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Expert Review of Vaccines

Federico Martinón-Torres, Ulrich Heininger, Angus Thomson, Carl Heinz Wirsing von König
Pertussis is a highly contagious disease of the respiratory tract which is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis and is most severe in those <1 year of age. A vaccine against pertussis, introduced in the 1950's, led to a significant decrease in incidence of the disease, but recent increases in outbreaks have been attributed to insufficient vaccine uptake, suboptimal protection conferred by vaccines, and waning immunity after immunization. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the major challenges for controlling pertussis, and what we believe the best strategies are to overcome these challenges, focusing on immunization against pertussis in Europe, but with recommendations that are relevant worldwide...
February 27, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Yuanbao Liu, Zhihao Liu, Xiuying Deng, Ying Hu, Zhiguo Wang, Peishan Lu, Hongxiong Guo, Xiang Sun, Yan Xu, Fenyang Tang, Feng-Cai Zhu
BACKGROUND: In China, only one dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) was administered to children aged 18-24 months. However, the mumps incidence was still high, and the epidemiological incidence shifted to the older age groups. Data on the waning immunity to mumps after MMR vaccination are limited. This study aimed to describe the waning immunity to mumps in kindergarten and primary school children to provide a scientific basis for confirming an optimal age for a second dose. METHODS: An observational, prospective study on one-dose MMR in children in kindergarten and primary school was conducted from 2015 to 2016...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Eleanor Burnett, Jacqueline E Tate, Carl D Kirkwood, E Anthony S Nelson, Mathuram Santosham, A Duncan Steele, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Of the 215,000 global deaths from rotavirus estimated in 2013, 41% occur in Asian countries. However, despite a recommendation for global rotavirus vaccination since 2009, only eight countries in Asia have introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization program as of September 2017. To help policy makers assess the potential value of vaccination, we projected the reduction in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths following a hypothetical national introduction of rotavirus vaccines in all countries in Asia using data on national-level rotavirus mortality, <5 population, rotavirus hospitalizations rates, routine vaccination coverage, and vaccine effectiveness...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Carla Carnovale, Emanuel Raschi, Luca Leonardi, Ugo Moretti, Fabrizio De Ponti, Marta Gentili, Marco Pozzi, Emilio Clementi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Sonia Radice
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports indicates that vaccines against influenza may interact with specific drugs via drug metabolism. To date, actual impact of vaccine-drug interactions observed in the real world clinical practice has not been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From VAERS and VigiBase, we collected Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) reports for individuals receiving vaccines against influenza recorded as suspect and selected cases where predictable toxicity was recorded with oral anticoagulants, antiepileptics and statins (i...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Mingjuan Yin, Xiaojia Xu, Yaping Liang, Jindong Ni
BACKGROUND: Despite high 1-dose vaccination coverage, breakthrough varicella infections still occur. Therefore, 2-dose vaccination is recommended to enhance the immune response to the virus. However, the reported incremental vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2-dose vaccination varies widely among studies. METHODS: To determine the overall effectiveness, immunogenicity and safety of one vs. two-dose varicella vaccination, we searched five databases for articles published during 1995- 2017...
February 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Michael F Good, Louis H Miller
Introduction As the quest for an effective blood stage malaria vaccine continues, there is increasing reliance on the use of controlled human malaria infections (CHMI) in non-endemic settings to test vaccine efficacy at the earliest possible time. This is seen as a way to accelerate vaccine research and quickly eliminate candidates with poor efficacy. Areas covered The data from these studies need to be carefully examined and interpreted in light of the very different roles that antibody and cellular immunity play in protection and within the context of the distinct clinical sensitivities of volunteers living in malaria-non-endemic countries compared to those living in endemic countries...
January 30, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Andrew Vyse, Gillian Ellsbury, Harish Madhava
Meningococcal serogroup B disease (MenB) is endemic in the UK and continues to cause the majority of invasive meningococcal disease. Two broadly protective protein based MenB vaccines are now licensed and available, both with wide age indications. Whilst the UK recently became the first country to routinely vaccinate infants against MenB, a recommendation has not yet been extended to older age groups who can also now benefit from these vaccines. Areas covered: This review summarizes the evidence supporting the rationale for adolescents and adults in the UK to consider MenB vaccination...
January 29, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
William S Bowen, Abhishek K Svrivastava, Lalit Batra, Hampartsoum Barsoumian, Haval Shirwan
Although much progress has been made in the last decade(s) toward development of effective cancer vaccines, there are still important obstacles to therapeutic successes. New generations of cancer vaccines will benefit from a combination adjuvant approach that targets multiple branches of the immune response. Areas covered: Herein we describe how combinatorial adjuvant strategies can help overcome important obstacles to cancer vaccine development, including antigen immunogenicity and tumor immune suppression...
January 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Ilse Truter
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective healthcare interventions. Pharmacies in South Africa provide a vaccination service where childhood immunizations, some travel vaccines and vaccines for specific populations are dispensed and administered, but little has been published on which vaccines are dispensed and at what cost. Areas covered: This retrospective drug utilization study determined the dispensing patterns of vaccines in community pharmacies during 2015 with the focus on the types and cost of vaccines dispensed in ATC group J07...
January 25, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Wei Gu, Gang Zeng, Yue-Mei Hu, Yuan-Sheng Hu, Ying Zhang, Ya-Ling Hu, Yang Wang, Jing-Xin Li, Feng-Cai Zhu
BACKGROUND: The Sinovac enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine has shown good safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in infants aged 6-35 months, whom are considered as the priority of the target population. However, 3-5 years old children accounted for approximately 30% of HFMD cases and are also worth our attention. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, batch-to-batch consistency clinical trial enrolling 1400 participants aged 6-59 months was performed...
January 24, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Július Rajčáni, Ferenc Bánáti, Kálmán Szenthe, Susan Szathmary
Despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent Alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2) nor against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirus. Areas covered: Since the DNAs of both HSVs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than for prevention of primary infection. Here we describe the design of a purified subunit vaccine as well as the preparation and efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the gD ectodomain from our domestic attenuated HSV1 strain HSZP...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Ann J Hessell, Delphine C Malherbe, Nancy L Haigwood
Prevention of infection remains the ultimate goal for HIV vaccination, and there is compelling evidence that antibodies directed to Envelope are necessary to block infection. Generating antibodies that are sufficiently broad, potent, and sustained to block infection by the diverse HIV-1 strains circulating worldwide remains an area of intense study. Areas Covered: In this review, we have summarized progress from publications listed as PubMed citations in 2016-17 in the areas of passive antibody studies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in nonhuman primates, HIV Envelope vaccine development and active vaccination studies to generate potent neutralizing antibodies...
January 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Seth M Pollack
Synovial Sarcoma (SS) and Myxoid Round Cell Liposarcoma (MRCL) are devastating sarcoma subtypes with few treatment options and poor outcomes in the advanced setting. However, both these diseases may be ideal for novel immunotherapies targeting the cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the novel NY-ESO-1 targeted vaccine regimen, CMB305. This regimen uses a unique integration-deficient, dendritic-cell targeting lentiviral vector from the ZVex® platform, LV305, in order to prime NY-ESO-1 specific T cells...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Paolo Bonanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Maria L Ávila-Agüero, Sandra Beltrán, José Brea-Del Castillo, María Esther Castillo Díaz, Luis Eduardo Chaparro, Carmen Deseda, Roberto Debbag, Carlos Espinal, Luiza Helena Falleiros-Arlant, Antonio José González Mata, Mercedes Macías Parra, Fabiano Marques-Rosa, María Catalina Pírez, Mirella Vázquez-Rivera
The Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE), with the support of the Americas Health Foundation (AHF), has developed a position paper on varicella prevention in Latin America and Caribbean countries (LAC). This article summarizes the most relevant aspects of varicella in LAC, and emphasizes the need to include the varicella vaccine in the national immunization programs in the Region and evaluate its impact disease burden. Areas covered: A systematic review was conducted of the medical evidence published and presented at various regional medical conferences on the disease burden in LAC, the advances made by prevention programs, the available vaccines in the Region, and their immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety...
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Michael Barry
Traditional inactivated and protein vaccines generate strong antibodies, but struggle to generate T cell responses. Attenuated pathogen vaccines generate both, but risk of causing the disease they aim to prevent. Newer gene-based vaccines drive both responses and avoid the risk of infection. While these vaccines work well in small animals, they can be weak in humans because they do not replicate antigen genes like more potent replication-competent (RC) vaccines. RC vaccines generate substantially stronger immune responses, but also risk causing their own infections...
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Rajnish Sahu, Richa Verma, Saurabh Dixit, Joseph U Igietseme, Carolyn M Black, Skyla Duncan, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Gebeyaw Getnet Mekonnen, Mark Pearson, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Helminths are multicellular parasites affecting nearly three billion people worldwide. To orchestrate a parasitic existence, helminths secrete different molecules, either in soluble form or contained within extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are secreted by most cell types and organisms, and have varied roles in intercellular communication, including immune modulation and pathogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, we describe the nucleic acid and proteomic composition of EVs from helminths, with a focus on the protein vaccine candidates present on the EV surface membrane, and discuss the potential utility of helminth EVs and their constituent proteins in the fight against helminth infections...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Piyada Angsuwatcharakon, Sumana Khomvilai, Kornvika Limsuwun, Natchaya Ratananpinit, Apinya Khamchat, Teeranit Sanitnai, Terapong Tantawichien
Children are at risk of rabies exposure in many Asian countries. The safety and immunogenicity profile of the WHO-approved two-site intradermal Thai Red Cross regimen (modified TRC-ID regimen; 2-2-2-0-2) with a new chromatographically purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (CPRV) is lacking. Area covered: We studied the safety and immunogenicity of the TRC-ID regimen with a new CPRV in non-immunized Thai children with possible or proven rabies exposure. Thirty-nine seronegative patients (age range 2-14 years) with rabies exposure (WHO categories II or III) received two 0...
February 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Daniel E Velasquez, Umesh Parashar, Baoming Jiang
Numerous studies have shown that the oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in infants born in low income countries compared to those born in developed countries. Identifying the specific factors in developing countries that decrease and/or compromise the protection that rotavirus vaccines offer, could lead to a path for designing new strategies for the vaccines' improvement. Areas covered: We accessed PubMed to identify rotavirus vaccine performance studies (i.e., efficacy, effectiveness and immunogenicity) and correlated performance with several risk factors...
February 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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