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Harm Reduction Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#1
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919289/correlates-of-sex-trading-among-male-non-injecting-drug-users-in-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C Poudel, Hla Hla Win
BACKGROUND: Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#3
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#4
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876048/an-integrated-approach-to-care-attracts-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-an-urban-centre-with-a-concentrated-hiv-epidemic
#5
S Fernando, R McNeil, K Closson, H Samji, S Kirkland, C Strike, R Baltzer Turje, W Zhang, R S Hogg, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793174/medical-cannabis-use-in-canada-vapourization-and-modes-of-delivery
#6
Samantha Shiplo, Mark Asbridge, Scott T Leatherdale, David Hammond
BACKGROUND: The mode of medical cannabis delivery-whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally-may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. METHODS: A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015...
October 29, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733167/mental-health-among-clients-of-the-sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre-msic
#7
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717368/overview-of-harm-reduction-in-prisons-in-seven-european-countries
#8
Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi, Tzanetos Antypas
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717366/a-cross-sectional-national-survey-assessing-self-reported-drug-intake-behavior-contact-with-the-primary-sector-and-drug-treatment-among-service-users-of-danish-drug-consumption-rooms
#9
Eva Charlotte Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen, Nanna Kappel
BACKGROUND: Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user's reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust in the DCRs...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717364/meaningful-engagement-of-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-drugs-methodology-for-the-design-of-a-peer-research-associate-pra-hiring-model
#10
K Closson, R McNeil, P McDougall, S Fernando, A B Collins, R Baltzer Turje, T Howard, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)-individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operationalization of PRA hiring and thus limited understanding regarding how affected communities can be meaningfully involved through low-barrier engagement in paid positions within community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629248/a-socio-structural-approach-to-preventing-injection-drug-use-initiation-rationale-for-the-primer-study
#11
Daniel Werb, Richard Garfein, Thomas Kerr, Peter Davidson, Perrine Roux, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Marc Auriacombe, Will Small, Steffanie A Strathdee
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use remains a primary driver of HIV and HCV-related harms globally. However, there is a gap in efforts to prevent individuals from transitioning into injecting. People who inject drugs (PWID) play a key role in the transition of others into injecting, and while behavioral interventions have been developed to address this phenomenon, socio-structural approaches remain unexplored. To that end, we hypothesize that certain interventions designed to reduce injecting-related risk behaviors may also reduce the risk that PWID expose and introduce others into injecting...
September 15, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206486/qualitative-assessment-of-take-home-naloxone-program-participant-and-law-enforcement-interactions-in-british-columbia
#12
Andrew Deonarine, Ashraf Amlani, Graham Ambrose, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: The British Columbia take-home naloxone (BCTHN) program has been in operation since 2012 and has resulted in the successful reversal of over 581 opioid overdoses. The study aims to explore BCTHN program participant perspectives about the program, barriers to participants contacting emergency services (calling "911") during an overdose, and perspectives of law enforcement officials on naloxone administration by police officers. METHODS: Two focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with BCTHN program participants; interviews with two law enforcement officials were also conducted...
May 21, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048152/correlates-of-cocaine-use-during-methadone-treatment-implications-for-screening-and-clinical-management-anrs-methaville-study
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Perrine Roux, Caroline Lions, Antoine Vilotitch, Laurent Michel, Marion Mora, Gwenaelle Maradan, Fabienne Marcellin, Bruno Spire, Alain Morel, Patrizia M Carrieri
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use is frequent in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and can jeopardize their treatment response. Identifying clinical predictors of cocaine use during methadone treatment can potentially improve clinical management. We used longitudinal data from the ANRS Methaville trial both to describe self-reported occasional and regular cocaine use during MMT and to identify clinical predictors. METHODS: We selected 183 patients who had data on cocaine (or crack) use at months 0 (M0), M6, and/or M12, accounting for 483 visits...
April 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879120/opioid-tolerance-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-comparison-of-methadone-and-levomethadone-in-long-term-treatment
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Stefan Gutwinski, Nikola Schoofs, Heiner Stuke, Thomas G Riemer, Corinde E Wiers, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the development of opioid tolerance in patients receiving long-term methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). METHODS: A region-wide cross-sectional study was performed focusing on dosage and duration of treatment. Differences between racemic methadone and levomethadone were examined. All 20 psychiatric hospitals and all 110 outpatient clinics in Berlin licensed to offer MMT were approached in order to reach patients under MMT fulfilling the DSM IV criteria of opiate dependence...
February 16, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26743909/attitudes-towards-a-maintenance-agonist-treatment-approach-in-high-dose-benzodiazepine-dependent-patients-a-qualitative-study
#15
Michael Liebrenz, Marcel Schneider, Anna Buadze, Marie-Therese Gehring, Anish Dube, Carlo Caflisch
BACKGROUND: High-dose benzodiazepine dependence constitutes a major clinical concern. Although withdrawal treatment is recommended, it is unsuccessful for a significant proportion of affected patients. More recently, a benzodiazepine maintenance approach has been suggested as an alternative for patients' failing discontinuation treatment. While there is some data supporting its effectiveness, patients' perceptions of such an intervention have not been investigated. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted among a sample of 41 high-dose benzodiazepine (BZD)-dependent patients, with long-term use defined as doses equivalent to more than 40 mg diazepam per day and/or otherwise problematic use, such as mixing substances, dose escalation, recreational use, or obtainment by illegal means...
January 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455957/factors-associated-with-knowledge-of-a-good-samaritan-law-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#16
Tristan I Evans, Scott E Hadland, Melissa A Clark, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: To date, no studies have examined the extent of knowledge and perceptions of Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) among young adults who engage in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use. We sought to determine awareness of and factors associated with knowledge of Rhode Island's Good Samaritan Law (RIGSL) among young adult NMPO users. FINDINGS: We compared the sociodemographic and overdose-related characteristics of participants who were aware and unaware of the RIGSL and determined independent correlates of knowledge of the RIGSL via modified stepwise logistic regression...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377896/effects-of-combination-approach-on-harm-reduction-programs-the-taiwan-experience
#17
Ting Lin, Chang-Hsun Chen, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2003, a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus emerged among injection drug users in Taiwan. In response to the twin epidemics of HIV and intravenous drug addiction, the government implemented comprehensive harm reduction programs beginning in 2005. Collected data from relevant agencies were used to explore the impact of the harm reduction programs on HIV and illicit drug use. METHODS: This study divided 2002-2015 into three intervention phases and used the surveillance data and statistics on the HIV epidemic, drug abuse, and the intervention from relevant agencies to explore the correlations between different variables in different intervention periods and the combination effects of interventions on the HIV epidemic...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342543/health-professionals-in-flanders-perceive-the-potential-health-risks-of-vaping-as-lower-than-those-of-smoking-but-do-not-recommend-using-e-cigarettes-to-their-smoking-patients
#18
Dinska Van Gucht, Frank Baeyens
BACKGROUND: Many misperceptions of both risks and opportunities of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) exist among the general population and among physicians, although e-cigs could be a valuable harm reduction tool for current smokers. METHODS: Two groups in Flanders, namely general practitioners (GPs; family doctors) and tobacco counselors filled out an online questionnaire with regard to their attitudes and risk perceptions concerning e-cigs. Statements included were on the safety and the addictive properties of e-cigs in absolute terms, whereas other items compared e-cigs with regular tobacco cigarettes...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324253/factors-associated-with-hiv-testing-among-male-injecting-drug-users-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-behavioural-and-biological%C3%A2-survey-in-manipur-and-nagaland-india
#19
Deepika Ganju, Sowmya Ramesh, Niranjan Saggurti
BACKGROUND: Although targeted interventions in India require all high-risk groups, including injecting drug users (IDUs), to test for HIV every 6 months, testing uptake among IDUs remains far from universal. Our study estimates the proportion of IDUs who have taken an HIV test and identifies the factors associated with HIV testing uptake in Nagaland and Manipur, two high HIV prevalence states in India where the epidemic is driven by injecting drug use. METHODS: Data are drawn from the cross-sectional Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment (2009) of 1650 male IDUs from two districts each of Manipur and Nagaland...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306441/a-qualitative-study-of-how-danish-drug-consumption-rooms-influence-health-and-well-being-among-people-who-use-drugs
#20
Nanna Kappel, Eva Toth, Jette Tegner, Sigurd Lauridsen
BACKGROUND: Drug use contributes to higher rates of morbidity and mortality among people who use drugs compared to the general population. In 2012, Danish politicians passed a law that allowed drug consumption rooms (DCRs) to operate; among the objectives were to improve the well-being of vulnerable citizens and to reduce the number of overdoses. Five Danish DCRs are currently being operated. This article presents results from a national investigation focused on assessing the impact of Danish drug consumption rooms on the health and well-being of DCR clients and factors facilitating the acceptance of DCR clients in order to improve their health and refer them onward to social and health service providers...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
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