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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427147/anatomical-relation-between-the-accessory-process-and-pedicle-in-the-lumbar-vertebrae
#1
Ryutaro Shiboi, Shogo Hayashi, Shinichi Kawata, Zhong-Lian Li, Philipp Pieroh, Hisashi Koga, Yuichi Takano, Hirohiko Inanami, Masahiro Itoh
The pedicle screw is one of the most common medical devices used in spinal surgery. Although there are well-established insertion points based on anatomical landmarks, such as the mammillary process and the transverse process, morphological data on the relationship between the accessory process and the pedicle are still scarce. To clarify this relationship, we recruited 50 cases of hernia of lumbar intervertebral disc, diagnosed using three-dimensional computed tomography of the lumbar vertebrae. We identified the pedicle isthmus in a transverse plane parallel to the upper endplate and measured the angles and distances from the tip of the accessory process to the intersection points at the medial or lateral surface, or at the midpoint between the two intersection points...
February 9, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427146/from-the-primitive-streak-to-the-somitic-mesoderm-labeling-the-early-stages-of-chick-embryos-using-egfp-transfection
#2
Haiming Fan, Nobuyuki Sakamoto, Hirohiko Aoyama
Mesoderm is derived from the primitive streak. The rostral region of the primitive streak forms the somitic mesoderm. We have previously shown the developmental origin of each level of the somitic mesoderm using DiI fluorescence labeling of the primitive streak. We found that the more caudal segments were derived from the primitive streak during the later developmental stages. DiI labeled several pairs of somites and showed the distinct rostral boundary; however, the fluorescence gradually disappeared in the caudal region...
February 9, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374828/the-middle-rectal-artery-arising-from-the-lateral-sacral-artery
#3
Satoru Honma, Takahiro Sonomura
A middle rectal artery arising from the lateral sacral artery (MRAls) in the right pelvis of a 99-year-old male was observed. Although variations of the origin of the middle rectal artery have been reported on many occasions, there are few descriptions of the trajectory in the literature. In our case, the MRAls branched from the lateral sacral artery on the sacral surface close to the third sacral sympathetic ganglion and immediately penetrated the third sacral splanchnic nerve and the parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerve from the ventral ramus of the forth sacral nerve...
January 27, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349766/constant-existence-of-the-sensory-branch-of-the-nerve-to-the-pyramidalis-distributing-to-the-upper-margin-of-the-pubic-ramus
#4
Daijiro Haba, Kenji Emura, Yuko Watanabe, Ikuo Kageyama, Satoshi Kikkawa, Mamoru Uemura, Takamitsu Arakawa
Twenty-one sides of 11 adult Japanese cadavers were investigated, and 2 of 21 sides exhibited absence of the pyramidalis. We observed that all of the nerves to the pyramidalis included the sensory nerve branch, which distributed to the aponeurotic tissue in the upper area of the pubic ramus. To investigate the clinical relevance and developmental process of the pyramidalis, detailed innervation patterns of the pyramidalis and the lumber plexus were examined and compared with the case of absent pyramidalis. The nerves to the pyramidalis could be classified into five types by the derivative nerves and two subtypes by their courses associated with the funiculus spermaticus...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277855/bifurcation-of-brachial-artery-into-a-common-radial-interosseous-trunk-and-superficial-ulnar-artery-a-rare-variation
#5
Suresh Narayanan, Senthil Murugan
Variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery and abnormal course of its branches are not uncommon. The present article describes a case of bifurcation of the brachial artery into a common radial-interosseous trunk and superficial ulnar artery. The embryological basis behind the present case report could be, the radial artery establishing a connection with the axis artery just below the level of origin of ulnar artery, the posterior interosseous artery arising from the axis artery distal to the origin of the radial artery...
December 26, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270912/surface-ultrastructural-sem-characteristics-of-oropharyngeal-cavity-of-house-sparrow-passer-domesticus
#6
Mohamed M A Abumandour
The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands...
December 22, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256114/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1-vegfr1-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-facilitates-granulation-tissue-formation-with-recruitment-of-vegfr1-cells-from-bone-marrow
#7
Keiichi Park, Hideki Amano, Yoshiya Ito, Yoshio Mastui, Mariko Kamata, Yasuharu Yamazaki, Akira Takeda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masataka Majima
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A facilitates wound healing. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2 and induces wound healing through the receptor's tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. During blood flow recovery and lung regeneration, expression of VEGFR1 is elevated. However, the precise mechanism of wound healing, especially granulation formation on VEGFR1, is not well understood. We hypothesized that VEGFR1-TK signaling induces wound healing by promoting granulation tissue formation. A surgical sponge implantation model was made by implanting a sponge disk into dorsal subcutaneous tissue of mice...
December 18, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222673/ureteric-entrapment-in-sacroiliac-joint-causing-hydroureter-and-ipsilateral-kidney-hypertrophy
#8
Yurie Otsuru, Chuichi Kondo, Shohei Hara, Hideo Takahashi, Kenjiro Matsuno
A unilateral megaureter was found in an elderly female cadaver during routine dissection. The left proximal ureter, which was thick and convolute, descended and entered into the pelvic cavity, where the distal ureter was attached to the posterior pelvic wall at the inlet level. Removal of connective tissue surrounding the attached region revealed ureteric entrapment in the sacroiliac joint. The ipsilateral kidney, from which the megaureter originated, showed no pelvicalyceal dilatation. In contrast, the left kidney was enlarged, weighing 24% more than the right kidney...
December 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222672/morphological-alterations-in-the-position-of-the-mandibular-foramen-in-dentate-and-edentate-mandibles
#9
Niki Matveeva, Lidija Popovska, Biljana Evrosimovska, Elizabeta Chadikovska, Julijana Nikolovska
The technique of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block must be based on precise anatomical knowledge regarding the correct position of the mandibular foramen (MF). The aim of the investigation reported here was to determine the anatomic and topographic localization of the MF according to mandibular ramus anatomic landmarks and to identify morphological alterations in the position of the MF and size and shape of the ramus in terms of the impact of tooth socket loss in the molar and premolar region. Seventy-three dry human adult mandibles were divided into two groups according to dental status...
December 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177969/the-effect-of-methamphetamine-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-hippocampal-doublecortin-expression-learning-and-memory-of-rat-offspring
#10
Zahra Jalayeri-Darbandi, Aliakbar Rajabzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on doublecortin (DCX) expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring and also on learning/memory. Thirty-five pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of 5 rats each: three experimental groups, each receiving 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MA during pregnancy or/and lactation; three sham groups, each receiving saline injections; one control group, receiving no injection...
November 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168108/the-malaris-muscle-its-morphological-significance-for-sustaining-the-intraorbital-structures
#11
Natnicha Kampan, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Itsuko Okuda, Hisayo Nasu, Mi-Sun Hur, Kumiko Yamaguchi, Keiichi Akita
The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging-especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging. Twelve heads of Japanese cadavers (average age: 82.5 years old) were dissected to observe the muscles, focusing in particular on those in the periorbital region...
November 22, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103176/oncostatin-m-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-potential-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#12
REVIEW
Tadasuke Komori, Yoshihiro Morikawa
Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ(-/-) mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ(-/-) mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ(-/-) mice compared to those in wild-type mice...
November 4, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098649/molecular-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-m-cell-differentiation-and-transcytosis-in-the-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissues
#13
REVIEW
Shunsuke Kimura
Microfold cells (M cells), which are located in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering mucosal lymphoid follicles, are specialized epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses. These cells take luminal antigens and transport them via transcytosis across the FAE to the antigen-presenting cells underneath. Several intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal for entry to invade the host and cause disease conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the uptake of antigens by M cells is essential for efficient antigen-specific IgA production and that this process likely maintains the homeostasis of mucosal tissues...
November 2, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086253/a-review-of-functional-heterogeneity-among-astrocytes-and-the-cs56-specific-antibody-mediated-detection-of-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-adult-brains
#14
REVIEW
Hiroaki Okuda
Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers...
October 31, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067619/transparent-model-of-temporal-bone-and-vestibulocochlear-organ-made-by-3d-printing
#15
Ryoji Suzuki, Naoto Taniguchi, Fujio Uchida, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Yoshinori Kanatsu, Ming Zhou, Kodai Funakoshi, Hideo Akashi, Hiroshi Abe
The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1...
October 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952063/morphological-characteristics-of-the-tongue-and-lingual-papillae-of-the-large-bamboo-rat-rhizomys-sumatrensis
#16
Thanakul Wannaprasert
The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae...
September 26, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948536/anatomical-variations-of-the-recurrent-artery-of-heubner-number-origin-and-course
#17
Wakoto Matsuda, Takahiro Sonomura, Satoru Honma, Sachi Ohno, Tetsuya Goto, Shuichi Hirai, Masahiro Itoh, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroki Fujieda, Jun Udagawa, Shuichi Ueda
The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively...
September 25, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#18
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#19
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271375/multiple-muscular-variations-including-tenuissimus-and-tensor-fasciae-suralis-muscles-in-the-posterior-thigh-of-a-human-case
#20
Takamitsu Arakawa, Takahiro Kondo, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Yuko Watanabe, Toshio Terashima, Akinori Miki
The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
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