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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779205/correction-to-morphological-reflections-of-evolutionary-adaptations-in-the-tongue-of-the-white-headed-duck
#1
Ghasem Akbari, Belal Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Madadi, Mohammad Babaei
The affiliation of the third author has been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct affiliation is provided in this erratum.
May 19, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777511/a-case-of-pancake-kidney-with-a-single-ureter-in-the-retroperitoneal-space
#2
Kasuga Horai, Munekazu Naito, Tomiko Yakura, Yuka Furuya, Yusuke Ohmichi, Mika Ohmichi, Takayoshi Miyaki, Takashi Nakano
The pancake kidney (PK) is a rare type of renal anomaly in which both kidneys completely fuse without an isthmus. In the previous reports, PKs have double ureters and are located in the pelvic cavity. We encountered a rare case of PK with a single ureter, which is located in the left retroperitoneal space, in a 95-year-old female cadaver, which was detected during a dissection course. In our case, the major calyces joined to form a single renal pelvis, which continued as a single ureter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on PK with a single ureter that is located not in the pelvic cavity but in the retroperitoneal space...
May 18, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725864/anatomical-classification-of-breast-sentinel-lymph-nodes-using-computed-tomography-lymphography
#3
Tamaki Fujita, Hiroyuki Miura, Hiroko Seino, Shuichi Ono, Takashi Nishi, Akimasa Nishimura, Kenichi Hakamada, Masahiko Aoki
To evaluate the anatomical classification and location of breast sentinel lymph nodes, preoperative computed tomography-lymphography examinations were retrospectively reviewed for sentinel lymph nodes in 464 cases clinically diagnosed with node-negative breast cancer between July 2007 and June 2016. Anatomical classification was performed based on the numbers of lymphatic routes and sentinel lymph nodes, the flow direction of lymphatic routes, and the location of sentinel lymph nodes. Of the 464 cases reviewed, anatomical classification could be performed in 434 (93...
May 3, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700803/lumbosacral-loadbearing-sagittal-shift-in-the-line-of-gravity-and-joint-surface-areas
#4
LETTER
Niladri Kumar Mahato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679362/anatomical-variation-in-the-form-of-inter-and-intra-individual-laterality-of-the-calcaneofibular-ligament
#5
Hisayoshi Yoshizuka, Kentaro Shibata, Toyoko Asami, Akio Kuraoka
The lateral ligament complex of the ankle is involved in a large proportion of ankle sprains. The calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) is often involved in severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variation and laterality of the CFL to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of CFL-related injuries. This study utilized 110 paired ankles from 55 formalin-fixed Japanese cadavers (33 male and 22 female). The length and width of the CFL and the angle created by the CFL and long axis of the fibula (CF angle) were measured after exposing the CFL by careful dissection from the surrounding tissues...
April 20, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654552/investigations-of-cortical-and-cancellous-clavicle-bone-patterns-reveal-an-explanation-for-the-load-transmission-and-the-higher-incidence-of-lateral-clavicle-fractures-in-the-elderly-a-ct-based-cadaveric-study
#6
Satoshi Yamamura, Shogo Hayashi, Zhong-Lian Li, Shinichi Kawata, Philipp Pieroh, Kenta Nagahori, Takuya Omotehara, Hidenobu Miyaso, Masahiro Itoh
Clavicle fracture is known to be one of the injuries frequently occurring in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to characterise the internal structures that might correlate with the higher incidence of lateral clavicle fracture in the elderly. Twenty clavicles were collected from ten Japanese cadavers ranging from 70 to 99 years (83.6 ± 7.6), scanned, and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) images reconstructed. The clavicle lengths were divided into five equal segments. The four demarcation lines from the acromial end of the clavicle were defined as the observation points A, B, C, and D...
April 13, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589227/morphological-reflections-of-evolutionary-adaptations-in-the-tongue-of-the-white-headed-duck
#7
Ghasem Akbari, Belal Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Madadi, Mohammad Babaei
During an organism's evolution, functional adaptations help species to become better suited to their ecological niches. From the morphological aspect, these adaptations are reflected in the anatomical specializations of different organs. Specializations of the lingual organ is a critical adaptation of birds, such as the white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), that enables their nutritional requirements to be met. For optimal use of the available food resources, the white-headed duck utilizes three methods of food collection, namely pecking, grazing and filter-feeding...
March 27, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532422/anatomical-variations-of-the-torcular-herophili-macroscopic-study-and-clinical-aspects
#8
Wakoto Matsuda, Takahiro Sonomura, Satoru Honma, Sachi Ohno, Tetsuya Goto, Shuichi Hirai, Masahiro Itoh, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroki Fujieda, Jun Udagawa, Shingo Takano, Fumino Fujiyama, Shuichi Ueda
The anatomical variations of the confluence of sinuses were examined, focusing on the continuity of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the transverse sinuses (TSs). In the 142 specimens studied, there were 72 symmetric cases (50.7%) and 70 asymmetric cases (49.3%). The symmetric group (no dominant type) was categorized into 34 cases of bifurcation (23.9%) and 38 cases of confluence (26.8%). The asymmetric group was categorized into 54 cases of the right-dominant type (38.0%) and 16 cases of the left-dominant type (11...
March 12, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525940/mash1-expressing-cells-could-differentiate-to-type-iii-cells-in-adult-mouse-taste-buds
#9
Hiroki Takagi, Yuji Seta, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Takashi Toyono, Tatsuo Kawamoto
The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system...
March 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520568/gene-expression-of-a6-like-subgroup-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporters-in-mouse-brain-parenchyma-and-microvessels
#10
Masanori Tachikawa, Hidetoh Toki, Masahiko Watanabe, Masatoshi Tomi, Ken-Ichi Hosoya, Tetsuya Terasaki
The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a highly conserved superfamily of potent lipid transporters. Although the ABCA1-like subgroup of ABCA1-4, and A7 have been shown to mediate the transport of endogenous lipids, the roles of the ABCA6-like subgroup transporters, which have been identified as a unique gene cluster on human chromosome 17q24 (ABCA5, A6, A8, A9, and A10) and mouse chromosome 11 (Abca5, a6, a8a, a8b, and a9), remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Abca6-like subgroup transporters in embryonic and postnatal mouse brains by a combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using magnetically isolated brain vascular endothelial cells...
March 8, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500659/clinical-significance-of-understanding-lateral-and-medial-circumflex-femoral-artery-origin-variability
#11
Aleksandra Vuksanović-Božarić, Marija Abramović, Ljiljana Vučković, Mileta Golubović, Batrić Vukčević, Miroslav Radunović
The common femoral artery (CFA) divides into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and deep femoral artery (DFA). The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) and medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) are most often branches of the DFA, although a large number of different variations in their origin has been described. We performed microdissection on both lower limbs of 30 fetuses, gestational age from 7 to 10 lunar months. Our results show that the LCFA and MCFA usually arise from the DFA. In 78.3% of cases, the MCFA originated from the DFA...
March 2, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488073/arterial-supply-to-the-rabbit-adrenal-gland
#12
Tetsuhito Kigata, Hideshi Shibata
The adrenal gland regulates stress responses by releasing steroid hormones, whose synthesis and secretion are influenced by adrenal blood flow. Adrenalectomy is commonly performed in rabbits to study the function of the adrenal gland. Although knowledge of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland forms the anatomical basis of the surgery, its description in prior studies is incomplete for the rabbit. Therefore, we observed the adrenal arteries in 27 male and 11 female New Zealand White rabbits using the colored latex injection method...
February 27, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103176/oncostatin-m-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-potential-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#13
REVIEW
Tadasuke Komori, Yoshihiro Morikawa
Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ-/- mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ-/- mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ-/- mice compared to those in wild-type mice...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086253/a-review-of-functional-heterogeneity-among-astrocytes-and-the-cs56-specific-antibody-mediated-detection-of-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-adult-brains
#14
REVIEW
Hiroaki Okuda
Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849397/anatomical-variations-of-the-pronator-teres-muscle-in-a-central-european-population-and-its-clinical-significance
#15
Łukasz Olewnik, Michał Podgórski, Michał Polguj, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Mirosław Topol
The pronator teres (PT) muscle is a forearm flexor with radial and ulnar heads. It is innervated by the median nerve (MN), which passes between these heads. Nerve entrapment, known as "PT syndrome", may occur in this passage. Anatomical variations in this region may be potential risk factors of this pathology. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the relationship between morphologic variations of the PT and the MN. In 50 isolated, formalin-fixed upper limbs, the cubital region and the forearm were dissected...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770548/macroscopic-anatomical-study-of-the-distribution-of-the-cranial-mesenteric-artery-to-the-intestine-in-the-rabbit
#16
Tetsuhito Kigata, Reona Ikegami, Hideshi Shibata
Intestinal surgery is commonly performed to cure bowel obstruction in rabbits, but detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the intestine are incomplete. We investigated anatomical variations of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in 33 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into the arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery arose independently from the abdominal aorta at about 2.0 cm caudal to the celiac artery and branched off the pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, ileocecocolic, jejunal and ileal arteries...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770547/analysis-of-dural-sac-thickness-in-the-human-cervical-spine
#17
Soonwook Kwon, Seung-Woo Suh, Dasom Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Hyunung Yu, Seung Woo Han, Jae-Young Hong
The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707222/considering-the-inferior-surface-area-of-lower-lumbar-vertebrae-determining-weight-transmission-pattern-at-the-lumbosacral-junction
#18
Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu, Chike P Anibeze, Chinedu F Akpuaka
The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3-L4 intervertebral disc and macerated...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685367/rare-muscular-variations-identified-in-a-single-cadaveric-upper-limb-a-four-headed-biceps-brachii-and-muscular-elevator-of-the-latissimus-dorsi-tendon
#19
Colin W Moore, Charles L Rice
Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660558/morphometric-changes-in-the-spinal-cord-during-prenatal-life-a-stereological-study-in-sheep
#20
Javad Sadeghinezhad, Narges Zadsar, Beal Hasanzadeh
This study describes the volumetric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life in sheep using quantitative stereological methods. Twenty healthy sheep fetuses were included in the present study, divided into four groups representing 9-11, 12-14, 15-17, and 18-20 weeks of gestation. In each group, the spinal cord was dissected out and sampled according to the unbiased systematic random sampling method then used for stereological estimations. The total volume of spinal cord, volume of gray matter (GM), volume of white matter (WM), ratio of GM volume to WM volume, and volume of central canal (CC) were estimated in the whole spinal cord and its various regions using Cavalieri's principle...
March 2018: Anatomical Science International
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