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Integrative and Comparative Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541481/heat-tolerance-predicts-the-importance-of-species-interaction-effects-as-the-climate-changes
#1
Sarah E Diamond, Lacy Chick, Clint A Penick, Lauren M Nichols, Sara Helms Cahan, Robert R Dunn, Aaron M Ellison, Nathan J Sanders, Nicholas J Gotelli
Few studies have quantified the relative importance of direct effects of climate change on communities versus indirect effects that are mediated thorough species interactions, and the limited evidence is conflicting. Trait-based approaches have been popular in studies of climate change, but can they be used to estimate direct versus indirect effects? At the species level, thermal tolerance is a trait that is often used to predict winners and losers under scenarios of climate change. But thermal tolerance might also inform when species interactions are likely to be important because only subsets of species will be able to exploit the available warmer climatic niche space, and competition may intensify in the remaining, compressed cooler climatic niche space...
May 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525547/neuromolecular-regulation-of-aggression-differs-by-social-role-during-joint-territory-defense
#2
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Jessica Nguyen, Hans A Hofmann
In response to a territory intrusion, neighboring males of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni engage in aggressive joint territory defense in a manner that depends on their social role. Here, we examine the possible function of several neuroendocrine and neuromodulator pathways previously implicated in the regulation of complex social behavior. We find that the neuromolecular regulation of aggression during joint territory defense is very much dependent on an individual's role in this context. In neighbors but not in residents, aggression is correlated to gene expression in the medial part of the dorsal telencephalon (area Dm), the putative homolog to the mammalian basolateral amygdala...
May 19, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460041/warming-alters-prey-density-and-biological-control-in-conventional-and-organic-agricultural-systems
#3
Ebony G Murrell, Brandon T Barton
: Studies have shown that organically farmed fields promote natural predator populations and often have lower pest populations than conventional fields, due to a combination of increased predation pressure and greater plant resistance to pest damage. It is unknown how pest populations and predator efficacy may respond in these farming systems as global temperatures increase. To test these questions, we placed enclosures in eight alfalfa fields farmed using conventional (n = 4) or organic (n = 4) practices for 25 years...
April 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369455/erratum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369435/erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369423/erratum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369390/erratum
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338884/erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940623/errata
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940622/errata
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#11
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940619/-on-the-fence-versus-all-in-insights-from-turtles-for-the-evolution-of-aquatic-locomotor-specializations-and-habitat-transitions-in-tetrapod-vertebrates
#12
Richard W Blob, Christopher J Mayerl, Angela R V Rivera, Gabriel Rivera, Vanessa K H Young
Though ultimately descended from terrestrial amniotes, turtles have deep roots as an aquatic lineage and are quite diverse in the extent of their aquatic specializations. Many taxa can be viewed as "on the fence" between aquatic and terrestrial realms, whereas others have independently hyperspecialized and moved "all in" to aquatic habitats. Such differences in specialization are reflected strongly in the locomotor system. We have conducted several studies to evaluate the performance consequences of such variation in design, as well as the mechanisms through which specialization for aquatic locomotion is facilitated in turtles...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940618/from-teeth-to-baleen-and-raptorial-to-bulk-filter-feeding-in-mysticete-cetaceans-the-role-of-paleontological-genetic-and-geochemical-data-in-feeding-evolution-and-ecology
#13
Annalisa Berta, Agnese Lanzetti, Eric G Ekdale, Thomas A Deméré
The origin of baleen and filter feeding in mysticete cetaceans occurred sometime between approximately 34 and 24 million years ago and represents a major macroevolutionary shift in cetacean morphology (teeth to baleen) and ecology (raptorial to filter feeding). We explore this dramatic change in feeding strategy by employing a diversity of tools and approaches: morphology, molecules, development, and stable isotopes from the geological record. Adaptations for raptorial feeding in extinct toothed mysticetes provide the phylogenetic context for evaluating morphological apomorphies preserved in the skeletons of stem and crown edentulous mysticetes...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940617/functional-secondary-adaptation-to-an-aquatic-life-in-vertebrates-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#14
Alexandra Houssaye, Frank E Fish
One of the great transformations in evolution of vertebrates has been the return to the aquatic environment after the conquest of terrestrial ecosystems. With structural and physiological characteristics adapted to function on land, the various non-piscine taxa had to modify these characteristics to perform in water. Secondary aquatic vertebrates successfully transformed mechanisms for feeding, locomotion, osmoregulation, and sensory systems to function and thrive in an aqueous environment. This symposium emphasized the changes that had to be acquired to operate in the water with morphologies previously evolved to function on land...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940616/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#15
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940615/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#16
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940614/host-competence-an-organismal-trait-to-integrate-immunology-and-epidemiology
#17
Lynn B Martin, S C Burgan, James S Adelman, Stephanie S Gervasi
The new fields of ecological immunology and disease ecology have begun to merge, and the classic fields of immunology and epidemiology are beginning to blend with them. This merger is occurring because the integrative study of host-parasite interactions is providing insights into disease in ways that traditional methods have not. With the advent of new tools, mathematical and technological, we could be on the verge of developing a unified theory of infectious disease, one that supersedes the barriers of jargon and tradition...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940613/evaluation-of-possible-proximate-mechanisms-underlying-the-kinship-theory-of-intragenomic-conflict-in-social-insects
#18
David A Galbraith, Soojin V Yi, Christina M Grozinger
Kinship theory provides a universal framework in which to understand the evolution of altruism, but there are many molecular and genetic mechanisms that can generate altruistic behaviors. Interestingly, kinship theory specifically predicts intragenomic conflict between maternally-derived alleles (matrigenes) and paternally-derived alleles (patrigenes) over the generation of altruistic behavior in cases where the interests of the matrigenes and patrigenes are not aligned. Under these conditions, individual differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior are predicted to arise from differential expression of the matrigenes and patrigenes (parent-specific gene expression or PSGE) that regulate selfish versus altruistic behaviors...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940612/introduction-to-symposium-new-frontiers-in-the-integrative-study-of-animal-behavior-nothing-in-neuroscience-makes-sense-except-in-the-light-of-behavior
#19
Hans A Hofmann, Suzy C P Renn, Dustin R Rubenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940611/analysis-of-annotation-and-differential-expression-methods-used-in-rna-seq-studies-in-crustacean-systems
#20
Sunetra Das, Sharmishtha Shyamal, David S Durica
In the field of crustacean biology, usage of RNA-seq to study gene expression is rapidly growing. Major advances in sequencing technology have contributed to the ability to examine complex patterns of genome activity in a wide range of organisms that are extensively used for comparative physiology, ecology and evolution, environmental monitoring, and commercial aquaculture. Relative to insect and vertebrate model organisms, however, information on the organization of crustacean genomes is virtually nonexistent, making de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation and quantification problematic and challenging...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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