journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Learning & Behavior

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940120/retention-period-differentially-attenuates-win-shift-lose-stay-relative-to-win-stay-lose-shift-performance-in-the-rat
#1
Phil Reed
Hungry rats were trained in a two-lever conditioning chamber to earn food reinforcement according to either a win-shift/lose-stay or a win-stay/lose-shift contingency. Performance on the two contingencies was similar when there was little delay between the initial, information part of the trial (i.e., win or lose) and the choice portion of the trial (i.e., stay or shift with respect to the lever presented in the information stage). However, when a delay between the information and choice portions of the trial was introduced, subjects experiencing the win-shift/lose-stay contingency performed worse than subjects experiencing the alternative contingency...
September 22, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840526/impact-of-stimulus-format-and-reward-value-on-quantity-discrimination-in-capuchin-and-squirrel-monkeys
#2
Regina Paxton Gazes, Alison R Billas, Vanessa Schmitt
Quantity discrimination abilities are seen in a diverse range of species with similarities in performance patterns, suggesting common underlying cognitive mechanisms. However, methodological factors that impact performance make it difficult to draw broad phylogenetic comparisons of numerical cognition across studies. For example, some Old World monkeys selected a higher quantity stimulus more frequently when choosing between inedible (pebbles) than edible (food) stimuli. In Experiment 1 we presented brown capuchin (Cebus [Sapajus] paella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with the same two-choice quantity discrimination task in three different stimulus conditions: edible, inedible, and edible replaced (in which choice stimuli were food items that stood in for the same quantity of food items that were given as a reward)...
August 24, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#3
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779390/apes-track-false-beliefs-but-might-not-understand-them
#4
Kristin Andrews
Apes can correctly determine how to help a person with a false belief. But they may not need a concept of belief to do so.
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779389/the-processing-of-positional-information-in-a-two-item-sequence-limits-the-emergence-of-symmetry-in-baboons-papio-papio-but-not-in-humans-homo-sapiens
#5
Joël Fagot, Raphaelle Malassis, Tiphaine Medam
When trained to associate Stimulus A to Stimulus B, humans can derive the untrained symmetrical B to A relation while nonhuman animals have much more difficulties. Urcuioli (2008, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90, 257--282; 2015, Conductal, 3, 4--25) proposed that the apparent difficulty of animals in symmetry testing reflects their double encoding of the information on the stimuli (identity and relation) and their positional (i.e., spatial and temporal/ordinal) characteristics. This comparative study tested the emergence of symmetry in humans and baboons in a task in which the position of the stimuli was manipulated independently of their relation...
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779388/expanding-the-definitional-criteria-for-imaginative-play-contributions-of-sociocultural-perspectives
#6
Artin Göncü, Jennifer A Vadeboncoeur
This article proposes expanding four existing criteria for imaginative play in view of recent advances in sociocultural perspectives on the study of human development. Imaginative play is commonly defined as intrinsically motivated, open ended, pleasure seeking, and an escape from reality. Grounded in sociocultural research, and, as such, in the relation between individual and social and cultural environment, we argue that these four criteria should shift from assumptions to research questions: What are the motives for imaginative play? What are the goals for imaginative play? What affective dimensions emerge in imaginative play? What, how, and why do features of reality and imagination emerge through play? Expanding definitional criteria in this fashion enables researchers to remain open to variations in an individual's experience over time, across participants, and cultural variations rather than imposing dominant cultural assumptions as explanatory heuristics...
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779387/editorial
#7
Alex de Voogt, Lance Miller
ᅟ.
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779386/social-play-as-joint-action-a-framework-to-study-the-evolution-of-shared-intentionality-as-an-interactional-achievement
#8
Raphaela Heesen, Emilie Genty, Federico Rossano, Klaus Zuberbühler, Adrian Bangerter
Social play has a complex, cooperative nature that requires substantial coordination. This has led researchers to use social games to study cognitive abilities like shared intentionality, the skill and motivation to share goals and intentions with others during joint action. We expand this proposal by considering play as a joint action and examining how shared intentionality is achieved during human joint action. We describe how humans get into, conduct, and get out of joint actions together in an orderly way, thereby constructing the state of "togetherness" characteristic of shared intentionality...
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779385/learning-to-play-a-review-and-theoretical-investigation-of-the-developmental-mechanisms-and-functions-of-cetacean-play
#9
Heather M Hill, Sarah Dietrich, Briana Cappiello
Play is a behavioral phenomenon most commonly observed in the young of both solitary and social species. Documentation of play in cetaceans varies across species and settings. Cetacean play behavioral repertoires include a broad range of actions, such as the manipulation of diverse objects, blowing bubbles, chasing conspecifics, and swimming in spirals through the water. As is common in research on animal play, cetacean play has been grouped into categories by its form, including locomotor play, object play, and different variations of social play, such as affiliative games, play fighting, and socio-sexual play...
August 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707061/the-evolutionary-significance-of-pretend-play-two-year-olds-interpretation-of-behavioral-cues
#10
Lili Ma, Angeline S Lillard
Pretend play begins very early in human life. A key question is why, when figuring out reality is young children's major developmental task, they engage in its deliberate falsification. A second key question is how children know that pretend events are not real. Here we report three experiments addressing the latter question and providing indirect evidence for speculation on the first question. Children (N = 96) were shown actors eating or pretending to eat from covered bowls, and they had to indicate, on the basis of the actors' behavioral signs, which actor was pretending to eat or had the real food...
July 13, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707060/the-psychological-significance-of-play-with-imaginary-companions-in-early-childhood
#11
Tracy R Gleason
Although social play is common to many species, humans are unique in their ability to extract some of the benefits of social play through imagination. For example, in play with imaginary companions (ICs), children often practice skills that might be useful for later adaptive social, relational, and emotional functioning. While play with ICs does not provide the same immediate feedback that play with real others affords, this imagined, quasisocial context allows children to experiment with or rehearse events that might occur in real relationships...
July 13, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#12
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702755/the-influence-of-breed-and-environmental-factors-on-social-and-solitary-play-in-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#13
Lindsay R Mehrkam, Nathaniel J Hall, Chelsea Haitz, Clive D L Wynne
The domestic dog is an ideal model species in which to study the genetic and environmental factors that influence play behavior. Dogs exist in a wide variety of breeds and frequently engage in multiple forms of play. In the present study, we investigated whether the levels of solitary and social play differed between dogs of three breed types with distinct predatory motor pattern sequences (herding dogs, retrievers, and livestock guarding dogs [LGDs]). Furthermore, we investigated how environmental factors (social and nonsocial contexts) influenced play in dogs of these breed types...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699100/reward-devaluation-disrupts-latent-inhibition-in-fear-conditioning
#14
Luís Gonzalo De la Casa, Auxiliadora Mena, Juán Carlos Ruiz-Salas, Esperanza Quintero, Mauricio R Papini
Three experiments explored the link between reward shifts and latent inhibition (LI). Using consummatory procedures, rewards were either downshifted from 32% to 4% sucrose (Experiments 1-2), or upshifted from 4% to 32% sucrose (Experiment 3). In both cases, appropriate unshifted controls were also included. LI was implemented in terms of fear conditioning involving a single tone-shock pairing after extensive tone-only preexposure. Nonpreexposed controls were also included. Experiment 1 demonstrated a typical LI effect (i...
July 11, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585022/erratum-to-relationship-between-individual-and-group-learning-in-a-marine-teleost-a-case-study-with-sea-bass-under-self-feeding-conditions
#15
David Benhaïm, Sébastien Ferrari, Tatiana Colchen, Béatrice Chatain, Marie-Laure Bégout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656521/strategic-interactions-games-of-the-ju-hoan
#16
Alex de Voogt
Three strategic games played by the Ju|'hoan-a board, a card, and a gesture game-complicate the rhetorics that suggest an evolutionary or psychological significance of play. They are mostly played by adults, although every individual adult does not necessarily engage in each game. The Ju|'hoan card and board game practices were transmitted through contact across large parts of Botswana and Namibia, while the gesture game n!àì has been known in other San communities. It suggests that the significance of strategic games is more likely found in its potential for social interaction (i...
June 27, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646322/does-chess-instruction-improve-mathematical-problem-solving-ability-two-experimental-studies-with-an-active-control-group
#17
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability...
June 23, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643142/temporal-discounting-of-aversive-consequences-in-rats
#18
William Rodríguez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has extensively evaluated the impact of delay on the value of positive reinforcers, but the study of its impact on the value of aversive consequences is scarce. The present study employed a modification of Evenden and Ryan's procedure (1996, Psychopharmacology, 128(2), 161-170) to obtain data on temporal discounting of an aversive consequence, with rats as experimental subjects. In the first phase of the procedure, rats chose between one-pellet and four-pellet alternatives; when subjects developed preference for the larger-amount alternative, a shock was added to it, resulting in a loss of preference...
June 22, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638991/integrating-tinbergen-s-inquiries-mimicry-and-play-in-humans-and-other-social-mammals
#19
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597217/context-modulation-of-learned-attention-deployment
#20
Metin Uengoer, John M Pearce, Harald Lachnit, Stephan Koenig
In three experiments, we investigated the contextual control of attention in human discrimination learning. In each experiment, participants initially received discrimination training in which the cues from Dimension A were relevant in Context 1 but irrelevant in Context 2, whereas the cues from Dimension B were irrelevant in Context 1 but relevant in Context 2. In Experiment 1, the same cues from each dimension were used in Contexts 1 and 2, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3, the cues from each dimension were changed across contexts...
June 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
journal
journal
40282
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"