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Harm Reduction Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334973/options-for-reducing-hiv-transmission-related-to-the-dead-space-in-needles-and-syringes
#1
William A Zule, Poonam G Pande, David Otiashvili, Georgiy V Bobashev, Samuel R Friedman, V Anna Gyarmathy, Don C Des Jarlais
BACKGROUND: When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. METHODS: We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. RESULTS: Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0...
January 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329544/the-importance-of-drug-checking-outside-the-context-of-nightlife-in-slovenia
#2
Matej Sande, Simona Šabić
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the implementation of the drug checking service in Slovenia and to obtain the opinion of users included in harm reduction programmes for high-risk drug users and of drug users in nightlife settings on drug checking, the reasons for drug checking, and their attitude towards adulterants in the drugs that they use. METHODS: The two final unrepresentative research samples included 102 respondents from harm reduction programmes and 554 respondents from the online sample...
January 12, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304871/music-festival-attendees-illicit-drug-use-knowledge-and-practices-regarding-drug-content-and-purity-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Niamh Day, Joshua Criss, Benjamin Griffiths, Shireen Kaur Gujral, Franklin John-Leader, Jennifer Johnston, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Drug checking is a harm reduction strategy which allows users to check the content and purity of illicit drugs. Although drug checking has been trialled internationally, with demonstrated value as a harm reduction and health promotion strategy, the use of such services in Australia remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to investigate the proportion and patterns of illicit drug use among young people, their attitudes towards drug checking at festivals and the potential impact of drug checking on intended drug use behaviour...
January 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273031/knowledge-and-possession-of-take-home-naloxone-kits-among-street-involved-youth-in-a-canadian-setting-a-cohort-study
#4
Julia Goldman-Hasbun, Kora DeBeck, Jane A Buxton, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth age 14-28 at enrollment in Vancouver, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216892/opiate-agonist-treatment-to-improve-health-of-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-lebanon
#5
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212507/housing-and-overdose-an-opportunity-for-the-scale-up-of-overdose-prevention-interventions
#6
LETTER
Geoff Bardwell, Alexandra B Collins, Ryan McNeil, Jade Boyd
BACKGROUND: North America is currently experiencing an overdose epidemic due to a significant increase of fentanyl-adulterated opioids and related analogs. Multiple jurisdictions have declared a public health emergency given the increasing number of overdose deaths. In the province of British Columbia (BC) in Canada, people who use drugs and who are unstably housed are disproportionately affected by a rising overdose crisis, with close to 90% of overdose deaths occurring indoors. Despite this alarming number, overdose prevention and response interventions have yet to be widely implemented in a range of housing settings...
December 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179765/using-peer-advocates-to-improve-access-to-services-among-hard-to-reach-populations-with-hepatitis-c-a-qualitative-study-of-client-and-provider-relationships
#7
Jennifer MacLellan, Julian Surey, Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen R Stagg, Jenevieve Mannell
BACKGROUND: Peer support programmes use individuals with specific experiences to improve engagement and outcomes among new clients. However, the skills and techniques used to achieve this engagement have not been mapped. This potentially restricts the development and replication of successful peer advocate models of care. This study explored how a group of peer advocates with experience of homelessness, alcohol and drug misuse made and sustained relationships with their client group. For the purposes of this project, the client group were located among a hepatitis C-positive cohort of people who have a history of injecting drug use and homelessness...
November 28, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178927/why-is-there-still-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-australian-prisons-a-case-report
#8
Ben Harkness, Michael Levy, Ruth Evans, Jillian Wenke
BACKGROUND: The ability to cure hepatitis C viral infection, with specific reference to the prisoner population and the prison environment, will be challenged, even if opiate replacement therapy is concurrently offered, and even if bleach is available. The missing elements, widely available in the community, are a regulated injecting equipment exchange and tattooing parlours. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of re-infection of hepatitis C in a prisoner treated with a direct-acting antiviral...
November 25, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162122/overdose-prevention-training-with-naloxone-distribution-in-a-prison-in-oslo-norway-a-preliminary-study
#9
Aase Grønlien Petterson, Desiree Madah-Amiri
BACKGROUND: Prison inmates face a ten times increased risk of experiencing a fatal drug overdose during their first 2 weeks upon release than their non-incarcerated counterparts. Naloxone, the antidote to an opioid overdose, has been shown to be feasible and effective when administered by bystanders. Given the particular risk that newly released inmates face, it is vital to assess their knowledge about opioid overdoses, as well as the impact of brief overdose prevention training conducted inside prisons...
November 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145882/what-goes-around-the-process-of-building-a-community-based-harm-reduction-research-project
#10
Chelsea Jalloh, Shohan Illsley, John Wylie, Paula Migliardi, Ethan West, Debbie Stewart, Javier Mignone
BACKGROUND: Often, research takes place on underserved populations rather than with underserved populations. This approach can further isolate and stigmatize groups that are already made marginalized. What Goes Around is a community-based research project that was led by community members themselves (Peers). CASE PRESENTATION: This research aimed to implement a community-based research methodology grounded in the leadership and growing research capacity of community researchers and to investigate a topic which community members identified as important and meaningful...
November 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117858/measuring-improvement-in-knowledge-of-drug-policy-reforms-following-a-police-education-program-in-tijuana-mexico
#11
J Arredondo, S A Strathdee, J Cepeda, D Abramovitz, I Artamonova, E Clairgue, E Bustamante, M L Mittal, T Rocha, A Bañuelos, H O Olivarria, M Morales, G Rangel, C Magis, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Mexico's 2009 "narcomenudeo reform" decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP) improved officers' drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge...
November 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096647/hepatitis-c-infection-related-services-and-barriers-to-hcv-treatment-among-drug-users-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-clinics-in-shanghai-china
#12
Zhi-Bin Li, Lei Zhang, Jun Wang, Le-Ping Huang, Zhi-Rong Zhou, Yi-Ning Cao, Min Zhao, Jiang Du
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of hepatitis C among MMT patients, hepatitis C virus (HCV) knowledge of patients and MMT staff members, and the barriers preventing them from receiving or delivering HCV-related services in MMT clinics of China. METHODS: Data were collected from 240 MMT patients and 58 staff members in Shanghai MMT clinics. Structured questionnaires (HCV Knowledge Scale and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and several self-developed questionnaires were used to assess (1) patient and staff HCV knowledge, (2) attitudes toward HCV-related services in MMT clinics, and (3) what type of HCV-related services the staff members have provided in their routine work...
November 2, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065896/harm-reduction-principles-for-healthcare-settings
#13
Mary Hawk, Robert W S Coulter, James E Egan, Stuart Fisk, M Reuel Friedman, Monique Tula, Suzanne Kinsky
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience...
October 24, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047371/needle-acquisition-patterns-network-risk-and-social-capital-among-rural-pwid-in-puerto-rico
#14
Ian Duncan, Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Ric Curtis, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) take on significant risks of contracting blood-borne infection, including injecting with a large number of partners and acquiring needles from unsafe sources. When combined, risk of infection can be magnified. METHODS: Using a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico, we model the relationship between a subject's number of injection partners and the likelihood of having used an unsafe source of injection syringes. Data collection with 315 current injectors identified six sources of needles...
October 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985738/mitigating-risks-of-students-use-of-study-drugs-through-understanding-motivations-for-use-and-applying-harm-reduction-theory-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Dor David Abelman
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described...
October 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962652/perceived-benefits-of-the-hepatitis-c-peer-educators-a-qualitative-investigation
#16
A W Batchelder, L Cockerham-Colas, D Peyser, S P Reynoso, I Soloway, A H Litwin
BACKGROUND: Although opioid-dependent patients are disproportionately impacted by hepatitis C (HCV), many do not receive treatment. In addition to HCV treatment-access barriers, substance-using patients may be reluctant to pursue treatment because of wariness of the medical system, lack of knowledge, or stigma related to HCV treatment. Implementation of a formal peer education program is one model of reducing provider- and patient-level barriers to HCV treatment, by enhancing mutual trust and reducing stigma...
September 29, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946906/methadone-maintenance-lessons-from-two-systems-in-china
#17
LETTER
Shui-Shan Lee, Robert Newman
In Hong Kong, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was launched in the 1970s, almost 30 years before the counterpart programme's inauguration in Mainland China. Both were established in response to perceived public crises-addiction-related crime and HIV outbreak, respectively-and both are now regular services under two systems in the same country. Effectiveness of MMT in achieving the stated goals was evident in each case and provides useful lessons on strategies for dealing with the varied concerns related to illicit drug use...
September 25, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927414/erratum-to-like-a-lots-happened-with-my-whole-childhood-violence-trauma-and-addiction-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-from-vancouver-s-downtown-eastside
#18
Iris Torchalla, Isabelle Aube Linden, Verena Strehlau, Erika K Neilson, Michael Krausz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915888/stigmatization-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-by-pharmacists-in-tajikistan-sociocultural-context-and-implications-for-a-pharmacy-based-prevention-approach
#19
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882155/barriers-to-retention-in-methadone-maintenance-therapy-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Kanna Hayashi, Lianping Ti, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Paisan Suwannawong, Karyn Kaplan, Will Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a mainstay for treating opioid use disorder and preventing and managing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). While previous research suggested low dosing of methadone and high rates of discontinuation of MMT among PWID in Thailand, little is known about patients' lived experiences with MMT in this setting. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-methods study to examine barriers to retention in MMT among PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, with particular attention to methadone dosing...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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