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Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E

Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Ashok Agarwal, Ralf Henkel
During recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense exposure to heat and extreme exposure to pesticides, radiations, radioactivity and other hazardous substances. We are surrounded by several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and both have recognized causative effects on spermatogenesis. Since it is impossible to cover all types of radiation sources and their biological effects under a single title, this review is focusing on radiation deriving from cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, as these are the most common sources of non-ionizing radiations, which may contribute to the cause of infertility by exploring the effect of exposure to radiofrequency radiations on the male fertility pattern...
December 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Gabriel Levin, Tatiane Maldonado Coelho, Nathali Guimarães Nóbrega, Marina Trombetta-Lima, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) and their tissue inhibitors (Timps) are widely recognized as crucial factors for extracellular matrix remodeling in the ovary and are involved in follicular growth, ovulation, luteinization, and luteolysis during the estrous cycle. Recently, several genes have been associated to the modulation of Mmps activity, including Basigin (Bsg), which induces the expression of Mmps in rat ovaries; Sparc, a TGF-β modulator that is related to increased expression of Mmps in cancer; and Reck, which is associated with Mmps inhibition...
November 13, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Andrea Sansone, Massimiliano Sansone, Diana Vaamonde, Paolo Sgrò, Ciro Salzano, Francesco Romanelli, Andrea Lenzi, Luigi Di Luigi
It is universally accepted that lifestyle interventions are the first step towards a good overall, reproductive and sexual health. Cessation of unhealthy habits, such as tobacco, alcohol and drug use, poor nutrition and sedentary behavior, is suggested in order to preserve/improve fertility in humans. However, the possible risks of physical exercise per se or sports on male fertility are less known. Being "fit" does not only improve the sense of well-being, but also has beneficial effects on general health: in fact physical exercise is by all means a low-cost, high-efficacy method for preventing or treating several conditions, ranging from purely physical (diabetes and obesity) to psychological (depression and anxiety), highly influencing male reproduction...
November 12, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
T Zhao, B M Chen, X M Zhao, Z Y Shan
BACKGROUND: To assess whether elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels before conception can predict poor outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: Prior to July 2018, we searched the PubMed, EMBASE, COCHRANE, Google Scholar, and CNKI databases for studies. Retrospective or prospective reports that compared ART results in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with normal thyroid function were selected. Two reviewers separately reviewed each potential article for qualification, analyzed the quality of the studies according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and extracted the data...
November 5, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Li Li, Chang-Sheng Wu, Guan-Mei Hou, Ming-Zhe Dong, Zhen-Bo Wang, Yi Hou, Heide Schatten, Gui-Rong Zhang, Qing-Yuan Sun
BACKGROUND: Diabetes induces many complications including reduced fertility and low oocyte quality, but whether it causes increased mtDNA mutations is unknown. METHODS: We generated a T2D mouse model by using high-fat-diet (HFD) and Streptozotocin (STZ) injection. We examined mtDNA mutations in oocytes of diabetic mice by high-throughput sequencing techniques. RESULTS: T2D mice showed glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, low fecundity compared to the control group...
November 3, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
M Deknuydt, A Dumont, A Bruyneel, D Dewailly, S Catteau-Jonard
BACKGROUND: Maternal virilization during pregnancy is a rare phenomenon. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), luteoma and luteinic cysts are the most frequent and benign etiologies. This article presents two cases of recurrent maternal virilization during pregnancy. CLINICAL CASES: Our reported cases were young women with Afro-Caribbean and Nigerian origins. Data were collected by history-taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, transabdominal ultrasonographic examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging...
October 30, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Ying Qin, Akira Iwase, Tomohiko Murase, Bayasula, Chiharu Ishida, Nao Kato, Tomoko Nakamura, Satoko Osuka, Sachiko Takikawa, Maki Goto, Tomomi Kotani, Fumitaka Kikkawa
BACKGROUND: Given the seriousness of chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury in female cancer patients, the preservation of fertility, including through the use of cryopreservation technology and pharmaceuticals, requires investigation. Previous studies have shown that damage to the ovaries is related to oxidative stress caused by anticancer drugs. Therefore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) may represent a key factor in the pharmacological protection of the ovaries. The aim of our study was to identify the effects of mangafodipir, a manganese chelate and SOD-mimetic, on suppression of apoptosis in granulosa cells and primordial follicle activation induced by anticancer drugs...
October 27, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yue Liu, Yanqin Hu, Li Wang, Chen Xu
BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex process involving the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonia into mature spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. During spermatogenesis, germ cells migrate from the basement membrane to cross the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and finally reach the luminal side of the seminiferous epithelium. However, the mechanism for regulating the migration of germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the expression and function of transcriptional factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy and endocytosis, in spermatogenesis...
October 25, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Liangshan Mu, Jiexue Pan, Lili Yang, Qianqian Chen, Ya Chen, Yili Teng, Peiyu Wang, Rong Tang, Xuefeng Huang, Xia Chen, Haiyan Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalecne of hyperuricemia in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in PCOS and to determine the influence of reproductive hormones on uric acid concentration. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at a large reproductive medicine center. Between March 2007 and October 2016, a total of 1,183 women with PCOS and 10,772 women without PCOS were included...
October 25, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Priyanka Mishra, Mahendra Pal Singh Negi, Mukesh Srivastava, Kiran Singh, Singh Rajender
BACKGROUND: Since the first report of a decline in semen quality in 1974, there have been several reports of similar declines across populations. Despite some scattered reports of declining semen quality in the Indian sub-continent, comprehensive studies analyzing semen quality over the last few decades have not been undertaken. We undertook the present study to investigate the temporal trend in semen parameters in Indian populations over a period of 37 years (1979-2016). METHODS: Publications providing semen analysis details for fertile and infertile men from the Indian sub-continent were collected by a thorough literature search...
October 23, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Rachel C West, Gerrit J Bouma, Quinton A Winger
Early human placental development strongly resembles carcinogenesis in otherwise healthy tissues. The progenitor cells of the placenta, the cytotrophoblast, rapidly proliferate to produce a sufficient number of cells to form an organ that will contribute to fetal development as early as the first trimester. The cytotrophoblast cells begin to differentiate, some towards the fused cells of the syncytiotrophoblast and some towards the highly invasive and migratory extravillous trophoblast. Invasion and migration of extravillous trophoblast cells mimics tumor metastasis...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Lei Dou, Yahong Zheng, Lu Li, Xiaowei Gui, Yajuan Chen, Meng Yu, Yi Guo
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent cause of anovulatory infertility and hyperandrogenism. Evidence favors insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in PCOS. The use of insulin-sensitizing drugs has been shown to improve both the reproductive and the metabolic aspects of PCOS. Cinnamon has been found to have insulin sensitizing effect and improve menstrual cyclicity in women with PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and mechanism of cinnamon on PCOS using a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) induced PCOS mouse model...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Gabriela García-Jiménez, Teresa Zariñán, Rocío Rodríguez-Valentín, Nancy R Mejía-Domínguez, Rubén Gutiérrez-Sagal, Georgina Hernández-Montes, Armando Tovar, Fabián Arechavaleta-Velasco, Patricia Canto, Julio Granados, Hortensia Moreno-Macias, Teresa Tusié-Luna, Antonio Pellicer, Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre
BACKGROUND: FSHR SNPs may influence the ovarian sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous FSH stimulation. Given the paucity of data on the FSHR c.919A > G, c.2039A > G and - 29G > A SNPs in Hispanic population, we here analyzed their frequency distribution in Mexican mestizo women. METHODS: Samples from 224 Mexican mestizo women enrolled in an IVF program as well as a genotype database from 8182 Mexican mestizo subjects, were analyzed for FSHR SNPs at positions c...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Pamela Tello-Mora, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, Jeimy Pedraza, Esther López-Bayghen, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega
BACKGROUND: Traditional semen parameters have shown little to none predictive value for fertilization and blastocyst viability for a successful pregnancy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of incorporating the acrosome reaction (AR) and chromatin integrity to conventional semen analysis to individually predict the fertile potential of sperm samples. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 69 participants undergoing IVF using oocyte donation...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Xie Ge, Peng Pan, Jun Jing, Xuechun Hu, Li Chen, Xuhua Qiu, Rujun Ma, Kadiliya Jueraitetibaike, Xuan Huang, Bing Yao
The Sertoli cell is the only somatic cell within the seminiferous tubules, and is vital for testis development and spermatogenesis. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a member of the thiazolidinedione family and is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist. It has been reported that RSG protects various types of cells from fatty acid-induced damage. However, whether RSG serves a protective role in Sertoli cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced toxicity remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of RSG on PA-induced cytotoxicity in Sertoli cells...
October 17, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Zhenyu Huang, Dongdong Tang, Jingjing Gao, Xianming Dou, Peng Cheng, Dangwei Peng, Yao Zhang, Jun Mao, Li Zhang, Xiansheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism as a common genitourinary malformation with the serious complication of male infertility draws widespread attention. With several reported miRNAs playing critical roles in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), we aimed to explore the fundamental function of the highly conserved miR-34c in cryptorchidism. METHODS: To explore whether miR-34c participates in spermatogenesis by regulating Nanos2, we examined the effect of overexpression and inhibition for miR-34c on Nanos2 expression in GC-1 cells...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Xueying Zhang, Ying Xu, Lulu Fu, Dandan Li, Xiaowei Dai, Lianlian Liu, Jingshun Zhang, Lianwen Zheng, Manhua Cui
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is commonly complicated by adverse endometrial outcomes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are involved in the development of various human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lncRNA CD36-005 (CD36-005) is indicated to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Paul G Whittaker, Courtney A Schreiber, Mary D Sammel
BACKGROUND: Studies have commonly assessed the endocrinolgical status of women once miscarriage is threatened or suspected; few studies have explored the antecedent hormonal environment or used a longitudinal strategy. Using refined statistical techniques, we sought to re-evaluate whether gestational hormone trajectories in early pregnancy can identify future miscarriage in asymptomatic pregnancies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 105 women over-conception; 72 had normal term pregnancy outcomes while 33 experienced early pregnancy failure between 35 and 115 days of gestation...
October 11, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Majid Dastorani, Esmat Aghadavod, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Mehrnush Amiri Siavashani, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remarkably decreases the chance of pregnancy, which might be related to its impact on metabolic abnormalities in these patients. It is hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation influences metabolic profile of these patients and indirectly might affect fertility and the outcomes. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), metabolic profiles, and gene expression of insulin and lipid metabolism in infertile women with PCOS who were candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
October 4, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Alexander Freis, Janina Schlegel, Volker Daniel, Julia Jauckus, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is one of the most common complications in early pregnancy. A preventive test to identify women who will experience a miscarriage, even before first symptoms occur, is not established. Activation of maternal immunological tolerance seems to be essential for early fetal development and various cytokines have been described in different stages of pregnancy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if chemokine levels at the time of pregnancy testing relative to human Choriogonadotropin (hCG) are altered in patients who will experience a miscarriage in this pregnancy...
September 28, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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