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Harm Reduction Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776368/comparing-risk-environments-for-hiv-among-people-who-inject-drugs-from-three-cities-in-northern-mexico
#1
Angelica Ospina-Escobar, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Fatima Juárez, Dan Werb, Sergio Bautista Arredondo, Rubén Carreón, María Elena Ramos, Steffanie Strathdee
BACKGROUND: A large body of research has investigated the rise of injection drug use and HIV transmission in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (CJ). However, little is known about the dynamics of injecting in Hermosillo. This study compares drug-related behaviors and risk environment for HIV of people who inject drugs (PWID) across Tijuana, CJ, and Hermosillo to identify factors that could explain differences in HIV prevalence. METHODS: Data from Tijuana belong to a prospective study (El Cuete IV)...
May 18, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769132/toots-tastes-and-tester-shots-user-accounts-of-drug-sampling-methods-for-gauging-heroin-potency
#2
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption...
May 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751763/harm-reduction-and-viral-hepatitis-c-in-european-prisons-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-25-countries
#3
Rob Bielen, Samya R Stumo, Rachel Halford, Klára Werling, Tatjana Reic, Heino Stöver, Geert Robaeys, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. METHODS: The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings...
May 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739400/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-prisoners-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Masoud Behzadifar, Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Aziz Rezapour, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major public health problems both in developed and developing countries. Prison represents a high-risk environment for prisoners, in that it is characterized by high-risk behaviors such as injecting drug use (IDU), tattooing, unprotected sexual intercourses, or sharing syringes. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence of HCV among Iranian prisoners conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched different scholarly databases including Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Sciences, the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO as well as Iranian bibliographic thesauri (namely, Barakatns, MagIran, and SID) up to December 2017...
May 9, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739408/-care-and-prevent-rationale-for-investigating-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-aa-amyloidosis-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-london
#5
M Harris, R Brathwaite, Catherine R McGowan, D Ciccarone, G Gilchrist, M McCusker, K O'Brien, J Dunn, J Scott, V Hope
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within the past month. Complications include sepsis, endocarditis and amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is a serious sequela of chronic SSTI among PWID. Though there is a paucity of literature reporting on AA amyloidosis among PWID, what has been published suggests there is likely a causal relationship between AA amyloidosis and injecting-related SSTI...
May 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690876/women-s-gambling-behaviour-product-preferences-and-perceptions-of-product-harm-differences-by-age-and-gambling-risk-status
#6
Simone McCarthy, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. METHODS: This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour...
April 24, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661189/origins-in-the-usa-in-the-1980s-of-the-warning-that-smokeless-tobacco-is-not-a-safe-alternative-to-cigarettes-a-historical-documents-based-assessment-with-implications-for-comparative-warnings-on-less-harmful-tobacco-nicotine-products
#7
Lynn T Kozlowski
BACKGROUND: Before the 1980s in the USA, smokeless tobacco carried no health warnings, was not judged to cause disease, and was a declining practice. In 1986, the federal government passed legislation requiring rotating warnings on "mouth cancer," "gum disease and tooth loss," and "This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes." This paper explores the history of the establishment of these warnings with emphasis on the 'not a safe alternative' warning and the bases for claiming that smokeless was 'not safe' (absolute harm) versus 'not safer than cigarettes' (relative harm)...
April 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653578/electronic-cigarette-use-in-greece-an-analysis-of-a-representative-population-sample-in-attica-prefecture
#8
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Georgios Siakas, Konstantinos Poulas, Vassilis Voudris, Kyriakoula Merakou, Anastasia Barbouni
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to assess prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in Greece in 2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4058 adults living in Attica prefecture (35% of the Greek adult population) was performed in May 2017 through telephone interviews. Prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use were assessed according to the smoking status, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of use...
April 13, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631613/-worth-the-test-pragmatism-pill-testing-and-drug-policy-in-australia
#9
Andrew Groves
BACKGROUND: Recent deaths of young Australian music festival attendees from 'party-drug' overdoses have sparked debate about the effectiveness of drug policies. Australia is widely lauded for its harm minimisation approach to drugs, and yet, over the last 30 years, it can be argued its policies have been fragmented, sometimes inconsistent and contradictory. The present article examines the root of this inconsistency, using it as a foundation to advocate for drug policy reform. In keeping with the goals of the National Drug Strategy to promote policy innovation, there is an opportunity to learn from international studies which have shown promising findings in the reduction of party-drug use and its harms through application of pill testing...
April 10, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625621/expanding-harm-reduction-to-include-fentanyl-urine-testing-results-from-a-pilot-in-rural-british-columbia
#10
Silvina C Mema, Chloe Sage, Serge Popoff, Jessica Bridgeman, Deanne Taylor, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has been at the forefront of the response to the opioid overdose public health emergency in British Columbia (BC). The unprecedented number of opioid overdose deaths in the province calls for an expansion of harm reduction services. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of a fentanyl urine drug test among people who use drugs (PWUD) and explore whether testing introduced any changes in participants' attitudes and behaviors towards their drug use...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625609/lay-responder-naloxone-access-and-good-samaritan-law-compliance-postcard-survey-results-from-20-indiana-counties
#11
Dennis P Watson, Bradley Ray, Lisa Robison, Philip Huynh, Emily Sightes, La Shea Walker, Krista Brucker, Joan Duwve
BACKGROUND: To reduce fatal drug overdoses, two approaches many states have followed is to pass laws expanding naloxone access and Good Samaritan protections for lay persons with high likelihood to respond to an opioid overdose. Most prior research has examined attitudes and knowledge among lay responders in large metropolitan areas who actively use illicit substances. The present study addresses current gaps in knowledge related to this issue through an analysis of data collected from a broader group of lay responders who received naloxone kits from 20 local health departments across Indiana...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622018/from-problem-people-to-addictive-products-a-qualitative-study-on-rethinking-gambling-policy-from-the-perspective-of-lived-experience
#12
Helen E Miller, Samantha L Thomas, Priscilla Robinson
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. METHODS: We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618352/government-and-public-health-responses-to-e-cigarettes-in-new-zealand-vapers-perspectives
#13
Trish Fraser, Marewa Glover, Penelope Truman
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand (NZ) government is to lift the ban on the sale of nicotine for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: Using a naturalistic approach, we sought to understand how the current law was experienced by e-cigarette users (vapers). Twenty-nine vapers were interviewed by telephone, between May and September 2016, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Open-ended questions covered: initiating vaping, the experience of stopping smoking, technical problems encountered, reasons for vaping, acceptability of vaping, addiction to vaping and advice given to smokers about vaping...
April 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609608/methamphetamine-type-stimulant-use-in-lao-pdr-qualitative-findings-from-users-aged-15-25-years-in-vientiane-capital-and-vientiane-province
#14
Vanphanom Sychareun, Bangone Santavasy, Niramonh Chanlivong, Andrea Fischer, Nicholas Thomson, Robert Power, Jo Durham
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in several Southeast Asian countries, including the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-cultural context of its use in Lao PDR. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative survey among young people, aged 15-24 years, who use methamphetamine (or Yaba as it is commonly known in the region) in Vientiane Capital and Vientiane Province, Lao PDR...
April 2, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606138/attitudes-towards-community-gambling-venues-and-support-for-regulatory-reform-an-online-panel-study-of-residents-in-new-south-wales-australia
#15
Amy Bestman, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Hannah Pitt, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling has been identified as an important public health issue that affects individuals, families and the broader community. One gambling product, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), has been associated with significant gambling harm in Australia. There has been limited research that has explored community perceptions of EGMs and attitudes towards reform. This study, conducted in NSW, Australia, aimed to explore community use of EGM venues (clubs and hotels containing EGMs), attitudes towards EGMs and whether the use of these venues influenced attitudes towards EGM reform...
April 2, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558943/hospitalization-among-street-involved-youth-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-longitudinal-analysis
#16
Derek C Chang, Launette Rieb, Ekaterina Nosova, Yang Liu, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth who use illicit drugs are at high risk for health-related harms; however, the profile of youth at greatest risk of hospitalization has not been well described. We sought to characterize hospitalization among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs and identify the most frequent medical reasons for hospitalization among this population. METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2016, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada...
March 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510708/a-national-public-health-programme-on-gambling-policy-development-in-new-zealand-insights-from-a-process-evaluation
#17
Komathi Kolandai-Matchett, Jason Landon, Maria Bellringer, Max Abbott
BACKGROUND: In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere...
March 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506538/another-frontier-for-harm-reduction-contraceptive-needs-of-females-who-inject-drugs-in-estonia-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486774/-they-accept-me-because-i-was-one-of-them-formative-qualitative-research-supporting-the-feasibility-of-peer-led-outreach-for-people-who-use-drugs-in-dakar-senegal
#19
Camille May Stengel, Famara Mane, Andrew Guise, Magath Pouye, Monika Sigrist, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Peer outreach harm reduction initiatives are being developed with and for people who use drugs in Dakar, Senegal. This is in response to growing injecting drug use across the West Africa region and linked emerging epidemics of HIV and hepatitis C. We undertook formative qualitative research to explore the feasibility and potential of peer outreach in this context and in particular how outreach could be linked to fostering community-level processes of change. METHODS: We undertook a total of 44 semi-structured qualitative interviews...
February 27, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444685/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hiv-infection-among-men-who-inject-drugs-in-a-remote-area-of-vietnam
#20
Van T Nghiem, Thanh C Bui, Patrick P Nadol, Son H Phan, Binh T Kieu, Ryan Kling, Theodore M Hammett
BACKGROUND: Lack of information on the HIV epidemic among men who inject drugs (MWID) in northwestern Vietnam, a remote area, may hamper national efforts to control the disease. We examined HIV prevalence, needle-syringe sharing behaviors, and associated factors among MWID in three areas of northwestern Vietnam. METHODS: We used descriptive analysis to report the characteristics, frequency of risk behaviors, and of access to healthcare services among the MWID. Univariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between the HIV infection, needle-syringe sharing behaviors, and their independent variables...
February 14, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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