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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222673/ureteric-entrapment-in-sacroiliac-joint-causing-hydroureter-and-ipsilateral-kidney-hypertrophy
#1
Yurie Otsuru, Chuichi Kondo, Shohei Hara, Hideo Takahashi, Kenjiro Matsuno
A unilateral megaureter was found in an elderly female cadaver during routine dissection. The left proximal ureter, which was thick and convolute, descended and entered into the pelvic cavity, where the distal ureter was attached to the posterior pelvic wall at the inlet level. Removal of connective tissue surrounding the attached region revealed ureteric entrapment in the sacroiliac joint. The ipsilateral kidney, from which the megaureter originated, showed no pelvicalyceal dilatation. In contrast, the left kidney was enlarged, weighing 24% more than the right kidney...
December 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222672/morphological-alterations-in-the-position-of-the-mandibular-foramen-in-dentate-and-edentate-mandibles
#2
Niki Matveeva, Lidija Popovska, Biljana Evrosimovska, Elizabeta Chadikovska, Julijana Nikolovska
The technique of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block must be based on precise anatomical knowledge regarding the correct position of the mandibular foramen (MF). The aim of the investigation reported here was to determine the anatomic and topographic localization of the MF according to mandibular ramus anatomic landmarks and to identify morphological alterations in the position of the MF and size and shape of the ramus in terms of the impact of tooth socket loss in the molar and premolar region. Seventy-three dry human adult mandibles were divided into two groups according to dental status...
December 8, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177969/the-effect-of-methamphetamine-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-hippocampal-doublecortin-expression-learning-and-memory-of-rat-offspring
#3
Zahra Jalayeri-Darbandi, Aliakbar Rajabzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on doublecortin (DCX) expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring and also on learning/memory. Thirty-five pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of 5 rats each: three experimental groups, each receiving 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MA during pregnancy or/and lactation; three sham groups, each receiving saline injections; one control group, receiving no injection...
November 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168108/the-malaris-muscle-its-morphological-significance-for-sustaining-the-intraorbital-structures
#4
Natnicha Kampan, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Itsuko Okuda, Hisayo Nasu, Mi-Sun Hur, Kumiko Yamaguchi, Keiichi Akita
The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging-especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging. Twelve heads of Japanese cadavers (average age: 82.5 years old) were dissected to observe the muscles, focusing in particular on those in the periorbital region...
November 22, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103176/oncostatin-m-in-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-potential-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#5
REVIEW
Tadasuke Komori, Yoshihiro Morikawa
Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ(-/-) mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ(-/-) mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ(-/-) mice compared to those in wild-type mice...
November 4, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098649/molecular-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-m-cell-differentiation-and-transcytosis-in-the-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissues
#6
REVIEW
Shunsuke Kimura
Microfold cells (M cells), which are located in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering mucosal lymphoid follicles, are specialized epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses. These cells take luminal antigens and transport them via transcytosis across the FAE to the antigen-presenting cells underneath. Several intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal for entry to invade the host and cause disease conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the uptake of antigens by M cells is essential for efficient antigen-specific IgA production and that this process likely maintains the homeostasis of mucosal tissues...
November 2, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086253/a-review-of-functional-heterogeneity-among-astrocytes-and-the-cs56-specific-antibody-mediated-detection-of-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-adult-brains
#7
REVIEW
Hiroaki Okuda
Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers...
October 31, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067619/transparent-model-of-temporal-bone-and-vestibulocochlear-organ-made-by-3d-printing
#8
Ryoji Suzuki, Naoto Taniguchi, Fujio Uchida, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Yoshinori Kanatsu, Ming Zhou, Kodai Funakoshi, Hideo Akashi, Hiroshi Abe
The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1...
October 24, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952063/morphological-characteristics-of-the-tongue-and-lingual-papillae-of-the-large-bamboo-rat-rhizomys-sumatrensis
#9
Thanakul Wannaprasert
The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae...
September 26, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948536/anatomical-variations-of-the-recurrent-artery-of-heubner-number-origin-and-course
#10
Wakoto Matsuda, Takahiro Sonomura, Satoru Honma, Sachi Ohno, Tetsuya Goto, Shuichi Hirai, Masahiro Itoh, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroki Fujieda, Jun Udagawa, Shuichi Ueda
The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively...
September 25, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936596/age-related-behavioral-morphological-and-physiological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-zitter-rats
#11
Ayuka Ehara, Masao Maekawa, Yuuichi Hori, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shiuchi Ueda
Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring...
September 21, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#12
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271375/multiple-muscular-variations-including-tenuissimus-and-tensor-fasciae-suralis-muscles-in-the-posterior-thigh-of-a-human-case
#13
Takamitsu Arakawa, Takahiro Kondo, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Yuko Watanabe, Toshio Terashima, Akinori Miki
The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530127/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-microporous-ceramics-using-mc3t3-cells-cam-assay-and-a-pig-animal-model
#14
Marek Tomco, Eva Petrovova, Maria Giretova, Viera Almasiova, Katarina Holovska, Viera Cigankova, Andrej Jenca, Janka Jencova, Andrej Jenca, Martin Boldizar, Kosa Balazs, Lubomir Medvecky
Bone tissue engineering combines biomaterials with biologically active factors and cells to hold promise for reconstructing craniofacial defects. In this study the biological activity of biphasic hydroxyapatite ceramics (HA; a bone substitute that is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios) was characterized (1) in vitro by assessing the growth of MC3T3 mouse osteoblast lineage cells, (2) in ovo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and (3) in an in vivo pig animal model...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491825/anatomy-histology-and-elemental-profile-of-long-bones-and-ribs-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus
#15
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Puntita Siengdee, Kittisak Buddhachat, Janine L Brown, Sarisa Klinhom, Tanita Pitakarnnop, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Chatchote Thitaram
This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444866/evaluation-of-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-musk-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-how-it-works
#16
Nasra Naeim Ayuob
Depression has become a common public health problem that is showing increasing prevalence. Slow onset of action, low response rates and drug resistance are potential limitations of the current antidepressant drugs. Alternative therapy using natural substances, specifically aromatherapy, is currently tried to treat depression. This work aimed to assess the efficacy of musk in relieving the behavioral, biochemical and hippocampal histopathological changes induced by exposure to chronic mild stress in mice and explore the possible mechanism behind this antidepressant-like effect...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393150/mathematical-modelling-of-the-growth-of-human-fetus-anatomical-structures
#17
Krzysztof Dudek, Wojciech Kędzia, Emilia Kędzia, Alicja Kędzia, Wojciech Derkowski
The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343049/degenerative-changes-of-the-sacroiliac-auricular-joint-surface-validation-of-influential-factors
#18
Keita Nishi, Kazunobu Saiki, Takeshi Imamura, Keishi Okamoto, Tetsuaki Wakebe, Keiko Ogami, Takashi Hasegawa, Takefumi Moriuchi, Junya Sakamoto, Yoshitaka Manabe, Toshiyuki Tsurumoto
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relevance of degenerative changes in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and the joints in the lower limb and lumbar spine using age estimation methods. We also examined the shape of the auricular surface to determine the effect of degenerative changes on each joint. A total of 200 iliac auricular surfaces from 100 Japanese male skeletons were examined macroscopically in accordance with conventional methods of age estimation. From the obtained estimated age, we calculated the deflection values, which represented the degree of degenerative changes of the joints...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329656/a-dermal-equivalent-developed-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-electrospun-polycaprolactone-matrix-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#19
Vahid Bayati, Mohammad Reza Abbaspour, Fereshteh Negad Dehbashi, Niloofar Neisi, Mahmoud Hashemitabar
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is used as a material of choice for surgical sutures, wound dressings, contraceptives, fixation devices and dentistry in paramedical sciences. In addition, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrospun PCL fibers on keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and wound healing. PCL solution was electrospun and characterized. Isolated and characterized ASCs were differentiated into keratinocyte-like cells on a tissue culture plate (TCP) and PCL matrices and compared...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307085/palatine-tonsil-volume-estimation-using-different-methods-after-tonsillectomy
#20
Ayşe Sağıroğlu, Niyazi Acer, Hacı Okuducu, Tolga Ertekin, Mustafa Erkan, Esra Durmaz, Mesut Aydın, Seher Yılmaz, Gökmen Zararsız
This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods...
September 2017: Anatomical Science International
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