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Expert Review of Vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322076/closer-than-ever-to-an-ebola-virus-vaccine
#1
Logan Banadyga, Andrea Marzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285554/an-overview-of-adjuvants-utilized-in-prophylactic-vaccine-formulation-as-immunomodulators
#2
Nidhi Chauhan, Sukirti Tiwari, Tessy Iype, Utkarsh Jain
Development of efficient and cost effective vaccines have been recognized as the primary concern to improve the overall healthcare in a country. In order to achieve this goal, more improved and powerful adjuvants need to be developed. Lacking in the self-adjuvanting immuno-modulatory constituents, vaccines exhibit lower immunogenicity. Combining potent adjuvants with vaccines is the most appropriate method to enhance the efficacy of the vaccines. Hence, this review is focussed on the most potent adjuvants for the formulation of vaccines...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290225/influence-of-protein-fold-stability-on-immunogenicity-and-its-implications-for-vaccine-design
#3
Sandra Scheiblhofer, Josef Laimer, Yoan Machado, Richard Weiss, Josef Thalhamer
In modern vaccinology and immunotherapy, recombinant proteins more and more replace whole organisms to induce protective or curative immune responses. Structural stability of proteins is of crucial importance for efficient presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC, which plays a decisive role for triggering strong immune reactions. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss structural stability as a key factor for modulating the potency of recombinant vaccines and its importance for antigen proteolysis, presentation, and stimulation of B and T cells...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277801/the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-hib-menac-vaccine-a-non-inferiority-randomized-observer-blind-trial-in-infants-aged-3-5-months
#4
Yu-Xiao Wang, Hong Tao, Jian-Li Hu, Jing-Xin Li, Wei-Ming Dai, Jin-Fang Sun, Pei Liu, Jie Tang, Wen-Yu Liu, Feng-Cai Zhu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a non-inferiority, randomized, observer-blind, positive control clinical trial in 900 healthy infants aged between 3-5 months in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Participants were randomly allocated, in a ratio of 2:1 (block=6), to receive experimental combined Hib-MenAC vaccines co-administrated with placebo or the co-administration of licensed Hib vaccine and MenAC vaccine, according to a three-dose immunization schedule...
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277098/barriers-and-motivations-to-volunteers-participation-in-preventive-vaccine-trials-a-systematic-review
#5
M Detoc, A Gagneux-Brunon, F Lucht, E Botelho-Nevers
The recruitment of volunteers in preventive vaccine trials (PVT) is a challenge, since vaccine hesitancy and debates on vaccines are combined to usual difficulties of enrollment in clinical trials. Areas covered: Current knowledge of the reasons leading to the volunteers' participation or non-participation in PVT mainly focuses on data from preventive HIV vaccine trials. A systematic PubMed search was conducted using PRISMA guidelines to identify articles or reviews that reported barriers and motivations to participation in PVT regardless of the targeted disease or population...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277097/towards-functional-antibody-based-vaccines-to-prevent-pre-erythrocytic-malaria-infection
#6
Brandon Sack, Stefan H I Kappe, D Noah Sather
An effective malaria vaccine would be considered a milestone of modern medicine, yet has so far eluded research and development efforts. This can be attributed to the extreme complexity of the malaria parasites, presenting with a multi-stage life cycle, high genome complexity and the parasite's sophisticated immune evasion measures, particularly antigenic variation during pathogenic blood stage infection. However, the pre-erythrocytic (PE) early infection forms of the parasite exhibit relatively invariant proteomes, and are attractive vaccine targets as they offer multiple points of immune system attack...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277797/strategies-to-induce-broadly-protective-antibody-responses-to-viral-glycoproteins
#7
F Krammer
Currently, several universal/broadly protective influenza virus vaccine candidates are under development. Many of these vaccines are based on strategies to induce protective antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins of antigenically and genetically diverse influenza viruses. These strategies might also be applicable to surface glycoproteins of a broad range of other important viral pathogens. Areas covered: Common strategies include sequential vaccination with divergent antigens, multivalent approaches, vaccination with glycan-modified antigens, vaccination with minimal antigens and vaccination with antigens that have centralized/optimized sequences...
February 23, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116910/current-developments-and-prospects-on-human-metapneumovirus-vaccines
#8
Verónica Araceli Márquez-Escobar
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has become one of the major pathogens causing acute respiratory infections (ARI) mainly affecting young children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. Currently there are no licensed vaccines against this virus. Areas covered: Since the discovery of hMPV in 2001, many groups have focused on developing vaccines against this pathogen. This review presents the outcomes and perspectives derived from preclinical studies performed in cell cultures and animals as well as the only candidate that has reached evaluation in a clinical trial...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043178/towards-clinical-development-of-a-pfs48-45-based-transmission-blocking-malaria-vaccine
#9
Michael Theisen, Matthijs M Jore, Robert Sauerwein
Malaria is a devastating vector-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, resulting in almost 0.5 million casualties per year. The parasite has a complex life-cycle that includes asexual replication in human red blood cells, causing symptomatic malaria, and sexual stages which are essential for the transmission to the mosquito vector. A vaccine targeting the sexual stages of the parasite and thus blocking transmission will be instrumental for the eradication of malaria. One of the leading transmission blocking vaccine candidates is the sexual stage antigen Pfs48/45...
January 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276306/designing-an-effective-vaccine-to-prevent-epstein-barr-virus-associated-diseases-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Vijayendra Dasari, Kunal H Bhatt, Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus associated with a number of clinical manifestations. Primary EBV infection in young adolescents often manifests as acute infectious mononucleosis and latent infection is associated with multiple lymphoid and epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders, particularly multiple sclerosis. Areas covered: Over the last decade, our understanding of pathogenesis and immune regulation of EBV-associated diseases has provided an important platform for the development of novel vaccine formulations...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276305/severe-varicella-in-persons-vaccinated-with-varicella-vaccine-breakthrough-varicella-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
Jessica Leung, Karen R Broder, Mona Marin
Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe cases have been reported. The objective of this review is to describe severe breakthrough varicella. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of articles published during 1974-2016. A total of 34 articles were included in our review: 21 described breakthrough varicella with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin (none among two-dose vaccinees); 9 described hospitalized breakthrough varicella without mention of other organ involvement in addition to skin (of which 2 reported 4 two-dose vaccinees); and 4 described both...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276304/development-of-a-new-purified-vero-cell-rabies-vaccine-rabivax-s-at-the-serum-institute-of-india-pvt-ltd
#12
Prasad S Kulkarni, Ashish Sahai, Bhagwat Gunale, Rajeev M Dhere
Rabies is a 100% fatal disease with significant disease burden in Asia and Africa but preventable with vaccines and immunoglobulins. There are very few WHO prequalified cell culture derived rabies vaccines available globally for use in humans. We have developed a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax-S) to meet this demand. Areas covered: In this review, we have described the detailed manufacturing process of Rabivax-S and summary of preclinical and clinical development based on the data generated in-house...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165831/paxvax-cvd-103-hgr-single-dose-live-oral-cholera-vaccine
#13
Myron M Levine, Wilbur H Chen, James B Kaper, Michael Lock, Lisa Danzig, Marc Gurwith
Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010142/outer-membrane-vesicles-an-attractive-candidate-for-pertussis-vaccines
#14
Daniela F Hozbor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809689/two-decades-of-pharmacovigilance-and-clinical-experience-with-highly-purified-rabies-immunoglobulin-f-ab-2-fragments
#15
Elisa Reveneau, Pascale Cottin, Anvar Rasuli
Rabies is a worldwide zoonotic viral disease with no specific treatment once symptoms occur; manifest disease is almost always fatal. WHO recommendations for exposed individuals include immediate attention to the wound and use of rabies immunoglobulin and/or vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Here, we provide an overview of the clinical experience with a highly purified preparation of F(ab')2 fragments from equine rabies immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 pERIG; Favirab(TM)) in rabies PEP. Areas covered: Our review comprises a retrospective analysis of adverse event reports in the Sanofi Pasteur global pharmacovigilance database for F(ab')2 pERIG, including adverse event reports from eight Sanofi Pasteur-sponsored clinical trials and post-market surveillance data collected between 1995 and 2014...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805467/improving-immunization-approaches-to-cholera
#16
Amit Saha, Alexander Rosewell, Andrew Hayen, C Raina MacIntyre, Firdausi Qadri
Cholera's impact is greatest in resource-limited countries. In the last decade several large epidemics have led to a global push to improve and implement the tools for cholera prevention and control. Areas covered: PubMed, Google Scholar and the WHO website were searched to review the literature and summarize the current status of cholera vaccines to make recommendations on improving immunization approaches to cholera. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in endemic, outbreak response and emergency settings, highlighting their potential for wider adoption...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797598/the-unrecognized-burden-of-typhoid-fever
#17
Stephen K Obaro, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Eric Daniel Mintz
Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786560/varicella-prevention-in-costa-rica-impact-of-a-one-dose-schedule-universal-vaccination
#18
María L Avila-Aguero, Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Kattia Camacho-Badilla, Alejandra Soriano-Fallas, Roberto Arroba-Tijerino, Ana Morice-Trejos
To describe the impact following a 1-dose Varicella vaccination schedule introduced in Costa Rica in September 2007. Areas covered: This is a retrospective review using epidemiologic surveillance national databases of varicella cases and hospitalizations, period 2000-2015. We analyzed age-related varicella incidence cases and hospitalization trends before and after the vaccine introduction. Expert commentary: Varicella vaccine coverage among children 16 months age increased from 76% in 2008 to 95% in 2015...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690701/calcium-phosphate-a-substitute-for-aluminum-adjuvants
#19
Jean-Daniel Masson, Michel Thibaudon, Laurent Bélec, Guillemette Crépeaux
Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690686/vaccines-for-piscirickettsiosis-salmonid-rickettsial-septicaemia-srs-the-chile-perspective
#20
Kevin Maisey, Ruth Montero, Myron Christodoulides
Piscirickettsia salmonis (P. salmonis) is the aetiological bacterium of the contagious disease piscirickettsiosis or salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) and causes significant economic losses to aquaculture production in Chile. Current strategies to control infection are i) indiscriminate antibiotic use and ii) vaccination with predominantly P. salmonis bacterin vaccines that do not provide acceptable levels of protection against piscirickettsiosis. Areas covered: This review covers the basic biology of P...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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