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Nature Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920942/exponential-growth-and-selection-in-self-replicating-materials-from-dna-origami-rafts
#1
Xiaojin He, Ruojie Sha, Rebecca Zhuo, Yongli Mi, Paul M Chaikin, Nadrian C Seeman
Self-replication and evolution under selective pressure are inherent phenomena in life, and but few artificial systems exhibit these phenomena. We have designed a system of DNA origami rafts that exponentially replicates a seed pattern, doubling the copies in each diurnal-like cycle of temperature and ultraviolet illumination, producing more than 7 million copies in 24 cycles. We demonstrate environmental selection in growing populations by incorporating pH-sensitive binding in two subpopulations. In one species, pH-sensitive triplex DNA bonds enable parent-daughter templating, while in the second species, triplex binding inhibits the formation of duplex DNA templating...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920941/reversible-magnesium-and-aluminium-ions-insertion-in-cation-deficient-anatase-tio2
#2
Toshinari Koketsu, Jiwei Ma, Benjamin J Morgan, Monique Body, Christophe Legein, Walid Dachraoui, Mattia Giannini, Arnaud Demortière, Mathieu Salanne, François Dardoize, Henri Groult, Olaf J Borkiewicz, Karena W Chapman, Peter Strasser, Damien Dambournet
In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg(2+) and Al(3+) into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg(2+) and Al(3+) insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920940/self-replication-nanostructure-evolution
#3
Friedrich C Simmel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920939/imaging-and-tuning-polarity-at-srtio3-domain%C3%A2-walls
#4
Yiftach Frenkel, Noam Haham, Yishai Shperber, Christopher Bell, Yanwu Xie, Zhuoyu Chen, Yasuyuki Hikita, Harold Y Hwang, Ekhard K H Salje, Beena Kalisky
Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920938/partial-breaking-of-the-coulombic-ordering-of-ionic-liquids-confined-in-carbon-nanopores
#5
Ryusuke Futamura, Taku Iiyama, Yuma Takasaki, Yury Gogotsi, Mark J Biggs, Mathieu Salanne, Julie Ségalini, Patrice Simon, Katsumi Kaneko
Ionic liquids are composed of equal quantities of positive and negative ions. In the bulk, electrical neutrality occurs in these liquids due to Coulombic ordering, in which ion shells of alternating charge form around a central ion. Their structure under confinement is far less well understood. This hinders the widespread application of ionic liquids in technological applications. Here we use scattering experiments to resolve the structure of a widely used ionic liquid (EMI-TFSI) when it is confined inside nanoporous carbons...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920937/resolving-ultrafast-exciton-migration-in-organic-solids-at-the-nanoscale
#6
Samuel B Penwell, Lucas D S Ginsberg, Rodrigo Noriega, Naomi S Ginsberg
Effectiveness of molecular-based light harvesting relies on transport of excitons to charge-transfer sites. Measuring exciton migration, however, has been challenging because of the mismatch between nanoscale migration lengths and the diffraction limit. Instead of using bulk substrate quenching methods, here we define quenching boundaries all-optically with sub-diffraction resolution, thus characterizing spatiotemporal exciton migration on its native nanometre and picosecond scales. By transforming stimulated emission depletion microscopy into a time-resolved ultrafast approach, we measure a 16-nm migration length in poly(2,5-di(hexyloxy)cyanoterephthalylidene) conjugated polymer films...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892056/observation-of-the-spin-nernst-effect
#7
S Meyer, Y-T Chen, S Wimmer, M Althammer, T Wimmer, R Schlitz, S Geprägs, H Huebl, D Ködderitzsch, H Ebert, G E W Bauer, R Gross, S T B Goennenwein
The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film...
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892055/electrotunable-nanoplasmonic-liquid-mirror
#8
Yunuen Montelongo, Debabrata Sikdar, Ye Ma, Alastair J S McIntosh, Leonora Velleman, Anthony R Kucernak, Joshua B Edel, Alexei A Kornyshev
Recently, there has been a drive to design and develop fully tunable metamaterials for applications ranging from new classes of sensors to superlenses among others. Although advances have been made, tuning and modulating the optical properties in real time remains a challenge. We report on the first realization of a reversible electrotunable liquid mirror based on voltage-controlled self-assembly/disassembly of 16 nm plasmonic nanoparticles at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. We show that optical properties such as reflectivity and spectral position of the absorption band can be varied in situ within ±0...
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892054/long-lived-force-patterns-and-deformation-waves-at-repulsive-epithelial-boundaries
#9
Pilar Rodríguez-Franco, Agustí Brugués, Ariadna Marín-Llauradó, Vito Conte, Guiomar Solanas, Eduard Batlle, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Raimon Sunyer, Xavier Trepat
For an organism to develop and maintain homeostasis, cell types with distinct functions must often be separated by physical boundaries. The formation and maintenance of such boundaries are commonly attributed to mechanisms restricted to the cells lining the boundary. Here we show that, besides these local subcellular mechanisms, the formation and maintenance of tissue boundaries involves long-lived, long-ranged mechanical events. Following contact between two epithelial monolayers expressing, respectively, EphB2 and its ligand ephrinB1, both monolayers exhibit oscillatory patterns of traction forces and intercellular stresses that tend to pull cell-matrix adhesions away from the boundary...
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892053/organic-semiconductors-a-map-to-find-winners
#10
Jenny Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892052/cell-mechanics-when-tissues-collide
#11
Ulrich S Schwarz, Falko Ziebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892051/a-map-of-high-mobility-molecular-semiconductors
#12
S Fratini, S Ciuchi, D Mayou, G Trambly de Laissardière, A Troisi
The charge mobility of molecular semiconductors is limited by the large fluctuation of intermolecular transfer integrals, often referred to as off-diagonal dynamic disorder, which causes transient localization of the carriers' eigenstates. Using a recently developed theoretical framework, we show here that the electronic structure of the molecular crystals determines its sensitivity to intermolecular fluctuations. We build a map of the transient localization lengths of high-mobility molecular semiconductors to identify what patterns of nearest-neighbour transfer integrals in the two-dimensional (2D) high-mobility plane protect the semiconductor from the effect of dynamic disorder and yield larger mobility...
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869612/instilling-defect-tolerance-in-new-compounds
#13
Aron Walsh, Alex Zunger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825731/mott-transition-by-an-impulsive-dielectric%C3%A2-breakdown
#14
H Yamakawa, T Miyamoto, T Morimoto, T Terashige, H Yada, N Kida, M Suda, H M Yamamoto, R Kato, K Miyagawa, K Kanoda, H Okamoto
The transition of a Mott insulator to metal, the Mott transition, can occur via carrier doping by elemental substitution, and by photoirradiation, as observed in transition-metal compounds and in organic materials. Here, we show that the application of a strong electric field can induce a Mott transition by a new pathway, namely through impulsive dielectric breakdown. Irradiation of a terahertz electric-field pulse on an ET-based compound, κ-(ET) 2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), collapses the original Mott gap of ∼30 meV with a ∼0...
August 21, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825730/nanodiffusion-in-electrocatalytic-films
#15
Cyrille Costentin, Carlo Di Giovanni, Marion Giraud, Jean-Michel Savéant, Cédric Tard
In the active interest aroused by electrochemical reactions' catalysis, related to modern energy challenges, films deposited on electrodes are often preferred to homogeneous catalysts. A particularly promising variety of such films, in terms of efficiency and selectivity, is offered by sprinkling catalytic nanoparticles onto a conductive network. Coupled with the catalytic reaction, the competitive occurrence of various modes of substrate diffusion-diffusion toward nanoparticles ('nanodiffusion') against film linear diffusion and solution linear diffusion-is analysed theoretically...
August 21, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805826/violation-of-ohm-s-law-in-a-weyl-metal
#16
Dongwoo Shin, Yongwoo Lee, M Sasaki, Yoon Hee Jeong, Franziska Weickert, Jon B Betts, Heon-Jung Kim, Ki-Seok Kim, Jeehoon Kim
Ohm's law is a fundamental paradigm in the electrical transport of metals. Any transport signatures violating Ohm's law would give an indisputable fingerprint for a novel metallic state. Here, we uncover the breakdown of Ohm's law owing to a topological structure of the chiral anomaly in the Weyl metal phase. We observe nonlinear I-V characteristics in Bi0.96Sb0.04 single crystals in the diffusive limit, which occurs only for a magnetic-field-aligned electric field (E∥B). The Boltzmann transport theory with the charge pumping effect reveals the topological-in-origin nonlinear conductivity, and it leads to a universal scaling function of the longitudinal magnetoconductivity, which completely describes our experimental results...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805824/flexible-shape-memory-scaffold-for-minimally-invasive-delivery-of-functional-tissues
#17
Miles Montgomery, Samad Ahadian, Locke Davenport Huyer, Mauro Lo Rito, Robert A Civitarese, Rachel D Vanderlaan, Jun Wu, Lewis A Reis, Abdul Momen, Saeed Akbari, Aric Pahnke, Ren-Ke Li, Christopher A Caldarone, Milica Radisic
Despite great progress in engineering functional tissues for organ repair, including the heart, an invasive surgical approach is still required for their implantation. Here, we designed an elastic and microfabricated scaffold using a biodegradable polymer (poly(octamethylene maleate (anhydride) citrate)) for functional tissue delivery via injection. The scaffold's shape memory was due to the microfabricated lattice design. Scaffolds and cardiac patches (1 cm × 1 cm) were delivered through an orifice as small as 1 mm, recovering their initial shape following injection without affecting cardiomyocyte viability and function...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805823/bronze-mean-hexagonal-quasicrystal
#18
Tomonari Dotera, Shinichi Bekku, Primož Ziherl
The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783161/phase-coexistence-and-electric-field-control-of-toroidal-order-in-oxide-superlattices
#19
A R Damodaran, J D Clarkson, Z Hong, H Liu, A K Yadav, C T Nelson, S-L Hsu, M R McCarter, K-D Park, V Kravtsov, A Farhan, Y Dong, Z Cai, H Zhou, P Aguado-Puente, P García-Fernández, J Íñiguez, J Junquera, A Scholl, M B Raschke, L-Q Chen, D D Fong, R Ramesh, L W Martin
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase...
August 7, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783160/measurement-of-the-spin-temperature-of-optically-cooled-nuclei-and-gaas-hyperfine-constants-in-gaas-algaas-quantum-dots
#20
E A Chekhovich, A Ulhaq, E Zallo, F Ding, O G Schmidt, M S Skolnick
Deep cooling of electron and nuclear spins is equivalent to achieving polarization degrees close to 100% and is a key requirement in solid-state quantum information technologies. While polarization of individual nuclear spins in diamond and SiC (ref. ) reaches 99% and beyond, it has been limited to 50-65% for the nuclei in quantum dots. Theoretical models have attributed this limit to formation of coherent 'dark' nuclear spin states but experimental verification is lacking, especially due to the poor accuracy of polarization degree measurements...
August 7, 2017: Nature Materials
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