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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417223/dorsal-metacarpal-veins-anatomic-variation-and-potential-clinical-implications
#1
Sara S Elmegarhi, Justin Z Amarin, Maher T Hadidi, Darwish H Badran, Islam M Massad, Amjad M Bani-Hani, Amjad T Shatarat
The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified...
April 17, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409316/mental-foramen-and-lingual-vascular-canals-of-mandible-on-mdct-images-anatomical-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Filiz Direk, Ismihan Ilknur Uysal, Ali Sami Kivrak, Zeliha Fazliogullari, Nadire Unver Dogan, Ahmet Kagan Karabulut
The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched...
April 13, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386743/anomalous-inferior-mesenteric-artery-supplying-the-ascending-transverse-descending-and-sigmoid-colons
#3
Tamami Abe, Ayako Ujiie, Yuya Taguchi, Shun Satoh, Takahiro Shibuya, Yan Jun, Sumio Isogai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh
We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes...
April 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349500/the-polymorphous-history-of-a-polymorphous-skull-bone-the-sphenoid
#4
REVIEW
Claudia Costea, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Cucu, Gabriela Dumitrescu, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Irina Costache, Dana Turliuc
For a long time, because of its location at the skull base level, the sphenoid bone was rather mysterious as it was too difficult for anatomists to reach and to elucidate its true configuration. The configuration of the sphenoid bone led to confusion regarding its sutures with the other skull bones, its shape, its detailed anatomy, and the vascular and nervous structures that cross it. This article takes the reader on a journey through time and space, charting the evolution of anatomists' comprehension of sphenoid bone morphology from antiquity to its conception as a bone structure in the eighteenth century, and ranging from ancient Greece to modern Italy and France...
March 27, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341969/computed-tomographic-analysis-of-the-internal-structure-of-the-metacarpals-and-its-implications-for-hand-use-pathology-and-surgical-intervention
#5
Alison L Wong, Clifton G Meals, Christopher B Ruff
The variation of bone structure and biomechanics between the metacarpals is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that their structure would reflect their common patterns of use (i.e., patterns of hand grip), specifically that trabecular bone density would be greater on the volar aspect of all metacarpal bases, that this would be most pronounced in the thumb, and that the thumb diaphysis would have the greatest bending strength. Cross-sections at basal and mid-diaphyseal locations of 50 metacarpals from 10 human hands were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
March 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#6
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283881/a-case-of-double-inferior-vena-cava-with-renal-ovarian-and-iliac-vein-variation
#7
Taro Ito, Yayoi Ikeda
We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283880/the-effects-of-soy-and-tamoxifen-on-apoptosis-in-the-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus-in-a-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-model-of-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Somaieh Mansouri, Mariam Lale Ataei, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Mahmoud Hosseini
The effects of tamoxifen and soy on apoptosis of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of ovariectomized rats after repeated seizures were investigated. Female rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Sham, (3) Sham-Tamoxifen (Sham-T), (4) Ovariectomized (OVX), (5) OVX-Tamoxifen (OVX-T), (6)OVX-Soy(OVX-S) and (7) OVX-S-T. The animals in the OVX-S, OVX-T and OVX-S-T groups received soy extract (60 mg/kg; i.p.), tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) or both for 2 weeks before induction of seizures. The animals in these groups additionally received the mentioned treatments before each injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg) for 6 days...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271375/multiple-muscular-variations-including-tenuissimus-and-tensor-fasciae-suralis-muscles-in-the-posterior-thigh-of-a-human-case
#9
Takamitsu Arakawa, Takahiro Kondo, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Yuko Watanabe, Toshio Terashima, Akinori Miki
The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth...
March 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247103/anatomy-of-the-fasciae-and-fascial-spaces-of-the-maxillofacial-and-the-anterior-neck-regions
#10
REVIEW
Seiichiro Kitamura
This review provides an overview of comprehensive knowledge regarding the anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions, principally from the standpoint of oral surgery, whose descriptions have long been puzzling and descriptively much too complex. The maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions are divided into four portions: the portions superficial and deep to the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SfDCF) including its rostral extension to the face, the intermediate portion sandwiched by the splitting SfDCF, and the superficial portion peculiar to the face where the deep structures open on the body surface to form the oral cavity...
February 28, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185148/simultaneous-lateral-ponticle-with-facet-like-depression-and-epitransverse-process-of-the-atlas
#11
Jocelyn Gonzales, Vlad Voin, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle's surface...
February 9, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176269/a-new-superficial-landmark-for-the-odontoid-process-a-cadaveric-study
#12
Christian Fisahn, Michael J Montalbano, Joe Iwanaga, Marc Moisi, Marios Loukas, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens...
February 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160234/morphological-study-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus-tongue-by-sem-and-lm
#13
Ghasem Akbari, Mohammad Babaei, Belal Hassanzadeh
The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates...
February 3, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181181/recent-topics-in-kidney-research-morphology-and-molecular-cell-biology
#14
EDITORIAL
Tatsuo Sakai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730490/the-possibilities-of-studying-human-embryos-and-foetuses-using-micro-ct-a-technical-note
#15
Kateřina Vymazalová, Lenka Vargová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser
The purpose of the study was to discover a way to study the internal structure and evolution of human embryos noninvasively. The human embryo was stained with phosphotungstic acid solution (PTA) in ethanol (EPTA) and scanned using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner. Using appropriate software, a three-dimensional image of the embryo was created, which could be further exploited. The methodology described could be used for the non-destructive examination of the internal structure of the human embryo, and the resulting data can be used as a resource for medical students, gynaecologists, and paediatricians...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718210/renin-angiotensin-system-in-vertebrates-phylogenetic-view-of-structure-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Hiroko Nishimura
Renin substrate, biological renin activity, and/or renin-secreting cells in kidneys evolved at an early stage of vertebrate phylogeny. Angiotensin (Ang) I and II molecules have been identified biochemically in representative species of all vertebrate classes, although variation occurs in amino acids at positions 1, 5, and 9 of Ang I. Variations have also evolved in amino acid positions 3 and 4 in some cartilaginous fish. Angiotensin receptors, AT1 and AT2 homologues, have been identified molecularly or characterized pharmacologically in nonmammalian vertebrates...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631096/low-origin-of-the-radial-artery-a-case-study-including-a-review-of-literature-and-proposal-of-an-embryological-explanation
#17
REVIEW
Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Michał Polguj, Robert Haładaj, Mirosław Topol
A low origin of the radial artery is a rare anatomical variation, with the incidence estimated at 0.2 %. This report presents a previously unrecorded case of an unusual distal origin of the radial artery, co-occurring with a double recurrent radial artery. The radial artery arose under the pronator teres muscle, 76 mm below the intercondylar line of the humerus. After emerging from under the tendon of the pronator teres muscle, the radial artery took a typical course and terminated in the deep palmar arch...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614971/roles-of-organic-anion-transporters-oats-in-renal-proximal-tubules-and-their-localization
#18
REVIEW
Naoyuki Otani, Motoshi Ouchi, Keitaro Hayashi, Promsuk Jutabha, Naohiko Anzai
Organic anions (OAs) are secreted in renal proximal tubules in two steps. In the first step, OAs are transported from the blood through basolateral membranes into proximal tubular cells. The prototypical substrate for renal organic anion transport systems, para-aminohippurate (PAH), is transported across basolateral membranes of proximal tubular cells via OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) against an electrochemical gradient in exchange for intracellular dicarboxylates. In the second step, OAs exit into urine through apical membranes of proximal tubules...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910209/cell-biology-of-mesangial-cells-the-third-cell-that-maintains-the-glomerular-capillary
#19
REVIEW
Hidetake Kurihara, Tatsuo Sakai
The renal glomerulus consists of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells, which cooperate with each other for glomerular filtration. We have produced monoclonal antibodies against glomerular cells in order to identify different types of glomerular cells. Among these antibodies, the E30 clone specifically recognizes the Thy1.1 molecule expressed on mesangial cells. An injection of this antibody into rats resulted in mesangial cell-specific injury within 15 min, and induced mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a reproducible manner...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897373/mapping-of-enkephalins-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-in-the-squirrel-monkey-brainstem
#20
Ewing Duque-Díaz, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
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