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Nature Materials

Kathryn H Matlack, Marc Serra-Garcia, Antonio Palermo, Sebastian D Huber, Chiara Daraio
Identifying material geometries that lead to metamaterials with desired functionalities presents a challenge for the field. Discrete, or reduced-order, models provide a concise description of complex phenomena, such as negative refraction, or topological surface states; therefore, the combination of geometric building blocks to replicate discrete models presenting the desired features represents a promising approach. However, there is no reliable way to solve such an inverse problem. Here, we introduce 'perturbative metamaterials', a class of metamaterials consisting of weakly interacting unit cells...
January 15, 2018: Nature Materials
B Li, H Wang, Y Kawakita, Q Zhang, M Feygenson, H L Yu, D Wu, K Ohara, T Kikuchi, K Shibata, T Yamada, X K Ning, Y Chen, J Q He, D Vaknin, R Q Wu, K Nakajima, M G Kanatzidis
As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles 1 . A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2...
January 15, 2018: Nature Materials
Mikhail A Noginov, Jacob B Khurgin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Nature Materials
Yufei Xia, Jie Wu, Wei Wei, Yiqun Du, Tao Wan, Xiaowei Ma, Wenqi An, Aiying Guo, Chunyu Miao, Hua Yue, Shuoguo Li, Xuetao Cao, Zhiguo Su, Guanghui Ma
A major challenge in vaccine formulations is the stimulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response for well-defined antigens with high efficacy and safety. Adjuvant research has focused on developing particulate carriers to model the sizes, shapes and compositions of microbes or diseased cells, but not antigen fluidity and pliability. Here, we develop Pickering emulsions-that is, particle-stabilized emulsions that retain the force-dependent deformability and lateral mobility of presented antigens while displaying high biosafety and antigen-loading capabilities...
January 4, 2018: Nature Materials
Valeria Cagno, Patrizia Andreozzi, Marco D'Alicarnasso, Paulo Jacob Silva, Marie Mueller, Marie Galloux, Ronan Le Goffic, Samuel T Jones, Marta Vallino, Jan Hodek, Jan Weber, Soumyo Sen, Emma-Rose Janeček, Ahmet Bekdemir, Barbara Sanavio, Chiara Martinelli, Manuela Donalisio, Marie-Anne Rameix Welti, Jean-Francois Eleouet, Yanxiao Han, Laurent Kaiser, Lela Vukovic, Caroline Tapparel, Petr Král, Silke Krol, David Lembo, Francesco Stellacci
Viral infections kill millions yearly. Available antiviral drugs are virus-specific and active against a limited panel of human pathogens. There are broad-spectrum substances that prevent the first step of virus-cell interaction by mimicking heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the highly conserved target of viral attachment ligands (VALs). The reversible binding mechanism prevents their use as a drug, because, upon dilution, the inhibition is lost. Known VALs are made of closely packed repeating units, but the aforementioned substances are able to bind only a few of them...
December 18, 2017: Nature Materials
P Jeżowski, O Crosnier, E Deunf, P Poizot, F Béguin, T Brousse
Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) shrewdly combine a lithium-ion battery negative electrode capable of reversibly intercalating lithium cations, namely graphite, together with an electrical double-layer positive electrode, namely activated carbon. However, the beauty of this concept is marred by the lack of a lithium-cation source in the device, thus requiring a specific preliminary charging step. The strategies devised thus far in an attempt to rectify this issue all present drawbacks. Our research uncovers a unique approach based on the use of a lithiated organic material, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile dilithium salt...
December 11, 2017: Nature Materials
Tian Tian, Zhixin Zeng, Diana Vulpe, Mirian E Casco, Giorgio Divitini, Paul A Midgley, Joaquin Silvestre-Albero, Jin-Chong Tan, Peyman Z Moghadam, David Fairen-Jimenez
A critical bottleneck for the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel has been the development of materials capable of storing it in a sufficiently compact form at ambient temperature. Here we report the synthesis of a porous monolithic metal-organic framework (MOF), which after successful packing and densification reaches 259 cm3 (STP) cm-3 capacity. This is the highest value reported to date for conformed shape porous solids, and represents a greater than 50% improvement over any previously reported experimental value...
December 11, 2017: Nature Materials
T Q P Vuong, S Liu, A Van der Lee, R Cuscó, L Artús, T Michel, P Valvin, J H Edgar, G Cassabois, B Gil
Hexagonal boron nitride is a model lamellar compound where weak, non-local van der Waals interactions ensure the vertical stacking of two-dimensional honeycomb lattices made of strongly bound boron and nitrogen atoms. We study the isotope engineering of lamellar compounds by synthesizing hexagonal boron nitride crystals with nearly pure boron isotopes (10B and 11B) compared to those with the natural distribution of boron (20 at% 10B and 80 at% 11B). On the one hand, as with standard semiconductors, both the phonon energy and electronic bandgap varied with the boron isotope mass, the latter due to the quantum effect of zero-point renormalization...
December 11, 2017: Nature Materials
Alexander J Giles, Siyuan Dai, Igor Vurgaftman, Timothy Hoffman, Song Liu, Lucas Lindsay, Chase T Ellis, Nathanael Assefa, Ioannis Chatzakis, Thomas L Reinecke, Joseph G Tischler, Michael M Fogler, J H Edgar, D N Basov, Joshua D Caldwell
Conventional optical components are limited to size scales much larger than the wavelength of light, as changes to the amplitude, phase and polarization of the electromagnetic fields are accrued gradually along an optical path. However, advances in nanophotonics have produced ultrathin, so-called 'flat' optical components that beget abrupt changes in these properties over distances significantly shorter than the free-space wavelength. Although high optical losses still plague many approaches, phonon polariton (PhP) materials have demonstrated long lifetimes for sub-diffractional modes in comparison to plasmon-polariton-based nanophotonics...
December 11, 2017: Nature Materials
Sarah Guerin, Aimee Stapleton, Drahomir Chovan, Rabah Mouras, Matthew Gleeson, Cian McKeown, Mohamed Radzi Noor, Christophe Silien, Fernando M F Rhen, Andrei L Kholkin, Ning Liu, Tewfik Soulimane, Syed A M Tofail, Damien Thompson
Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V-1, limiting technological applications...
December 4, 2017: Nature Materials
Davide Caputo, Dario Ballarini, Galbadrakh Dagvadorj, Carlos Sánchez Muñoz, Milena De Giorgi, Lorenzo Dominici, Kenneth West, Loren N Pfeiffer, Giuseppe Gigli, Fabrice P Laussy, Marzena H Szymańska, Daniele Sanvitto
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a disordered to a quasi-ordered state, mediated by the proliferation of topological defects in two dimensions, governs seemingly remote physical systems ranging from liquid helium, ultracold atoms and superconducting thin films to ensembles of spins. Here we observe such a transition in a short-lived gas of exciton-polaritons, bosonic light-matter particles in semiconductor microcavities. The observed quasi-ordered phase, characteristic for an equilibrium two-dimensional bosonic gas, with a decay of coherence in both spatial and temporal domains with the same algebraic exponent, is reproduced with numerical solutions of stochastic dynamics, proving that the mechanism of pairing of the topological defects (vortices) is responsible for the transition to the algebraic order...
December 4, 2017: Nature Materials
Yimo Han, Ming-Yang Li, Gang-Seob Jung, Mark A Marsalis, Zhao Qin, Markus J Buehler, Lain-Jong Li, David A Muller
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling. Thus far, atomically thin p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor contacts, and metal-insulator barriers have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach...
December 4, 2017: Nature Materials
Da Wang, Xiangwen Gao, Yuhui Chen, Liyu Jin, Christian Kuss, Peter G Bruce
There is considerable interest in multivalent cation batteries, such as those based on magnesium, calcium or aluminium. Most attention has focused on magnesium. In all cases the metal anode represents a significant challenge. Recent work has shown that calcium can be plated and stripped, but only at elevated temperatures, 75 to 100 °C, with small capacities, typically 0.165 mAh cm-2, and accompanied by significant side reactions. Here we demonstrate that calcium can be plated and stripped at room temperature with capacities of 1 mAh cm-2 at a rate of 1 mA cm-2, with low polarization (∼100 mV) and in excess of 50 cycles...
November 27, 2017: Nature Materials
M S Bahramy, O J Clark, B-J Yang, J Feng, L Bawden, J M Riley, I Marković, F Mazzola, V Sunko, D Biswas, S P Cooil, M Jorge, J W Wells, M Leandersson, T Balasubramanian, J Fujii, I Vobornik, J E Rault, T K Kim, M Hoesch, K Okawa, M Asakawa, T Sasagawa, T Eknapakul, W Meevasana, P D C King
Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are renowned for their rich and varied bulk properties, while their single-layer variants have become one of the most prominent examples of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Their disparate ground states largely depend on transition metal d-electron-derived electronic states, on which the vast majority of attention has been concentrated to date. Here, we focus on the chalcogen-derived states. From density-functional theory calculations together with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, we find that these generically host a co-existence of type-I and type-II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances...
November 27, 2017: Nature Materials
Ye Yuan, Angel Martinez, Bohdan Senyuk, Mykola Tasinkevych, Ivan I Smalyukh
Colloidal particles disturb the alignment of rod-like molecules of liquid crystals, giving rise to long-range interactions that minimize the free energy of distorted regions. Particle shape and topology are known to guide this self-assembly process. However, how chirality of colloidal inclusions affects these long-range interactions is unclear. Here we study the effects of distortions caused by chiral springs and helices on the colloidal self-organization in a nematic liquid crystal using laser tweezers, particle tracking and optical imaging...
November 27, 2017: Nature Materials
Lianfeng Zou, Chaoming Yang, Yinkai Lei, Dmitri Zakharov, Jörg M K Wiezorek, Dong Su, Qiyue Yin, Jonathan Li, Zhenyu Liu, Eric A Stach, Judith C Yang, Liang Qi, Guofeng Wang, Guangwen Zhou
Surface segregation-the enrichment of one element at the surface, relative to the bulk-is ubiquitous to multi-component materials. Using the example of a Cu-Au solid solution, we demonstrate that compositional variations induced by surface segregation are accompanied by misfit strain and the formation of dislocations in the subsurface region via a surface diffusion and trapping process. The resulting chemically ordered surface regions acts as an effective barrier that inhibits subsequent dislocation annihilation at free surfaces...
November 27, 2017: Nature Materials
Ifor Samuel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Nature Materials
Jun Jiang, Zi Long Bai, Zhi Hui Chen, Long He, David Wei Zhang, Qing Hua Zhang, Jin An Shi, Min Hyuk Park, James F Scott, Cheol Seong Hwang, An Quan Jiang
Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures...
November 20, 2017: Nature Materials
A Migliorini, B Kuerbanjiang, T Huminiuc, D Kepaptsoglou, M Muñoz, J L F Cuñado, J Camarero, C Aroca, G Vallejo-Fernández, V K Lazarov, J L Prieto
Most of the magnetic devices in advanced electronics rely on the exchange bias effect, a magnetic interaction that couples a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic material, resulting in a unidirectional displacement of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop by an amount called the 'exchange bias field'. Setting and optimizing exchange bias involves cooling through the Néel temperature of the antiferromagnetic material in the presence of a magnetic field. Here we demonstrate an alternative process for the generation of exchange bias...
November 20, 2017: Nature Materials
Jaehoon Lim, Young-Shin Park, Victor I Klimov
Chemically synthesized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can potentially enable solution-processable laser diodes with a wide range of operational wavelengths, yet demonstrations of lasing from the QDs are still at the laboratory stage. An important challenge-realization of lasing with electrical injection-remains unresolved, largely due to fast nonradiative Auger recombination of multicarrier states that represent gain-active species in the QDs. Here we present population inversion and optical gain in colloidal nanocrystals realized with direct-current electrical pumping...
November 20, 2017: Nature Materials
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