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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Amal Awad, Nagah Arafat, Mohamed Elhadidy
BACKGROUND: Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. METHODS: A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes...
November 25, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Grace C Lee, Ronald G Hall, Natalie K Boyd, Steven D Dallas, Liem C Du, Lucina B Treviño, Sylvia B Treviño, Chad Retzloff, Kenneth A Lawson, James Wilson, Randall J Olsen, Yufeng Wang, Christopher R Frei
BACKGROUND: The incidence of outpatient visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has substantially increased over the last decade. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has made the management of S. aureus SSTIs complex and challenging. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors contributing to treatment failures associated with community-associated S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections SSTIs. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study among 14 primary care clinics within the South Texas Ambulatory Research Network...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Melissa Barreto Falcao, Sergio Cimerman, Kleber Giovanni Luz, Alberto Chebabo, Helena Andrade Brigido, Iza Maria Lobo, Artur Timerman, Rodrigo Nogueira Angerami, Clovis Arns da Cunha, Helio Arthur Bacha, Jesse Reis Alves, Alexandre Naime Barbosa, Ralcyon Francis Teixeira, Leonardo Weissmann, Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Marco Antonio Cyrillo, Antonio Carlos Bandeira
A panel of national experts was convened by the Brazilian Infectious Diseases Society in order to organize the national recommendations for the management of zika virus infection. The focus of this document is the diagnosis, both clinical and laboratorial, and appropriate treatment of the diverse manifestations of this infection, ranging from acute mild disease to Guillain-Barré syndrome and also microcephaly and congenital malformations.
September 29, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Waleed M Sweileh, Naser Y Shraim, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge and carbapenem resistance, in particular, is considered an urgent global health threat. This study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on carbapenem resistance. In specific, number of publications, top productive countries and institutes, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, top active authors, and journals publishing articles on carbapenem resistance were analyzed and discussed...
September 23, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Fatma Elzahraa Akram, Tarek El-Tayeb, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi
BACKGROUND: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are potential antimicrobials agents, which can be considered as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. The antimicrobial effects of double and triple combinations of AgNPs, visible blue light, and the conventional antibiotics amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and vancomycin, against ten clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were investigated...
August 17, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Aydir Cecília Marinho Monteiro, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Adriano Martison Ferreira, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Eduardo Bagagli, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections are responsible for thousands of deaths each year. The rapid identification of the microorganisms causing these infections permits correct therapeutic management that will improve the prognosis of the patient. In an attempt to reduce the time spent on this step, microorganism identification devices have been developed, including the VITEK(®) 2 system, which is currently used in routine clinical microbiology laboratories. METHODS: This study evaluated the accuracy of the VITEK(®) 2 system in the identification of 400 microorganisms isolated from blood cultures and compared the results to those obtained with conventional phenotypic and genotypic methods...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for drug-resistant tuberculosis are still limited. Linezolid has been recommended for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, although uncertainties remain regarding its safety and tolerability in these circumstances. OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and tolerability of linezolid in the treatment of MDR or XDR tuberculosis...
June 22, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Qingwen He, Weiyuan Chen, Liya Huang, Qili Lin, Jingling Zhang, Rui Liu, Bin Li
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is prevalent around the world. Rapid and accurate detection of CRE is urgently needed to provide effective treatment. Automated identification systems have been widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories for rapid and high-efficient identification of pathogenic bacteria. However, critical evaluation and comparison are needed to determine the specificity and accuracy of different systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commonly used automated identification systems on the detection of CRE...
June 21, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Wanli Li, Yinghui Li, Yarong Wu, Yujun Cui, Yao Liu, Xiaolu Shi, Qian Zhang, Qiongcheng Chen, Qun Sun, Qinghua Hu
BACKGROUND: Small colony variants (SCVs), constituting a slow-growing subpopulation of bacteria that facilitates persistence in lethal environmental conditions, are able to revert to the phenotype of rapid growth for further proliferation and transmission. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. This study investigated the genetic mechanisms how SCVs induced by streptomycin reverted to the fast-growing phenotype and the phenotypic changes of SCVs among their complete life cycle in S...
May 31, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jun Li, Mingxiang Zou, Qingya Dou, Yongmei Hu, Haichen Wang, Qun Yan, Wen' En Liu
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classed as extensively drug resistant (XDR-PA) are resistant to all antibiotics except for one or two classes and are frequently the cause of hard-to-treat infections worldwide. Our study aimed to characterize clinical XDR-PA isolates recovered during 2011-2012 at nine hospitals in the Hunan province of China. METHODS: Thirty-seven non-repetitive XDR-PA strains from 37 patients were investigated for genes encoding antimicrobial resistance determinants, efflux pumps, outer membrane proteins, and movable genetic elements using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 23, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah, Kingsley Twum-Danso, Yaa Difie Osei, Sammy Tawiah Sackey
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance due to the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Data from Ghana regarding this resistance mechanism is limited. This study was designed to investigate the presence of TEM-type ESBL genes, their locations and their conjugabilities in clinical isolates of enterobacteria collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. METHODS: Study isolates were characterized with respect to ESBL phenotype, TEM-type ESBL gene detection, location of the ESBL gene(s) and conjugability of the ESBL phenotype using nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12 as recipient...
May 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Irmak Baran, Neriman Aksu
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae are among the most common pathogens that are responsible for serious community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and health-care associated infections. The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have become an increasing concern for healthcare services worldwide. Infections caused by these bacteria have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality and treatment options have been limited. The rapid and accurate detection of carbapenem resistance in these bacteria is important for infection control...
April 6, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
George Tetz, Daria Vikina, Victor Tetz
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial compounds to treat various lung infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA). METHODS: We studied the potency of Mul-1867 against MDR-PA isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBECs), defined as the concentrations of drug that kill 50 % (MBEC50), 90 % (MBEC90), and 100 % (MBEC100) of the bacteria in preformed biofilms, were determined by using the broth macrodilution method...
March 22, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Melina Herrera, Sabrina Di Gregorio, Silvina Fernandez, Graciela Posse, Marta Mollerach, José Di Conza
BACKGROUND: Tigecycline (TIG) is an antibiotic belonging to the glycylcyclines class and appears to be a good choice to fight infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To date, TIG exhibits good activity against this microorganism. The aim of this work was to obtain in vitro mutants of S. aureus resistant to TIG and evaluate possible changes in their susceptibility patterns to other antibiotics. RESULTS: Two mutants of S. aureus resistant to TIG (MIC = 16 µg/mL) were selected in vitro from clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S...
March 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Agila K Pragasam, M Raghanivedha, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common nosocomial pathogen, notorious for its multidrug resistance and causes life threatening infections. Carbapenems were considered as the last resort of drugs for the treatment of multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa infections. The emergence of resistance to carbapenems limits its use for treatment. Unlike other organisms, in P. aeruginosa intrinsic/chromosomal mediated resistance mechanisms plays a major role for carbapenem resistance rather than the carbapenemases. Carbapenemase producing organisms becomes resistant to both imipenem and meropenem...
February 24, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Alexander Rohde, Jens Andre Hammerl, Sascha Al Dahouk
BACKGROUND: The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Eleanor A Powell, Joel E Mortensen
The BioMerieux NucliSENS easyMAG total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of DNA for all isolates. The easyMAG is appropriate for DNA extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Geoffrey Omuse, Kristien Nel Van Zyl, Kim Hoek, Shima Abdulgader, Samuel Kariuki, Andrew Whitelaw, Gunturu Revathi
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown to vary across different countries. In order to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA in a setting, it is important to define its population structure using molecular tools as different clones have been found to predominate in certain geographical locations...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Akash Tariq, Muhammad Adnan, Rahila Amber, Kaiwen Pan, Sakina Mussarat, Zabta Khan Shinwari
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and malaria are the two most common parasitic diseases and responsible for large number of deaths per year particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Majority of Pakistan population rely on medicinal plants due to their low socio-economic status. The present review was designed to gather utmost fragmented published data on traditionally used medicinal plants against leishmaniasis and malaria in Pakistan and their scientific validation. METHODS: Pub Med, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ISI Web of knowledge and Flora of Pakistan were searched for the collection of data on ethnomedicinal plants...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Alexandra Brunner, Eva Nemes-Nikodem, Csaba Jeney, Dora Szabo, Marta Marschalko, Sarolta Karpati, Eszter Ostorhazi
BACKGROUND: In the 1990s, azithromycin became the drug of choice for many infectious diseases but emerging resistance to the drug has only been reported in the last decade. In the last 5 years, the National Neisseria gonorrhoeae Reference Laboratory of Hungary (NNGRLH) has also observed an increased number of N. gonorrhoeae strains resistant to azithromycin. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent sequence types (ST) of N. gonorrhoeae related to elevated levels of azithromycin MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration)...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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