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Harm Reduction Journal

Derek C Chang, Launette Rieb, Ekaterina Nosova, Yang Liu, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth who use illicit drugs are at high risk for health-related harms; however, the profile of youth at greatest risk of hospitalization has not been well described. We sought to characterize hospitalization among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs and identify the most frequent medical reasons for hospitalization among this population. METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2016, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada...
March 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Komathi Kolandai-Matchett, Jason Landon, Maria Bellringer, Max Abbott
BACKGROUND: In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere...
March 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing contraceptive availability, unintended pregnancy remains a global problem. Developing strategies to reverse this trend and increasing occurrence of withdrawal syndrome among newborn children of females currently injecting drugs warrants special attention. The knowledge base on the uptake of effective contraception among females who inject drugs (FWID) is scant. We aimed to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with the use of non-condom contraceptives among sexually active FWID with the focus on effective contraception...
March 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Camille May Stengel, Famara Mane, Andrew Guise, Magath Pouye, Monika Sigrist, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Peer outreach harm reduction initiatives are being developed with and for people who use drugs in Dakar, Senegal. This is in response to growing injecting drug use across the West Africa region and linked emerging epidemics of HIV and hepatitis C. We undertook formative qualitative research to explore the feasibility and potential of peer outreach in this context and in particular how outreach could be linked to fostering community-level processes of change. METHODS: We undertook a total of 44 semi-structured qualitative interviews...
February 27, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Van T Nghiem, Thanh C Bui, Patrick P Nadol, Son H Phan, Binh T Kieu, Ryan Kling, Theodore M Hammett
BACKGROUND: Lack of information on the HIV epidemic among men who inject drugs (MWID) in northwestern Vietnam, a remote area, may hamper national efforts to control the disease. We examined HIV prevalence, needle-syringe sharing behaviors, and associated factors among MWID in three areas of northwestern Vietnam. METHODS: We used descriptive analysis to report the characteristics, frequency of risk behaviors, and of access to healthcare services among the MWID. Univariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between the HIV infection, needle-syringe sharing behaviors, and their independent variables...
February 14, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Maxwell S Krieger, Jesse L Yedinak, Jane A Buxton, Mark Lysyshyn, Edward Bernstein, Josiah D Rich, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Synthetic opioid overdose mortality among young adults has risen more than 300% in the USA since 2013, primarily due to the contamination of heroin and other drugs with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. Rapid test strips, which can be used to detect the presence of fentanyl in drug samples (before use) or urine (after use), may help inform people about their exposure risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young adults who use drugs were willing to use rapid test strips as a harm reduction intervention to prevent overdose...
February 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Carol Strike, Miroslav Miskovic
BACKGROUND: Needle and syringe program (NSP) service delivery models encompass fixed sites, mobile services, vending machines, pharmacies, peer NSPs, street outreach, and inter-organizational agreements to add NSP services to other programs. For programs seeking to implement or improve mobile services, access to a synthesis of the evidence related to mobile services is beneficial, but lacking. METHODS: We used a scoping study method to search MEDLINE, PSYCHInfo, Embase, Scopus, and Sociological for relevant literature...
February 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Carla Treloar, Max Hopwood, Elena Cama, Veronica Saunders, L Clair Jackson, Melinda Walker, Catriona Ooi, Ashley Ubrihien, James Ward
BACKGROUND: Deadly Liver Mob (DLM) is a peer-driven, incentivised health promotion program aimed at increasing understanding of hepatitis C, promoting harm reduction in relation to injecting drug use, and linking participants to screening for hepatitis C, other blood borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections among Aboriginal people in Western Sydney, NSW. This paper presents the evaluation of a pilot study examining the acceptability of the program as a first step of a scalability assessment...
February 1, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Amie Goodin, Amanda Fallin-Bennett, Traci Green, Patricia R Freeman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists' role in harm reduction is expanding in many states, yet there are limited data on pharmacists' willingness to participate in harm reduction activities. This study assessed community pharmacists' willingness to participate in one harm reduction initiative: syringe/needle exchange. METHODS: In 2015, all Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses were emailed a survey that examined attitudes towards participation in syringe/needle exchange. Response frequencies were calculated for community pharmacist respondents...
January 25, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
William A Zule, Poonam G Pande, David Otiashvili, Georgiy V Bobashev, Samuel R Friedman, V Anna Gyarmathy, Don C Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. METHODS: We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. RESULTS: Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0...
January 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Matej Sande, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the implementation of the drug checking service in Slovenia and to obtain the opinion of users included in harm reduction programmes for high-risk drug users and of drug users in nightlife settings on drug checking, the reasons for drug checking, and their attitude towards adulterants in the drugs that they use. METHODS: The two final unrepresentative research samples included 102 respondents from harm reduction programmes and 554 respondents from the online sample...
January 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Niamh Day, Joshua Criss, Benjamin Griffiths, Shireen Kaur Gujral, Franklin John-Leader, Jennifer Johnston, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Drug checking is a harm reduction strategy which allows users to check the content and purity of illicit drugs. Although drug checking has been trialled internationally, with demonstrated value as a harm reduction and health promotion strategy, the use of such services in Australia remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to investigate the proportion and patterns of illicit drug use among young people, their attitudes towards drug checking at festivals and the potential impact of drug checking on intended drug use behaviour...
January 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Julia Goldman-Hasbun, Kora DeBeck, Jane A Buxton, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth age 14-28 at enrollment in Vancouver, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Geoff Bardwell, Alexandra B Collins, Ryan McNeil, Jade Boyd
BACKGROUND: North America is currently experiencing an overdose epidemic due to a significant increase of fentanyl-adulterated opioids and related analogs. Multiple jurisdictions have declared a public health emergency given the increasing number of overdose deaths. In the province of British Columbia (BC) in Canada, people who use drugs and who are unstably housed are disproportionately affected by a rising overdose crisis, with close to 90% of overdose deaths occurring indoors. Despite this alarming number, overdose prevention and response interventions have yet to be widely implemented in a range of housing settings...
December 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Jennifer MacLellan, Julian Surey, Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen R Stagg, Jenevieve Mannell
BACKGROUND: Peer support programmes use individuals with specific experiences to improve engagement and outcomes among new clients. However, the skills and techniques used to achieve this engagement have not been mapped. This potentially restricts the development and replication of successful peer advocate models of care. This study explored how a group of peer advocates with experience of homelessness, alcohol and drug misuse made and sustained relationships with their client group. For the purposes of this project, the client group were located among a hepatitis C-positive cohort of people who have a history of injecting drug use and homelessness...
November 28, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Ben Harkness, Michael Levy, Ruth Evans, Jillian Wenke
BACKGROUND: The ability to cure hepatitis C viral infection, with specific reference to the prisoner population and the prison environment, will be challenged, even if opiate replacement therapy is concurrently offered, and even if bleach is available. The missing elements, widely available in the community, are a regulated injecting equipment exchange and tattooing parlours. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of re-infection of hepatitis C in a prisoner treated with a direct-acting antiviral...
November 25, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Aase Grønlien Petterson, Desiree Madah-Amiri
BACKGROUND: Prison inmates face a ten times increased risk of experiencing a fatal drug overdose during their first 2 weeks upon release than their non-incarcerated counterparts. Naloxone, the antidote to an opioid overdose, has been shown to be feasible and effective when administered by bystanders. Given the particular risk that newly released inmates face, it is vital to assess their knowledge about opioid overdoses, as well as the impact of brief overdose prevention training conducted inside prisons...
November 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Chelsea Jalloh, Shohan Illsley, John Wylie, Paula Migliardi, Ethan West, Debbie Stewart, Javier Mignone
BACKGROUND: Often, research takes place on underserved populations rather than with underserved populations. This approach can further isolate and stigmatize groups that are already made marginalized. What Goes Around is a community-based research project that was led by community members themselves (Peers). CASE PRESENTATION: This research aimed to implement a community-based research methodology grounded in the leadership and growing research capacity of community researchers and to investigate a topic which community members identified as important and meaningful...
November 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
J Arredondo, S A Strathdee, J Cepeda, D Abramovitz, I Artamonova, E Clairgue, E Bustamante, M L Mittal, T Rocha, A Bañuelos, H O Olivarria, M Morales, G Rangel, C Magis, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge...
November 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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