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Sports Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933236/evaluating-the-contribution-of-lower-extremity-kinetics-to-whole-body-power-output-during-the-power-snatch
#1
Sangwoo Lee, Kyle D DeRosia, Landon M Lamie
This study evaluated the contribution of lower extremity (hip, knee and ankle) net joint torques (NJT) to whole body power (WBP) output during the power snatch (PS). Ten experienced weightlifters (five males and five females) performed five trials of the PS with 60% of one repetition maximum. Lower extremity NJT and WBP were extracted through a three-dimensional motion analyses and used for data analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained to observe the relationship between lower extremity NJT and WBP...
September 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929936/time-course-of-the-acute-effects-of-core-stabilisation-exercise-on-seated-postural-control
#2
Jordan B Lee, Stephen H M Brown
Core stabilisation exercises are often promoted for purposes ranging from general fitness to high-performance athletics, and the prevention and rehabilitation of back troubles. These exercises, when performed properly, may have the potential to enhance torso postural awareness and control, yet the potential for achieving immediate gains has not been completely studied. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a single bout of non-fatiguing core stabilisation exercise that consisted of repeated sets of 2 isometric exercises, the side bridge and the four-point contralateral arm-and-leg extension...
September 20, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929927/ankle-taping-can-reduce-external-ankle-joint-moments-during-drop-landings-on-a-tilted-surface
#3
Nahoko Sato, Hiroyuki Nunome, Luke S Hopper, Yasuo Ikegami
Ankle taping is commonly used to prevent ankle sprains. However, kinematic assessments investigating the biomechanical effects of ankle taping have provided inconclusive results. This study aimed to determine the effect of ankle taping on the external ankle joint moments during a drop landing on a tilted surface at 25°. Twenty-five participants performed landings on a tilted force platform that caused ankle inversion with and without ankle taping. Landing kinematics were captured using a motion capture system...
September 20, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929926/three-dimensional-kinematic-analysis-and-power-output-of-elite-flat-water-kayakers
#4
Anna Bjerkefors, Olga Tarassova, Johanna S Rosén, Pascal Zakaria, Anton Arndt
The purpose was to examine power output and three-dimensional (3D) kinematic variables in the upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk in elite flat-water kayakers during kayak ergometer paddling. An additional purpose was to analyse possible changes in kinematics with increased intensity and differences between body sides. Six male and four female international level flat-water kayakers participated. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during three tasks; low (IntL), high (IntH) and maximal (IntM) intensities...
September 20, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927350/test-retest-reliability-of-the-tekscan%C3%A2-f-scan%C3%A2-7-in-shoe-plantar-pressure-system-during-treadmill-walking-in-healthy-recreationally-active-individuals
#5
Kyle Patrick, Luke Donovan
In-shoe plantar pressure systems are commonly used in clinical and research settings to assess foot function during functional tasks. Recently, Tekscan® has updated their F-Scan® in-shoe plantar pressure system; however, this system's test-retest reliability has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the F-Scan® 7 system in recreationally active individuals during treadmill walking. Seventeen healthy adults completed 2 sessions of treadmill walking...
September 20, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920556/the-effects-of-limb-dominance-and-a-short-term-high-intensity-exercise-protocol-on-both-landings-of-the-vertical-drop-jump-implications-for-the-vertical-drop-jump-as-a-screening-tool
#6
Enda F Whyte, Patrick Kennelly, Oliver Milton, Chris Richter, Siobhán O'Connor, Kieran A Moran
The effectiveness of vertical drop jumps (VDJs) to screen for non-contact ACL injuries is unclear. This may be contributed to by discrete point analysis, which does not evaluate patterns of movement. Also, limited research exists on the second landing of VDJs, potential lower limb performance asymmetries and the effect of fatigue. Statistical parametric mapping investigated the main effects of landing, limb dominance and a high intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP) on VDJ biomechanics. Twenty-two male athletes (21...
September 18, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895466/lower-limb-muscle-activity-during-table-tennis-strokes
#7
Yann Le Mansec, Sylvain Dorel, François Hug, Marc Jubeau
This study aimed to compare the muscle activity of lower limbs across typical table tennis strokes. Fourteen high-level players participated in this study in which five typical strokes (backhand top, forehand top, forehand spin, forehand smash, flick) were analysed. Surface electromyography activity (EMG) of eight muscles was recorded (gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus) and normalised to the maximal activity measured during squat jump or isometric maximal voluntary contractions...
September 12, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877658/long-term-tai-chi-exercise-increases-body-stability-of-the-elderly-during-stair-ascent-under-high-and-low-illumination
#8
Qipeng Song, Jingyi Zhou, Wei Sun, Cui Zhang, Houxin Gu, Dewei Mao
The effects of long-term Tai Chi exercise on body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination were investigated. Forty-five healthy elderly women were divided into three groups, namely, Tai Chi exercise group, brisk walking group and no-exercise control group. All the participants ascended a staircase, during which force platforms and a motion capture system collected the data. Under the high illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants exhibited higher loading rate and anteroposterior centre of pressure (COPap) displacement as well as a lower braking impulse than no-exercise group...
September 7, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805506/kinematic-and-neuromuscular-relationships-between-lower-extremity-clinical-movement-assessments
#9
Timothy C Mauntel, Tyler R Cram, Barnett S Frank, Rebecca L Begalle, Marc F Norcross, J Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua
Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743205/do-baseball-pitchers-improve-mechanics-after-biomechanical-evaluations
#10
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
The purpose of this study was to determine how often flaws in pitching mechanics identified from biomechanical analysis are corrected. The biomechanics of 46 baseball pitchers were evaluated twice, with an average of 12 months (range 2-48 months) between evaluations. Pitchers were healthy at the time of both evaluations, competing at the high school, college, minor league or Major League level. After warming up, each participant pitched 10 full-effort fastballs. Automated three-dimensional motion analysis was used to compute eight kinematic parameters which were compared with a database of elite professional pitchers...
July 25, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730946/contribution-of-upper-limb-muscles-to-two-different-gripping-styles-in-elite-indoor-tug-of-war-athletes
#11
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730921/kinematic-repeatability-of-a-multi-segment-foot-model-for-dance
#12
Sarah L Carter, Nahoko Sato, Luke S Hopper
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730920/validity-of-a-device-designed-to-measure-braking-power-in-bicycle-disc-brakes
#13
Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Paul William Macdermid, Blake G Perry, Stephen R Stannard
Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730917/novice-runners-show-greater-changes-in-kinematics-with-fatigue-compared-with-competitive-runners
#14
Ellen Maas, Jorien De Bie, Riet Vanfleteren, Wouter Hoogkamer, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Fatigue, developed over the course of a run, may cause changes in running kinematics. Training status may influence the effect of fatigue on running kinematics, since well trained, competitive runners are used to running until exhaustion, whereas novice runners are not. This study aimed to determine changes in running kinematics during an exhaustive run in both novice (NOVICE) and competitive (COMP) long-distance runners. About 15 NOVICE and 15 COMP runners performed a treadmill run, until voluntary exhaustion at 3,200 m time trial pace...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730911/important-learning-factors-in-high-and-low-achieving-students-in-undergraduate-biomechanics
#15
ChengTu Hsieh, Duane Knudson
The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730881/comparison-of-jump-landing-protocols-with-biodex-balance-system-as-measures-of-dynamic-postural-stability-in-athletes
#16
Zarko Krkeljas
The objective of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the two common methods for assessing postural stability in athletes: the time-to-stabilisation (TTS) via force-plate and the Biodex Balance System (BBS). The conditions under which these measurements assess dynamic postural control may not provide sufficient feedback to practitioners. Fourty-four amateur soccer players with no history of musculoskeletal disorders volunteered for the study. Pearson correlation was used to compare the anterior-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML), and the overall stability indexes measured by BBS, with the corresponding parameters of TTS assessed via force plate...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730871/effects-of-timing-of-signal-indicating-jump-directions-on-knee-biomechanics-in-jump-landing-jump-tasks
#17
Mitchell L Stephenson, Taylour J Hinshaw, Haley A Wadley, Qin Zhu, Margaret A Wilson, Mark Byra, Boyi Dai
A variety of the available time to react (ATR) has been utilised to study knee biomechanics during reactive jump-landing tasks. The purpose was to quantify knee kinematics and kinetics during a jump-land-jump task of three possible directions as the ATR was reduced. Thirty-four recreational athletes performed 45 trials of a jump-land-jump task, during which the direction of the second jump (lateral, medial or vertical) was indicated before they initiated the first jump, the instant they initiated the first jump, 300 ms before landing, 150 ms before landing or at the instant of landing...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730867/external-load-training-does-not-alter-balance-performance-in-well-trained-women
#18
Jeffrey D Simpson, Brandon L Miller, Eric K O'Neal, Harish Chander, Adam C Knight
This study investigated the influence of external load training (ELT) on static and dynamic balance. Nineteen females stratified into two groups (ELT = 9, control = 10) completed three testing sessions over 6 weeks. The ELT group wore weighted vests (WV) of ~8% body mass for 32 h/week during daily living and three training sessions/week for 3 weeks. Following completion of ELT, a 3 week detraining (DET) phase was completed. Bilateral and unilateral static balance were assessed with eyes open and closed...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632065/muscle-activation-sequencing-of-leg-muscles-during-linear-glide-shot-putting
#19
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
In the shot put, the athlete's muscles are responsible for generating the impulses to move the athlete and project the shot into the air. Information on phasic muscle activity is lacking for the glide shot put event and therefore important technical information for coaches is not currently available. This study provides an electromyography (EMG) analysis of the muscle activity of the legs during shot put. Fifteen right-handed Irish national level shot putters performed six maximum effort throws using the glide shot put technique...
November 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632064/the-effectiveness-of-front-fork-systems-at-damping-accelerations-during-isolated-aspects-specific-to-cross-country-mountain-biking
#20
Paul W Macdermid, Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
Cross-country mountain bike suspension reportedly enhances comfort and performance through reduced vibration and impact exposure. This study analysed the effectiveness of three different front fork systems at damping accelerations during the crossing of three isolated obstacles (stairs, drop, and root). One participant completed three trials on six separate occasions in a randomised order using rigid, air-sprung, and carbon leaf-sprung forks. Performance was determined by time to cross obstacles, while triaxial accelerometers quantified impact exposure and damping response...
November 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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