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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185148/simultaneous-lateral-ponticle-with-facet-like-depression-and-epitransverse-process-of-the-atlas
#1
Jocelyn Gonzales, Vlad Voin, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle's surface...
February 9, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181181/recent-topics-in-kidney-research-morphology-and-molecular-cell-biology
#2
EDITORIAL
Tatsuo Sakai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176269/a-new-superficial-landmark-for-the-odontoid-process-a-cadaveric-study
#3
Christian Fisahn, Michael J Montalbano, Joe Iwanaga, Marc Moisi, Marios Loukas, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens...
February 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160234/morphological-study-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus-tongue-by-sem-and-lm
#4
Ghasem Akbari, Mohammad Babaei, Belal Hassanzadeh
The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates...
February 3, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078539/unfolding-of-the-myosin-head-by-purealin-in-glycerol
#5
Jiro Takito, Jun'ichi Kobayashi, Masanori Nakamura, Yasushi Ohizumi, Yoshiaki Nonomura
Purealin is a small bioactive compound obtained from the marine sponge. The compound modulates various types of ATPase activity of myosin from skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. To elucidate the structural basis of these effects of purealin on myosin ATPases, we examined the effect of purealin on the conformation of skeletal muscle myosin in aqueous solution and in glycerol. Analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum of subfragment 1, a single-headed fragment of myosin, revealed that in 10% glycerol purealin decreased the β-sheet content of S1, but in aqueous solution it had little effect on the secondary structure of S1...
January 11, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063139/morphological-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-the-area-postrema-in-the-dog
#6
Maria Oliveira, Francisco Fernández, Jordi Solé, Martí Pumarola
Circumventricular organs are specialized brain structures that are located mainly at the midsagittal line, around the third and fourth ventricles, often protruding into the lumen. They are positioned at the interface between the neuroparenchyma and the ventricular system of the brain. These highly vascularized nervous tissue structures differ from the brain parenchyma, as they lack a blood-brain barrier. Circumventricular organs have specialized sensory and secretory functions. It is essential for any pathologist who evaluates brain sections to have a solid knowledge of microscopic neuroanatomy and to recognize these numerous specialized structures within the nervous system as normal and not mistake them for pathological changes...
January 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044256/erratum-to-clinical-relevance-of-conus-medullaris-and-dural-sac-termination-level-with-special-reference-to-sacral-hiatus-apex-anatomical-and-mri-radiologic-study
#7
Ashraf Youssef Nasr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990615/sodium-fluoride-does-not-affect-the-working-memory-and-number-of-pyramidal-cells-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Zulhaini Sartika A Pulungan, Zaenal Muttaqien Sofro, Ginus Partadiredja
Fluoride is a chemical compound known to bring about fluorosis. It is thought to disrupt the central nervous system because of its ability to induce excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Any damage of pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex would result in cognitive function and working memory regulation disorders. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the working memory and estimated total number of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells of adult male rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, namely control and three treated groups receiving 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg BW, respectively, of oral NaF solution for 30 days...
December 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990614/anatomical-variation-in-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-and-a-new-dissection-technique-for-embalmed-cadaveric-specimens
#9
Matthew Parker, Heather F Smith
Claes et al. recently documented and described the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee, demonstrating its existence in 97% of their samples. Here, we further examined the anatomy of this ligament, documented its morphological variation, and assessed the feasibility of its dissection in preserved cadaveric specimens. To achieve this, we dissected 53 preserved cadaveric knees and documented their morphological variation in the anterolateral ligament. The originally described dissection technique for identifying and following the ALL requires flexion of the knee, a state which is often not possible in stiff, preserved cadavers...
December 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987116/roles-of-pkr-in-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-bone-related-cells
#10
REVIEW
Tatsuji Haneji
Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which is activated by double-stranded RNAs and related to several signal transduction pathways. To examine the effects of PKR on bone metabolism, we established PKR-K/R mutant cells in which amino acid lysine at 296 is substituted with arginine. PKR regulated apoptosis in osteoblastic cells via nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) cascade. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with osteoblast differentiation medium differentiated into osteoblasts, while the mutant cells did not differentiate into osteoblasts...
December 16, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888476/histological-detection-of-dynamic-glial-responses-in-the-dysmyelinating-tabby-jimpy-mutant-brain
#11
Masanao Ikeda, M Ibrahim Hossain, Li Zhou, Masao Horie, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Arata Horii, Hirohide Takebayashi
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths surrounding the axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Jimpy (jp) mutant mice are dysmyelinating disease models that show developmental abnormalities in myelinated OLs in the CNS. The causative gene in jp mice is the proteolipid protein (PLP) located on the X chromosome. Mutations in the jp allele result in exon 5 skipping and expression of abnormal PLP containing a C-terminal frame shift. Many lines of evidence suggest that abnormal PLP in OLs results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death...
November 25, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822589/regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-via-a-connection-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-lipid-droplets
#12
REVIEW
Michitaka Suzuki
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store and supply lipids to regulate cellular lipid homeostasis. Fatty acids are packaged as triglyceride and cholesterol ester into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to synthesize LDs. Cytosolic LDs move dynamically and interact with organelles, including other LDs. In this process, functional proteins for metabolism are also transferred to LDs. In this review, I focus on interactions between the ER and LDs related to lipid metabolism.
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785745/novel-scanning-electron-microscopy-methods-for-analyzing-the-3d-structure-of-the-golgi-apparatus
#13
REVIEW
Daisuke Koga, Tatsuo Ushiki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
The structure of the Golgi apparatus has been extensively examined by light and electron microscopy, but details of its three-dimensional (3D) structure have remained unclear because of the technical limitations of conventional microscopy techniques. To overcome this problem, we have developed several novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods for observing the 3D structure of subcellular organelles including the Golgi apparatus: (1) an osmium maceration method that facilitates SEM observation of membranous organelles, including the Golgi apparatus, by selectively removing soluble cytoplasmic proteins, (2) an osmium impregnation/maceration method that combines an osmium impregnation method with the osmium maceration method to determine the polarity of the Golgi apparatus by SEM, (3) a correlative light and SEM method that combines a cryosectioning technique with the osmium maceration method to enable correlation of the immunocytochemical distribution of molecules with the 3D ultrastructure of the Golgi apparatus, and (4) array tomography based on the systematic collection and integration of SEM images of serial ultrathin sections on glass slides for revealing the 3D ultrastructure of the entire Golgi apparatus...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714583/insights-from-extracellular-matrix-studies-in-the-hypothalamus-structural-variations-of-perineuronal-nets-and-discovering-a-new-perifornical-area-of-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#14
REVIEW
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590897/tissue-and-cell-specific-localization-of-galectins-%C3%AE-galactose-binding-animal-lectins-and-their-potential-functions-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Junko Nio-Kobayashi
Fifteen galectins, β-galactose-binding animal lectins, are known to be distributed throughout the body. We herein summarize current knowledge on the tissue- and cell-specific localization of galectins and their potential functions in health and disease. Galectin-3 is widely distributed in epithelia, including the simple columnar epithelium in the gut, stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin, and transitional epithelium and several regions in nephrons in the urinary tract. Galectin-2 and galectin-4/6 are gut-specific, while galectin-7 is found in the stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484434/exercise-induced-hypoalgesia-potential-mechanisms-in-animal-models-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Katsuya Kami, Fumihiro Tajima, Emiko Senba
Physical exercise, such as forced treadmill running and swimming, can sufficiently improve mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in animal models of neuropathic pain (NPP), including partial sciatic nerve ligation, chronic constriction injury, and spinal nerve ligation models. Thus, physical exercise has been established as a low-cost, safe, and effective way to manage NPP conditions, but the exact mechanisms underlying such exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) are not fully understood. A growing body of evidence has identified several factors that work at different levels of the nervous system as playing important roles in producing EIH in animal models of NPP...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484433/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-structural-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Makoto Kondo
Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473595/the-arrector-pili-muscle-the-bridge-between-the-follicular-stem-cell-niche-and-the-interfollicular-epidermis
#18
Niloufar Torkamani, Nicholas Rufaut, Leslie Jones, Rodney Sinclair
Proximally, the arrector pili muscle (APM) attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the bulge, but its distal properties are comparatively unclear. In this work, a novel method employing an F-actin probe, phalloidin, was employed to visualize the APM anatomy. Phalloidin staining of the APM was validated by comparison with conventional antibodies/stains and by generating three-dimensional reconstructions. The proximal attachment of the APM to the bulge in 8 patients with androgenic alopecia was studied using Masson's trichrome stain...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430493/renaissance-of-morphological-studies-the-examination-of-functional-structures-in-living-animal-organs-using-the-in-vivo-cryotechnique
#19
REVIEW
Shinichi Ohno, Yurika Saitoh, Nobuhiko Ohno, Nobuo Terada
Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401745/duplication-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-from-a-division-of-the-left-external-iliac-vein
#20
Sirinad Tankruad, Athikhun Suwannakhan, Chinnawut Suriyonplengsaeng, Krai Meemon
Duplication of the inferior vena cava was detected in a 71-year-old Thai male cadaver with unknown cause of death. Two inferior vena cavae located on each side of the lumbar vertebrae were identified. The right inferior vena cava was formed by fusion of the right and left common iliac veins and had a normal course, while the left inferior vena cava arose from the left branch of the left external iliac vein and ascended parallel to the abdominal aorta. To our knowledge, no similar case has been previously reported...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
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