms-of-protection-against-serotype-19a
#14
Javier Nieto Guevara, Patricia Izurieta, Bernard Hoet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482390/controlling-pertussis-how-can-we-do-it-a-focus-on-immunization
#15
Federico Martinón-Torres, Ulrich Heininger, Angus Thomson, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König
Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract which is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis and is most severe in those <1 year of age. A vaccine against pertussis, introduced in the 1950's, led to a significant decrease in incidence of the disease, but recent increases in outbreaks have been attributed to insufficient vaccine uptake, suboptimal protection conferred by vaccines, and waning immunity after immunization. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the major challenges for controlling pertussis, and what we believe the best strategies are to overcome these challenges, focusing on immunization against pertussis in Europe, but with recommendations that are relevant worldwide...
April 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452497/no-signal-of-interactions-between-influenza-vaccines-and-drugs-used-for-chronic-diseases-a-case-by-case-analysis-of-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-and-vigibase
#16
Carla Carnovale, Emanuel Raschi, Luca Leonardi, Ugo Moretti, Fabrizio De Ponti, Marta Gentili, Marco Pozzi, Emilio Clementi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Sonia Radice
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports indicates that vaccines against influenza may interact with specific drugs via drug metabolism. To date, actual impact of vaccine-drug interactions observed in the real world clinical practice has not been investigated. METHODS: From VAERS and VigiBase, we collected Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) reports for individuals receiving vaccines against influenza recorded as suspect and selected cases where predictable toxicity was recorded with oral anticoagulants, antiepileptics and statins (i...
April 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388450/effectiveness-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-one-vs-two-dose-varicella-vaccination%C3%AF-a-meta-analysis
#17
Mingjuan Yin, Xiaojia Xu, Yaping Liang, Jindong Ni
BACKGROUND: Despite high 1-dose vaccination coverage, breakthrough varicella infections still occur. Therefore, 2-dose vaccination is recommended to enhance the immune response to the virus. However, the reported incremental vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2-dose vaccination varies widely among studies. METHODS: To determine the overall effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of one vs. two-dose varicella vaccination, we searched five databases for articles published during 1995-2017...
April 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382292/interpreting-challenge-data-from-early-phase-malaria-blood-stage-vaccine-trials
#18
Michael F Good, Louis H Miller
As the quest for an effective blood stage malaria vaccine continues, there is increasing reliance on the use of controlled human malaria infections (CHMI) in non-endemic settings to test vaccine efficacy at the earliest possible time. This is seen as a way to accelerate vaccine research and quickly eliminate candidates with poor efficacy. Areas covered: The data from these studies need to be carefully examined and interpreted in light of the very different roles that antibody and cellular immunity play in protection and within the context of the distinct clinical sensitivities of volunteers living in malaria-non-endemic countries compared to those living in endemic countries...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382248/future-of-human-chlamydia-vaccine-potential-of-self-adjuvanting-biodegradable-nanoparticles-as-safe-vaccine-delivery-vehicles
#19
Rajnish Sahu, Richa Verma, Saurabh Dixit, Joseph U Igietseme, Carolyn M Black, Skyla Duncan, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374982/protecting-uk-adolescents-and-adults-against-meningococcal-serogroup-b-disease
#20
Andrew Vyse, Gillian Ellsbury, Harish Madhava
Meningococcal serogroup B disease (MenB) is endemic in the UK and continues to cause the majority of invasive meningococcal disease. Two broadly protective protein-based MenB vaccines are now licensed and available, both with wide age indications. Whilst the UK recently became the first country to routinely vaccinate infants against MenB, a recommendation has not yet been extended to older age groups who can also now benefit from these vaccines. Areas covered: This review summarizes the evidence supporting the rationale for adolescents and adults in the UK to consider MenB vaccination...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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