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Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

Francesca Perondi, Ilaria Lippi, Gianila Ceccherini, Veronica Marchetti, Lucrezia Bernicchi, Grazia Guidi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prognostic models in a cohort of dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute on chronic kidney disease (AKI/CKD) managed by hemodialysis. DESIGN: Retrospective study from July 2011 to November 2014. SETTING: University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: Forty dogs with historical, clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings consistent with AKI or AKI/CKD managed with intermittent hemodialysis were included...
June 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Sarah B Shropshire, Christine S Olver, Michael R Lappin
OBJECTIVE: To assess interindividual (CVG ) and intraindividual (CVI ) variability over time for results of thromboelastography (TEG) and whole-blood impedance platelet aggregometry in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tissue factor (TF)-activated TEG and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced whole blood impedance platelet aggregometry were performed at 3 different time points (days 1, 4, and 6)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Meredith L Leary, Virginia Sinnott-Stutzman
OBJECTIVES: To describe 2 cases of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in cats. To describe 2 unique clinical settings in which the disease occurs in cats, and to highlight the differences between GDV in cats and dogs. CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Two neutered female Persian cats were presented for evaluation of respiratory distress. Initial physical examination revealed tachypnea, dyspnea, and a markedly distended and painful abdomen in both cats. Radiographs revealed a gas-dilated stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) tract in both cats but were only diagnostic for GDV in 1 case...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Leslie C Sharkey, Kim J Little, Kevin D Williams, Jeffrey M Todd, Rae Richardson, Angela D Gwynn, Aaron Rendahl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the technical performance of the turbidimetric ACL-TOP CTS 300 coagulation analyzer (IL) in dogs and cats and to create reference intervals for standard and novel parameters. DESIGN: Coagulation testing results from dogs and cats generated by the IL were prospectively compared with another mechanical clot detection system. Precision was documented and reference intervals were created for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and Clauss fibrinogen and D-dimer values, as well as for the quantitative clot curve parameters (high and low amplitude, delta, and first and second derivative curves)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Andrea M Walters, Mauria A O'Brien, Laura E Selmic, Sue Hartman, Maureen McMichael, Robert T O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) exams and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of pleural and peritoneal fluid and pneumothorax in animals that have sustained recent trauma. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: Thirteen dogs and 2 cats were enrolled into the study, with 10 having sustained blunt force trauma and 5 penetrating trauma...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Rachel B Davy-Moyle, Leo Londoño, Elizabeth A Nelson, Carsten Bandt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful management of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to oak intoxication using hemodialysis in a miniature zebu. CASE SUMMARY: A 1-year-old male intact miniature zebu was presented for evaluation of a 2-day history of lethargy, anorexia, decreased urine production, and dry, firm stool. Initial diagnostics revealed severe azotemia and the bull was presumptively diagnosed with AKI secondary to oak intoxication due to free access to oak trees in the pasture...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Veronica C Devall, Robert Goggs, Christina Hansen, Christopher W Frye, Jo-Annie Letendre, Joseph J Wakshlag
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations are increased in dogs with exertional rhabdomyolysis and whether concentrations are correlated with serum myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Yukon Quest 1,000-mile International Sled Dog Race 2015. ANIMALS: Twelve normal competitive sled dogs; 5 dogs with rhabdomyolysis. INTERVENTIONS: None...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Astrid B Kjaergaard, Jennifer L Davis, Mark J Acierno
OBJECTIVE: To report the use of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in a dog with carprofen toxicosis. SUMMARY: A 6-year-old female neutered Bichon Frise weighing 6.9 kg was examined after it had ingested 72 mg/kg carprofen. Mild dehydration without azotemia and with a urine specific gravity of 1.050 was noted at presentation. Treatment consisted of induction of emesis, symptomatic medical therapy, and TPE. The TPE achieved 1.5 plasma volume exchanges over 3 hours...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Cathy E Langston, Adam E Eatroff
OBJECTIVE: To describe an intravascular fibrin sheath associated with a hemodialysis catheter in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-year-old dog presented for hemodialysis to treat acute kidney injury. Hemodialysis catheter dysfunction during the course of treatment was temporarily alleviated using a tissue plasminogen activator. A thrombus composed of fibrin and granulation tissue creating a sheath around the catheter and focally adherent to the vessel wall was identified on postmortem evaluation...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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July 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Hiroki Sano, Joonbum Seo, Paul Wightman, Nick J Cave, Mike A Gieseg, Craig B Johnson, Paul Chambers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether pulse pressure variation (PPV) and pleth variability index (PVI) are more accurate than central venous pressure (CVP) for predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated isoflurane-anesthetized dogs after premedication with acepromazine. DESIGN: Prospective experimental trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Twelve Harrier hound dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Each dog was anesthetized and had a fluid challenge performed...
July 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Min Jang, Won-Gyun Son, Sang-Min Jo, Hyunseok Kim, Chi Won Shin, Inhyung Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new balloon technique to induce intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome in a conscious dog model, and to evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on cardiovascular, respiratory, and arterial blood gas values in conscious dogs with IAH. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. SETTING: University-based small animal research facility. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs, 4 males, and 2 females...
July 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Colleen Tansey, Melissa L Wiebe, Gabrielle C Hybki, Jeffrey E Patlogar, Lisa A Murphy, Domenico Bianco, Reid K Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Yunnan Baiyao (YB) on hemostatic parameters measured by thromboelastography (TEG) in healthy dogs administered 1 capsule of YB orally twice daily for 1 week. DESIGN: Prospective study of client-owned dogs at a small animal specialty hospital. SETTING: Private referral center. ANIMALS: Eighteen client-owned adult dogs weighing at least 15 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs had a baseline TEG performed and then each dog was administered 1 capsule of YB twice daily by mouth for 1 week and the TEG was reevaluated...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Annie Chih, Elke Rudloff, Cheryl Waldner, Andrew K J Linklater
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (HCMA) in dogs and cats in the ICU that had intermittent nasogastric tube (NGT) aspiration for up to 36 hours. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (December 2013 to October 2014). SETTING: Privately owned emergency and referral teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Forty-nine client-owned dogs and 16 client-owned cats. INTERVENTIONS: Patients wherein NGT placement was recommended and client consent was obtained were included in the interventional group...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Mariana Pardo, Travis Lanaux, Rachel Davy, Carsten Bandt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion (HP) and hemodialysis (HD) in a dog in the treatment of methotrexate (MTX) toxicosis. CASE SUMMARY: An American Pit Bull Terrier accidentally ingested 56.8 mg/m2 of MTX. The patient's initial serum MTX concentration was 0.11 μmol/L. At this dosage, myelosuppression and gastrointestinal epithelial necrosis have been reported. Charcoal HP and HD in series were used to enhance elimination of MTX...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Yu Ueda, Christine Wong, Angela Borchers
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia due to acute metformin intoxication in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A female neutered Rat Terrier was presented for an acute onset of seizure-like episodes, weakness, and vomiting approximately 14 hours after ingestion of 198 mg/kg of metformin. The dog was found to be laterally recumbent, paddling, and unresponsive shortly before presentation. On physical exam, the dog was in hypovolemic shock and hypothermic...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Christin L Reminga, Deborah C Silverstein, Kenneth J Drobatz, Dana L Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To describe problems noted during central venous jugular catheter (CVJC) placement, conditions associated with unsuccessful catheterization, and CVJC maintenance complications. DESIGN: Prospective observational study from September 2014 to September 2015. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Twenty-seven dogs and 20 cats hospitalized in a veterinary ICU. Patients were excluded if previously hospitalized with a CVJC or lacked sufficient data...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Kristian Ash, Galina M Hayes, Robert Goggs, Julia P Sumner
OBJECTIVE: To examine the animal trauma triage (ATT) and modified Glasgow Coma Scale (mGCS) scores as predictors of mortality outcome (death or euthanasia) in injured dogs. DESIGN: Observational cohort study conducted from September 2013 to March 2015 with follow-up until death or hospital discharge. SETTING: Nine veterinary hospitals including private referral and veterinary teaching hospitals. ANIMALS: Consecutive sample of 3,599 dogs with complete data entries recruited into the Veterinary Committee on Trauma patient registry...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Laura B Ateca, Erica L Reineke, Kenneth J Drobatz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between peripheral pulse palpation and Doppler-derived systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement in dogs presenting to an emergency service. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Ninety-three dogs that were presented to the emergency service. Dogs were eligible for inclusion in the study if a physical examination and a SBP measurement were performed prior to any interventions...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Didier Billet, Anthony Barthélemy, Maïlys Blesch, Aurélie Pin, Kate Hopper
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, benefits, and adverse effects of prolonged slow expiration (PSE) and assisted cough (AC) as chest physiotherapy (CP) techniques in dogs with airway fluid accumulation. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTINGS: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Intervention group of 30 client-owned dogs and retrospective control group of 71 client-owned dogs. INTERVENTIONS: PSE was performed on dogs with evidence of airway fluid accumulation, identified based on physical examination and thoracic radiographs...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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