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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500619/prevalence-of-cribra-orbitalia-in-pacopampa-during-the-formative-period-in-peru
#1
Tomohito Nagaoka, Yuji Seki, Kazuhiro Uzawa, Mai Takigami, Daniel Morales Chocano
Cribra orbitalia is characterized by an aggregation of small apertures in the orbital roof in response to marrow hypertrophy. This pathological change is indicative of biological stress during youth. We examined the prevalence of this lesion in Pacopampa, a ceremonial center of the formative period, located in the northern highlands of Peru. Using this evaluation of cribra orbitalia, we reconstructed aspects of the population's health and nutritional status during the formation of Andean civilization. We examined 41 orbits of 27 adult individuals (13 males, 14 females) and recorded the macroscopic presence or absence of cribra orbitalia...
May 12, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417223/dorsal-metacarpal-veins-anatomic-variation-and-potential-clinical-implications
#2
Sara S Elmegarhi, Justin Z Amarin, Maher T Hadidi, Darwish H Badran, Islam M Massad, Amjad M Bani-Hani, Amjad T Shatarat
The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified...
April 17, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409316/mental-foramen-and-lingual-vascular-canals-of-mandible-on-mdct-images-anatomical-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Filiz Direk, Ismihan Ilknur Uysal, Ali Sami Kivrak, Zeliha Fazliogullari, Nadire Unver Dogan, Ahmet Kagan Karabulut
The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched...
April 13, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386743/anomalous-inferior-mesenteric-artery-supplying-the-ascending-transverse-descending-and-sigmoid-colons
#4
Tamami Abe, Ayako Ujiie, Yuya Taguchi, Shun Satoh, Takahiro Shibuya, Yan Jun, Sumio Isogai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh
We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes...
April 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349500/the-polymorphous-history-of-a-polymorphous-skull-bone-the-sphenoid
#5
REVIEW
Claudia Costea, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Cucu, Gabriela Dumitrescu, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Irina Costache, Dana Turliuc
For a long time, because of its location at the skull base level, the sphenoid bone was rather mysterious as it was too difficult for anatomists to reach and to elucidate its true configuration. The configuration of the sphenoid bone led to confusion regarding its sutures with the other skull bones, its shape, its detailed anatomy, and the vascular and nervous structures that cross it. This article takes the reader on a journey through time and space, charting the evolution of anatomists' comprehension of sphenoid bone morphology from antiquity to its conception as a bone structure in the eighteenth century, and ranging from ancient Greece to modern Italy and France...
March 27, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341969/computed-tomographic-analysis-of-the-internal-structure-of-the-metacarpals-and-its-implications-for-hand-use-pathology-and-surgical-intervention
#6
Alison L Wong, Clifton G Meals, Christopher B Ruff
The variation of bone structure and biomechanics between the metacarpals is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that their structure would reflect their common patterns of use (i.e., patterns of hand grip), specifically that trabecular bone density would be greater on the volar aspect of all metacarpal bases, that this would be most pronounced in the thumb, and that the thumb diaphysis would have the greatest bending strength. Cross-sections at basal and mid-diaphyseal locations of 50 metacarpals from 10 human hands were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
March 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#7
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283881/a-case-of-double-inferior-vena-cava-with-renal-ovarian-and-iliac-vein-variation
#8
Taro Ito, Yayoi Ikeda
We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283880/the-effects-of-soy-and-tamoxifen-on-apoptosis-in-the-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus-in-a-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-model-of-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Somaieh Mansouri, Mariam Lale Ataei, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Mahmoud Hosseini
The effects of tamoxifen and soy on apoptosis of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of ovariectomized rats after repeated seizures were investigated. Female rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Sham, (3) Sham-Tamoxifen (Sham-T), (4) Ovariectomized (OVX), (5) OVX-Tamoxifen (OVX-T), (6)OVX-Soy(OVX-S) and (7) OVX-S-T. The animals in the OVX-S, OVX-T and OVX-S-T groups received soy extract (60 mg/kg; i.p.), tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) or both for 2 weeks before induction of seizures. The animals in these groups additionally received the mentioned treatments before each injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg) for 6 days...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271375/multiple-muscular-variations-including-tenuissimus-and-tensor-fasciae-suralis-muscles-in-the-posterior-thigh-of-a-human-case
#10
Takamitsu Arakawa, Takahiro Kondo, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Yuko Watanabe, Toshio Terashima, Akinori Miki
The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth...
March 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247103/anatomy-of-the-fasciae-and-fascial-spaces-of-the-maxillofacial-and-the-anterior-neck-regions
#11
REVIEW
Seiichiro Kitamura
This review provides an overview of comprehensive knowledge regarding the anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions, principally from the standpoint of oral surgery, whose descriptions have long been puzzling and descriptively much too complex. The maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions are divided into four portions: the portions superficial and deep to the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SfDCF) including its rostral extension to the face, the intermediate portion sandwiched by the splitting SfDCF, and the superficial portion peculiar to the face where the deep structures open on the body surface to form the oral cavity...
February 28, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185148/simultaneous-lateral-ponticle-with-facet-like-depression-and-epitransverse-process-of-the-atlas
#12
Jocelyn Gonzales, Vlad Voin, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle's surface...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987116/roles-of-pkr-in-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-bone-related-cells
#13
REVIEW
Tatsuji Haneji
Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which is activated by double-stranded RNAs and related to several signal transduction pathways. To examine the effects of PKR on bone metabolism, we established PKR-K/R mutant cells in which amino acid lysine at 296 is substituted with arginine. PKR regulated apoptosis in osteoblastic cells via nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) cascade. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with osteoblast differentiation medium differentiated into osteoblasts, while the mutant cells did not differentiate into osteoblasts...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629485/giovanni-battista-morgagni-1682-1771-father-of-pathologic-anatomy-and-pioneer-of-modern-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084364/morphological-features-of-the-tongue-and-laryngeal-entrance-in-two-predatory-birds-with-similar-feeding-preferences-common-kestrel-falco-tinnunculus-and-hume-s-tawny-owl-strix-butleri
#15
Mohamed M A Abumandour, Neveen E R El-Bakary
The aim of this investigation was to describe the morphological characters of the tongue of two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences, i.e. the common kestrel and Hume's tawny owl. Descriptive information on the lingual morphology of these two birds, particularly Hume's tawny owl, is incomplete. We found that the lingual apex of the owl has an oval, concave, shovel-like form with a bifid lingual tip, while that of the kestrel has the shape of a horny tip-like spoon with a central process in addition to there being several filiform-like papillae on the dorsal surface of the apex and body...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041095/age-related-fibromuscular-dysplasia-in-the-human-left-ventricle-papillary-muscles-arteries
#16
Christos E Nerantzis, Nikolaos G Karakoukis, George C Di Lernia, Sotirios G Bouzianis, Nikolaos G Sakelaris, Emmanouil B Agapitos
We describe histologically cases of patients between 31 and 60 years of age who had fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in the tunica media (TM) of the left ventricle papillary muscles (PM) arteries. We also compared them with our previous findings in subjects younger than 30 years of age. We examined histologically samples taken from the tip of the anterior PM of the left ventricle in 200 healthy male hearts. In 33 cases (16.5 %), FMD was in the TM. We divided these cases into three subgroups (A, B, C) based on the degree of replacement of smooth muscle cells by fibrous tissue, and thus identified 17, 11 and 5 cases, respectively...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038026/an-anatomical-study-of-wormian-bones-from-the-eastern-part-of-india-is-genetic-influence-a-primary-determinant-of-their-morphogenesis
#17
Sanjib Kumar Ghosh, Sudipa Biswas, Suranjali Sharma, Soumya Chakraborty
Over the years a number of investigators have analysed the morphology of wormian bones in different population groups across the world. There have been significant variations between findings reported in these studies, and this has prompted researchers to focus on the influence of genetic factors on the morphology of these bones. In the light of the above observation, we considered it justified to conduct anatomical studies on wormian bones in different population groups; hence, we undertook the present study to look into the morphological details of these bones among a population in the eastern part of India...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015686/facial-pillars-in-dogs-an-anatomical-study
#18
Michal Kyllar, Vaclav Paral, Martin Pyszko, Barbora Doskarova
This study describes the facial pillar system in dolichocephalic and brachycephalic breeds of dogs, and highlights its differences. Knowledge of facial pillar system anatomy is imperative to carry out successful fracture repair. The aim of our study was to describe the pillar system of the facial skeleton in dogs, and compare different shapes of dog skulls using native skulls, radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The heads of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs were investigated following a maceration process using trans-illumination, radiography and CT...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015685/histological-study-of-the-developing-pterygoid-process-of-the-fetal-mouse-sphenoid
#19
Masahito Yamamoto, Kei Kitamura, Masaaki Kasahara, Masamitsu Serikawa, Sakura Katumura, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Tadatoshi Matubayashi, Kento Odaka, Satoru Matsunaga, Shinichi Abe
The pterygoid process undergoes ossification of both the cartilage and membrane. However, few studies have attempted to explore the sequential development of the pterygoid process. Using histological examination, we performed morphological observations of the pterygoid process and surrounding tissue. ICR mice at embryonic days 13.5-18.0 and postnatal day 0 were used for morphological observations of the pterygoid process. By embryonic day 14.5, a mesenchymal cell condensation forming the anlage of the future medial pterygoid process differentiated into osteoid-like tissue and cartilage...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972295/quercetin-ameliorates-peripheral-nerve-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#20
Mohammadreza Gholami, Zahra Khanipour Khayat, Khatereh Anbari, Zia Obidavi, Alimohammad Varzi, Mandana Beigi Boroujeni, Mohsen Alipour, Ali Niapoor, Anneh Mohammad Gharravi
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury induced in the sciatic nerve of the rat. Quercetin (20 mg/kg) was given during ischemia just before reperfusion. Four groups of rats (Q+IR3, Q+IR7, Q+IR14, and Q+IR28) received 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of reperfusion, respectively, after the intraperitoneal injection of quercetin. After reperfusion, a behavioral test was performed and the sciatic functional index was calculated. Each sciatic nerve was stained to check for edema and ischemic fiber degeneration...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
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