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Nature Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346432/nanoscale-capillary-freezing-of-ionic-liquids-confined-between-metallic-interfaces-and-the-role-of-electronic-screening
#1
Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Vojtech Kaiser, Benoit Coasne, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement...
March 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346431/real-time-impedance-monitoring-of-oxygen-reduction-during-surface-modification-of-thin%C3%A2-film%C3%A2-cathodes
#2
Ghislain M Rupp, Alexander K Opitz, Andreas Nenning, Andreas Limbeck, Jürgen Fleig
Improvement of solid oxide fuel cells strongly relies on the development of cathode materials with high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Excellent activity was found for perovskite-type oxides such as La1-xSrxCoO3-δ (LSC), but performance degradation, probably caused by surface composition changes, hinders exploitation of the full potential of LSC. This study reveals that the potentially very high activity of the LSC surface can be traced back to few very active sites. Already tiny amounts of SrO, for example, 4% of a monolayer, deposited on an LSC surface, lead to severe deactivation...
March 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319612/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-is-a-central-component-of-the-foreign-body-response-to-biomaterial-implants-in-rodents-and-non-human%C3%A2-primates
#3
Joshua C Doloff, Omid Veiseh, Arturo J Vegas, Hok Hei Tam, Shady Farah, Minglin Ma, Jie Li, Andrew Bader, Alan Chiu, Atieh Sadraei, Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva, Marissa Griffin, Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Matthew Webber, Sean Siebert, Katherine Tang, Michael Chen, Erin Langan, Nimit Dholokia, Raj Thakrar, Meirigeng Qi, Jose Oberholzer, Dale L Greiner, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson
Host recognition and immune-mediated foreign body response to biomaterials can compromise the performance of implanted medical devices. To identify key cell and cytokine targets, here we perform in-depth systems analysis of innate and adaptive immune system responses to implanted biomaterials in rodents and non-human primates. While macrophages are indispensable to the fibrotic cascade, surprisingly neutrophils and complement are not. Macrophages, via CXCL13, lead to downstream B cell recruitment, which further potentiated fibrosis, as confirmed by B cell knockout and CXCL13 neutralization...
March 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319611/functional-electronic-inversion-layers-at-ferroelectric-domain-walls
#4
J A Mundy, J Schaab, Y Kumagai, A Cano, M Stengel, I P Krug, D M Gottlob, H Dog Anay, M E Holtz, R Held, Z Yan, E Bourret, C M Schneider, D G Schlom, D A Muller, R Ramesh, N A Spaldin, D Meier
Ferroelectric domain walls hold great promise as functional two-dimensional materials because of their unusual electronic properties. Particularly intriguing are the so-called charged walls where a polarity mismatch causes local, diverging electrostatic potentials requiring charge compensation and hence a change in the electronic structure. These walls can exhibit significantly enhanced conductivity and serve as a circuit path. The development of all-domain-wall devices, however, also requires walls with controllable output to emulate electronic nano-components such as diodes and transistors...
March 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272504/photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-in-separate-oxygen-and-hydrogen-cells
#5
Avigail Landman, Hen Dotan, Gennady E Shter, Michael Wullenkord, Anis Houaijia, Artjom Maljusch, Gideon S Grader, Avner Rothschild
Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells...
March 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272503/controlling-the-growth-of-multiple-ordered-heteromolecular-phases-by-utilizing-intermolecular-repulsion
#6
Caroline Henneke, Janina Felter, Daniel Schwarz, F Stefan Tautz, Christian Kumpf
Metal/organic interfaces and their structural, electronic, spintronic and thermodynamic properties have been investigated intensively, aiming to improve and develop future electronic devices. In this context, heteromolecular phases add new design opportunities simply by combining different molecules. However, controlling the desired phases in such complex systems is a challenging task. Here, we report an effective way of steering the growth of a bimolecular system composed of adsorbate species with opposite intermolecular interactions-repulsive and attractive, respectively...
March 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272500/direct-3d-mapping-of-the-fermi-surface-and-fermi%C3%A2-velocity
#7
K Medjanik, O Fedchenko, S Chernov, D Kutnyakhov, M Ellguth, A Oelsner, B Schönhense, T R F Peixoto, P Lutz, C-H Min, F Reinert, S Däster, Y Acremann, J Viefhaus, W Wurth, H J Elmers, G Schönhense
We performed a full mapping of the bulk electronic structure including the Fermi surface and Fermi-velocity distribution vF(kF) of tungsten. The 4D spectral function ρ(EB; k) in the entire bulk Brillouin zone and 6 eV binding-energy (EB) interval was acquired in ∼3 h thanks to a new multidimensional photoemission data-recording technique (combining full-field k-microscopy with time-of-flight parallel energy recording) and the high brilliance of the soft X-rays used. A direct comparison of bulk and surface spectral functions (taken at low photon energies) reveals a time-reversal-invariant surface state in a local bandgap in the (110)-projected bulk band structure...
March 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250420/a-fully-organic-retinal-prosthesis-restores-vision-in-a-rat-model-of-degenerative-blindness
#8
José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Diego Ghezzi, Maria Rosa Antognazza, Elisabetta Colombo, Maurizio Mete, Paul Feyen, Andrea Desii, Ambra Buschiazzo, Mattia Di Paolo, Stefano Di Marco, Flavia Ticconi, Laura Emionite, Dmytro Shmal, Cecilia Marini, Ilaria Donelli, Giuliano Freddi, Rita Maccarone, Silvia Bisti, Gianmario Sambuceti, Grazia Pertile, Guglielmo Lanzani, Fabio Benfenati
The degeneration of photoreceptors in the retina is one of the major causes of adult blindness in humans. Unfortunately, no effective clinical treatments exist for the majority of retinal degenerative disorders. Here we report on the fabrication and functional validation of a fully organic prosthesis for long-term in vivo subretinal implantation in the eye of Royal College of Surgeons rats, a widely recognized model of retinitis pigmentosa. Electrophysiological and behavioural analyses reveal a prosthesis-dependent recovery of light sensitivity and visual acuity that persists up to 6-10 months after surgery...
March 6, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250447/antifogging-abilities-of-model-nanotextures
#9
Timothée Mouterde, Gaëlle Lehoucq, Stéphane Xavier, Antonio Checco, Charles T Black, Atikur Rahman, Thierry Midavaine, Christophe Clanet, David Quéré
Nanometre-scale features with special shapes impart a broad spectrum of unique properties to the surface of insects. These properties are essential for the animal's survival, and include the low light reflectance of moth eyes, the oil repellency of springtail carapaces and the ultra-adhesive nature of palmtree bugs. Antireflective mosquito eyes and cicada wings are also known to exhibit some antifogging and self-cleaning properties. In all cases, the combination of small feature size and optimal shape provides exceptional surface properties...
February 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250446/colloidal-alloys-with-preassembled-clusters-and%C3%A2-spheres
#10
Étienne Ducrot, Mingxin He, Gi-Ra Yi, David J Pine
Self-assembly is a powerful approach for constructing colloidal crystals, where spheres, rods or faceted particles can build up a myriad of structures. Nevertheless, many complex or low-coordination architectures, such as diamond, pyrochlore and other sought-after lattices, have eluded self-assembly. Here we introduce a new design principle based on preassembled components of the desired superstructure and programmed nearest-neighbour DNA-mediated interactions, which allows the formation of otherwise unattainable structures...
February 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250445/the-microstructure-and-micromechanics-of-the-tendon-bone-insertion
#11
L Rossetti, L A Kuntz, E Kunold, J Schock, K W Müller, H Grabmayr, J Stolberg-Stolberg, F Pfeiffer, S A Sieber, R Burgkart, A R Bausch
The exceptional mechanical properties of the load-bearing connection of tendon to bone rely on an intricate interplay of its biomolecular composition, microstructure and micromechanics. Here we identify that the Achilles tendon-bone insertion is characterized by an interface region of ∼500 μm with a distinct fibre organization and biomolecular composition. Within this region, we identify a heterogeneous mechanical response by micromechanical testing coupled with multiscale confocal microscopy. This leads to localized strains that can be larger than the remotely applied strain...
February 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250444/evidence-for-anionic-redox-activity-in-a-tridimensional-ordered-li-rich-positive-electrode%C3%A2-%C3%AE-li2iro3
#12
Paul E Pearce, Arnaud J Perez, Gwenaelle Rousse, Mathieu Saubanère, Dmitry Batuk, Dominique Foix, Eric McCalla, Artem M Abakumov, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Marie-Liesse Doublet, Jean-Marie Tarascon
Lithium-ion battery cathode materials have relied on cationic redox reactions until the recent discovery of anionic redox activity in Li-rich layered compounds which enables capacities as high as 300 mAh g(-1). In the quest for new high-capacity electrodes with anionic redox, a still unanswered question was remaining regarding the importance of the structural dimensionality. The present manuscript provides an answer. We herein report on a β-Li2IrO3 phase which, in spite of having the Ir arranged in a tridimensional (3D) framework instead of the typical two-dimensional (2D) layers seen in other Li-rich oxides, can reversibly exchange 2...
February 27, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272502/organic-photovoltaics-pushing-the-knowledge-of-interfaces
#13
Natalie Banerji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272501/organic-electronics-battery-like-artificial-synapses
#14
J Joshua Yang, Qiangfei Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218922/unravelling-surface-and-interfacial-structures-of-a-metal-organic-framework-by-transmission-electron-microscopy
#15
Yihan Zhu, Jim Ciston, Bin Zheng, Xiaohe Miao, Cory Czarnik, Yichang Pan, Rachid Sougrat, Zhiping Lai, Chia-En Hsiung, Kexin Yao, Ingo Pinnau, Ming Pan, Yu Han
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline porous materials with designable topology, porosity and functionality, having promising applications in gas storage and separation, ion conduction and catalysis. It is challenging to observe MOFs with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) due to the extreme instability of MOFs upon electron beam irradiation. Here, we use a direct-detection electron-counting camera to acquire TEM images of the MOF ZIF-8 with an ultralow dose of 4.1 electrons per square ångström to retain the structural integrity...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218921/visualizing-excitations-at-buried-heterojunctions-in-organic-semiconductor-blends
#16
Andreas C Jakowetz, Marcus L Böhm, Aditya Sadhanala, Sven Huettner, Akshay Rao, Richard H Friend
Interfaces play a crucial role in semiconductor devices, but in many device architectures they are nanostructured, disordered and buried away from the surface of the sample. Conventional optical, X-ray and photoelectron probes often fail to provide interface-specific information in such systems. Here we develop an all-optical time-resolved method to probe the local energetic landscape and electronic dynamics at such interfaces, based on the Stark effect caused by electron-hole pairs photo-generated across the interface...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#17
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191899/a-magnetic-heterostructure-of-topological-insulators-as-a-candidate-for-an-axion-insulator
#18
M Mogi, M Kawamura, R Yoshimi, A Tsukazaki, Y Kozuka, N Shirakawa, K S Takahashi, M Kawasaki, Y Tokura
The axion insulator which may exhibit an exotic quantized magnetoelectric effect is one of the most interesting quantum phases predicted for the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). The axion insulator state is expected to show up in magnetically doped TIs with magnetizations pointing inwards and outwards from the respective surfaces. Towards the realization of the axion insulator, we here engineered a TI heterostructure in which magnetic ions (Cr) are modulation-doped only in the vicinity of the top and bottom surfaces of the TI ((Bi,Sb)2Te3) film...
February 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191898/a-zero-thermal-quenching-phosphor
#19
Yoon Hwa Kim, Paulraj Arunkumar, Bo Young Kim, Sanjith Unithrattil, Eden Kim, Su-Hyun Moon, Jae Young Hyun, Ki Hyun Kim, Donghwa Lee, Jong-Sook Lee, Won Bin Im
Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are efficient light sources used in lighting, high-tech displays, and electronic devices. One of the most significant challenges of pc-WLEDs is the thermal quenching, in which the phosphor suffers from emission loss with increasing temperature during high-power LED operation. Here, we report a blue-emitting Na3-2xSc2(PO4)3:xEu(2+) phosphor (λem = 453 nm) that does not exhibit thermal quenching even up to 200 °C. This phenomenon of zero thermal quenching originates from the ability of the phosphor to compensate the emission losses and therefore sustain the luminescence with increasing temperature...
February 13, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191897/universal-lower-limit-on-vortex-creep-in-superconductors
#20
S Eley, M Miura, B Maiorov, L Civale
Superconductors are excellent testbeds for studying vortices, topological excitations that also appear in superfluids, liquid crystals and Bose-Einstein condensates. Vortex motion can be disruptive; it can cause phase transitions, glitches in pulsars, and losses in superconducting microwave circuits, and it limits the current-carrying capacity of superconductors. Understanding vortex dynamics is fundamentally and technologically important, and the competition between thermal energy and energy barriers defined by material disorder is not completely understood...
February 13, 2017: Nature Materials
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