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International Journal of Health Geographics

Melanie Tomintz, Bernhard Kosar, Graham Clarke
BACKGROUND: Reducing the smoking population is still high on the policy agenda, as smoking leads to many preventable diseases, such as lung cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and more. In Austria, data on smoking prevalence only exists at the federal state level. This provides an interesting overview about the current health situation, but for regional planning authorities these data are often insufficient as they can hide pockets of high and low smoking prevalence in certain municipalities...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Alba Cebrecos, Julia Díez, Pedro Gullón, Usama Bilal, Manuel Franco, Francisco Escobar
BACKGROUND: Healthier urban environments influence the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to design and implement a multicomponent method based on Geographic Information Systems to characterize and evaluate environmental correlates of obesity: the food and the physical activity urban environments. METHODS: Study location comprised a socio-demographically average urban area of 12 contiguous census sections (≈16,000 residents), in Madrid, Spain...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Marie Delaunay, Vincent Godard, Mélina Le Barbier, Annabelle Gilg Soit Ilg, Cédric Aubert, Anne Maître, Damien Barbeau, Vincent Bonneterre
BACKGROUND: Although introduced nearly 40 years ago, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have never been used to study Occupational Health information regarding the different types, scale or sources of data. The geographic distribution of occupational diseases and underlying work activities were always analyzed independently. Our aim was to consider the French Network of Occupational Disease (OD) clinics, namely the "French National OD Surveillance and Prevention Network" (rnv3p) as a spatial object in order to describe its catchment...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Amber L Pearson
BACKGROUND: Most water access studies involve self-reported measures such as time spent or simple spatial measures such as Euclidean distance from home to source. GPS-based measures of access are often considered actual access and have shown little correlation with self-reported measures. One main obstacle to widespread use of GPS-based measurement of access to water has been technological limitations (e.g., battery life). As such, GPS-based measures have been limited by time and in sample size...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Warren C Jochem, Abdur Razzaque, Elisabeth Dowling Root
BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections continue to be a public health threat, particularly to young children in developing countries. Understanding the geographic patterns of diseases and the role of potential risk factors can help improve future mitigation efforts. Toward this goal, this paper applies a spatial scan statistic combined with a zero-inflated negative-binomial regression to re-examine the impacts of a community-based treatment program on the geographic patterns of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) mortality in an area of rural Bangladesh...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Lieze Mertens, Delfien Van Dyck, Ariane Ghekiere, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Benedicte Deforche, Nico Van de Weghe, Jelle Van Cauwenberg
BACKGROUND: Micro-environmental factors (specific features within a streetscape), instead of macro-environmental factors (urban planning features), are more feasible to modify in existing neighborhoods and thus more practical to target for environmental interventions. Because it is often not possible to change the whole micro-environment at once, the current study aims to determine which micro-environmental factors should get the priority to target in physical environmental interventions increasing bicycle transport...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Peter F Dutey-Magni, Graham Moon
BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence models have been widely used to estimate health, lifestyle and disability characteristics for small geographical units when other data are not available. Yet, knowledge is often lacking about how to make informed decisions around the specification of such models, especially regarding spatial assumptions placed on their covariance structure. This paper is concerned with understanding processes of spatial dependency in unexplained variation in chronic morbidity...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Hui Luan, Leia M Minaker, Jane Law
BACKGROUND: Findings of whether marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments (RFE) are mixed across countries, in part because inconsistent approaches have been used to characterize RFE 'healthfulness' and marginalization, and researchers have used non-spatial statistical methods to respond to this ultimately spatial issue. METHODS: This study uses in-store features to categorize healthy and less healthy food outlets. Bayesian spatial hierarchical models are applied to explore the association between marginalization dimensions and RFE healthfulness (i...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Wei Luo
BACKGROUND: Human interaction and population mobility determine the spatio-temporal course of the spread of an airborne disease. This research views such spreads as geo-social interaction problems, because population mobility connects different groups of people over geographical locations via which the viruses transmit. Previous research argued that geo-social interaction patterns identified from population movement data can provide great potential in designing effective pandemic mitigation...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Junhee Han, Li Zhu, Martin Kulldorff, Scott Hostovich, David G Stinchcomb, Zaria Tatalovich, Denise Riedel Lewis, Eric J Feuer
BACKGROUND: Spatial and space-time scan statistics are widely used in disease surveillance to identify geographical areas of elevated disease risk and for the early detection of disease outbreaks. With a scan statistic, a scanning window of variable location and size moves across the map to evaluate thousands of overlapping windows as potential clusters, adjusting for the multiple testing. Almost always, the method will find many very similar overlapping clusters, and it is not useful to report all of them...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Md Hamidul Huque, Craig Anderson, Richard Walton, Louise Ryan
BACKGROUND: Mapping disease rates over a region provides a visual illustration of underlying geographical variation of the disease and can be useful to generate new hypotheses on the disease aetiology. However, methods to fit the popular and widely used conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disease mapping are not feasible in many applications due to memory constraints, particularly when the sample size is large. We propose a new algorithm to fit a CAR model that can accommodate both individual and group level covariates while adjusting for spatial correlation in the disease rates, termed indiCAR...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Caroline W Kabaria, Fabrizio Molteni, Renata Mandike, Frank Chacky, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow, Catherine Linard
BACKGROUND: With more than half of Africa's population expected to live in urban settlements by 2030, the burden of malaria among urban populations in Africa continues to rise with an increasing number of people at risk of infection. However, malaria intervention across Africa remains focused on rural, highly endemic communities with far fewer strategic policy directions for the control of malaria in rapidly growing African urban settlements. The complex and heterogeneous nature of urban malaria requires a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of urban malaria risk in order to design effective urban malaria control programs...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Leo Beletsky, Jaime Arredondo, Dan Werb, Alicia Vera, Daniela Abramovitz, Joseph J Amon, Kimberly C Brouwer, Steffanie A Strathdee, Tommi L Gaines
BACKGROUND: As geospatial data have become increasingly integral to health and human rights research, their collection using formal address designations or paper maps has been complicated by numerous factors, including poor cartographic literacy, nomenclature imprecision, and human error. As part of a longitudinal study of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, respondents were prompted to georeference specific experiences. RESULTS: At baseline, only about one third of the 737 participants were native to Tijuana, underscoring prevalence of migration/deportation experience...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Kristoffer Mattisson, Kristina Jakobsson, Carita Håkansson, Ellen Cromley
BACKGROUND: Long commutes by car are stressful. Most research studying health effects of commuting have summarized cross-sectional data for large regions. This study investigated whether the levels of stress and individual characteristics among 30-60 min car commuters were similar across different places within the county of Scania, Sweden, and if there were changes over time. METHODS: The study population was drawn from a public health survey conducted in 2000, with follow-ups in 2005 and 2010...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Henrikki Tenkanen, Perttu Saarsalmi, Olle Järv, Maria Salonen, Tuuli Toivonen
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we demonstrate why and how both temporality and multimodality should be integrated in health related studies that include accessibility perspective, in this case healthy food accessibility. We provide evidence regarding the importance of using multimodal spatio-temporal accessibility measures when conducting research in urban contexts and propose a methodological approach for integrating different travel modes and temporality to spatial accessibility analyses...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Zhijie Zhang, Justin Manjourides, Ted Cohen, Yi Hu, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Spatial epidemiology has been aided by advances in geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems and the development of new statistical methodologies specifically designed for such data. Given the growing popularity of these studies, we sought to review and analyze the types of spatial measurement errors commonly encountered during spatial epidemiological analysis of spatial data. METHODS: Google Scholar, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched using a broad set of terms for papers indexed by a term indicating location (space or geography or location or position) and measurement error (measurement error or measurement inaccuracy or misclassification or uncertainty): we reviewed all papers appearing before December 20, 2014...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
M Schootman, E J Nelson, K Werner, E Shacham, M Elliott, K Ratnapradipa, M Lian, A McVay
Adverse neighborhood conditions play an important role beyond individual characteristics. There is increasing interest in identifying specific characteristics of the social and built environments adversely affecting health outcomes. Most research has assessed aspects of such exposures via self-reported instruments or census data. Potential threats in the local environment may be subject to short-term changes that can only be measured with more nimble technology. The advent of new technologies may offer new opportunities to obtain geospatial data about neighborhoods that may circumvent the limitations of traditional data sources...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Richard Casey Sadler
BACKGROUND: The availability of healthy foods in a neighborhood remains a key determinant of diet and diet-related disease in disadvantaged communities. Innovative solutions to the 'food desert' problem include the deployment of mobile markets and healthy corner store initiatives. Such initiatives, however, do not always capitalize on the principles guiding retail development and the possibilities of GIS-based data. Simultaneously, community partners are not always engaged effectively in the planning for such interventions, which limits acceptability and suitability of such work...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Diana Gómez-Barroso, Javier García-Pérez, Gonzalo López-Abente, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Antonio Morales-Piga, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Rebeca Ramis
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is the main cause of disease-related death in children in Spain. Although little is known about the etiology, environmental factors are potential explanations for a fraction of the cases. Previous studies have shown pesticides to be associated with childhood cancer. The difficulty of collecting personal environmental exposure data is an important limitation; this lack of information about pesticides motivates the development of new methods to subrogate this exposure...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Bo-Cheng Lin, Chao-Wen Chen, Chien-Chou Chen, Chiao-Ling Kuo, I-Chun Fan, Chi-Kung Ho, I-Chuan Liu, Ta-Chien Chan
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a critical life-threatening event which frequently warrants early defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). The optimization of allocating a limited number of AEDs in various types of communities is challenging. We aimed to propose a two-stage modeling framework including spatial accessibility evaluation and priority ranking to identify the highest gaps between demand and supply for allocating AEDs...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
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