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Anatomical Science International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#1
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283881/a-case-of-double-inferior-vena-cava-with-renal-ovarian-and-iliac-vein-variation
#2
Taro Ito, Yayoi Ikeda
We encountered a rare case of an anatomic variant of inferior vena cava (IVC) duplication with renal, ovarian and iliac vein variation in an 81-year-old Japanese female cadaver during a student dissection course of anatomy at Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry. The two IVCs ran upwards bilaterally to the abdominal aorta. The left IVC joined with the left renal vein (RV) to form a common trunk that crossed anterior to the aorta and ended at the right IVC. We detected a vein [interiliac vein (IiV)] connecting the two IVCs at the level of the aortic bifurcation...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283880/the-effects-of-soy-and-tamoxifen-on-apoptosis-in-the-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus-in-a-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-model-of-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Somaieh Mansouri, Mariam Lale Ataei, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Mahmoud Hosseini
The effects of tamoxifen and soy on apoptosis of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of ovariectomized rats after repeated seizures were investigated. Female rats were divided into: (1) Control, (2) Sham, (3) Sham-Tamoxifen (Sham-T), (4) Ovariectomized (OVX), (5) OVX-Tamoxifen (OVX-T), (6)OVX-Soy(OVX-S) and (7) OVX-S-T. The animals in the OVX-S, OVX-T and OVX-S-T groups received soy extract (60 mg/kg; i.p.), tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) or both for 2 weeks before induction of seizures. The animals in these groups additionally received the mentioned treatments before each injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 40 mg/kg) for 6 days...
March 10, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271375/multiple-muscular-variations-including-tenuissimus-and-tensor-fasciae-suralis-muscles-in-the-posterior-thigh-of-a-human-case
#4
Takamitsu Arakawa, Takahiro Kondo, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Yuko Watanabe, Toshio Terashima, Akinori Miki
The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth...
March 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247103/anatomy-of-the-fasciae-and-fascial-spaces-of-the-maxillofacial-and-the-anterior-neck-regions
#5
REVIEW
Seiichiro Kitamura
This review provides an overview of comprehensive knowledge regarding the anatomy of the fasciae and fascial spaces of the maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions, principally from the standpoint of oral surgery, whose descriptions have long been puzzling and descriptively much too complex. The maxillofacial and the anterior neck regions are divided into four portions: the portions superficial and deep to the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SfDCF) including its rostral extension to the face, the intermediate portion sandwiched by the splitting SfDCF, and the superficial portion peculiar to the face where the deep structures open on the body surface to form the oral cavity...
February 28, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185148/simultaneous-lateral-ponticle-with-facet-like-depression-and-epitransverse-process-of-the-atlas
#6
Jocelyn Gonzales, Vlad Voin, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The lateral ponticle and epitransverse process are rare anatomical variations found on the atlas vertebra of the cervical spine. When a lateral ponticle occurs, an abnormal bony bridge extends from the superior articular facet to the transverse process. This bony bridge bisects the transverse foramen wherein the vertebral artery normally lies. In this case report, we describe a C1 specimen from an adult male with a lateral ponticle on the right side and an epitransverse process on the left side. Additionally, an articular facet-like structure was also found on the lateral ponticle's surface...
February 9, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176269/a-new-superficial-landmark-for-the-odontoid-process-a-cadaveric-study
#7
Christian Fisahn, Michael J Montalbano, Joe Iwanaga, Marc Moisi, Marios Loukas, Jens R Chapman, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens...
February 7, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160234/morphological-study-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus-tongue-by-sem-and-lm
#8
Ghasem Akbari, Mohammad Babaei, Belal Hassanzadeh
The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates...
February 3, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078539/unfolding-of-the-myosin-head-by-purealin-in-glycerol
#9
Jiro Takito, Jun'ichi Kobayashi, Masanori Nakamura, Yasushi Ohizumi, Yoshiaki Nonomura
Purealin is a small bioactive compound obtained from the marine sponge. The compound modulates various types of ATPase activity of myosin from skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. To elucidate the structural basis of these effects of purealin on myosin ATPases, we examined the effect of purealin on the conformation of skeletal muscle myosin in aqueous solution and in glycerol. Analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum of subfragment 1, a single-headed fragment of myosin, revealed that in 10% glycerol purealin decreased the β-sheet content of S1, but in aqueous solution it had little effect on the secondary structure of S1...
January 11, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063139/morphological-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-the-area-postrema-in-the-dog
#10
Maria Oliveira, Francisco Fernández, Jordi Solé, Martí Pumarola
Circumventricular organs are specialized brain structures that are located mainly at the midsagittal line, around the third and fourth ventricles, often protruding into the lumen. They are positioned at the interface between the neuroparenchyma and the ventricular system of the brain. These highly vascularized nervous tissue structures differ from the brain parenchyma, as they lack a blood-brain barrier. Circumventricular organs have specialized sensory and secretory functions. It is essential for any pathologist who evaluates brain sections to have a solid knowledge of microscopic neuroanatomy and to recognize these numerous specialized structures within the nervous system as normal and not mistake them for pathological changes...
January 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044256/erratum-to-clinical-relevance-of-conus-medullaris-and-dural-sac-termination-level-with-special-reference-to-sacral-hiatus-apex-anatomical-and-mri-radiologic-study
#11
Ashraf Youssef Nasr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181181/recent-topics-in-kidney-research-morphology-and-molecular-cell-biology
#12
EDITORIAL
Tatsuo Sakai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730490/the-possibilities-of-studying-human-embryos-and-foetuses-using-micro-ct-a-technical-note
#13
Kateřina Vymazalová, Lenka Vargová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser
The purpose of the study was to discover a way to study the internal structure and evolution of human embryos noninvasively. The human embryo was stained with phosphotungstic acid solution (PTA) in ethanol (EPTA) and scanned using a micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner. Using appropriate software, a three-dimensional image of the embryo was created, which could be further exploited. The methodology described could be used for the non-destructive examination of the internal structure of the human embryo, and the resulting data can be used as a resource for medical students, gynaecologists, and paediatricians...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718210/renin-angiotensin-system-in-vertebrates-phylogenetic-view-of-structure-and-function
#14
REVIEW
Hiroko Nishimura
Renin substrate, biological renin activity, and/or renin-secreting cells in kidneys evolved at an early stage of vertebrate phylogeny. Angiotensin (Ang) I and II molecules have been identified biochemically in representative species of all vertebrate classes, although variation occurs in amino acids at positions 1, 5, and 9 of Ang I. Variations have also evolved in amino acid positions 3 and 4 in some cartilaginous fish. Angiotensin receptors, AT1 and AT2 homologues, have been identified molecularly or characterized pharmacologically in nonmammalian vertebrates...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631096/low-origin-of-the-radial-artery-a-case-study-including-a-review-of-literature-and-proposal-of-an-embryological-explanation
#15
REVIEW
Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Michał Polguj, Robert Haładaj, Mirosław Topol
A low origin of the radial artery is a rare anatomical variation, with the incidence estimated at 0.2 %. This report presents a previously unrecorded case of an unusual distal origin of the radial artery, co-occurring with a double recurrent radial artery. The radial artery arose under the pronator teres muscle, 76 mm below the intercondylar line of the humerus. After emerging from under the tendon of the pronator teres muscle, the radial artery took a typical course and terminated in the deep palmar arch...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614971/roles-of-organic-anion-transporters-oats-in-renal-proximal-tubules-and-their-localization
#16
REVIEW
Naoyuki Otani, Motoshi Ouchi, Keitaro Hayashi, Promsuk Jutabha, Naohiko Anzai
Organic anions (OAs) are secreted in renal proximal tubules in two steps. In the first step, OAs are transported from the blood through basolateral membranes into proximal tubular cells. The prototypical substrate for renal organic anion transport systems, para-aminohippurate (PAH), is transported across basolateral membranes of proximal tubular cells via OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) against an electrochemical gradient in exchange for intracellular dicarboxylates. In the second step, OAs exit into urine through apical membranes of proximal tubules...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910209/cell-biology-of-mesangial-cells-the-third-cell-that-maintains-the-glomerular-capillary
#17
REVIEW
Hidetake Kurihara, Tatsuo Sakai
The renal glomerulus consists of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells, which cooperate with each other for glomerular filtration. We have produced monoclonal antibodies against glomerular cells in order to identify different types of glomerular cells. Among these antibodies, the E30 clone specifically recognizes the Thy1.1 molecule expressed on mesangial cells. An injection of this antibody into rats resulted in mesangial cell-specific injury within 15 min, and induced mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a reproducible manner...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897373/mapping-of-enkephalins-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-in-the-squirrel-monkey-brainstem
#18
Ewing Duque-Díaz, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26894271/stereological-assessment-of-normal-persian-squirrels-sciurus-anomalus-kidney
#19
Mohsen Akbari, Nader Goodarzi, Majid Tavafi
The functions of the mammalian kidney are closely related to its structure. This suggests that renal function can be completely characterized by accurate knowledge of its quantitative morphological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphometric features of the kidney using design-based and unbiased stereological methods in the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), which is the only representative of the Sciuridae family in the Middle East. The left kidneys of five animals were examined...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880086/micro-ct-analysis-of-the-anatomical-characteristics-of-the-stapedial-annular-ligament
#20
Aydin Mohammadi, Nicholas Jufas, Philip Sale, Kirsti Lee, Nirmal Patel, Stephen O'Leary
The oval window region has recently been identified as a potential route for drug diffusion into the inner ear. Locally applied gadolinium and trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) have been shown to directly diffuse into the vestibule through the oval window region. Given the potential importance of the oval window region in the diffusion of substances into the inner ear, this work aimed to use micro-CT to obtain a data set of anatomical characteristics of the annular ligament of the stapes in the human temporal bone, a region thus far poorly studied...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
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