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Integrative and Comparative Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641377/paternal-care-in-biparental-rodents-intra-and-inter-individual-variation
#1
Wendy Saltzman, Breanna N Harris, Trynke R De Jong, Juan P Perea-Rodriguez, Nathan D Horrell, Meng Zhao, Jacob R Andrew
Parental care by fathers, although rare among mmmals, can be essential for the survival and normal development of offspring in biparental species. A growing body of research on biparental rodents has identified several developmental and experiential influences on paternal responsiveness. Some of these factors, such as pubertal maturation, interactions with pups, and cues from a pregnant mate, contribute to pronounced changes in paternal responsiveness across the course of the lifetime in individual males. Others, particularly intrauterine position during gestation and parental care received during postnatal development, can have long-term effects on paternal behavior and contribute to stable differences among individuals within a species...
June 21, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633448/the-origin-of-novelty-through-the-evolution-of-scaling-relationships
#2
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
Morphological novelty is often thought of as the evolution of an entirely new body plan or the addition of new structures to existing body plans. However, novel morphologies may also arise through modification of organ systems within an existing body plan. The evolution of novel scaling relationships between body size and organ size constitutes such a novel morphological feature. Experimental studies have demonstrated that there is genetic variation for allometries and that scaling relationships can evolve under artificial selection...
June 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582535/perceived-synchrony-of-frog-multimodal-signal-components-is%C3%A2-influenced-by-content-and-order
#3
Ryan C Taylor, Rachel A Page, Barrett A Klein, Michael J Ryan, Kimberly L Hunter
Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component)...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582534/development-trait-evolution-and-the-evolution-of-development-in-trilobites
#4
Melanie J Hopkins
Trilobites offer one of the best fossil records of any arthropod group. This is due to a number of factors, most notably the combination of (1) having inhabited areas where organisms are more likely to be buried and ultimately fossilized; and (2) having had a highly biomineralized exoskeleton more likely to survive the stresses of fossilization. This biomineralized exoskeleton was also morphologically complex, bearing traits that had ecological significance, and was present throughout postembryonic development, from larval to adult stages...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582579/glowing-worms-biological-chemical-and-functional-diversity-of-bioluminescent-annelids
#5
Aida Verdes, David F Gruber
Bioluminescence, the ability to produce light by living organisms, has evolved independently in numerous lineages across the tree of life. Luminous forms are found in a wide range of taxonomic groups from bacteria to vertebrates, although the great majority of bioluminescent organisms are marine taxa. Within the phylum Annelida, bioluminescence is widespread, present in at least 98 terrestrial and marine species that represent 45 genera distributed in thirteen lineages of clitellates and polychaetes. The ecological diversity of luminous annelids is unparalleled, with species occupying a great variety of habitats including both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep-sea, in benthic and pelagic habitats from polar to tropical regions...
June 3, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582548/butterflies-do-not-alter-conspecific-avoidance-in-response-to-variation-in-density
#6
Sarah Jaumann, Emilie C Snell-Rood
High conspecific densities are associated with increased levels of intraspecific competition and a variety of negative effects on performance. However, changes in life history strategy could compensate for some of these effects. For instance, females in crowded conditions often have fewer total offspring, but they may invest more in each one. Such investment could include the production of larger offspring, more time spent engaging in parental care, or more choosy decisions about where offspring are placed...
June 3, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575440/impacts-of-ocean-acidification-on-sensory-function-in-marine-organisms
#7
Molly M Ashur, Nicole K Johnston, Danielle L Dixson
Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions...
May 29, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541481/heat-tolerance-predicts-the-importance-of-species-interaction-effects-as-the-climate-changes
#8
Sarah E Diamond, Lacy Chick, Clint A Penick, Lauren M Nichols, Sara Helms Cahan, Robert R Dunn, Aaron M Ellison, Nathan J Sanders, Nicholas J Gotelli
Few studies have quantified the relative importance of direct effects of climate change on communities versus indirect effects that are mediated thorough species interactions, and the limited evidence is conflicting. Trait-based approaches have been popular in studies of climate change, but can they be used to estimate direct versus indirect effects? At the species level, thermal tolerance is a trait that is often used to predict winners and losers under scenarios of climate change. But thermal tolerance might also inform when species interactions are likely to be important because only subsets of species will be able to exploit the available warmer climatic niche space, and competition may intensify in the remaining, compressed cooler climatic niche space...
May 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525547/neuromolecular-regulation-of-aggression-differs-by-social-role-during-joint-territory-defense
#9
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Jessica Nguyen, Hans A Hofmann
In response to a territory intrusion, neighboring males of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni engage in aggressive joint territory defense in a manner that depends on their social role. Here, we examine the possible function of several neuroendocrine and neuromodulator pathways previously implicated in the regulation of complex social behavior. We find that the neuromolecular regulation of aggression during joint territory defense is very much dependent on an individual's role in this context. In neighbors but not in residents, aggression is correlated to gene expression in the medial part of the dorsal telencephalon (area Dm), the putative homolog to the mammalian basolateral amygdala...
May 19, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460041/warming-alters-prey-density-and-biological-control-in-conventional-and-organic-agricultural-systems
#10
Ebony G Murrell, Brandon T Barton
: Studies have shown that organically farmed fields promote natural predator populations and often have lower pest populations than conventional fields, due to a combination of increased predation pressure and greater plant resistance to pest damage. It is unknown how pest populations and predator efficacy may respond in these farming systems as global temperatures increase. To test these questions, we placed enclosures in eight alfalfa fields farmed using conventional (n = 4) or organic (n = 4) practices for 25 years...
April 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369455/erratum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369435/erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369423/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369390/erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338884/erratum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940623/errata
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940622/errata
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#18
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940619/-on-the-fence-versus-all-in-insights-from-turtles-for-the-evolution-of-aquatic-locomotor-specializations-and-habitat-transitions-in-tetrapod-vertebrates
#19
Richard W Blob, Christopher J Mayerl, Angela R V Rivera, Gabriel Rivera, Vanessa K H Young
Though ultimately descended from terrestrial amniotes, turtles have deep roots as an aquatic lineage and are quite diverse in the extent of their aquatic specializations. Many taxa can be viewed as "on the fence" between aquatic and terrestrial realms, whereas others have independently hyperspecialized and moved "all in" to aquatic habitats. Such differences in specialization are reflected strongly in the locomotor system. We have conducted several studies to evaluate the performance consequences of such variation in design, as well as the mechanisms through which specialization for aquatic locomotion is facilitated in turtles...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940618/from-teeth-to-baleen-and-raptorial-to-bulk-filter-feeding-in-mysticete-cetaceans-the-role-of-paleontological-genetic-and-geochemical-data-in-feeding-evolution-and-ecology
#20
Annalisa Berta, Agnese Lanzetti, Eric G Ekdale, Thomas A Deméré
The origin of baleen and filter feeding in mysticete cetaceans occurred sometime between approximately 34 and 24 million years ago and represents a major macroevolutionary shift in cetacean morphology (teeth to baleen) and ecology (raptorial to filter feeding). We explore this dramatic change in feeding strategy by employing a diversity of tools and approaches: morphology, molecules, development, and stable isotopes from the geological record. Adaptations for raptorial feeding in extinct toothed mysticetes provide the phylogenetic context for evaluating morphological apomorphies preserved in the skeletons of stem and crown edentulous mysticetes...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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