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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Elisabeth Hodille, Cédric Badiou, Caroline Bouveyron, Michèle Bes, Anne Tristan, François Vandenesch, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
Clindamycin is a protein synthesis inhibitory agent that has the ability to suppress the expression of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. Recent guidelines recommend the use of clindamycin for the treatment of toxin-mediated infections. Clindamycin modulates virulence expression at sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) in clindamycin-susceptible S. aureus strains but previous report shown that this effect was supressed for constitutive clindamycin resistant strains. However, no data are currently available on the impact of clindamycin at sub-MICs on the virulence of inducible clindamycin-resistant S...
October 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jonathan C Cho, Sandy J Estrada, Jamie J Kisgen, Angelina Davis, Laura Puzniak
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a major public health threat that results in increased length of stay, hospital readmissions, deaths, and economic burden. CDAD treatment is often guided by severity of disease. Although various tools exist to determine CDAD severity, real-world data evaluating the use of such tools in treatment algorithms are sparse. METHODS: A local CDAD treatment pathway was developed independently to guide fidaxomicin prescribing at wellStar Health System (WellStar) and at Lee Health (LH) and Sarasota Memorial Hospital (SMH)...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Charles Eugenio McCafferty, Marra Jai Aghajani, David Abi-Hanna, Iain Bruce Gosbell, Slade Owen Jensen
INTRODUCTION: During clinical use, gastrointestinal endoscopes are grossly contaminated with patient's native flora. These endoscopes undergo reprocessing to prevent infectious transmission upon future use. Endoscopy-associated infections and outbreaks have been reported, with a recent focus on the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. This review aims to provide an update on endoscopy-associated infections, and the factors contributing to their occurrence. METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL were searched for articles describing gastrointestinal endoscopy-associated infections and outbreaks published from 2008 to 2018...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Pembi Emmanuel, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Stephen John, Juntra Karbwang, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic mutilating disease of the skin and the underlying tissues caused by fungi or bacteria. Although recently included in the list of neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization, strategic control and preventive measures are yet to be outlined. Thus, it continues to pose huge public health threat in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. If not detected and managed early, it results into gruesome deformity of the limbs. Its low report and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment initiation...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Flor Y Ramírez-Castillo, Adriana C Moreno-Flores, Francisco J Avelar-González, Francisco Márquez-Díaz, Josée Harel, Alma L Guerrero-Barrera
BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the main bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The rates of UPEC with high resistance towards antibiotics and multidrug-resistant bacteria have increased dramatically in recent years and could difficult the treatment. METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine multidrug-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance profile, virulence traits, and genetic background of 110 E. coli isolated from community (79 isolates) and hospital-acquired (31 isolates) urinary tract infections...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Andrea Haselbeck, Jerome H Kim, Florian Marks, Tarun Saluja
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the dengue virus (DENV) in Nepal is recent, first reports date back to 2004 from a Japanese traveller and limited information is available about DENV infection in the Nepali population. Within a decade after the first DENV detection, it is now endemic in multiple districts of Nepal with approximately 11.2 million people residing in the Terai belt being at risk of DENV infection. Sporadic cases of DENV infection have been reported every year for the past decade during the monsoon season, mainly in the Terai region...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Angkanang Sowajassatakul, Therdsak Prammananan, Angkana Chaiprasert, Saranya Phunpruch
BACKGROUND: Aminoglycosides such as amikacin and kanamycin are effective injectable second-line drugs for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying aminoglycoside resistance are not well understood. We have previously identified the amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant M. tuberculosis MT433 clinical strain, of which all known mutations related to resistance have not been found. Drug efflux pump is one of reported resistance mechanisms that might play a role in aminoglycoside resistance...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Sayaka Okuzono, Masataka Ishimura, Shunsuke Kanno, Motoshi Sonoda, Noriyuki Kaku, Yoshitomo Motomura, Hisanori Nishio, Utako Oba, Masuo Hanada, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Michiyo Urata, Dongchon Kang, Hidetoshi Takada, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes is an uncommon pathogen of purpura fulminans, and the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans remains unclear because of paucity of cases. We reported a pediatric case of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans with literature review of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy showed limping, lethargy and acral gangrene within 24 h. A diagnosis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans was made for bacterial isolation from throat and peripheral blood...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Dabesa Gobena, Gemechu Ameya, Kinfe Haile, Getaneh Abreha, Yoseph Worku, Tessema Debela
BACKGROUND: Curable disease tuberculosis is becoming incurable or difficult to treat due to drug resistance. Multi drug resistance tuberculosis is a major health problem for less developed countries. Development of drug resistance is mainly as result of man related factors and poor lifestyle. Identifying predictors of drug resistance and working on them is the important way of reducing the expansion in high burden countries. Ethiopia is one of TB, TB/HIV, and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) high burden country globally...
July 3, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Hiroki Tanabe, Keiichi Yoshino, Katsuyoshi Ando, Yoshiki Nomura, Katsuhisa Ohta, Kiichi Satoh, Eiichiro Ichiishi, Akiei Ishizuka, Takaaki Otake, Yutaka Kohgo, Mikihiro Fujiya, Toshikatsu Okumura
BACKGROUND: All Helicobacter pylori-infected patients are recommended for eradication with an appropriate regimen in each geographic area. The choice of the therapy is somewhat dependent on the antimicrobial susceptibility. The rate of clarithromycin resistance has been increasing and is associated with failure; thus, susceptibility testing is recommended before triple therapy with clarithromycin. However, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not yet clinically available and an alternative newly developed acid inhibitor vonoprazan is used for triple therapy in Japan...
June 28, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Yong Guo, Xiao Deng, Yuan Liang, Liang Zhang, Guo-Ping Zhao, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: The group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a human commensal bacterium, which is capable of causing several infectious diseases in infants, and people with chronic diseases. GBS has been the most common cause of infections in urinary tract of the elders, but relatively few studies reported the urine-isolated GBS and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Hence, we decided to investigate GBS specially isolated from urine in Suzhou, China. METHODS: 27 GBS samples were isolated from urine in Suzhou, China...
June 26, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Mohommed Reyes
BACKGROUND: In children, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of a common bacterial infection. This study was conducted to detect the uropathogen, antimicrobial susceptibility, pathogen associated with recurrences and renal scarring in children initially taken care from general practitioners and later presented to tertiary care. METHODS: Every inward UTI episode, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility was done while on past 6-month, history of infections and use of antimicrobials was collected using clinical records and demonstration of antimicrobials...
June 25, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Marcelo Low, Ronit Almog, Ran D Balicer, Nicky Liberman, Raul Raz, Avi Peretz, Orna Nitzan
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed at many of the visits to primary care clinics, often for conditions for which they provide no benefit, including viral respiratory tract infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate primary care visits due to infectious diseases, and to estimate antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic dispensing by pharmacies. METHODS: Diagnosis of infectious disease, antibiotic prescribing and dispensing data at the individual patient level were extracted for 2015 from Clalit Health Services' electronic medical records and linked to determine the condition for which the antimicrobial was prescribed...
June 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Monireh Rahimkhani, A Mordadi, M Gilanpour
BACKGROUND: Miscarriage and preterm delivery are the most important challenges of pregnancy. Different bacterial and viral infection may cause miscarriage and preterm delivery. Among bacterial factors, Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis have the most important role and human papilloma virus (HPV) is the leading viral factor in this regard. METHODS: First void urine samples were collected from 119 pregnant women who visited health centers for routine first-trimester screening (12-14 weeks gestation)...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Abbas Bahador, Zahra Farshadzadeh, Reza Raoofian, Masoumeh Mokhtaran, Babak Pourakbari, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Farhad B Hashemi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii causes difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, which often lead to morbidity due to the development of antimicrobial drug resistance and expression of virulence genes. Data regarding the association of resistance to colistin, a last treatment option, and the virulence gene expression of A. baumannii is scarce. METHODS: We evaluated the MLVA genotype, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm formation of 100 A. baumannii isolates from burn patients, and further compared the in vitro and in vivo expression of four virulence genes among five colistin-resistant A...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Maya Azrad, Linda Tkhawkho, Natalia Isakovich, Orna Nitzan, Avi Peretz
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gasteroenteritis worldwide. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Campylobacter spp. is not routinely performed by most clinical laboratories. However, the emergence of resistant isolates strengthens the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the critical need for epidemiologic surveillance. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Etest and Sensititre kit (a broth microdilution method) as methods for susceptibility tests and the critical need for epidemiologic surveillance...
May 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Jiajia Yu, Jingxian Liu, Yuanrui Li, Jing Yu, Weinan Zhu, Ying Liu, Lisong Shen
BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been proved to be a useful tool for identification of pathogens directly isolated from blood cultures in clinical microbiology laboratories. β-Lactam antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains, and carbapenem is the superlative class of β-lactam antibiotics. Since the carbapenem resistance rate of Enterobacteriaceae strains raised year by year, efficient detection of carbapenemase activity and timely delivery of carbapenem susceptibility reports of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from blood cultures is important for clinicians...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Kei Furui Ebisawa, Sho Nishimura, Shungo Yamamoto, Goh Ohji, Kentaro Iwata
BACKGROUND: Mycotic aneurysm is an uncommon disease which could be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although standard therapy for mycotic aneurysms consists of resection of the infected aorta and in situ graft replacement, some treat with endovascular stent-grafting because patients may not tolerate graft replacement due to underlying diseases. There are 6 more reported cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by Edwardsiella tarda. With the exception of our case, all underwent resection and debridement of the infected aorta or vascular prosthesis...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Saeam Shin, Seok Hoon Jeong, Hyukmin Lee, Jun Sung Hong, Min-Jeong Park, Wonkeun Song
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial outbreak due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become serious challenge to patient treatment and infection control. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant Providencia rettgeri from January 2016 to January 2017 at a University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. METHODS: A total of eight non-duplicate P. rettgeri isolates were discovered from urine samples from eight patients having a urinary catheter and admitted in a surgical intensive care unit...
May 5, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Monica da Silveira, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Camila Sena Martins de Souza, Adriana Aparecida Feltrin Correa, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses a threat to elderly living in nursing homes. Studies focusing on the epidemiology of colonization may help in the design of infection control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with MRSA colonization and the dissemination of clones among nursing home residents. METHODS: Nasal swabs were collected from 300 persons from nine nursing homes in the city of Bauru, Brazil...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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