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Nature Materials

David R Myers, Yongzhi Qiu, Meredith E Fay, Michael Tennenbaum, Daniel Chester, Jonas Cuadrado, Yumiko Sakurai, Jong Baek, Reginald Tran, Jordan C Ciciliano, Byungwook Ahn, Robert G Mannino, Silvia T Bunting, Carolyn Bennett, Michael Briones, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Michael L Smith, Ashley C Brown, Todd Sulchek, Wilbur A Lam
Haemostasis occurs at sites of vascular injury, where flowing blood forms a clot, a dynamic and heterogeneous fibrin-based biomaterial. Paramount in the clot's capability to stem haemorrhage are its changing mechanical properties, the major drivers of which are the contractile forces exerted by platelets against the fibrin scaffold. However, how platelets transduce microenvironmental cues to mediate contraction and alter clot mechanics is unknown. This is clinically relevant, as overly softened and stiffened clots are associated with bleeding and thrombotic disorders...
October 10, 2016: Nature Materials
Yuka Kobayashi, Takeshi Terauchi, Satoshi Sumi, Yoshitaka Matsushita
Metallic conduction generally requires high carrier concentration and wide bandwidth derived from strong orbital interaction between atoms or molecules. These requisites are especially important in organic compounds because a molecule is fundamentally an insulator; only multi-component salts with strong intermolecular interaction-namely, only charge transfer complexes and conducting polymers-have demonstrated intrinsic metallic behaviour. Herein we report a single-component electroactive molecule, zwitterionic tetrathiafulvalene(TTF)-extended dicarboxylate radical (TED), exhibiting metallic conduction even at low temperatures...
October 10, 2016: Nature Materials
Dennis Sheberla, John C Bachman, Joseph S Elias, Cheng-Jun Sun, Yang Shao-Horn, Mircea Dincă
Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs...
October 10, 2016: Nature Materials
Allegra A Latimer, Ambarish R Kulkarni, Hassan Aljama, Joseph H Montoya, Jong Suk Yoo, Charlie Tsai, Frank Abild-Pedersen, Felix Studt, Jens K Nørskov
While the search for catalysts capable of directly converting methane to higher value commodity chemicals and liquid fuels has been active for over a century, a viable industrial process for selective methane activation has yet to be developed. Electronic structure calculations are playing an increasingly relevant role in this search, but large-scale materials screening efforts are hindered by computationally expensive transition state barrier calculations. The purpose of the present letter is twofold. First, we show that, for the wide range of catalysts that proceed via a radical intermediate, a unifying framework for predicting C-H activation barriers using a single universal descriptor can be established...
October 10, 2016: Nature Materials
Eline M Hutter, María C Gélvez-Rueda, Anna Osherov, Vladimir Bulović, Ferdinand C Grozema, Samuel D Stranks, Tom J Savenije
Metal halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are generating great excitement due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties, which lend them to application in high-efficiency solar cells and light-emission devices. However, there is currently debate over what drives the second-order electron-hole recombination in these materials. Here, we propose that the bandgap in CH3NH3PbI3 has a direct-indirect character. Time-resolved photo-conductance measurements show that generation of free mobile charges is maximized for excitation energies just above the indirect bandgap...
October 3, 2016: Nature Materials
Mikyung Shin, Sung-Gurl Park, Byung-Chang Oh, Keumyeon Kim, Seongyeon Jo, Moon Sue Lee, Seok Song Oh, Seon-Hui Hong, Eui-Cheol Shin, Ki-Suk Kim, Sun-Woong Kang, Haeshin Lee
Bleeding is largely unavoidable following syringe needle puncture of biological tissues and, while inconvenient, this typically causes little or no harm in healthy individuals. However, there are certain circumstances where syringe injections can have more significant side effects, such as uncontrolled bleeding in those with haemophilia, coagulopathy, or the transmission of infectious diseases through contaminated blood. Herein, we present a haemostatic hypodermic needle able to prevent bleeding following tissue puncture...
October 3, 2016: Nature Materials
Binghong Han, Kelsey A Stoerzinger, Vasiliki Tileli, Andrew D Gamalski, Eric A Stach, Yang Shao-Horn
Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. Here, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF...
October 3, 2016: Nature Materials
Xingchen Ye, Jun Chen, M Eric Irrgang, Michael Engel, Angang Dong, Sharon C Glotzer, Christopher B Murray
Expanding the library of self-assembled superstructures provides insight into the behaviour of atomic crystals and supports the development of materials with mesoscale order. Here we build on recent findings of soft matter quasicrystals and report a quasicrystalline binary nanocrystal superlattice that exhibits correlations in the form of partial matching rules reducing tiling disorder. We determine a three-dimensional structure model through electron tomography and direct imaging of surface topography. The 12-fold rotational symmetry of the quasicrystal is broken in sublayers, forming a random tiling of rectangles, large triangles and small triangles with 6-fold symmetry...
September 26, 2016: Nature Materials
Zhongrui Wang, Saumil Joshi, Sergey E Savel'ev, Hao Jiang, Rivu Midya, Peng Lin, Miao Hu, Ning Ge, John Paul Strachan, Zhiyong Li, Qing Wu, Mark Barnell, Geng-Lin Li, Huolin L Xin, R Stanley Williams, Qiangfei Xia, J Joshua Yang
The accumulation and extrusion of Ca(2+) in the pre- and postsynaptic compartments play a critical role in initiating plastic changes in biological synapses. To emulate this fundamental process in electronic devices, we developed diffusive Ag-in-oxide memristors with a temporal response during and after stimulation similar to that of the synaptic Ca(2+) dynamics. In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle dynamics simulations both demonstrate that Ag atoms disperse under electrical bias and regroup spontaneously under zero bias because of interfacial energy minimization, closely resembling synaptic influx and extrusion of Ca(2+), respectively...
September 26, 2016: Nature Materials
Lichen Liu, Urbano Díaz, Raul Arenal, Giovanni Agostini, Patricia Concepción, Avelino Corma
Single metal atoms and metal clusters have attracted much attention thanks to their advantageous capabilities as heterogeneous catalysts. However, the generation of stable single atoms and clusters on a solid support is still challenging. Herein, we report a new strategy for the generation of single Pt atoms and Pt clusters with exceptionally high thermal stability, formed within purely siliceous MCM-22 during the growth of a two-dimensional zeolite into three dimensions. These subnanometric Pt species are stabilized by MCM-22, even after treatment in air up to 540 °C...
September 26, 2016: Nature Materials
J O Tenorio-Pearl, E D Herbschleb, S Fleming, C Creatore, S Oda, W I Milne, A W Chin
Electronic defect states at material interfaces provide highly deleterious sources of noise in solid-state nanostructures, and even a single trapped charge can qualitatively alter the properties of short one-dimensional nanowire field-effect transistors (FET) and quantum bit (qubit) devices. Understanding the dynamics of trapped charge is thus essential for future nanotechnologies, but their direct detection and manipulation is rather challenging. Here, a transistor-based set-up is used to create and probe individual electronic defect states that can be coherently driven with microwave (MW) pulses...
September 19, 2016: Nature Materials
Mark B Lundeberg, Yuanda Gao, Achim Woessner, Cheng Tan, Pablo Alonso-González, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, James Hone, Rainer Hillenbrand, Frank H L Koppens
Controlling, detecting and generating propagating plasmons by all-electrical means is at the heart of on-chip nano-optical processing. Graphene carries long-lived plasmons that are extremely confined and controllable by electrostatic fields; however, electrical detection of propagating plasmons in graphene has not yet been realized. Here, we present an all-graphene mid-infrared plasmon detector operating at room temperature, where a single graphene sheet serves simultaneously as the plasmonic medium and detector...
September 19, 2016: Nature Materials
Yi Zhu, Avradeep Pal, Mark G Blamire, Zoe H Barber
Recent discoveries from superconductor (S)/ferromagnet (FM) heterostructures include π-junctions, triplet pairing, critical temperature (Tc) control in FM/S/FM superconducting spin valves (SSVs) and critical current control in S/FM/N/FM/S spin valve Josephson junctions (N: normal metal). In all cases, the magnetic state of the device, generally set by the applied field, controls the superconducting response. We report here the observation of the converse effect, that is, direct superconducting control of the magnetic state in GdN/Nb/GdN SSVs...
September 19, 2016: Nature Materials
K Karube, J S White, N Reynolds, J L Gavilano, H Oike, A Kikkawa, F Kagawa, Y Tokunaga, H M Rønnow, Y Tokura, Y Taguchi
Skyrmions, topologically protected nanometric spin vortices, are being investigated extensively in various magnets. Among them, many structurally chiral cubic magnets host the triangular-lattice skyrmion crystal (SkX) as the thermodynamic equilibrium state. However, this state exists only in a narrow temperature and magnetic-field region just below the magnetic transition temperature Tc, while a helical or conical magnetic state prevails at lower temperatures. Here we describe that for a room-temperature skyrmion material, β-Mn-type Co 8Zn 8Mn 4, a field-cooling via the equilibrium SkX state can suppress the transition to the helical or conical state, instead realizing robust metastable SkX states that survive over a very wide temperature and magnetic-field region...
September 19, 2016: Nature Materials
Di Lu, David J Baek, Seung Sae Hong, Lena F Kourkoutis, Yasuyuki Hikita, Harold Y Hwang
The ability to create and manipulate materials in two-dimensional (2D) form has repeatedly had transformative impact on science and technology. In parallel with the exfoliation and stacking of intrinsically layered crystals, atomic-scale thin film growth of complex materials has enabled the creation of artificial 2D heterostructures with novel functionality and emergent phenomena, as seen in perovskite heterostructures. However, separation of these layers from the growth substrate has proved challenging, limiting the manipulation capabilities of these heterostructures with respect to exfoliated materials...
September 12, 2016: Nature Materials
Jae Jung Kim, Ki Wan Bong, Eduardo Reátegui, Daniel Irimia, Patrick S Doyle
Large-scale microparticle arrays (LSMAs) are key for material science and bioengineering applications. However, previous approaches suffer from trade-offs between scalability, precision, specificity and versatility. Here, we present a porous microwell-based approach to create large-scale microparticle arrays with complex motifs. Microparticles are guided to and pushed into microwells by fluid flow through small open pores at the bottom of the porous well arrays. A scaling theory allows for the rational design of LSMAs to sort and array particles on the basis of their size, shape, or modulus...
September 5, 2016: Nature Materials
Wee-Liat Ong, Evan S O'Brien, Patrick S M Dougherty, Daniel W Paley, C Fred Higgs Iii, Alan J H McGaughey, Jonathan A Malen, Xavier Roy
In the search for rationally assembled functional materials, superatomic crystals (SACs) have recently emerged as a unique class of compounds that combine programmable nanoscale building blocks and atomic precision. As such, they bridge traditional semiconductors, molecular solids, and nanocrystal arrays by combining their most attractive features. Here, we report the first study of thermal transport in SACs, a critical step towards their deployment as electronic, thermoelectric, and phononic materials. Using frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), we measure thermal conductivity in two series of SACs: the unary compounds Co6E8(PEt3)6 (E = S, Se, Te) and the binary compounds [Co6E8(PEt3)6][C60]2...
September 5, 2016: Nature Materials
Jaco J Geuchies, Carlo van Overbeek, Wiel H Evers, Bart Goris, Annick de Backer, Anjan P Gantapara, Freddy T Rabouw, Jan Hilhorst, Joep L Peters, Oleg Konovalov, Andrei V Petukhov, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laurens D A Siebbeles, Sandra van Aert, Sara Bals, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh
Oriented attachment of PbSe nanocubes can result in the formation of two-dimensional (2D) superstructures with long-range nanoscale and atomic order. This questions the applicability of classic models in which the superlattice grows by first forming a nucleus, followed by sequential irreversible attachment of nanocrystals, as one misaligned attachment would disrupt the 2D order beyond repair. Here, we demonstrate the formation mechanism of 2D PbSe superstructures with square geometry by using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (small angle and wide angle), ex situ electron microscopy, and Monte Carlo simulations...
September 5, 2016: Nature Materials
Si-Yuan Yu, Xiao-Chen Sun, Xu Ni, Qing Wang, Xue-Jun Yan, Cheng He, Xiao-Ping Liu, Liang Feng, Ming-Hui Lu, Yan-Feng Chen
Strategic manipulation of wave and particle transport in various media is the key driving force for modern information processing and communication. In a strongly scattering medium, waves and particles exhibit versatile transport characteristics such as localization, tunnelling with exponential decay, ballistic, and diffusion behaviours due to dynamical multiple scattering from strong scatters or impurities. Recent investigations of graphene have offered a unique approach, from a quantum point of view, to design the dispersion of electrons on demand, enabling relativistic massless Dirac quasiparticles, and thus inducing low-loss transport either ballistically or diffusively...
September 5, 2016: Nature Materials
Nikhil A Koratkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2016: Nature Materials
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