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Harm Reduction Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012148/correction-to-global-and-local-perspectives-on-tobacco-harm-reduction-what-are-the-issues-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#1
Sharon Cox, Lynne Dawkins
After publication of the original article [1], the authors noticed an error in the Competing interests section.
July 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996865/a-pragmatic-harm-reduction-approach-to-manage-a-large-outbreak-of-wound-botulism-in-people-who-inject-drugs-scotland-2015
#2
Kirsten M A Trayner, Amanda Weir, Andrew McAuley, Gauri Godbole, Corinne Amar, Kathie Grant, Gillian Penrice, Kirsty Roy
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at an increased risk of wound botulism, a potentially fatal acute paralytic illness. During the first 6 months of 2015, a large outbreak of wound botulism was confirmed among PWID in Scotland, which resulted in the largest outbreak in Europe to date. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Incident Management Team (IMT) was convened to conduct an outbreak investigation, which consisted of enhanced surveillance of cases in order to characterise risk factors and identify potential sources of infection...
July 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976203/pain-as-a-risk-factor-for-substance-use-a-qualitative-study-of-people-who-use-drugs-in-british-columbia-canada
#3
Pauline Voon, Alissa M Greer, Ashraf Amlani, Cheri Newman, Charlene Burmeister, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: People who use drugs have a significantly higher prevalence of chronic non-cancer pain compared to the general population, yet little is known about how various policy, economic, physical, and social environments may serve as risk or protective factors in the context of concurrent pain and substance use. Therefore, this study sought to explore perspectives, risks, and harms associated with pain among people who use drugs. METHODS: Thirteen focus group interviews were held across British Columbia, Canada, from July to September 2015...
July 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976195/fentanyl-contaminated-drugs-and-non-fatal-overdose-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-baltimore-md
#4
Ju Nyeong Park, Brian W Weir, Sean T Allen, Patrick Chaulk, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: The opioid crisis remains a major public health issue in the US and beyond. Despite rapid rises in fentanyl-related mortality nationally, little is known about the role of fentanyl in the occurrence of non-fatal overdose among people who use drugs. We examined the prevalence of non-fatal overdose and perceived fentanyl exposure among syringe services program (SSP) clients and modeled the correlates of non-fatal overdose. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 203 SSP clients in Baltimore, MD recruited in 2016...
July 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954412/changing-patterns-of-first-e-cigarette-flavor-used-and-current-flavors-used-by-20-836-adult-frequent-e-cigarette-users-in-the-usa
#5
Christopher Russell, Neil McKeganey, Tiffany Dickson, Mitchell Nides
BACKGROUND: Understanding the role that flavors play in the population's use of e-cigarettes and the impact that flavored e-cigarette products have on the population's use of more harmful tobacco products, like conventional cigarettes, has been identified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a public health research priority. The purpose of the study was to assess the first e-cigarette flavor and current e-cigarette flavors used by a large non-probabilistic sample of adult frequent users of e-cigarettes in the USA and assess how flavor preferences vary by cigarette smoking status and time since first e-cigarette purchase...
June 28, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933744/global-and-local-perspectives-on-tobacco-harm-reduction-what-are-the-issues-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#6
EDITORIAL
Sharon Cox, Lynne Dawkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921278/the-unique-contribution-of-e-cigarettes-for-tobacco-harm-reduction-in-supporting-smoking-relapse-prevention
#7
Caitlin Notley, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins, Richard Holland
BACKGROUND: We have little understanding of how vapers use e-cigarettes beyond cessation. E-cigarettes may have a role to play in reducing the health-related harms of tobacco smoking, through not only assisting smoking cessation attempts but also supporting long-term abstinence from smoking. However, there are fears that vaping may lead to the 'renormalisation' of smoking type behaviours. This study aimed to explore patterns of use and reported experiences of vapers quitting smoking using an e-cigarette in relation to long-term smoking status (abstinence or relapse)...
June 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855377/the-here-and-now-of-youth-the-meanings-of-smoking-for-sexual-and-gender-minority-youth
#8
Tamar M J Antin, Geoffrey Hunt, Emile Sanders
BACKGROUND: The mainstream tobacco field in the USA tends to situate youth as passive, particularly in terms of their susceptibility to industry manipulation and peer pressure. However, failing to acknowledge youths' agency overlooks important meanings youth ascribe to their tobacco use and how those meanings are shaped by the circumstances and structures of their everyday lives. METHODS: This article is based on analysis of 58 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with sexual and gender minority youth living in the San Francisco Bay area in California...
May 31, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801494/-who-has-ever-loved-a-drug-addict-it-s-a-lie-they-think-a-teja-is-as-bad-person-multiple-stigmas-faced-by-women-who-inject-drugs-in-coastal-kenya
#9
Gitau Mburu, Sylvia Ayon, Alexander C Tsai, James Ndimbii, Bangyuan Wang, Steffanie Strathdee, Janet Seeley
BACKGROUND: A tenth of all people who inject drugs in Kenya are women, yet their social contexts and experiences remain poorly understood. This paper reports how multiple forms of stigma are experienced by women who inject drugs in coastal Kenya and the impact that they have on their ability to access essential health services. METHODS: In 2015, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were held with 45 women who inject drugs in two coastal towns. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with five individual stakeholders involved in service provision to this population...
May 25, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792191/cost-of-provision-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-provision-in-tijuana-mexico
#10
Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A Cepeda, James G Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A Strathdee, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. METHODS: We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico...
May 23, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776368/comparing-risk-environments-for-hiv-among-people-who-inject-drugs-from-three-cities-in-northern-mexico
#11
Angelica Ospina-Escobar, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Fatima Juárez, Dan Werb, Sergio Bautista Arredondo, Rubén Carreón, María Elena Ramos, Steffanie Strathdee
BACKGROUND: A large body of research has investigated the rise of injection drug use and HIV transmission in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (CJ). However, little is known about the dynamics of injecting in Hermosillo. This study compares drug-related behaviors and risk environment for HIV of people who inject drugs (PWID) across Tijuana, CJ, and Hermosillo to identify factors that could explain differences in HIV prevalence. METHODS: Data from Tijuana belong to a prospective study (El Cuete IV)...
May 18, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769132/toots-tastes-and-tester-shots-user-accounts-of-drug-sampling-methods-for-gauging-heroin-potency
#12
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption...
May 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751763/harm-reduction-and-viral-hepatitis-c-in-european-prisons-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-25-countries
#13
Rob Bielen, Samya R Stumo, Rachel Halford, Klára Werling, Tatjana Reic, Heino Stöver, Geert Robaeys, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. METHODS: The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings...
May 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739400/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-prisoners-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Masoud Behzadifar, Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Aziz Rezapour, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major public health problems both in developed and developing countries. Prison represents a high-risk environment for prisoners, in that it is characterized by high-risk behaviors such as injecting drug use (IDU), tattooing, unprotected sexual intercourses, or sharing syringes. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence of HCV among Iranian prisoners conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched different scholarly databases including Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Sciences, the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO as well as Iranian bibliographic thesauri (namely, Barakatns, MagIran, and SID) up to December 2017...
May 9, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739408/-care-and-prevent-rationale-for-investigating-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-aa-amyloidosis-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-london
#15
M Harris, R Brathwaite, Catherine R McGowan, D Ciccarone, G Gilchrist, M McCusker, K O'Brien, J Dunn, J Scott, V Hope
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within the past month. Complications include sepsis, endocarditis and amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is a serious sequela of chronic SSTI among PWID. Though there is a paucity of literature reporting on AA amyloidosis among PWID, what has been published suggests there is likely a causal relationship between AA amyloidosis and injecting-related SSTI...
May 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690876/women-s-gambling-behaviour-product-preferences-and-perceptions-of-product-harm-differences-by-age-and-gambling-risk-status
#16
Simone McCarthy, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. METHODS: This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour...
April 24, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661189/origins-in-the-usa-in-the-1980s-of-the-warning-that-smokeless-tobacco-is-not-a-safe-alternative-to-cigarettes-a-historical-documents-based-assessment-with-implications-for-comparative-warnings-on-less-harmful-tobacco-nicotine-products
#17
Lynn T Kozlowski
BACKGROUND: Before the 1980s in the USA, smokeless tobacco carried no health warnings, was not judged to cause disease, and was a declining practice. In 1986, the federal government passed legislation requiring rotating warnings on "mouth cancer," "gum disease and tooth loss," and "This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes." This paper explores the history of the establishment of these warnings with emphasis on the 'not a safe alternative' warning and the bases for claiming that smokeless was 'not safe' (absolute harm) versus 'not safer than cigarettes' (relative harm)...
April 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653578/electronic-cigarette-use-in-greece-an-analysis-of-a-representative-population-sample-in-attica-prefecture
#18
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Georgios Siakas, Konstantinos Poulas, Vassilis Voudris, Kyriakoula Merakou, Anastasia Barbouni
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to assess prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in Greece in 2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4058 adults living in Attica prefecture (35% of the Greek adult population) was performed in May 2017 through telephone interviews. Prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use were assessed according to the smoking status, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of use...
April 13, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631613/-worth-the-test-pragmatism-pill-testing-and-drug-policy-in-australia
#19
Andrew Groves
BACKGROUND: Recent deaths of young Australian music festival attendees from 'party-drug' overdoses have sparked debate about the effectiveness of drug policies. Australia is widely lauded for its harm minimisation approach to drugs, and yet, over the last 30 years, it can be argued its policies have been fragmented, sometimes inconsistent and contradictory. The present article examines the root of this inconsistency, using it as a foundation to advocate for drug policy reform. In keeping with the goals of the National Drug Strategy to promote policy innovation, there is an opportunity to learn from international studies which have shown promising findings in the reduction of party-drug use and its harms through application of pill testing...
April 10, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625621/expanding-harm-reduction-to-include-fentanyl-urine-testing-results-from-a-pilot-in-rural-british-columbia
#20
Silvina C Mema, Chloe Sage, Serge Popoff, Jessica Bridgeman, Deanne Taylor, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has been at the forefront of the response to the opioid overdose public health emergency in British Columbia (BC). The unprecedented number of opioid overdose deaths in the province calls for an expansion of harm reduction services. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of a fentanyl urine drug test among people who use drugs (PWUD) and explore whether testing introduced any changes in participants' attitudes and behaviors towards their drug use...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
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