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Harm Reduction Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103937/the-influence-of-marketing-on-the-sports-betting-attitudes-and-consumption-behaviours-of-young-men-implications-for-harm-reduction-and-prevention-strategies
#1
Emily G Deans, Samantha L Thomas, Jeffrey Derevensky, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting...
January 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086792/irish-general-practitioner-attitudes-toward-decriminalisation-and-medical-use-of-cannabis-results-from-a-national-survey
#2
Des Crowley, Claire Collins, Ide Delargy, Eamon Laird, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Governmental debate in Ireland on the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis and legalisation for medical use is ongoing. A cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex®) has recently been granted market authorisation in Ireland. This unique study aimed to investigate Irish general practitioner (GP) attitudes toward decriminalisation of cannabis and assess levels of support for use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP). METHODS: General practitioners in the Irish College of General Practitioner (ICGP) database were invited to complete an online survey...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086787/perceptions-of-a-drug-prevention-public-service-announcement-campaign-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada-a-qualitative-study
#3
Lianlian Ti, Danya Fast, William Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Due to the popularity of public service announcements (PSAs), as well as the broader health and social harms associated with illicit drug use, this study sought to investigate how drug prevention messages found in the Government of Canada's DrugsNot4Me campaign were understood, experienced, and engaged with among a group of street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 individuals enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study, and a thematic analysis was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#4
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056990/stigmatization-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients-in-mountainous-areas-in-northern-vietnam
#5
Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Hai Quan Le, Bach Xuan Tran, Canh Dinh Hoang, Huong Thi Le, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination may adversely affect the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for drug users, especially in disadvantaged settings. This study assessed stigma and discrimination against MMT patients in the mountainous and rural areas in Vietnam and explored their associated factors to inform implementation strategies. METHODS: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics: one in Tuyen Quang Province's inner city and the other in Son Duong District, to assess stigma and discrimination that patients perceived and experienced...
January 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938393/drug-use-and-health-behaviour-among-german-men-who-have-sex-with-men-results-of-a-qualitative-multi-centre-study
#6
Daniel Deimel, Heino Stöver, Susann Hößelbarth, Anna Dichtl, Niels Graf, Viola Gebhardt
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group for new HIV infections. Drug use among men who have sex with men is often accompanied by risky sexual behaviours. Local AIDS help centres and gay advice centres are recording an increase in drug use among MSM clients in Germany. This study examines reasons for drug use and drug use contexts for MSM, including syndemic factors and experiences of social support. METHODS: The study is based on a qualitative research approach...
December 9, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938376/results-of-a-participatory-needs-assessment-demonstrate-an-opportunity-to-involve-people-who-use-alcohol-in-drug-user-activism-and-harm-reduction
#7
Alexis Crabtree, Nicole Latham, Lorna Bird, Jane Buxton
BACKGROUND: Drug users' organizations have made progress in recent years in advocating for the health and human rights of people who use illicit drugs but have historically not emphasized the needs of people who drink alcohol. METHODS: This paper reports on a qualitative participatory needs assessment with people who use illicit substances in British Columbia, Canada. We held workshops in 17 communities; these were facilitated by people who use illicit drugs, recorded with ethnographic fieldnotes, and analyzed using critical theory...
December 9, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#8
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919289/correlates-of-sex-trading-among-male-non-injecting-drug-users-in-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C Poudel, Hla Hla Win
BACKGROUND: Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#10
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#11
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876048/an-integrated-approach-to-care-attracts-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-an-urban-centre-with-a-concentrated-hiv-epidemic
#12
S Fernando, R McNeil, K Closson, H Samji, S Kirkland, C Strike, R Baltzer Turje, W Zhang, R S Hogg, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793174/medical-cannabis-use-in-canada-vapourization-and-modes-of-delivery
#13
Samantha Shiplo, Mark Asbridge, Scott T Leatherdale, David Hammond
BACKGROUND: The mode of medical cannabis delivery-whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally-may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. METHODS: A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015...
October 29, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733167/mental-health-among-clients-of-the-sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre-msic
#14
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717368/overview-of-harm-reduction-in-prisons-in-seven-european-countries
#15
Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi, Tzanetos Antypas
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717366/a-cross-sectional-national-survey-assessing-self-reported-drug-intake-behavior-contact-with-the-primary-sector-and-drug-treatment-among-service-users-of-danish-drug-consumption-rooms
#16
Eva Charlotte Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen, Nanna Kappel
BACKGROUND: Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user's reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust in the DCRs...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717364/meaningful-engagement-of-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-drugs-methodology-for-the-design-of-a-peer-research-associate-pra-hiring-model
#17
K Closson, R McNeil, P McDougall, S Fernando, A B Collins, R Baltzer Turje, T Howard, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)-individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operationalization of PRA hiring and thus limited understanding regarding how affected communities can be meaningfully involved through low-barrier engagement in paid positions within community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629248/a-socio-structural-approach-to-preventing-injection-drug-use-initiation-rationale-for-the-primer-study
#18
Daniel Werb, Richard Garfein, Thomas Kerr, Peter Davidson, Perrine Roux, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Marc Auriacombe, Will Small, Steffanie A Strathdee
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) play a key role in the transition of others into injecting, and while behavioral interventions have been developed to address this phenomenon, socio-structural approaches remain unexplored. To that end, we hypothesize that certain interventions designed to reduce injecting-related risk behaviors may also reduce the risk that PWID expose and introduce others into injecting...
September 15, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206486/qualitative-assessment-of-take-home-naloxone-program-participant-and-law-enforcement-interactions-in-british-columbia
#19
Andrew Deonarine, Ashraf Amlani, Graham Ambrose, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. METHODS: Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted...
May 21, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112328/legal-space-for-syringe-exchange-programs-in-hot-spots-of-injection-drug-use-related-crime
#20
Sean T Allen, Monica S Ruiz, Jeff Jones, Monique M Turner
BACKGROUND: Copious evidence indicates that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective structural interventions for HIV prevention among persons who inject drugs (PWID). The efficacy of SEPs in supporting the public health needs of PWID populations is partially dependent on their accessibility and consistent utilization among injectors. Research has shown that SEP access is an important predictor of PWID retention at SEPs, yet policies exist that may limit the geographic areas where SEP operations may legally occur...
April 26, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
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