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Nature Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115293/intracellular-production-of-hydrogels-and-synthetic%C3%A2-rna-granules-by-multivalent-molecular%C3%A2-interactions
#1
Hideki Nakamura, Albert A Lee, Ali Sobhi Afshar, Shigeki Watanabe, Elmer Rho, Shiva Razavi, Allister Suarez, Yu-Chun Lin, Makoto Tanigawa, Brian Huang, Robert DeRose, Diana Bobb, William Hong, Sandra B Gabelli, John Goutsias, Takanari Inoue
Some protein components of intracellular non-membrane-bound entities, such as RNA granules, are known to form hydrogels in vitro. The physico-chemical properties and functional role of these intracellular hydrogels are difficult to study, primarily due to technical challenges in probing these materials in situ. Here, we present iPOLYMER, a strategy for a rapid induction of protein-based hydrogels inside living cells that explores the chemically inducible dimerization paradigm. Biochemical and biophysical characterizations aided by computational modelling show that the polymer network formed in the cytosol resembles a physiological hydrogel-like entity that acts as a size-dependent molecular sieve...
November 6, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115292/fibronectin-bound-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrins-sense-load-and-signal-to-reinforce-adhesion-in-less-than-a-second
#2
Nico Strohmeyer, Mitasha Bharadwaj, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Daniel J Müller
Integrin-mediated mechanosensing of the extracellular environment allows cells to control adhesion and signalling. Whether cells sense and respond to force immediately upon ligand-binding is unknown. Here, we report that during adhesion initiation, fibroblasts respond to mechanical load by strengthening integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin (FN) in a biphasic manner. In the first phase, which depends on talin and kindlin as well as on the actin nucleators Arp2/3 and mDia, FN-engaged α5β1 integrins activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src in less than 0...
November 6, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115291/maintenance-of-neural-progenitor-cell-stemness-in-3d-hydrogels-requires-matrix-remodelling
#3
Christopher M Madl, Bauer L LeSavage, Ruby E Dewi, Cong B Dinh, Ryan S Stowers, Margarita Khariton, Kyle J Lampe, Duong Nguyen, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Annika Enejder, Sarah C Heilshorn
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) culture within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels is an attractive strategy for expanding a therapeutically relevant number of stem cells. However, relatively little is known about how 3D material properties such as stiffness and degradability affect the maintenance of NPC stemness in the absence of differentiation factors. Over a physiologically relevant range of stiffness from ∼0.5 to 50 kPa, stemness maintenance did not correlate with initial hydrogel stiffness. In contrast, hydrogel degradation was both correlated with, and necessary for, maintenance of NPC stemness...
October 30, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115290/additively-manufactured-hierarchical-stainless-steels-with-high-strength-and-ductility
#4
Y Morris Wang, Thomas Voisin, Joseph T McKeown, Jianchao Ye, Nicholas P Calta, Zan Li, Zhi Zeng, Yin Zhang, Wen Chen, Tien Tran Roehling, Ryan T Ott, Melissa K Santala, Philip J Depond, Manyalibo J Matthews, Alex V Hamza, Ting Zhu
Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude...
October 30, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058729/robust-resistive-memory-devices-using-solution-processable-metal-coordinated-azo%C3%A2-aromatics
#5
Sreetosh Goswami, Adam J Matula, Santi P Rath, Svante Hedström, Surajit Saha, Meenakshi Annamalai, Debabrata Sengupta, Abhijeet Patra, Siddhartha Ghosh, Hariom Jani, Soumya Sarkar, Mallikarjuna Rao Motapothula, Christian A Nijhuis, Jens Martin, Sreebrata Goswami, Victor S Batista, T Venkatesan
Non-volatile memories will play a decisive role in the next generation of digital technology. Flash memories are currently the key player in the field, yet they fail to meet the commercial demands of scalability and endurance. Resistive memory devices, and in particular memories based on low-cost, solution-processable and chemically tunable organic materials, are promising alternatives explored by the industry. However, to date, they have been lacking the performance and mechanistic understanding required for commercial translation...
October 23, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058728/non-volatile-memories-organic-memristors-come-of-age
#6
Ilia Valov, Michael Kozicki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058727/emergent-dynamic-chirality-in-a-thermally-driven-artificial-spin-ratchet
#7
Sebastian Gliga, Gino Hrkac, Claire Donnelly, Jonathan Büchi, Armin Kleibert, Jizhai Cui, Alan Farhan, Eugenie Kirk, Rajesh V Chopdekar, Yusuke Masaki, Nicholas S Bingham, Andreas Scholl, Robert L Stamps, Laura J Heyderman
Modern nanofabrication techniques have opened the possibility to create novel functional materials, whose properties transcend those of their constituent elements. In particular, tuning the magnetostatic interactions in geometrically frustrated arrangements of nanoelements called artificial spin ice can lead to specific collective behaviour, including emergent magnetic monopoles, charge screening and transport, as well as magnonic response. Here, we demonstrate a spin-ice-based active material in which energy is converted into unidirectional dynamics...
October 23, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058726/artificial-spin-ice-a-ratchet-made-of-tiny-magnets
#8
Steven T Bramwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035358/topological-defects-govern-crack-front-motion-and-facet-formation-on-broken-surfaces
#9
Itamar Kolvin, Gil Cohen, Jay Fineberg
Cracks develop intricate patterns on the surfaces that they create. As faceted fracture surfaces are commonly formed by slow tensile cracks in both crystalline and amorphous materials, facet formation and structure cannot reflect microscopic order. Although fracture mechanics predict that slow crack fronts should be straight and form mirror-like surfaces, facet-forming fronts propagate simultaneously within different planes separated by steps. Here we show that these steps are topological defects of crack fronts and that crack front separation into disconnected overlapping segments provides the condition for step stability...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035355/sequential-bottom-up-assembly-of-mechanically-stabilized-synthetic-cells-by-microfluidics
#10
Marian Weiss, Johannes Patrick Frohnmayer, Lucia Theresa Benk, Barbara Haller, Jan-Willi Janiesch, Thomas Heitkamp, Michael Börsch, Rafael B Lira, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Jean-Christophe Baret, Tanja Vidakovic-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P Spatz
Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed 'droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)'. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035357/continuous-wave-infrared-optical-gain-and-amplified-spontaneous-emission-at-ultralow-threshold-by-colloidal-hgte-quantum-dots
#11
Pieter Geiregat, Arjan J Houtepen, Laxmi Kishore Sagar, Ivan Infante, Felipe Zapata, Valeriia Grigel, Guy Allan, Christophe Delerue, Dries Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) raise more and more interest as solution-processable and tunable optical gain materials. However, especially for infrared active QDs, optical gain remains inefficient. Since stimulated emission involves multifold degenerate band-edge states, population inversion can be attained only at high pump power and must compete with efficient multi-exciton recombination. Here, we show that mercury telluride (HgTe) QDs exhibit size-tunable stimulated emission throughout the near-infrared telecom window at thresholds unmatched by any QD studied before...
October 9, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035356/circulating-tumour-dna-methylation-markers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Rui-Hua Xu, Wei Wei, Michal Krawczyk, Wenqiu Wang, Huiyan Luo, Ken Flagg, Shaohua Yi, William Shi, Qingli Quan, Kang Li, Lianghong Zheng, Heng Zhang, Bennett A Caughey, Qi Zhao, Jiayi Hou, Runze Zhang, Yanxin Xu, Huimin Cai, Gen Li, Rui Hou, Zheng Zhong, Danni Lin, Xin Fu, Jie Zhu, Yaou Duan, Meixing Yu, Binwu Ying, Wengeng Zhang, Juan Wang, Edward Zhang, Charlotte Zhang, Oulan Li, Rongping Guo, Hannah Carter, Jian-Kang Zhu, Xiaoke Hao, Kang Zhang
An effective blood-based method for the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been developed. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying cancer-specific genetic and epigenetic aberrations may enable a noninvasive 'liquid biopsy' for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Here, we identified an HCC-specific methylation marker panel by comparing HCC tissue and normal blood leukocytes and showed that methylation profiles of HCC tumour DNA and matched plasma ctDNA are highly correlated...
October 9, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035354/liquid-porous-materials-unveiling-liquid-mofs
#13
Satoshi Horike, Susumu Kitagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967916/organoid-cystogenesis-reveals-a-critical-role-of-microenvironment-in-human-polycystic-kidney%C3%A2-disease
#14
Nelly M Cruz, Xuewen Song, Stefan M Czerniecki, Ramila E Gulieva, Angela J Churchill, Yong Kyun Kim, Kosuke Winston, Linh M Tran, Marco A Diaz, Hongxia Fu, Laura S Finn, York Pei, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Benjamin S Freedman
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a life-threatening disorder, commonly caused by defects in polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2), in which tubular epithelia form fluid-filled cysts. A major barrier to understanding PKD is the absence of human cellular models that accurately and efficiently recapitulate cystogenesis. Previously, we have generated a genetic model of PKD using human pluripotent stem cells and derived kidney organoids. Here we show that systematic substitution of physical components can dramatically increase or decrease cyst formation, unveiling a critical role for microenvironment in PKD...
October 2, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967914/exciton-hall-effect-in-monolayer-mos2
#15
Masaru Onga, Yijin Zhang, Toshiya Ideue, Yoshihiro Iwasa
The spontaneous Hall effect driven by the quantum Berry phase (which serves as an internal magnetic flux in momentum space) manifests the topological nature of quasiparticles and can be used to control the information flow, such as spin and valley. We report a Hall effect of excitons (fundamental composite particles of electrons and holes that dominate optical responses in semiconductors). By polarization-resolved photoluminescence mapping, we directly observed the Hall effect of excitons in monolayer MoS2 and valley-selective spatial transport of excitons on a micrometre scale...
October 2, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967913/mechanical-confinement-regulates-cartilage-matrix-formation-by-chondrocytes
#16
Hong-Pyo Lee, Luo Gu, David J Mooney, Marc E Levenston, Ovijit Chaudhuri
Cartilage tissue equivalents formed from hydrogels containing chondrocytes could provide a solution for replacing damaged cartilage. Previous approaches have often utilized elastic hydrogels. However, elastic stresses may restrict cartilage matrix formation and alter the chondrocyte phenotype. Here we investigated the use of viscoelastic hydrogels, in which stresses are relaxed over time and which exhibit creep, for three-dimensional (3D) culture of chondrocytes. We found that faster relaxation promoted a striking increase in the volume of interconnected cartilage matrix formed by chondrocytes...
October 2, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967918/evidence-for-magnetic-weyl-fermions-in-a-correlated-metal
#17
K Kuroda, T Tomita, M-T Suzuki, C Bareille, A A Nugroho, P Goswami, M Ochi, M Ikhlas, M Nakayama, S Akebi, R Noguchi, R Ishii, N Inami, K Ono, H Kumigashira, A Varykhalov, T Muro, T Koretsune, R Arita, S Shin, Takeshi Kondo, S Nakatsuji
Weyl fermions have been observed as three-dimensional, gapless topological excitations in weakly correlated, inversion-symmetry-breaking semimetals. However, their realization in spontaneously time-reversal-symmetry-breaking phases of strongly correlated materials has so far remained hypothetical. Here, we report experimental evidence for magnetic Weyl fermions in Mn3Sn, a non-collinear antiferromagnet that exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect, even at room temperature. Detailed comparison between angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals significant bandwidth renormalization and damping effects due to the strong correlation among Mn 3d electrons...
September 25, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967917/fast-domain-wall-motion-in-the-vicinity-of-the-angular-momentum-compensation-temperature-of%C3%A2-ferrimagnets
#18
Kab-Jin Kim, Se Kwon Kim, Yuushou Hirata, Se-Hyeok Oh, Takayuki Tono, Duck-Ho Kim, Takaya Okuno, Woo Seung Ham, Sanghoon Kim, Gyoungchoon Go, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Arata Tsukamoto, Takahiro Moriyama, Kyung-Jin Lee, Teruo Ono
Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging research field which aims to utilize antiferromagnets as core elements in spintronic devices. A central motivation towards this direction is that antiferromagnetic spin dynamics is expected to be much faster than its ferromagnetic counterpart. Recent theories indeed predicted faster dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls (DWs) than ferromagnetic DWs. However, experimental investigations of antiferromagnetic spin dynamics have remained unexplored, mainly because of the magnetic field immunity of antiferromagnets...
September 25, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967915/realizing-the-classical-xy-hamiltonian-in-polariton%C3%A2-simulators
#19
Natalia G Berloff, Matteo Silva, Kirill Kalinin, Alexis Askitopoulos, Julian D Töpfer, Pasquale Cilibrizzi, Wolfgang Langbein, Pavlos G Lagoudakis
The vast majority of real-life optimization problems with a large number of degrees of freedom are intractable by classical computers, since their complexity grows exponentially fast with the number of variables. Many of these problems can be mapped into classical spin models, such as the Ising, the XY or the Heisenberg models, so that optimization problems are reduced to finding the global minimum of spin models. Here, we propose and investigate the potential of polariton graphs as an efficient analogue simulator for finding the global minimum of the XY model...
September 25, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920941/reversible-magnesium-and-aluminium-ions-insertion-in-cation-deficient-anatase-tio2
#20
Toshinari Koketsu, Jiwei Ma, Benjamin J Morgan, Monique Body, Christophe Legein, Walid Dachraoui, Mattia Giannini, Arnaud Demortière, Mathieu Salanne, François Dardoize, Henri Groult, Olaf J Borkiewicz, Karena W Chapman, Peter Strasser, Damien Dambournet
In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg(2+) and Al(3+) into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg(2+) and Al(3+) insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
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