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Harm Reduction Journal

K B Biello, A R Bazzi, M J Mimiaga, D L Biancarelli, A Edeza, P Salhaney, E Childs, M L Drainoni
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is clinically efficacious and recommended for HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID), but uptake remains low and intervention needs are understudied. To inform the development of PrEP interventions for PWID, we conducted a qualitative study in the Northeastern USA, a region where recent clusters of new HIV infections have been attributed to injection drug use. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 HIV-uninfected PWID (hereafter, "participants") and 12 clinical and social service providers (professional "key informants") in Boston, MA, and Providence, RI, in 2017...
November 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Mishka Terplan, Caitlin E Martin, Jennifer Nail, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Female exotic dancers are a population at high risk of unintended pregnancy. The objective of this study is to describe the reproductive health needs and contraceptive utilization of exotic dancers. METHODS: New exotic dancers (< 6 months dancing) from 26 clubs in Baltimore City/County completed a one-time survey. RESULTS: Of 117 participants, 96 (82%) had current contraceptive need. The mean age was 24 years, and 55% were black...
November 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Arune Kontautaite, Daria Matyushina-Ocheret, Maria Plotko, Mikhail Golichenko, Mart Kalvet, Lena Antonova
BACKGROUND: Estonia continues to have the highest prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs, and the highest overdose mortality, in the European Union. In August 2017, the Eurasian Harm Reduction Association (EHRA), the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network (CHALN), and the Estonian Association of People Who Use Psychotropic Substances (LUNEST) conducted a study in Estonia to assess the situation regarding the human rights of women who use drugs and/or living with HIV. METHODS: The research methodology, developed by EHRA and CHALN, comprised in-depth interviews with 38 drug-dependent women conducted between August 8 and 14, 2017, in Tallinn and Ida-Viru county...
November 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Grégoire Cleirec, Maeva Fortias, Vanessa Bloch, Virgile Clergue-Duval, Frank Bellivier, Thomas Dusouchet, Céline Debaulieu, Florence Vorspan
BACKGROUND: On the brink of the opening of the first French drug consumption room in Paris, the general opinion of the local involved health care professionals and drug users was not known. The objective of this study was to determine their expectations and to search for influencing factors. METHOD: We carried out a quantitative cross-sectional study. A multiple choice questionnaire was proposed to the surrounding willing general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, to the emergency doctors of Lariboisière hospital, and to the professionals of the harm reduction facilities and their drug users (PWUD)...
October 25, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Robert D Ashford, Brenda Curtis, Austin M Brown
BACKGROUND: Recovery from substance use disorder (SUD) is often considered at odds with harm reduction strategies. More recently, harm reduction has been categorized as both a pathway to recovery and a series of services to reduce the harmful consequences of substance use. Peer recovery support services (PRSS) are effective in improving SUD outcomes, as well as improving the engagement and effectiveness of harm reduction programs. METHODS: This study provides an initial evaluation of a hybrid recovery community organization providing PRSS as well as peer-based harm reduction services via a syringe exchange program...
October 22, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Rebecca Cassidy, Simone McCarthy, Christian Nyemcsok, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people's attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have implemented restrictions to limit young people's exposure to gambling advertising, few studies have investigated where young people recall seeing gambling advertising, and whether they perceive that advertising restrictions have gone far enough in reducing exposure to these promotions...
October 19, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Ariela Braverman-Bronstein, James F Thrasher, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Article 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control states the need for industry disclosure of tobacco contents and emissions. Currently, the profiles of key tobacco compounds in legal and illegal cigarettes are largely unknown. We aimed to analyze and compare concentrations of nicotine, nitrosamines, and humectants in legal and illegal cigarettes collected from a representative sample of smokers. METHODS: Participants of the International Tobacco Control cohort provided a cigarette pack of the brand they smoked during the 2014 wave...
October 3, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Ben J Riley, Simone Orlowski, David Smith, Michael Baigent, Malcolm Battersby, Sharon Lawn
BACKGROUND: In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on gambling venues to identify potential problem gamblers, respond appropriately and refer to treatment. In seeking the perspectives of problem gamblers, venue staff and treatment providers, this qualitative study investigates how problem gamblers experience being identified and referred for treatment by venue staff. METHODS: A semi-structured interview guide focusing on experiences and perceptions of problem gambling identification and referral for treatment in gaming venues was used to conduct 4 focus groups and 9 semi-structured in-depth interviews...
September 24, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Michael Curtis, Paul Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Amy Kirwan, Stuart A Kinner, Tony Butler, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: Take-home naloxone (THN) programmes are an evidence-based opioid overdose prevention initiative. Elevated opioid overdose risk following prison release means release from custody provides an ideal opportunity for THN initiatives. However, whether Australian prisoners would utilise such programmes is unknown. We examined the acceptability of THN in a cohort of male prisoners with histories of regular injecting drug use (IDU) in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: The sample comprised 380 men from the Prison and Transition Health (PATH) Cohort Study; all of whom reported regular IDU in the 6 months prior to incarceration...
September 21, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Jan van Amsterdam, Jojanneke Vervloet, Gerdien de Weert, Victor J A Buwalda, Anna E Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: Cannabis-smoking patients with a psychotic disorder have poorer disease outcomes than non-cannabis-smoking patients with poorest outcomes in patients smoking high-potency cannabis (HPC) containing high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low cannabidiol (CBD). Quitting cannabis smoking or substitution of HPC by cannabis variants containing less THC and/or more CBD may benefit these patients. The present study explores whether daily HPC-smoking patients with schizophrenia accept smoking such variants...
September 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Mohammad Karamouzian, Carolyn Dohoo, Sara Forsting, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr, Mark Lysyshyn
BACKGROUND: British Columbia, Canada, is experiencing a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses driven by consumption of street drugs contaminated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. This cross-sectional study evaluates a drug checking intervention for the clients of a supervised injection facility (SIF) in Vancouver. METHODS: Insite is a facility offering supervised injection services in Vancouver's Downtown East Side, a community with high levels of injection drug use and associated harms, including overdose deaths...
September 10, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Atte Oksanen, Iina Savolainen, Anu Sirola, Markus Kaakinen
BACKGROUND: Severe economic difficulties are common among younger generations who currently have an easy access to consumer credit and payday loans in many Western countries. These accessible yet expensive short-term loans may lead to more severe financial difficulties, including default and debt enforcement, both which are defined as debt problems within this study. This study hypothesized that consumer debt and debt problems mediate the relationship between problematic gambling and psychological distress...
September 3, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
William A Zule, Alisher Latypov, David Otiashvili, Steffani Bangel, Georgiy V Bobashev
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended that needle and syringe programs offer their clients low dead space insulin syringes with permanently attached needles. However, in many countries, these syringes are not acceptable to a majority of people who inject drugs. This study assessed the feasibility of working with needle and syringe programs to implement the WHO recommendation using low dead space detachable needles. The study also assessed the acceptability of the needles...
August 31, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
David M Barnes, Don C Des Jarlais, Margaret Wolff, Jonathan Feelemyer, Susan Tross
BACKGROUND: Transitioning from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically escalates health risks. Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs (PWID) help in a majority of others' first injections, yet these helpers represent only a minority of experienced PWID. Recent research has provided insight into this helping process, as reported by helpers. PWID who have never helped, although the majority of PWID, have not previously been the focus of study. To address this gap, we give primary voice to non-helpers' perspectives on the helping process, while also comparing their views with persons in our sample who have helped with first injections...
August 28, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide the possibility of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. This focus on HCV elimination through treatment, however, is also driving a concomitant focus on 'achieving cure' as the primary outcome of treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore what people who inject drugs consider to be important in relation to outcomes of HCV treatment, and whether there are outcomes 'beyond cure' that might be important to understand as part of improving engagement in treatment...
August 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Paula Tookey, Kate Mason, Jennifer Broad, Marty Behm, Lise Bondy, Jeff Powis
BACKGROUND: Despite the integration of peer workers into harm reduction services, there is little documentation regarding the experience of this integration or of models in which peers are fully integrated as members of health care teams. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the transition from client to support worker from the perspective of two individuals who received treatment for hepatitis C at a multi-disciplinary, community-based program, grounded in a harm reduction approach to substance use...
August 14, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Natasha Elms, Kendra Link, Adam Newman, Susan B Brogly
BACKGROUND: There are few women-centered treatment programs for substance use disorder. We therefore undertook an exploratory study to better understand the treatment experience, barriers, and facilitators of mothers with substance use disorder. METHODS: We conducted two focus groups with a total of ten women with a history of substance use disorder in Kingston (Canada). Women were recruited from a community program for mothers with substance use disorder. The focus groups were recorded, and the resulting data were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed...
August 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Lise Lafferty, T Cameron Wild, Jake Rance, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a global public health concern. There is a global prevalence of 15% among the world's prisoner population, suggesting the need for priority HCV treatment among this population group. New highly efficacious therapies with low side effects, known as directing-acting antivirals, became available under Australia's universal healthcare scheme on 1 March 2016. This creates an opportune time to trial treatment as prevention as an elimination strategy for HCV in prison settings...
August 3, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Hannah Farrimond, Charles Abraham
BACKGROUND: Public health leadership in England has taken a distinctive international stance by identifying the potential public health benefit of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. This includes the development of a ground-breaking set of national guidelines for developing e-cigarette friendly stop smoking services. However, little is known about the views of staff engaged within these services and whether or how such services are becoming e-cigarette friendly. This study aimed to investigate the uptake and usage of e-cigarette guidance, from the perspective of those enacting tobacco cessation interventions 'on the ground'...
August 3, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Sharon Cox, Lynne Dawkins
After publication of the original article [1], the authors noticed an error in the Competing interests section.
July 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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