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Assay and Drug Development Technologies

Archana Anandrao Wakharde, Shivkrupa Devrao Halbandge, Datta Baburao Phule, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
The human pathogen Candida albicans can grow as a biofilm on host tissues and on the surfaces of different prosthetic devices in a patient's body. Various studies have reported that biofilms formed by C. albicans are resistant to most of the currently used antibiotics including the widely prescribed drug, fluconazole. As such, novel strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are required. Drug repositioning or the use of drugs outside their unique indication has the potential to radically change drug development...
February 15, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Anton Simeonov, Aaron Wilson, Doug Auld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Wei Huang, Kelly Whittaker, Huihua Zhang, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Antibody arrays represent a high-throughput technique that enables the parallel detection of multiple proteins with minimal sample volume requirements. In recent years, antibody arrays have been widely used to identify new biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis. Moreover, many academic research laboratories and commercial biotechnology companies are starting to apply antibody arrays in the field of drug discovery. In this review, some technical aspects of antibody array development and the various platforms currently available will be addressed; however, the main focus will be on the discussion of antibody array technologies and their applications in drug discovery...
February 2, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Ivan Pushkarsky
Dr. Ivan Pushkarsky from the Department of Bioengineering at UCLA and Forcyte Biotechnologies, Inc. was awarded The President's Innovation Award at the Annual Society of Biomolecular Imaging and Informatics meeting held in San Diego, September 2017. All cell types produce mechanical forces to serve important physiological roles. Since aberrant force-generating phenotypes directly lead to disease, cellular force-generation mechanisms are high-value targets for new therapies. Despite knowledge of their significance in disease, drug developers have had limited access to force-generating cellular phenotypes, especially in the context of high-throughput screening...
December 21, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Feng Shan, David A Close, Daniel P Camarco, Paul A Johnston
High cancer drug development attrition rates have provoked considerable debate about whether the two-dimensional tumor growth inhibition high-throughput screening assays used in pre-clinical lead discovery adequately reflect solid tumor complexity. We used automated high-content screening image acquisition and analysis methods to compare fluorescent drug uptake, accumulation, and distribution in Cal33 and FaDu head and neck cancer (HNC) monolayer and multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) models. Ellipticine, idarubicin, daunorubicin, and doxorubicin were studied because of their fluorescent properties and broad anti-tumor activities...
December 7, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Jill M Pulley, Rebecca N Jerome, Nicole M Zaleski, Jana K Shirey-Rice, Andrea J Pruijssers, Robert R Lavieri, Somsundaram N Chettiar, Helen M Naylor, David M Aronoff, David A Edwards, Colleen M Niswender, Laura L Dugan, Leslie J Crofford, Gordon R Bernard, Kenneth J Holroyd
Many animal models of disease are suboptimal in their representation of human diseases and lack of predictive power in the success of pivotal human trials. In the context of repurposing drugs with known human safety, it is sometimes appropriate to conduct the "last experiment first," that is, progressing directly to human investigations. However, there are not accepted criteria for when to proceed straight to humans to test a new indication. We propose a specific set of criteria to guide the decision-making around when to initiate human proof of principle without preclinical efficacy studies in animal models...
December 1, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Emery Smith, Kenneth A Giuliano, Justin Shumate, Pierre Baillargeon, Brigid McEwan, Matthew D Cullen, John P Miller, Lawrence Drew, Louis Scampavia, Timothy P Spicer
Cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited genetic disease, is caused by mutation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes an ion channel involved in hydration maintenance by anion homeostasis. Ninety percent of CF patients possess one or more copies of the F508del CFTR mutation. This mutation disrupts trafficking of the protein to the plasma membrane and diminishes function of mature CFTR. Identifying small molecule modulators of mutant CFTR activity or biosynthesis may yield new tools for discovering novel CF treatments...
November 27, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Ann F Hoffman, John Nolan, David F Gebhard, Debra Nickischer, Wienand Omta, Sam Cooper, Sharon Presnell, Judi Wardwell-Swanson, Myles Fennell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Eoghan O'Duibhir, Jasmin Paris, Hannah Lawson, Catarina Sepulveda, Dahlia Doughty Shenton, Neil O Carragher, Kamil R Kranc
There is a large amount of information in brightfield images that was previously inaccessible by using traditional microscopy techniques. This information can now be exploited by using machine-learning approaches for both image segmentation and the classification of objects. We have combined these approaches with a label-free assay for growth and differentiation of leukemic colonies, to generate a novel platform for phenotypic drug discovery. Initially, a supervised machine-learning algorithm was used to identify in-focus colonies growing in a three-dimensional (3D) methylcellulose gel...
January 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Jessica Lacoste
Jessica Lacoste from the Donnelly Centre at the University of Toronto was awarded best poster at the annual Society of Biomolecular Imaging and Informatics meeting held in San Diego, September 2017. Her work focuses on characterizing the protein localization of variants involved in rare disease. The current works and future directions of research in rare disease are summarized in the following overview.
January 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Hermann Mucke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Hermann A M Mucke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Hermann A M Mucke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
William G Darby, Megan S Grace, Kaylene J Simpson, Owen L Woodman, Peter McIntyre
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a proinflammatory G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated by inflammatory proteases, and its activation initiates signaling pathways that modulate the nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4). PAR2-dependent opening of TRPV4 has been attributed to kinase activation, but the identity of the responsible enzymes is unknown. Deciphering the signaling pathways involved in the PAR2-dependent opening of TRPV4 may yield new targets for pain treatment...
November 17, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Wenwei Lin, Asli N Goktug, Jing Wu, Duane G Currier, Taosheng Chen
Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of phase I and phase II drug-metabolism enzymes, as well as that of drug transporters. hPXR is a "xenobiotics sensor" and can be activated by structurally diverse compounds. The activation of hPXR by its agonists increases the clearance of xenobiotics by increasing the expression of drug-metabolism enzymes and drug transporters, possibly leading to drug toxicity, drug resistance, and other adverse drug reactions. Therefore, hPXR antagonists might attenuate agonist-mediated activation of hPXR and reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions...
November 7, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Subhanjan Mondal, Kevin Hsiao, Said A Goueli
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a key cellular metabolite regulating energy homeostasis and signal transduction. AMP is also a product of various enzymatic reactions, many of which are dysregulated during disease conditions. Thus, monitoring the activities of these enzymes is a primary goal for developing modulators for these enzymes. In this study, we demonstrate the versatility of an enzyme-coupled assay that quantifies the amount of AMP produced by any enzymatic reaction regardless of its substrates. We successfully implemented it to enzyme reactions that use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a substrate (aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and DNA ligase) by an elaborate strategy of removing residual ATP and converting AMP produced into ATP; so it can be detected using luciferase/luciferin and generating light...
October 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Nargis Fallahpour, Sanam Adnani, Hossein Rassi, Esmaeil Asli
Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive bacteria that stops protein synthesis by binding to 50s ribosomal subunit. Classical and recombinant strain improvement, such as application of ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis and selection of overproduction mutant, is the most important and convenient method in enhancement of antibiotic production. In the present study, Saccharopolyspora erythraea was mutagenized using UV lights and selection by tylosin resistance mutant to improve yield of erythromycin...
October 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Neil T Burford, John Watson, Andrew Alt
Homogeneous functional assays that utilize competition binding technology are widely used for determining pharmacological properties such as intrinsic activity and potency. One example is time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assays, where labeled cAMP (tracer) and a labeled anti-cAMP antibody bind together to produce a TR-FRET signal when the two constituents are proximal to each other. This signal is disrupted when unlabeled and cellularly generated cAMP competes with the tracer cAMP for binding to the labeled antibody...
October 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Sajad Shahbazi, Jagdeep Kaur, Ananya Kuanar, Dattatreya Kar, Shikha Singh, Ranbir Chander Sobti
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a worldwide renowned progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia. There are several studies on the important role of cholesterol metabolism in AD pathogenesis, which indicated that the high concentrations of serum cholesterol increase the risk of AD. Biosynthesis of the plasma cholesterol and other isoprenoids is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid in mevalonate pathway. Normally, the high level of plasma cholesterol is downregulated by HGMCR inhibition as the result of degradation of LDL, but in abnormal conditions, for example, high blood glucose, the HMGCR over activated resulting in uncontrolled blood cholesterol...
October 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
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