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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Dae-Hyun Ko, Eun Jin Lee, Su-Kyung Lee, Han-Sung Kim, So Youn Shin, Jungwon Hyun, Jae-Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a major health issue worldwide. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has begun to be used to detect resistance genes of MTB. We aimed to assess the clinical usefulness of Ion S5 NGS TB research panel for detecting MTB resistance in Korean tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis with various drug resistance profiles including susceptible strains (N = 36) were isolated from clinical specimens...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mutasim E Ibrahim
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen due to its capabilities for developing mechanisms of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including carbapenems. This review described the risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii from different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Several factors including complexity of intensive care unit (ICU) environments, increased numbers of patients with serious diseases, wide spread gastrointestinal colonization and extensive use of antimicrobial drugs led to a wide prevalence of A...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Thomas Kerz, Friederike D von Loewenich, Jason Roberts, Axel Neulen, Florian Ringel
BACKGROUND: Standard dosing of meropenem (2 g t.i.d.) produces CSF concentrations of only 1-2 mg/L which is inferior to the clinical breakpoint for most Gram-negative bacteria. There is therefore concern that dosing must be increased in order to achieve therapeutic CSF concentrations for bacteria with susceptibility close to clinical breakpoints. Yet, the effects of high-dose meropenem on CSF concentrations are not well described in literature. We therefore determined meropenem CSF-levels in a patient who was treated with 15 g/day of meropenem...
December 29, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Godday Anebow Lulu, Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Loqman Mohamad Yusof, Yusuf Abba, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Fauziah Othman
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone following infection with pyogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus. Tobramycin (TOB) is a promising aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tobramycin-loaded calcium phosphate beads (CPB) in a rabbit osteomyelitis model. METHODS: Tobramycin (30 mg/mL) was incorporated into CPB by dipping method and the efficacy of TOB-loaded CPB was studied in a rabbit osteomyelitis model...
December 28, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Zhiliang Hu, Xing Weng, Chunhua Xu, Yang Lin, Cong Cheng, Hongxia Wei, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: More than 100 different pathogens can cause encephalitis. Testing of all the neurological pathogens by conventional methods can be difficult. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) could identify the infectious agents in a target-independent manner. The role of this novel method in clinical diagnostic microbiology still needs to be evaluated. In present study, we used metagenomic NGS to search for an infectious etiology in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with lethally diffuse brain lesions...
December 26, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ken-Ichi Okuda, Yutaka Yoshii, Satomi Yamada, Akio Chiba, Ippei Hironaka, Seiji Hori, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related infection (CRI) is one of the serious challenges in clinical practice. This preliminary clinical study aimed to examine whether next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting 16S rDNA, which was PCR-amplified directly from the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC), can be used to identify causative pathogens in CRI, compared to the culture method. METHODS: Hospitalized patients, from whom a CVC had just been removed, were prospectively enrolled and divided into the CRI-suspected and routine removal groups...
December 22, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jun Cheng, Huan Hu, Yue Kang, Weizhi Chen, Wei Fang, Kaijuan Wang, Qian Zhang, Aisi Fu, Shuilian Zhou, Chen Cheng, Qingqing Cao, Feiyan Wang, Shela Lee, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Pathogens identification is critical for the proper diagnosis and precise treatment of infective endocarditis (IE). Although blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for IE pathogens detection, many cases are culture-negative, especially in patients who had received long-term antibiotic treatment, and precise diagnosis has therefore become a major challenge in the clinic. Metagenomic sequencing can provide both information on the pathogenic strain and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of patient samples without culturing, offering a powerful method to deal with culture-negative cases...
December 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Edwin Barrios-Villa, Gerardo Cortés-Cortés, Patricia Lozano-Zaraín, Margarita María de la Paz Arenas-Hernández, Claudia Fabiola Martínez de la Peña, Ygnacio Martínez-Laguna, Carmen Torres, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia
BACKGROUND: The widespread Escherichia coli clone ST131 implicated in multidrug-resistant infections has been recently reported, the majority belonging to O25:H4 serotype and classified into five main virotypes in accordance with the virulence genes carried. METHODS: Pathogenicity Islands I and II (PAI-I and PAI-II) were determined using conventional PCR protocols from a set of four E. coli CTXR ST131 O25:H4/H30-Rx strains collected from healthy donors' stool. The virulence genes patterns were also analyzed and compared them with the virotypes reported previously; then adherence, invasion, macrophage survival and biofilm formation assays were evaluated and AIEC pathotype genetic determinants were investigated...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Dingqiang Chen, Shuxian Wen, Donghua Feng, Ruirui Xu, Junyan Liu, Brian M Peters, Danhong Su, Yongping Lin, Ling Yang, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (FRHI) has been reported worldwide but remain unclear in China. METHODS: A total of 402 H. influenzae isolates collected from 2016 to 2017 were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility on 10 antibiotics was performed, and minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin- and nalidixic acid-resistant strains were further determined by E-test strips, with risk factors also evaluated. Strains with resistance or reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were subjected to sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by sequencing, with multi-locus sequence typing...
November 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
András Ádám, Zoltán Pál, Gabriella Terhes, Márta Szűcs, Israel David Gabay, Edit Urbán
OBJECTIVES: The long-term use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) may lead to biofilm formation on the surface. The aim of this study was to perform the culture- and PCR-based detection of bacteria/fungi from the biofilm of the removed IUDs with different time periods in place. METHODS: For a 2-year period, 100 IUD users were involved in the study. In the majority of the cases, IUDs were removed because of the patients' complaints. Beside the aerobic and anaerobic culture, species-specific PCR was carried out to detect Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the "signalling" bacteria of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in the biofilm removed by vortexing...
November 22, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Cyrine Abdennebi, Foued Daly, Rochdi Nasri, Yosr Touil, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: Empiric antimicrobial therapy (EAMT) using imipenem/colistin is commonly prescribed as a first line therapy in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. We aimed to assess the appropriateness of prescribing imipenem/colistin as EAMT in ICU patients. METHODS: A 3-year observational prospective study included ICU patients that required imipenem/colistin as EAMT. The EAMT was assessed according to microbiological and clinical outcomes. The outcomes were: delay in apyrexia, delay in the decrease of the biological inflammatory parameters (BIP), the requirement for vasoactive agents, bacteriological eradication, length of stay, ventilator days and 30-day mortality...
November 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Elisabeth Hodille, Cédric Badiou, Caroline Bouveyron, Michèle Bes, Anne Tristan, François Vandenesch, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
Clindamycin is a protein synthesis inhibitory agent that has the ability to suppress the expression of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. Recent guidelines recommend the use of clindamycin for the treatment of toxin-mediated infections. Clindamycin modulates virulence expression at sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) in clindamycin-susceptible S. aureus strains but previous report shown that this effect was supressed for constitutive clindamycin resistant strains. However, no data are currently available on the impact of clindamycin at sub-MICs on the virulence of inducible clindamycin-resistant S...
October 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jonathan C Cho, Sandy J Estrada, Jamie J Kisgen, Angelina Davis, Laura Puzniak
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a major public health threat that results in increased length of stay, hospital readmissions, deaths, and economic burden. CDAD treatment is often guided by severity of disease. Although various tools exist to determine CDAD severity, real-world data evaluating the use of such tools in treatment algorithms are sparse. METHODS: A local CDAD treatment pathway was developed independently to guide fidaxomicin prescribing at wellStar Health System (WellStar) and at Lee Health (LH) and Sarasota Memorial Hospital (SMH)...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Charles Eugenio McCafferty, Marra Jai Aghajani, David Abi-Hanna, Iain Bruce Gosbell, Slade Owen Jensen
INTRODUCTION: During clinical use, gastrointestinal endoscopes are grossly contaminated with patient's native flora. These endoscopes undergo reprocessing to prevent infectious transmission upon future use. Endoscopy-associated infections and outbreaks have been reported, with a recent focus on the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. This review aims to provide an update on endoscopy-associated infections, and the factors contributing to their occurrence. METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL were searched for articles describing gastrointestinal endoscopy-associated infections and outbreaks published from 2008 to 2018...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Pembi Emmanuel, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Stephen John, Juntra Karbwang, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic mutilating disease of the skin and the underlying tissues caused by fungi or bacteria. Although recently included in the list of neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization, strategic control and preventive measures are yet to be outlined. Thus, it continues to pose huge public health threat in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. If not detected and managed early, it results into gruesome deformity of the limbs. Its low report and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment initiation...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Flor Y Ramírez-Castillo, Adriana C Moreno-Flores, Francisco J Avelar-González, Francisco Márquez-Díaz, Josée Harel, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera
BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the main bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The rates of UPEC with high resistance towards antibiotics and multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased dramatically in recent years and could difficult the treatment. METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine multidrug-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance profile, virulence traits, and genetic background of 110 E. coli isolated from community (79 isolates) and hospital-acquired (31 isolates) urinary tract infections...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Andrea Haselbeck, Jerome H Kim, Florian Marks, Tarun Saluja
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the dengue virus (DENV) in Nepal is recent, first reports date back to 2004 from a Japanese traveller and limited information is available about DENV infection in the Nepali population. Within a decade after the first DENV detection, it is now endemic in multiple districts of Nepal with approximately 11.2 million people residing in the Terai belt being at risk of DENV infection. Sporadic cases of DENV infection have been reported every year for the past decade during the monsoon season, mainly in the Terai region...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Angkanang Sowajassatakul, Therdsak Prammananan, Angkana Chaiprasert, Saranya Phunpruch
BACKGROUND: Aminoglycosides such as amikacin and kanamycin are effective injectable second-line drugs for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying aminoglycoside resistance are not well understood. We have previously identified the amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant M. tuberculosis MT433 clinical strain, of which all known mutations related to resistance have not been found. Drug efflux pump is one of reported resistance mechanisms that might play a role in aminoglycoside resistance...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Sayaka Okuzono, Masataka Ishimura, Shunsuke Kanno, Motoshi Sonoda, Noriyuki Kaku, Yoshitomo Motomura, Hisanori Nishio, Utako Oba, Masuo Hanada, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Michiyo Urata, Dongchon Kang, Hidetoshi Takada, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes is an uncommon pathogen of purpura fulminans, and the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans remains unclear because of paucity of cases. We reported a pediatric case of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans with literature review of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy showed limping, lethargy and acral gangrene within 24 h. A diagnosis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans was made for bacterial isolation from throat and peripheral blood...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Dabesa Gobena, Gemechu Ameya, Kinfe Haile, Getaneh Abreha, Yoseph Worku, Tessema Debela
BACKGROUND: Curable disease tuberculosis is becoming incurable or difficult to treat due to drug resistance. Multi drug resistance tuberculosis is a major health problem for less developed countries. Development of drug resistance is mainly as result of man related factors and poor lifestyle. Identifying predictors of drug resistance and working on them is the important way of reducing the expansion in high burden countries. Ethiopia is one of TB, TB/HIV, and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) high burden country globally...
July 3, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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