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Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

Khaled R Alkharsah, Suriya Rehman, Fatimah Alkhamis, Amani Alnimr, Asim Diab, Amein K Al-Ali
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a major global health concern causing hospital and community acquired infections. A wide diversity of MRSA genotypes are circulating in geographically related regions. Therefore understanding the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is fundamental to design control and clearance measures. METHODS: A total of 106 MRSA isolates from infection (51) and carrier colonization sites (55) are characterized genetically based on SCCmec and MLST genotyping methods in addition to detection of PVL, TSST-1 and enterotoxins...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mame Cheikh Seck, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Younouss Diedhiou, Tolla Ndiaye, Yaye Die Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. METHODS: The present external quality assessment (EQA) was conducted in three different areas of malaria transmission...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Reshma Tuladhar, Roshan Kurmi, Krishna Das Manandhar
Dengue is a global health problem and expansion of its endemics towards new territories in the hilly regions in Nepal is a serious concern. It appeared as a new disease in Nepal in 2004 from Japanese traveler with sporadic cases every year and massive outbreaks in 2010, 2013 and 2016. The serotype was responsible for outbreak in particular year was dengue virus serotype-1 (DENV-1) in 2010, 2016; and DENV-2 in 2013. Nepal lacks basic health related infrastructure in rural areas and does not have a stringent health care policy...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Benjamin H Gern, Alexander L Greninger, Scott J Weissman, Jennifer R Stapp, Yue Tao, Xuan Qin
OBJECTIVES: In vitro trends of cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities from pediatric clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) between 2011 and 2016 were analyzed for surveillance. METHODS: Our laboratory continues to use agar disk diffusion for staphylococcal susceptibilities applying Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute's 2012 breakpoints. RESULTS: A total of 3992 MSSA clinical isolates in the last 6 years were analyzed for their in vitro cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Masomeh Dehshiri, Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz, Mohammad Zoladl, Seyed Abdolmajid Khosravani, Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Soheyla Jahedi, Asghar Sharifi
BACKGROUND: The extended- spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are widely spread worldwide. The productions of these enzymes cause bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigated the frequency of K. pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection. METHODS: This study is cross-sectional study. All K. pneumonia isolates from urine samples, which had grown on media culture more than 105 were delivered to the medical microbiology laboratory...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Menyfah Q Alanazi, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Fadilah S Aleanizy
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Xu Yang, Xurao Xiao, Lefeng Wang, Yue Ao, Yapeng Song, Huabing Wang, Huanan Wang
Infection in surgical incision often results in poor wound healing, and one of the main factors for wound infection is the use of antimicrobial agents. Rational use of antibiotics is one of the key factors to prevent incision infection in general surgery. The number of current clinical studies on antibiotic use before and during surgery is greater than that of systematic studies on antibiotic use after surgery. For the rational use of antibiotics and improvement of wound healing rate, researchers around the world have gradually focused on the use of antibiotics after surgery...
February 3, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Gemechu Ameya, Tsegaye Tsalla, Fasil Getu, Eyob Getu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. This study aimed to determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factor of Salmonella and Shigella infection among under five children...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Margaret M Guinta, Kristen Bunnell, Amanda Harrington, Susan Bleasdale, Larry Danziger, Eric Wenzler
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes and cost implications of a diagnostic shift from an EIA- to PCR-based assay for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have not been completely described in the literature. METHODS: The impact of the PCR-based assay on the incidence and duration of CDI therapy was compared to the EIA assay for patients with a negative CDI diagnostic result. Secondary clinical and economic outcomes were also evaluated. Independent predictors of receipt of antibiotic therapy were assessed via logistic regression...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
David M Jacobs, M Courtney Safir, Dennis Huang, Faisal Minhaj, Adam Parker, Gauri G Rao
BACKGROUND: The spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) has become a significant problem worldwide. Combination therapy for CPKP is encouraging, but polymyxin resistance to many antibiotics is hampering effective treatment. Combination therapy with three or more antibiotics is being increasingly reported, therefore we performed a systematic review of triple combination cases in an effort to evaluate their clinical effectiveness for CPKP infections. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched to identify all published clinical outcomes of CPKP infections treated with triple combination therapy...
November 25, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Kevin M Raible, Bhaswati Sen, Nancy Law, Tiffany E Bias, Christopher L Emery, Garth D Ehrlich, Suresh G Joshi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Cristian Ascione, Arianna Sala, Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani, Simona Paulone, Beniamino Palmieri, Elisabetta Blasi, Claudio Cermelli
BACKGROUND: Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Nguyen Si-Tuan, Hua My Ngoc, Pham Thi Thu Hang, Cuong Nguyen, Pham Hung Van, Nguyen Thuy Huong
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can develop multidrug resistance. In this study, we characterized the genome of the A. baumannii strain DMS06669 (isolated from the sputum of a male patient with hospital-acquired pneumonia) and focused on identification of genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Whole genome analysis of A. baumannii DMS06669 from hospital-acquired pneumonia patients included de novo assembly; gene prediction; functional annotation to public databases; phylogenetics tree construction and antibiotics genes identification...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Luminita Baditoiu, Carmen Axente, Diana Lungeanu, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Monica Licker
BACKGROUND: Over recent decades, a dramatic increase in infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens has been observed worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between local resistance bacterial patterns and antibiotic consumption in an intensive care unit in a Romanian university hospital. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2013. Data covering the consumption of antibacterial drugs and the incidence density for the main resistance phenotypes was collected on a monthly basis, and this data was aggregated quarterly...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Bandana Baniya, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Saroj Khatiwada, Uday Narayan Yadav, Nisha Bhandari, Rama Khadka, Sabita Bhatta, Raina Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL) among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 85 P...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Galina R Demina, Vadim D Nikitushkin, Margarita O Shleeva, Olga B Riabova, Alexander Yu Lepioshkin, Vadim A Makarov, Arseny S Kaprelyants
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs), capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate groups alongside with the compounds with the modified number and different spatial location of the substituents are compared...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ziv Dadon, Assaf Cohen, Yael M Szterenlicht, Marc V Assous, Yair Barzilay, David Raveh-Brawer, Amos M Yinnon, Gabriel Munter
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gordonii is an infrequent cause of infective endocarditis (IE); associated spondylodiskitis has not yet been described in the literature. PURPOSE: We describe 2 patients who presented with new-onset, severe back pain; blood cultures revealed S. gordonii bacteremia, which led to the diagnosis of spondylodiskitis and IE. We review our 2-decade experience with S. gordonii bacteremia to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these patients...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Yuhui Xu, Jianan Wu, Sha Liao, Zhaogang Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug monitoring study results suggest that high-dose treatment regimens can compensate the low serum concentration of anti-TB drugs and shorten the therapy duration...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Lae-Seung Jung, Tian Ding, Juhee Ahn
BACKGROUND: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause serious clinical and public health problems. This study describes the possibility of using bacteriophages as an alternative agent to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. METHODS: The potential lytic bacteriophages (P22-B1, P22, PBST10, PBST13, PBST32, and PBST 35) were characterized by morphological property, heat and pH stability, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI), and lytic activity against S...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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