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Anatomical Science International

Alexandra Louise Webb, Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Maria Stokes, Sarah Mottram
The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented...
October 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Robert Ndou
Assessment of the range of motion at a joint is among the methods employed by orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists to determine courses of therapy and joint recovery. Females tend to have a greater range of motion at the elbow joint than males. In the present case-control study, the elbow extension angle was compared between males and females with and without the supratrochlear aperture. A total of 453 dry humeri and their corresponding ulnae were included in the study, and elbow extension angle was measured using a goniometer...
October 11, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Kateřina Vymazalová, Lenka Vargová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser
The purpose of the study was to discover a way to study the internal structure and evolution of human embryos noninvasively. The human embryo was stained with phosphotungstic acid solution (PTA) in ethanol (EPTA) and scanned using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner. Using appropriate software, a three-dimensional image of the embryo was created, which could be further exploited. The methodology described could be used for the non-destructive examination of the internal structure of the human embryo, and the resulting data can be used as a resource for medical students, gynaecologists, and paediatricians...
October 11, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Hiroko Nishimura
Renin substrate, biological renin activity, and/or renin-secreting cells in kidneys evolved at an early stage of vertebrate phylogeny. Angiotensin (Ang) I and II molecules have been identified biochemically in representative species of all vertebrate classes, although variation occurs in amino acids at positions 1, 5, and 9 of Ang I. Variations have also evolved in amino acid positions 3 and 4 in some cartilaginous fish. Angiotensin receptors, AT1 and AT2 homologues, have been identified molecularly or characterized pharmacologically in nonmammalian vertebrates...
October 7, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Kanji Hirashima, Fengming Yue, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Katsunori Sasaki
The gastric cardia-the small area around the cardiac orifice including the abdominal esophagus-is an important target area for abdominal and thoracic surgeries, especially for laparoscopic procedures. In this study of 28 cadavers, a peritoneal earlobe-like appendage near the angle of His was identified as a useful indicator of the lateral margin of the abdominal esophagus, which is otherwise obscure because the peritoneum continues to the diaphragm without definite demarcation of this margin. This structure, which appears equivalent to the epiploic appendages, was commonly found to be present (in 22/28, 78...
September 22, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Michał Polguj, Robert Haładaj, Mirosław Topol
A low origin of the radial artery is a rare anatomical variation, with the incidence estimated at 0.2 %. This report presents a previously unrecorded case of an unusual distal origin of the radial artery, co-occurring with a double recurrent radial artery. The radial artery arose under the pronator teres muscle, 76 mm below the intercondylar line of the humerus. After emerging from under the tendon of the pronator teres muscle, the radial artery took a typical course and terminated in the deep palmar arch...
September 15, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Sawetree Pakkarato, Wipawee Thoungseabyoun, Apussara Tachow, Atsara Rawangwong, Yoshiteru Kagawa, Yuji Owada, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo
In our previous immuno-light microscopic study with an antibody for fatty acid binding protein of type 7 or brain type (FABP-7, B-FABP), the adrenomedullary sustentacular cells were revealed to have secondary processes that present faint immunostaining and an ill-defined sheet-like appearance, in addition to the well-recognized primary processes that present distinct immunostaining and a fibrous appearance. The secondary processes were regarded as corresponding to known ultrastructural profiles of sustentacular cells with a thickness of less than 0...
September 15, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period...
September 14, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Koichiro Ichimura, Shota Kinose, Yuto Kawasaki, Kota Kato, Tatsuo Sakai
The superior radial collateral artery (SRCA) was described in well-established anatomy textbooks published in the 1800s. According to those textbooks, the SRCA originates from the brachial artery, passes transversely between the coracobrachialis and the humerus, and distributes to the most distal portion of the deltoid. The SRCA is not listed in the international standard on anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica, or in modern anatomy textbooks. In the present study, we reevaluated the anatomical features of the SRCA by cadaveric dissection...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Naoyuki Otani, Motoshi Ouchi, Keitaro Hayashi, Promsuk Jutabha, Naohiko Anzai
Organic anions (OAs) are secreted in renal proximal tubules in two steps. In the first step, OAs are transported from the blood through basolateral membranes into proximal tubular cells. The prototypical substrate for renal organic anion transport systems, para-aminohippurate (PAH), is transported across basolateral membranes of proximal tubular cells via OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) against an electrochemical gradient in exchange for intracellular dicarboxylates. In the second step, OAs exit into urine through apical membranes of proximal tubules...
September 10, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Junko Nio-Kobayashi
Fifteen galectins, β-galactose-binding animal lectins, are known to be distributed throughout the body. We herein summarize current knowledge on the tissue- and cell-specific localization of galectins and their potential functions in health and disease. Galectin-3 is widely distributed in epithelia, including the simple columnar epithelium in the gut, stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin, and transitional epithelium and several regions in nephrons in the urinary tract. Galectin-2 and galectin-4/6 are gut-specific, while galectin-7 is found in the stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin...
September 2, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Mandeep Gill Sagoo, R Claire Aland, Edward Gosden
The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices...
September 1, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Javad Sadeghinezhad, Zahra Tootian, Faezeh Javadi
This study was carried out to describe the anatomical, histological and mucinous histochemical characteristics of the tongue in the Persian squirrel. This species is a rodent distributed all over the Middle East and recently has been considered a companion animal. Anatomical observations showed the median sulcus on the apex and absence of a lingual prominence in the body. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that the filiform papillae cover the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, and their sizes increased approaching the root...
August 26, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Juramt Bold, Hiromi Sakata-Haga, Yoshihiro Fukui
To examine in detail spinal nerve defects induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid in mice, pregnant ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of 400 mg/kg valproic acid on gestational day 6, 7, 8, or 9, and their embryos were observed on gestational day 10. The whole-mount immunostaining using an anti-neurofilament antibody allowed us to identify spinal nerve defects, such as a loss of bundle, anastomosis among bundles arising from adjacent segment, and a disrupted segmental pattern of the dorsal root ganglia, in valproic acid-exposed embryos...
August 22, 2016: Anatomical Science International
M Podgórski, M Polguj, M Topol, A Kusak, M Łukaszewski, P Grzelak
Suprascapular notch is characterized by variable morphology. However, its development is not well studied. We hypothesize that it proceeds postnatally. Thus, the aim of this research was to characterize the morphology of the suprascapular notch in a pediatric population based on computed tomography. A retrospective analysis was performed of 291 chest computed tomography examinations of patients under 18 years old taken following other clinical indications. The inclusion criteria were as follows: both scapulae encompassed in a field of view; no artifacts; no pathologies concerning the scapulae...
August 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Marek Tomco, Eva Petrovova, Maria Giretova, Viera Almasiova, Katarina Holovska, Viera Cigankova, Andrej Jenca, Janka Jencova, Andrej Jenca, Martin Boldizar, Kosa Balazs, Lubomir Medvecky
Bone tissue engineering combines biomaterials with biologically active factors and cells to hold promise for reconstructing craniofacial defects. In this study the biological activity of biphasic hydroxyapatite ceramics (HA; a bone substitute that is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios) was characterized (1) in vitro by assessing the growth of MC3T3 mouse osteoblast lineage cells, (2) in ovo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and (3) in an in vivo pig animal model...
August 16, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Puntita Siengdee, Kittisak Buddhachat, Janine L Brown, Sarisa Klinhom, Tanita Pitakarnnop, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Chatchote Thitaram
This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula...
August 4, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Katsuya Kami, Fumihiro Tajima, Emiko Senba
Physical exercise, such as forced treadmill running and swimming, can sufficiently improve mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in animal models of neuropathic pain (NPP), including partial sciatic nerve ligation, chronic constriction injury, and spinal nerve ligation models. Thus, physical exercise has been established as a low-cost, safe, and effective way to manage NPP conditions, but the exact mechanisms underlying such exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) are not fully understood. A growing body of evidence has identified several factors that work at different levels of the nervous system as playing important roles in producing EIH in animal models of NPP...
August 2, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Makoto Kondo
Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders...
August 2, 2016: Anatomical Science International
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