journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Learning & Behavior

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646322/does-chess-instruction-improve-mathematical-problem-solving-ability-two-experimental-studies-with-an-active-control-group
#1
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability...
June 23, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643142/temporal-discounting-of-aversive-consequences-in-rats
#2
William Rodríguez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has extensively evaluated the impact of delay on the value of positive reinforcers, but the study of its impact on the value of aversive consequences is scarce. The present study employed a modification of Evenden and Ryan's procedure (1996, Psychopharmacology, 128(2), 161-170) to obtain data on temporal discounting of an aversive consequence, with rats as experimental subjects. In the first phase of the procedure, rats chose between one-pellet and four-pellet alternatives; when subjects developed preference for the larger-amount alternative, a shock was added to it, resulting in a loss of preference...
June 22, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638991/integrating-tinbergen-s-inquiries-mimicry-and-play-in-humans-and-other-social-mammals
#3
Elisabetta Palagi, Chiara Scopa
Visual signals convey emotions and intentions between individuals. Darwin underlined that human facial expressions represent a shared heritage between our species and many other social mammals. Social play is a fertile field to examine the role and the potential communicative function of facial expressions. The relaxed open-mouth (or play face) is a context-specific playful expression, which is widespread in human and non-human mammals. Here, we focus on playful communication by applying Tinbergen's four areas of inquiry: proximate causation, ontogeny, function, and evolution...
June 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597217/context-modulation-of-learned-attention-deployment
#4
Metin Uengoer, John M Pearce, Harald Lachnit, Stephan Koenig
In three experiments, we investigated the contextual control of attention in human discrimination learning. In each experiment, participants initially received discrimination training in which the cues from Dimension A were relevant in Context 1 but irrelevant in Context 2, whereas the cues from Dimension B were irrelevant in Context 1 but relevant in Context 2. In Experiment 1, the same cues from each dimension were used in Contexts 1 and 2, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3, the cues from each dimension were changed across contexts...
June 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585022/erratum-to-relationship-between-individual-and-group-learning-in-a-marine-teleost-a-case-study-with-sea-bass-under-self-feeding-conditions
#5
David Benhaïm, Sébastien Ferrari, Tatiana Colchen, Béatrice Chatain, Marie-Laure Bégout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488062/cocaine-preexposure-enhances-sexual-conditioning-and-increases-resistance-to-extinction-in-male-japanese-quail
#6
Chana K Akins, B Levi Bolin, Karin E Gill
The incentive-sensitization theory posits that drug addiction results from altered learning and motivational processes that stem from drug-induced changes in the brain's reward circuitry. Although it is generally accepted that problematic drug use results from these neuroadaptations, less research has focused on how these neural changes affect the incentive-motivational properties of naturally rewarding stimuli such as sex. The present set of experiments was conducted to investigate (1) dose-dependent effects of preexposure to chronic cocaine on sexual conditioning and (2) how prior cocaine exposure affects the extinction of sexually conditioned behavior in male Japanese quail...
May 9, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462457/how-lost-passenger-ants-find-their-way-home
#7
Mandyam V Srinivasan
Animal navigation has fascinated biologists and engineers for centuries, and some of the most illuminating discoveries have come from the study of creatures with a brain no larger than a sesame seed. In an elegant recent study, Pfeiffer and Wittlinger (Science, 353, 1155-1157, 2016) have shown the means by which desert ants, carried from one nest to another by a relative, find their own way back home if they are accidentally dropped en route.
May 1, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432591/prior-beliefs-influence-symmetrical-or-asymmetrical-generalizations-in-human-causal-learning
#8
Ryoji Nishiyama, Takatoshi Nagaishi, Takahisa Masaki
The generalization decrement between element A and compound AX has shown both symmetrical (Thorwart & Lachnit, 2009) and asymmetrical (Glautier, 2004) patterns in human contingency learning. In a series of experiments we examined the hypothesis that prior beliefs about the relationship between a distinctive element X and an outcome are important for determining the different generalization patterns. Participants learned which given enterobacteria caused a negative or a positive effect on gastrointestinal conditions...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421468/gambling-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-the-effect-of-cues-signaling-risky-choice-outcomes
#9
Travis R Smith, Michael J Beran, Michael E Young
Preference for a larger-variable "risky" option over a smaller-reliable "safe" option often depends upon the likelihood that the risky option will deliver a sufficiently sized reward to have an equivalent or superior expected value. However, preference for the risky option has been shown to increase under conditions where informative stimuli signaling the outcome of a risky choice is included between the choice and the outcome and this risk-prone preference persists even when the risky option has a lower expected value than the alternative safe option...
April 18, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411304/numbers-and-brains
#10
C R Gallistel
The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411303/comparative-approaches-to-same-different-abstract-concept-learning
#11
A A Wright, D M Kelly
Martinho and Kacelnik (2016) imprinted newly hatched ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) with a moving pair of either same or different objects, and following only one session, the ducklings accurately transferred the same/different relationship to novel object pairs that maintained the training relationship. This rapid learning and transfer of the concepts same and different far outstrips the more gradual learning of these basic concepts by animals in associative-learning tasks in which reinforcement is given for correct responses...
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389978/apes-perform-like-infants-in-false-belief-tasks
#12
Thomas Bugnyar
Although the extent to which some nonhuman animals understand mental states is currently under debate, attributing false beliefs has been considered to be beyond their limits. A recent study by Krupenye, Kano, Hirata, Call, and Tomasello (Science, 354, 110-114, 2016) shows that great apes pass a false-belief task when they are tested with an anticipatory-looking paradigm developed for nonverbal human infants.
April 7, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378304/orthographic-processing-in-animals-implications-for-comparative-psychologists
#13
Joël Fagot
Two recent studies have shown that pigeons and baboons can discriminate written English words from nonwords, and these findings were interpreted as demonstrating that orthographic processing is possible in absence of linguistic knowledge. Here, I emphasize a different idea, which is that these studies also inform comparative psychologists on the evolutionary history of statistical learning in nonhuman animals, and on its pervasiveness and flexibility.
April 4, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374264/bumblebees-at-work-in-an-emotion-like-state
#14
C M S Plowright
Pretest sucrose affects a dopamine-modulated response of bumblebees to an ambiguous cue to reward as well as a response to a simulated attack (Perry, Baciadonna, & Chittka, Science, 353(6307), 1529-1531, 2016). The contribution of the study lies in opening the door to research on the inner experience of insects, the learning and motivational mechanisms of their behavior, and the evolutionary analysis of emotions.
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374263/relationship-between-individual-and-group-learning-in-a-marine-teleost-a-case-study-with-sea-bass-under-self-feeding-conditions
#15
David Benhaïm, Sébastien Ferrari, Tatiana Colchen, Béatrice Chatain, Marie-Laure Bégout
Fish learning and cognition are usually approached by testing single individuals in various devices such as mazes that have serious drawbacks, especially in gregarious species, including the stress induced by the test procedure. This might impair the results and lead to misinterpretation about the learning abilities of the targeted species. In order to provide an alternative to the individual-based tests, we investigated for the first time the operant conditioning of four similar groups (50 individuals per tank) of sea bass...
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374262/what-is-play-fighting-and-what-is-it-good-for
#16
Sergio M Pellis, Vivien C Pellis
Play fighting is a common form of play reported among species of mammals, birds, and some other taxa. The competition present in play fighting revolves around gaining some advantage, such as biting a partner without being bitten. The behavior simulated during play fighting need not be restricted to that present in adult serious fighting, but can involve competitive interactions derived from amicable behavior, such as sex and social grooming, or from nonsocial competition, such as predation. What unifies play fighting, irrespective of the functional behavior being simulated, is that it involves some degree of reciprocity, or turn taking, that requires that the competition be attenuated by cooperation...
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364366/a-new-tool-using-bird-to-crow-about
#17
Natalie Uomini, Gavin Hunt
The Hawaiian crow has been revealed as a skilled tool user, confirmed by testing the last members of this endangered species that survive in captivity. The finding suggests its behavior is tantalizingly similar to that of the famous tool-using New Caledonian crow and has implications for the evolution of tool use and intelligence in birds.
March 31, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364365/release-from-proactive-interference-in-rat-spatial-working-memory
#18
William A Roberts, Hayden MacDonald, Lyn Brown, Krista Macpherson
A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories...
March 31, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
June 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236276/understanding-dog-cognition-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Ludwig Huber, Claus Lamm
Recent pioneering work has shown the great promise that scanning awake, nonsedated dogs holds for both understanding the canine and the human brain and mind. A number of technological and methodological challenges, however, still need to be overcome to fully tap this potential.
June 2017: Learning & Behavior
journal
journal
40282
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"