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Nature Materials

Arko Graf, Martin Held, Yuriy Zakharko, Laura Tropf, Malte C Gather, Jana Zaumseil
Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter particles that form upon strong coupling of an excitonic transition to a cavity mode. As bosons, polaritons can form condensates with coherent laser-like emission. For organic materials, optically pumped condensation was achieved at room temperature but electrically pumped condensation remains elusive due to insufficient polariton densities. Here we combine the outstanding optical and electronic properties of purified, solution-processed semiconducting (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a microcavity-integrated light-emitting field-effect transistor to realize efficient electrical pumping of exciton-polaritons at room temperature with high current densities (>10 kA cm(-2)) and tunability in the near-infrared (1,060 nm to 1,530 nm)...
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Jeremy J Baumberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Anjan Soumyanarayanan, M Raju, A L Gonzalez Oyarce, Anthony K C Tan, Mi-Young Im, A P Petrović, Pin Ho, K H Khoo, M Tran, C K Gan, F Ernult, C Panagopoulos
Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale topological spin structures offering great promise for next-generation information storage technologies. The recent discovery of sub-100-nm room-temperature (RT) skyrmions in several multilayer films has triggered vigorous efforts to modulate their physical properties for their use in devices. Here we present a tunable RT skyrmion platform based on multilayer stacks of Ir/Fe/Co/Pt, which we study using X-ray microscopy, magnetic force microscopy and Hall transport techniques...
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Emiliana Fabbri, Maarten Nachtegaal, Tobias Binninger, Xi Cheng, Bae-Jung Kim, Julien Durst, Francesco Bozza, Thomas Graule, Robin Schäublin, Luke Wiles, Morgan Pertoso, Nemanja Danilovic, Katherine E Ayers, Thomas J Schmidt
The growing need to store increasing amounts of renewable energy has recently triggered substantial R&D efforts towards efficient and stable water electrolysis technologies. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring at the electrolyser anode is central to the development of a clean, reliable and emission-free hydrogen economy. The development of robust and highly active anode materials for OER is therefore a great challenge and has been the main focus of research. Among potential candidates, perovskites have emerged as promising OER electrocatalysts...
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Lucas M Carneiro, Scott K Cushing, Chong Liu, Yude Su, Peidong Yang, A Paul Alivisatos, Stephen R Leone
Small polaron formation is known to limit ground-state mobilities in metal oxide photocatalysts. However, the role of small polaron formation in the photoexcited state and how this affects the photoconversion efficiency has yet to be determined. Here, transient femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet measurements suggest that small polaron localization is responsible for the ultrafast trapping of photoexcited carriers in haematite (α-Fe2O3). Small polaron formation is evidenced by a sub-100 fs splitting of the Fe 3p core orbitals in the Fe M2,3 edge...
July 10, 2017: Nature Materials
Christopher E Pueblo, Minhua Sun, K F Kelton
The dynamical behaviour of liquids is frequently characterized by the fragility, which can be defined from the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity, η (ref. ). For a strong liquid, the activation energy for η changes little with cooling towards the glass transition temperature, Tg. The change is much greater in fragile liquids, with the activation energy becoming very large near Tg. While fragility is widely recognized as an important concept-believed, for example, to play an important role in glass formation-the microscopic origin of fragility is poorly understood...
July 10, 2017: Nature Materials
Jieun Lee, Zefang Wang, Hongchao Xie, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan
The magnetoelectric (ME) effect, the phenomenon of inducing magnetization by application of an electric field or vice versa, holds great promise for magnetic sensing and switching applications. Studies of the ME effect have so far focused on the control of the electron spin degree of freedom (DOF) in materials such as multiferroics and conventional semiconductors. Here, we report a new form of the ME effect based on the valley DOF in two-dimensional Dirac materials. By breaking the three-fold rotational symmetry in single-layer MoS 2 via a uniaxial stress, we have demonstrated the pure electrical generation of valley magnetization in this material, and its direct imaging by Kerr rotation microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Nature Materials
F Mastropietro, P Godard, M Burghammer, C Chevallard, J Daillant, J Duboisset, M Allain, P Guenoun, J Nouet, V Chamard
Biomineralization integrates complex processes leading to an extraordinary diversity of calcareous biomineral crystalline architectures, in intriguing contrast with the consistent presence of a sub-micrometric granular structure. Hence, gaining access to the crystalline architecture at the mesoscale, that is, over a few granules, is key to building realistic biomineralization scenarios. Here we provide the nanoscale spatial arrangement of the crystalline structure within the 'single-crystalline' prisms of the prismatic layer of a Pinctada margaritifera shell, exploiting three-dimensional X-ray Bragg ptychography microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Nature Materials
Haotong Wei, Dylan DeSantis, Wei Wei, Yehao Deng, Dengyang Guo, Tom J Savenije, Lei Cao, Jinsong Huang
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) bring an unprecedented opportunity for radiation detection with their defect-tolerance nature, large mobility-lifetime product, and simple crystal growth from solution. Here we report a dopant compensation in alloyed OIHP single crystals to overcome limitations of device noise and charge collection, enabling γ-ray spectrum collection at room temperature. CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbCl3 are found to be p-type and n-type doped, respectively, whereas dopant-compensated CH3NH3PbBr2...
July 3, 2017: Nature Materials
Nicolas Bachelard, Chad Ropp, Marc Dubois, Rongkuo Zhao, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
Material systems that reside far from thermodynamic equilibrium have the potential to exhibit dynamic properties and behaviours resembling those of living organisms. Here we realize a non-equilibrium material characterized by a bandgap whose edge is enslaved to the wavelength of an external coherent drive. The structure dynamically self-assembles into an unconventional pseudo-crystal geometry that equally distributes momentum across elements. The emergent bandgap is bestowed with lifelike properties, such as the ability to self-heal to perturbations and adapt to sudden changes in the drive...
June 19, 2017: Nature Materials
Yanliang Liang, Yan Jing, Saman Gheytani, Kuan-Yi Lee, Ping Liu, Antonio Facchetti, Yan Yao
Aqueous rechargeable batteries provide the safety, robustness, affordability, and environmental friendliness necessary for grid storage and electric vehicle operations, but their adoption is plagued by poor cycle life due to the structural and chemical instability of the anode materials. Here we report quinones as stable anode materials by exploiting their structurally stable ion-coordination charge storage mechanism and chemical inertness towards aqueous electrolytes. Upon rational selection/design of quinone structures, we demonstrate three systems that coupled with industrially established cathodes and electrolytes exhibit long cycle life (up to 3,000 cycles/3,500 h), fast kinetics (≥20C), high anode specific capacity (up to 200-395 mAh g(-1)), and several examples of state-of-the-art specific energy/energy density (up to 76-92 Wh kg(-1)/ 161-208 Wh l(-1)) for several operational pH values (-1 to 15), charge carrier species (H(+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)), temperature (-35 to 25 °C), and atmosphere (with/without O2), making them a universal anode approach for any aqueous battery technology...
June 19, 2017: Nature Materials
Jennifer K Lee, Le W Huwe, Nikolaos Paschos, Ashkan Aryaei, Courtney A Gegg, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Scaffold-free systems have emerged as viable approaches for engineering load-bearing tissues. However, the tensile properties of engineered tissues have remained far below the values for native tissue. Here, by using self-assembled articular cartilage as a model to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous tension stimulation on tissue formation, we show that the application of tension alone, or in combination with matrix remodelling and synthesis agents, leads to neocartilage with tensile properties approaching those of native tissue...
June 12, 2017: Nature Materials
Laura Rodríguez-Arco, Mei Li, Stephen Mann
The spontaneous assembly of micro-compartmentalized colloidal objects capable of controlled interactions offers a step towards rudimentary forms of collective behaviour in communities of artificial cell-like entities (synthetic protocells). Here we report a primitive form of artificial phagocytosis in a binary community of synthetic protocells in which multiple silica colloidosomes are selectively ingested by self-propelled magnetic Pickering emulsion (MPE) droplets comprising particle-free fatty acid-stabilized apertures...
June 12, 2017: Nature Materials
Mahsa Siavashpouri, Christian H Wachauf, Mark J Zakhary, Florian Praetorius, Hendrik Dietz, Zvonimir Dogic
Establishing precise control over the shape and the interactions of the microscopic building blocks is essential for design of macroscopic soft materials with novel structural, optical and mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate robust assembly of DNA origami filaments into cholesteric liquid crystals, one-dimensional supramolecular twisted ribbons and two-dimensional colloidal membranes. The exquisite control afforded by the DNA origami technology establishes a quantitative relationship between the microscopic filament structure and the macroscopic cholesteric pitch...
May 22, 2017: Nature Materials
T Ideue, T Kurumaji, S Ishiwata, Y Tokura
Multiferroics, in which dielectric and magnetic orders coexist and couple with each other, attract renewed interest for their cross-correlated phenomena, offering a fundamental platform for novel functionalities. Elementary excitations in such systems are strongly affected by the lattice-spin interaction, as exemplified by the electromagnons and the magneto-thermal transport. Here we report an unprecedented coupling between magnetism and phonons in multiferroics, namely, the giant thermal Hall effect. The thermal transport of insulating polar magnets (ZnxFe1-x)2Mo3O8 is dominated by phonons, yet extremely sensitive to the magnetic structure...
May 15, 2017: Nature Materials
Naoji Matsuhisa, Daishi Inoue, Peter Zalar, Hanbit Jin, Yorishige Matsuba, Akira Itoh, Tomoyuki Yokota, Daisuke Hashizume, Takao Someya
Printable elastic conductors promise large-area stretchable sensor/actuator networks for healthcare, wearables and robotics. Elastomers with metal nanoparticles are one of the best approaches to achieve high performance, but large-area utilization is limited by difficulties in their processability. Here we report a printable elastic conductor containing Ag nanoparticles that are formed in situ, solely by mixing micrometre-sized Ag flakes, fluorine rubbers, and surfactant. Our printable elastic composites exhibit conductivity higher than 4,000 S cm(-1) (highest value: 6,168 S cm(-1)) at 0% strain, and 935 S cm(-1) when stretched up to 400%...
May 15, 2017: Nature Materials
J-Y Chauleau, E Haltz, C Carrétéro, S Fusil, M Viret
Among the variety of magnetic textures available in nature, antiferromagnetism is one of the most 'discrete' because of the exact cancellation of its staggered internal magnetization. It is therefore very challenging to probe. However, its insensitivity to external magnetic perturbations, together with the intrinsic sub-picosecond dynamics, make it very appealing for tomorrow's information technologies. Thus, it is essential to understand the microscopic mechanisms governing antiferromagnetic domains to achieve accurate manipulation and control...
May 8, 2017: Nature Materials
Hossein Fashandi, Martin Dahlqvist, Jun Lu, Justinas Palisaitis, Sergei I Simak, Igor A Abrikosov, Johanna Rosen, Lars Hultman, Mike Andersson, Anita Lloyd Spetz, Per Eklund
The large class of layered ceramics encompasses both van der Waals (vdW) and non-vdW solids. While intercalation of noble metals in vdW solids is known, formation of compounds by incorporation of noble-metal layers in non-vdW layered solids is largely unexplored. Here, we show formation of Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2 phases with up to 31% lattice swelling by a substitutional solid-state reaction of Au into Ti3SiC2 single-crystal thin films with simultaneous out-diffusion of Si. Ti3IrC2 is subsequently produced by a substitution reaction of Ir for Au in Ti3Au2C2...
May 1, 2017: Nature Materials
R Giridharagopal, L Q Flagg, J S Harrison, M E Ziffer, J Onorato, C K Luscombe, D S Ginger
Ionic transport phenomena in organic semiconductor materials underpin emerging technologies ranging from bioelectronics to energy storage. The performance of these systems is affected by an interplay of film morphology, ionic transport and electronic transport that is unique to organic semiconductors yet poorly understood. Using in situ electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), we demonstrate that we can directly probe local variations in ion transport in polymer devices by measuring subnanometre volumetric expansion due to ion uptake following electrochemical oxidation of the semiconductor...
July 2017: Nature Materials
Xavier Crispin, Sergei V Kalinin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Materials
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