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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145853/molecular-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#1
Kevin M Raible, Bhaswati Sen, Nancy Law, Tiffany E Bias, Christopher L Emery, Garth D Ehrlich, Suresh G Joshi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137671/herpes-simplex-virus-1-entrapped-in-candida-albicans-biofilm-displays-decreased-sensitivity-to-antivirals-and-uva1-laser-treatment
#2
Cristian Ascione, Arianna Sala, Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani, Simona Paulone, Beniamino Palmieri, Elisabetta Blasi, Claudio Cermelli
BACKGROUND: Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137647/new-eight-genes-identified-at-the-clinical-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-dms06669-strain-in-a-vietnam-hospital
#3
Nguyen Si-Tuan, Hua My Ngoc, Pham Thi Thu Hang, Cuong Nguyen, Pham Hung Van, Nguyen Thuy Huong
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can develop multidrug resistance. In this study, we characterized the genome of the A. baumannii strain DMS06669 (isolated from the sputum of a male patient with hospital-acquired pneumonia) and focused on identification of genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Whole genome analysis of A. baumannii DMS06669 from hospital-acquired pneumonia patients included de novo assembly; gene prediction; functional annotation to public databases; phylogenetics tree construction and antibiotics genes identification...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#4
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132352/intensive-care-antibiotic-consumption-and-resistance-patterns-a-cross-correlation-analysis
#5
Luminita Baditoiu, Carmen Axente, Diana Lungeanu, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Monica Licker
BACKGROUND: Over recent decades, a dramatic increase in infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens has been observed worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between local resistance bacterial patterns and antibiotic consumption in an intensive care unit in a Romanian university hospital. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2013. Data covering the consumption of antibacterial drugs and the incidence density for the main resistance phenotypes was collected on a monthly basis, and this data was aggregated quarterly...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096652/biofilm-and-metallo-beta-lactamase-production-among-the-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#6
Bandana Baniya, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Saroj Khatiwada, Uday Narayan Yadav, Nisha Bhandari, Rama Khadka, Sabita Bhatta, Raina Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL) among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 85 P...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096645/benzoylphenyl-thiocyanates-are-new-effective-inhibitors-of-the-mycobacterial-resuscitation-promoting-factor-b-protein
#7
Galina R Demina, Vadim D Nikitushkin, Margarita O Shleeva, Olga B Riabova, Alexander Yu Lepioshkin, Vadim A Makarov, Arseny S Kaprelyants
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs), capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate groups alongside with the compounds with the modified number and different spatial location of the substituents are compared...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978355/spondylodiskitis-and-endocarditis-due-to-streptococcus-gordonii
#8
Ziv Dadon, Assaf Cohen, Yael M Szterenlicht, Marc V Assous, Yair Barzilay, David Raveh-Brawer, Amos M Yinnon, Gabriel Munter
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gordonii is an infrequent cause of infective endocarditis (IE); associated spondylodiskitis has not yet been described in the literature. PURPOSE: We describe 2 patients who presented with new-onset, severe back pain; blood cultures revealed S. gordonii bacteremia, which led to the diagnosis of spondylodiskitis and IE. We review our 2-decade experience with S. gordonii bacteremia to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these patients...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974222/treating-tuberculosis-with-high-doses-of-anti-tb-drugs-mechanisms-and-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Yuhui Xu, Jianan Wu, Sha Liao, Zhaogang Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug monitoring study results suggest that high-dose treatment regimens can compensate the low serum concentration of anti-TB drugs and shorten the therapy duration...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938899/evaluation-of-lytic-bacteriophages-for-control-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhimurium
#10
Lae-Seung Jung, Tian Ding, Juhee Ahn
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause serious clinical and public health problems. This study describes the possibility of using bacteriophages as an alternative agent to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. METHODS: The potential lytic bacteriophages (P22-B1, P22, PBST10, PBST13, PBST32, and PBST 35) were characterized by morphological property, heat and pH stability, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI), and lytic activity against S...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931414/coagulase-gene-polymorphism-enterotoxigenecity-biofilm-production-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-raw-milk-in-north-west-india
#11
Vishnu Sharma, Sanjita Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Dahiya, Aarif Khan, Manisha Mathur, Aayushi Sharma
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant bacterium responsible for various diseases in animals and humans. Preventive strategies could be better implemented by understanding the prevalence, genetic patterns, and the presence of enterotoxin and biofilm-producing genes along with the antibiotic susceptibility of this organism. This study was conducted in Rajasthan, the northwestern state of India, holding the largest population of cattle that makes it the second largest milk producer in India and no such prior information is available on these aspects...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927454/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-metallo-beta-lactamase-production-among-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-different-clinical-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#12
Krishus Nepal, Narayan Dutt Pant, Bibhusan Neupane, Ankit Belbase, Rikesh Baidhya, Ram Krishna Shrestha, Binod Lekhak, Dwij Raj Bhatta, Bharat Jha
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the commonest modes of drug resistance among these commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens. So the main purpose of our study was to determine the burden of ESBL and MBL production in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples. Further, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were also determined...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927452/vancomycin-heteroresistance-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-blood-stream-infections-from-patients-of-intensive-care-units-in-mansoura-university-hospitals-egypt
#13
Ghada El-Saeed Mashaly, Rasha Hassan El-Mahdy
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin heteroresistance in coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) is a recent health concern especially in serious infections like bloodstream infections as it may lead to failure of therapy. Little information is available about the prevalence vancomycin heteroresistance in CoNS causing bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) patients of Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs). METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 743 blood samples collected from ICUs patients presented with clinical manifestations of bloodstream infections over the period extending from January 2014 to March 2016...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927408/paramedical-staffs-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dire-dawa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Belay Tafa, Adugna Endale, Desalegn Bekele
BACKGROUND: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923072/a-childhood-onset-intestinal-toxemia-botulism-during-chemotherapy-for-relapsed-acute-leukemia
#15
Noriko Ohyama, Michiko Torio, Kentaro Nakashima, Yuuki Koga, Shunsuke Kanno, Hisanori Nishio, Kei Nishiyama, Momoko Sasazuki, Haru Kato, Hiroshi Asakura, Satoshi Akamine, Masafumi Sanefuji, Yoshito Ishizaki, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a potentially fatal infection characterized by progressive muscle weakness, bulbar paralysis, constipation and other autonomic dysfunctions. A recent report suggested that cancer chemotherapy might increase the risk for the intestinal toxemia botulism in both adults and children. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893246/voriconazole-and-posaconazole-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-a-retrospective-study
#16
Whitley M Yi, Kelly E Schoeppler, Jaclyn Jaeger, Scott W Mueller, Robert MacLaren, Douglas N Fish, Tyree H Kiser
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to minimize the clinical impact of posaconazole and voriconazole pharmacokinetic variability. However, its benefits on clinical outcomes are still being defined. Additionally, TDM data are limited for posaconazole IV and delayed-release tablet formulations among specific patient populations, including critically ill. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of therapeutic posaconazole and voriconazole drug levels across all formulations in a real-world clinical setting and elucidate factors affecting attainment of target concentrations...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851372/diagnostic-testing-for-legionnaires-disease
#17
REVIEW
David M Pierre, Julianne Baron, Victor L Yu, Janet E Stout
Legionnaires' disease is commonly diagnosed clinically using a urinary antigen test. The urinary antigen test is highly accurate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1, however other diagnostic tests should also be utilized in conjunction with the urinary antigen as many other Legionella species and serogroups are pathogenic. Culturing of patient specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease. Selective media, BYCE with the addition of antibiotics, allows for a high sensitivity and specificity...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830556/transmission-and-characterization-of-bla-ndm-1-in-enterobacter-cloacae-at-a-teaching-hospital-in-yunnan-china
#18
Na Du, Shumin Liu, Min Niu, Yong Duan, Shuangmeng Zhang, Jing Yao, Jian Mao, Ran Chen, Yan Du
BACKGROUND: In recent years, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamases 1 (bla NDM-1) has been reported with increasing frequency and become prevalent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiological dissemination of the bla NDM-1 gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates at a teaching hospital in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using VITEK 2 system and E test gradient strips. The presence of integrons and insertion sequence common region 1 were examined by PCR and sequencing...
August 22, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830554/extreme-diversity-and-multiple-sccmec-elements-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-found-in-the-clinic-and-community-in-beijing-china
#19
Xiao-Ping Chen, Wen-Ge Li, Hao Zheng, Hai-Yan Du, Li Zhang, Lei Zhang, Jie Che, Yuan Wu, Shu-Mei Liu, Jin-Xing Lu
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are recognized as a large reservoir of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) harboured by Staphylococcus aureus. However, data of SCCmec in CoNS are relatively absent particularly in China. METHODS: Seventy-eight CoNS clinical and 47 community isolates were collected in Beijing. PCR was performed to classify SCCmec types. Under oxacillin treatment, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to compare mecA mRNA levels and mRNA half-life between isolates with single SCCmec element and those with multiple one...
August 22, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821299/pknb-remains-an-essential-and-a-conserved-target-for-drug-development-in-susceptible-and-mdr-strains-of-m-tuberculosis
#20
Anamika Gupta, Sudhir K Pal, Divya Pandey, Najneen A Fakir, Sunita Rathod, Dhiraj Sinha, S SivaKumar, Pallavi Sinha, Mycal Periera, Shilpa Balgam, Gomathi Sekar, K R UmaDevi, Shampa Anupurba, Vijay Nema
BACKGROUND: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. However it is not known if this target remains conserved in otherwise resistant isolates from clinical origin. The present study describes the conservation analysis of sequences covering the inhibitor binding domain of PknB to assess if it remains conserved in susceptible and resistant clinical strains of mycobacteria picked from three different geographical areas of India...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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