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Learning & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488062/cocaine-preexposure-enhances-sexual-conditioning-and-increases-resistance-to-extinction-in-male-japanese-quail
#1
Chana K Akins, B Levi Bolin, Karin E Gill
The incentive-sensitization theory posits that drug addiction results from altered learning and motivational processes that stem from drug-induced changes in the brain's reward circuitry. Although it is generally accepted that problematic drug use results from these neuroadaptations, less research has focused on how these neural changes affect the incentive-motivational properties of naturally rewarding stimuli such as sex. The present set of experiments was conducted to investigate (1) dose-dependent effects of preexposure to chronic cocaine on sexual conditioning and (2) how prior cocaine exposure affects the extinction of sexually conditioned behavior in male Japanese quail...
May 9, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462457/how-lost-passenger-ants-find-their-way-home
#2
Mandyam V Srinivasan
Animal navigation has fascinated biologists and engineers for centuries, and some of the most illuminating discoveries have come from the study of creatures with a brain no larger than a sesame seed. In an elegant recent study, Pfeiffer and Wittlinger (Science, 353, 1155-1157, 2016) have shown the means by which desert ants, carried from one nest to another by a relative, find their own way back home if they are accidentally dropped en route.
May 1, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432591/prior-beliefs-influence-symmetrical-or-asymmetrical-generalizations-in-human-causal-learning
#4
Ryoji Nishiyama, Takatoshi Nagaishi, Takahisa Masaki
The generalization decrement between element A and compound AX has shown both symmetrical (Thorwart & Lachnit, 2009) and asymmetrical (Glautier, 2004) patterns in human contingency learning. In a series of experiments we examined the hypothesis that prior beliefs about the relationship between a distinctive element X and an outcome are important for determining the different generalization patterns. Participants learned which given enterobacteria caused a negative or a positive effect on gastrointestinal conditions...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421468/gambling-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-the-effect-of-cues-signaling-risky-choice-outcomes
#5
Travis R Smith, Michael J Beran, Michael E Young
Preference for a larger-variable "risky" option over a smaller-reliable "safe" option often depends upon the likelihood that the risky option will deliver a sufficiently sized reward to have an equivalent or superior expected value. However, preference for the risky option has been shown to increase under conditions where informative stimuli signaling the outcome of a risky choice is included between the choice and the outcome and this risk-prone preference persists even when the risky option has a lower expected value than the alternative safe option...
April 18, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411304/numbers-and-brains
#6
C R Gallistel
The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411303/comparative-approaches-to-same-different-abstract-concept-learning
#7
A A Wright, D M Kelly
Martinho and Kacelnik (2016) imprinted newly hatched ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) with a moving pair of either same or different objects, and following only one session, the ducklings accurately transferred the same/different relationship to novel object pairs that maintained the training relationship. This rapid learning and transfer of the concepts same and different far outstrips the more gradual learning of these basic concepts by animals in associative-learning tasks in which reinforcement is given for correct responses...
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389978/apes-perform-like-infants-in-false-belief-tasks
#8
Thomas Bugnyar
Although the extent to which some nonhuman animals understand mental states is currently under debate, attributing false beliefs has been considered to be beyond their limits. A recent study by Krupenye, Kano, Hirata, Call, and Tomasello (Science, 354, 110-114, 2016) shows that great apes pass a false-belief task when they are tested with an anticipatory-looking paradigm developed for nonverbal human infants.
April 7, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378304/orthographic-processing-in-animals-implications-for-comparative-psychologists
#9
Joël Fagot
Two recent studies have shown that pigeons and baboons can discriminate written English words from nonwords, and these findings were interpreted as demonstrating that orthographic processing is possible in absence of linguistic knowledge. Here, I emphasize a different idea, which is that these studies also inform comparative psychologists on the evolutionary history of statistical learning in nonhuman animals, and on its pervasiveness and flexibility.
April 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374264/bumblebees-at-work-in-an-emotion-like-state
#10
C M S Plowright
Pretest sucrose affects a dopamine-modulated response of bumblebees to an ambiguous cue to reward as well as a response to a simulated attack (Perry, Baciadonna, & Chittka, Science, 353(6307), 1529-1531, 2016). The contribution of the study lies in opening the door to research on the inner experience of insects, the learning and motivational mechanisms of their behavior, and the evolutionary analysis of emotions.
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374263/relationship-between-individual-and-group-learning-in-a-marine-teleost-a-case-study-with-sea-bass-under-self-feeding-conditions
#11
David Benhaïm, Ferrari Sébastien, Tatiana Colchen, Béatrice Chatain, Marie-Laure Bégout
Fish learning and cognition are usually approached by testing single individuals in various devices such as mazes that have serious drawbacks, especially in gregarious species, including the stress induced by the test procedure. This might impair the results and lead to misinterpretation about the learning abilities of the targeted species. In order to provide an alternative to the individual-based tests, we investigated for the first time the operant conditioning of four similar groups (50 individuals per tank) of sea bass...
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374262/what-is-play-fighting-and-what-is-it-good-for
#12
Sergio M Pellis, Vivien C Pellis
Play fighting is a common form of play reported among species of mammals, birds, and some other taxa. The competition present in play fighting revolves around gaining some advantage, such as biting a partner without being bitten. The behavior simulated during play fighting need not be restricted to that present in adult serious fighting, but can involve competitive interactions derived from amicable behavior, such as sex and social grooming, or from nonsocial competition, such as predation. What unifies play fighting, irrespective of the functional behavior being simulated, is that it involves some degree of reciprocity, or turn taking, that requires that the competition be attenuated by cooperation...
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364366/a-new-tool-using-bird-to-crow-about
#13
Natalie Uomini, Gavin Hunt
The Hawaiian crow has been revealed as a skilled tool user, confirmed by testing the last members of this endangered species that survive in captivity. The finding suggests its behavior is tantalizingly similar to that of the famous tool-using New Caledonian crow and has implications for the evolution of tool use and intelligence in birds.
March 31, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364365/release-from-proactive-interference-in-rat-spatial-working-memory
#14
William A Roberts, Hayden MacDonald, Lyn Brown, Krista Macpherson
A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories...
March 31, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275954/contextual-control-over-equivalence-and-nonequivalence-explains-apparent-arbitrary-applicable-relational-responding-in-accordance-with-sameness-and-opposition
#15
Benigno Alonso-Álvarez, Luis Antonio Pérez-González
We evaluated whether contextual control over equivalence and nonequivalence (i.e., selecting comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of a contextual cue, and excluding the selection of comparisons equivalent to the samples in the presence of another contextual cue) can account for apparent arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR) in accordance with the frames of sameness and opposition, as defined in relational frame theory (RFT). Three college students were trained to maintain previously established conditional discriminations in the presence of a contextual cue X1, and to reverse them in the presence of another contextual cue X2 (e...
March 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236276/understanding-dog-cognition-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Ludwig Huber, Claus Lamm
Recent pioneering work has shown the great promise that scanning awake, nonsedated dogs holds for both understanding the canine and the human brain and mind. A number of technological and methodological challenges, however, still need to be overcome to fully tap this potential.
February 25, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078654/capuchin-monkeys-can-make-and-use-stone-tools
#17
Edward A Wasserman, Roger K R Thompson
Scientists hoping to elucidate the origin of human stone tool manufacture and use have looked to extant primate species for possible clues. Although some skepticism has been raised, there is clear evidence that today's capuchin monkeys can make and use stone tools.
June 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663863/bird-brains-does-absolute-size-matter
#18
Jackie Chappell
Kabadayi, Taylor, von Bayern, and Osvath (2016, Royal Society Open Science, 3, 160104) recently showed that among birds, absolute brain size predicts performance on a motor self-control task thought to be important for cognition. However, birds performed at an equivalent level to much larger-brained primates, opening up the debate about brain size and cognition.
March 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659293/the-promise-of-cyborg-intelligence
#19
Michael F Brown, Alexander A Brown
Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers...
March 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604387/the-roles-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-its-dopamine-receptors-in-self-paced-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-rats
#20
Shuai Wang, Shan-Hu Hu, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
It has been shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its dopamine system are crucial for decision making that requires physical/emotional effort, but not for all forms of cost-benefit decision making. Previous studies had mostly employed behavioral tasks with two competing cost-reward options that were preset by the experimenters. However, few studies have been conducted using scenarios in which the subjects have full control over the energy/time expenditure required to obtain a proportional reward...
March 2017: Learning & Behavior
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