Read by QxMD icon Read

Learning & Behavior

Michael F Brown, Marie E Saxon, Kelsey A Heslin
Rats searched for food in a situation that allowed them to determine which locations contained food after searching a small number of them, but not which of the baited locations contained more-preferred food rather than a less-preferred food. During some experimental trials, the latter information was available from the choices of model rats making choices together with the subject rats, because some of the model rats tended to choose the locations baited with more-preferred food. On the surface, the results suggest that social influence specified the locations of more-preferred food to the subject rats...
March 21, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Onur Güntürkün, Charlotte Koenen, Fabrizio Iovine, Alexis Garland, Roland Pusch
We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category "human" in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization...
March 12, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Cameron M Bye, Nancy S Hong, Kevin Moore, Scott H Deibel, Robert J McDonald
The Morris water maze is a popular task for examining spatial navigation and memory in rats. Historically, emphasis has been put on extramaze cues as the primary environmental feature guiding navigation and spatial memory formation. However, other features of the environment may also be involved. In this experiment, we trained rats on the spatial version of the Morris water maze over four days. A probe test was given 24 h after training, in which the shape of the pool either remained the same as during training or was changed to a different shape...
March 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
S L Wright, G M Martin, C M Thorpe, K Haley, D M Skinner
Across three experiments, we examined the cuing properties of metric (distance and direction) and nonmetric (lighting) cues in different tasks. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a response problem in a T-maze, followed by four reversals. Rats that experienced a change in maze orientation (Direction group) or a change in the length of the start arm (Distance group) across reversals showed facilitation of reversal learning relative to a group that experienced changes in room lighting across reversals. In Experiment 2, rats learned a discrimination task more readily when distance or direction cues were used than when light cues were used as the discriminative stimuli...
March 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Anthony A Wright, Debbie M Kelly, Jeffrey S Katz
This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets...
February 28, 2018: Learning & Behavior
David J Pritchard, Susan D Healy
Navigation is an essential skill for many animals, and understanding how animal use environmental information, particularly visual information, to navigate has a long history in both ethology and psychology. In birds, the dominant approach for investigating navigation at small-scales comes from comparative psychology, which emphasizes the cognitive representations underpinning spatial memory. The majority of this work is based in the laboratory and it is unclear whether this context itself affects the information that birds learn and use when they search for a location...
February 26, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Metin Uengoer, Sara Lucke, Harald Lachnit
According to the attentional theory of context processing (ATCP), learning becomes context specific when acquired under conditions that promote attention toward contextual stimuli regardless of whether attention deployment is guided by learning experience or by other factors unrelated to learning. In one experiment with humans, we investigated whether performance in a predictive learning task can be brought under contextual control by means of a secondary task that was unrelated to predictive learning, but supposed to modulate participants' attention toward contexts...
February 20, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Irene M Pepperberg
Nonhuman tool use is no longer questioned; the issues now are whether such use is mostly inflexible and innately specified or involves experience, innovation, adaptation, and cognitive planning, and how many species qualify. Habl and Auersperg (PLoS One, 12(11):e0186859, 2017) have shown that some Goffin's cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana) respond in novel ways to a tool-use task that nonhuman primates and young children find somewhat challenging.
February 15, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Floris E Linnebank, Merel Kindt, Sanne de Wit
Do people differ in their propensity to form habits? The current study related individual differences in habitual performance on the slips-of-action task to habit formation in real life. To this end, we developed a novel key-cover procedure that controls for the amount of repetition and motivation within a naturalistic setting. Participants received a key cover for the key to their home, which after several weeks was switched with a key cover that was previously attached to a dummy key. Participants recorded effort, time, attention, and mistakes in the key-selection process...
February 9, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Patrick Anselme
Terrestrial isopods (or woodlice), like the members of the other arthropod taxa, have a sophisticated nervous system that makes them sensitive to specific environmental factors. They can search for survival-related opportunities (e.g., approaching food sources or avoiding sunny areas). Two experiments examined how rotational stress could influence the propensity of common woodlice, Porcellio scaber to exhibit survival-related behaviors such as traveling and rearing up in a hostile environment. Experiment 1 assessed the behaviors of stressed and nonstressed woodlice exposed to a familiar or a novel environment without rewards...
February 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Dominic M Dwyer
Powers et al. (2017, Science, 357(6351), 596-600) report that Pavlovian conditioning can result in the perception of a stimulus in its absence, and that this effect is related to hallucinations outside the laboratory. Considered alongside similar studies in animals, this suggests that associatively produced perceptual processing offers a means to study hallucination-like behaviour in the animal laboratory.
February 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Fiona R Cross, Robert R Jackson
Some jumping spiders (family Salticidae) bear a striking resemblance to ants, a dangerous type of prey, both in terms of their appearance and in terms of how they move. Recent research has taken important steps toward determining whether predators categorize these spiders as ants on the basis of the way they move.
January 25, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Jennifer Vonk
Elbroch, Levy, Lubell, Quigley, and Caragiulo (2017, Science Advances, 3, e170218) used GPS and motion-activated camera technology to track and rate the interactions between solitary wild pumas. They found that tolerance at feeding sites was not predicted by kinship but, rather, indicated the ability to engage in direct reciprocity, challenging previous assumptions about social cognition in solitary species.
January 23, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Lucia Lazarowski, Jeffrey S Katz
Bray et al. (2017, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(32), 9128-9133) recently showed that maternal interactions between service dog mothers and their puppies were predictive of puppies' future success as a candidate service dog. These findings prompt questions into the role of genetics and early experiences and may provide useful selection tools for working dog breeding programs.
January 10, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Gonzalo Miguez, Bridget McConnell, Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
This report is part of a larger project examining associative interference as a function of the nature of the interfering and target associations. Lick suppression experiments with rats assessed the effects of context shifts on proactive outcome interference by latent inhibition (LI) and Pavlovian conditioned inhibition (CI) treatments on subsequently trained Pavlovian conditioned excitation treatment. LI and CI were trained in Context A during Phase 1, and then excitation treatment was administered in Context B during Phase 2, followed by tests for conditioned excitation in Contexts A, B, or C...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Kristin French, Michael J Beran, Kimberly Andrews Espy, David A Washburn
Executive functions (EF) have been studied extensively in children and adults. However, EF tasks for young children can be difficult to administer and interpret. Espy (1997, Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 495-499) designed the Shape School task to measure inhibition and switching in preschool-aged children. Shape School presents cartoon-like characters that children must flexibly name by their color, their shape, or both, depending on cues that indicate the appropriate rule. Shape School has been found to be age sensitive as well as predictive of performance on other EF tasks...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer
Three experiments with rats investigated whether adding or removing elements of a context affects generalization of instrumental behavior. Each of the experiments used a free operant procedure. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats were trained to press a lever for food in a distinctive context. Then, transfer of lever pressing was tested in a context created either by adding an element to the context of initial acquisition or by removing one of the acquisition context's elements. In Experiment 3, a similar generalization test was conducted after rats received acquisition and extinction within the same context...
January 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Devina Wadhera, Lynn M Wilkie, Elizabeth D Capaldi-Phillips
Visual cues have an important role in food preference for both rats and humans. Here, we aim to isolate the effects of numerosity, density, and surface area on food preference and running speed in rats, by using a forced-choice maze paradigm. In Experiment 1, rats preferred and ran faster for a group of multiple smaller pellets rather than a single large pellet, corroborating previous research (Capaldi, Miller, & Alptekin Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 15(1), 75-80, 1989). Further experiments tested the prevailing hypothesis that multiple food pieces are more reinforcing because they occupy a larger surface area...
December 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
Sydney Trask, Mark E Bouton
Recent evidence from this laboratory suggests that a context switch after operant learning consistently results in a decrement in responding. One way to reduce this decrement is to train the response in multiple contexts. One interpretation of this result, rooted in stimulus sampling theory, is that conditioning of a greater number of common stimulus elements arising from more contexts causes better generalization to new contexts. An alternative explanation is that each change of context causes more effortful retrieval, and practice involving effortful retrieval results in learning that is better able to transfer to new situations...
December 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
Artin Göncü, Jennifer A Vadeboncoeur
This article proposes expanding four existing criteria for imaginative play in view of recent advances in sociocultural perspectives on the study of human development. Imaginative play is commonly defined as intrinsically motivated, open ended, pleasure seeking, and an escape from reality. Grounded in sociocultural research, and, as such, in the relation between individual and social and cultural environment, we argue that these four criteria should shift from assumptions to research questions: What are the motives for imaginative play? What are the goals for imaginative play? What affective dimensions emerge in imaginative play? What, how, and why do features of reality and imagination emerge through play? Expanding definitional criteria in this fashion enables researchers to remain open to variations in an individual's experience over time, across participants, and cultural variations rather than imposing dominant cultural assumptions as explanatory heuristics...
December 2017: Learning & Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"