Read by QxMD icon Read

Learning & Behavior

Jackie Chappell
Kabadayi, Taylor, von Bayern, and Osvath (2016, Royal Society Open Science, 3, 160104) recently showed that among birds, absolute brain size predicts performance on a motor self-control task thought to be important for cognition. However, birds performed at an equivalent level to much larger-brained primates, opening up the debate about brain size and cognition.
September 23, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Michael F Brown, Alexander A Brown
Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers...
September 22, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Masashi Tsukamoto, Kenichiro Kohara, Koji Takeuchi
The within-trial contrast hypothesis (WTC) provides a more parsimonious explanation for the phenomenon that humans and animals prefer outcomes that follow more effortful events to outcomes that follow less effortful events (Zentall, 2013). We conducted two WTC experiments with human adults. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the difficulty of a preceding event by varying the interresponse time and the limited-hold interval during differential reinforcement with a low response rate schedule, to examine the effect of effort on the preference for the subsequent stimuli...
September 12, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Shuai Wang, Shan-Hu Hu, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
It has been shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its dopamine system are crucial for decision making that requires physical/emotional effort, but not for all forms of cost-benefit decision making. Previous studies had mostly employed behavioral tasks with two competing cost-reward options that were preset by the experimenters. However, few studies have been conducted using scenarios in which the subjects have full control over the energy/time expenditure required to obtain a proportional reward...
September 7, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Dorothy W S Kwok, Justin A Harris, Robert A Boakes
This set of experiments examined the question of when a stimulus would be most effective in overshadowing the acquisition of long-delay taste aversion learning. In Experiment 1 rats drank sucrose, the target solution, followed by a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution before lithium injection some time later; HCl was presented either early or late in the interval. The late condition produced greater overshadowing than the early condition. The importance of the HCl-injection interval was confirmed by Experiment 2, in which the sucrose-injection interval was varied...
August 23, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Phil Reed
Two experiments examined acquisition of win-stay, win-shift, lose-stay, and lose-shift rules by which hungry rats could earn food reinforcement. In Experiment 1, two groups of rats were trained in a two-lever operant task that required them to follow either a win-stay/lose-shift or a win-shift/lose-stay contingency. The rates of acquisition of the individual rules within each contingency differed: lose-shift and lose-stay rules were acquired faster than win-stay and win-shift rules. Contrary to a number of previous reports, the win-shift rule was acquired less rapidly than any of the other rules...
August 18, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Sabrina R Cohen-Hatton, R C Honey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Douglas A Williams, Travis P Todd, Chrissy M Chubala, Elliot A Ludvig
Three experiments assessed how appetitive conditioning in rats changes over the duration of a trace conditioned stimulus (CS) when unsignaled unconditioned stimuli (USs) are introduced into the intertrial interval. In Experiment 1, a target US occurred at a fixed time either shortly before (embedded), shortly after (trace), or at the same time (delay) as the offset of a 120-s CS. During the CS, responding was most suppressed by intertrial USs in the trace group, less so in the delay group, and least in the embedded group...
August 5, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Antonio A Artigas, Jose Prados
In two experiments, rats were given intermixed or blocked preexposure to two similar compound stimuli, AX and BX. Following preexposure, conditioning trials took place in which AX (Experiment 1) or a novel compound stimulus NX (Experiment 2) was paired with a food-unconditioned stimulus in an appetitive Pavlovian preparation. Animals that were given alternated preexposure showed lower generalization from AX to BX (Experiment 1) and from NX to a new compound, ZX (Experiment 2), than animals that were given blocked preexposure, a perceptual learning and a perceptual learning transfer effect, respectively...
August 5, 2016: Learning & Behavior
John Y H Bai, Sarah Cowie, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence is the recurrence of a previously reinforced and then extinguished behavior induced by the extinction of another more recently reinforced behavior. Resurgence provides insight into behavioral processes relevant to treatment relapse of a range of problem behaviors. Resurgence is typically studied across three phases: (1) reinforcement of a target response, (2) extinction of the target and concurrent reinforcement of an alternative response, and (3) extinction of the alternative response, resulting in the recurrence of target responding...
August 5, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Vassilissa Dolivo, Claudia Rutte, Michael Taborsky
The reciprocal exchange of goods and services among social partners is a conundrum in evolutionary biology because of its proneness to cheating, but also the behavioral and cognitive mechanisms involved in such mutual cooperation are hotly debated. Extreme viewpoints range from the assumption that, at the proximate level, observed cases of "direct reciprocity" can be merely explained by basic instrumental and Pavlovian association processes, to the other extreme implying that "cultural factors" must be involved, as is often attributed to reciprocal cooperation among humans...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Nathan J Emery, Nicola S Clayton
An exciting new study on ravens by Bugnyar, Reber, and Buckner (2016) raises important questions about whether nonhuman animals are capable of simulating other minds, rather than theorizing about them.
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Howard Eichenbaum
For nearly a century, neurobiologists have searched for the engram-the neural representation of a memory. Early studies showed that the engram is widely distributed both within and across brain areas and is supported by interactions among large networks of neurons. Subsequent research has identified engrams that support memory within dedicated functional systems for habit learning and emotional memory, but the engram for declarative memories has been elusive. Nevertheless, recent years have brought progress from molecular biological approaches that identify neurons and networks that are necessary and sufficient to support memory, and from recording approaches and population analyses that characterize the information coded by large neural networks...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
W David Stahlman, Kenneth J Leising
Extensive research has shown that the variability of organismal behavior is great when contingent reinforcement is delayed, small, or improbable. This research has generally employed stable response-reinforcer relationships, and therefore is limited in its explanatory scope with respect to a dynamic environment. We conducted two experiments to investigate whether pigeons' conditioned pecking behavior shows anticipatory or perseverative patterns of behavioral variability when the reinforcement probability reliably changes within experimental sessions...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Anne Gast, Florian Kattner
Evaluative conditioning (EC) is a change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to previous pairing with an affective unconditioned stimulus (US). Several previous studies indicate that EC is related to memory of the CS-US pairs. Previous studies, however, typically cannot distinguish between the influence of CS-US knowledge during measurement and during encoding. In addition, by measuring rather than manipulating memory, they do not test the causal effect of memory on EC. The present study employed a "directed forgetting" procedure to the EC paradigm instructing participants to either forget or remember certain CS-US pairs...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Jennifer Vonk
Kano and Hirata (Current Biology, 25, 2513-2517, 2015) recently showed that apes process object and location information and anticipate the repeated presentation of such events in short film clips. Their methodology, using eyetracking, can provide a foundation for further explications of long-term prospective and episodic memory in nonverbal species.
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Javier Bustamante, Metin Uengoer, Anna Thorwart, Harald Lachnit
In two human predictive-learning experiments, we investigated the effects of extinction in multiple contexts on the rate of extinction and the strength of response recovery. In each experiment, participants initially received acquisition training with a target cue in one context, followed by extinction either in a different context (extinction in a single context) or in three different contexts (extinction in multiple contexts). The results of both experiments showed that conducting extinction in multiple contexts led to higher levels of responding during extinction than did extinction in a single context...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
K Marinka Gadzichowski, Kelly Kapalka, Robert Pasnak
A malamute-husky mixed-breed dog was trained to distinguish one object that differed from three others that were identical to each other. The dog progressed rapidly after an effective shaping procedure, requiring 37 training sessions to master 20 such problems to a criterion of 90 %. The dog subsequently scored 80 % correct on the first trials with new problems that required a reversal of previously correct choices. The dog then scored 70 % correct on his first trials with 20 new problems composed of entirely new objects...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Vladimir P Nikitin, Svetlana V Solntseva, Alexey V Shevelkin
Recent studies report that long-term memory retrieval can induce memory reconsolidation, and impairment of this reconsolidation might lead to amnesia. Previously, we found that reconsolidation of a conditioned food aversion memory could be disrupted by translation inhibitors for up to 3 h following a reconsolidation event, thus inducing amnesia. We examined the role of transcription processes in the induction of amnesia in the land snail, Helix lucorum. It received N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist and transcription inhibitor 2 days after learning in a neutral context environment; it was then transferred to the learning context followed by reminder with conditioned food stimulus...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Christopher B Sturdy, Darren S Proppe
Although it is known that animals attend to the vocalizations of others (referred to as eavesdropping), what has been missing, or at least left experimentally unproven, until now is whether animals can learn new associations between a signal and a threat. Here Magrath and colleagues (Current Biology, 25(15), 2047-2050, 2015) have for the first time conducted a field experiment that demonstrates just this: superb fairy-wrens learned to associate a novel vocalization with a predator.
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"