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Sports Biomechanics

Donna Moxley Scarborough, Ashley J Bassett, Lucas W Mayer, Eric M Berkson
Conceptually, an efficient baseball pitch demonstrates a proximal-to-distal transfer of segmental angular velocity. Such a timing pattern (or kinematic sequence) reduces stress on musculoskeletal structures of the throwing arm and maximises ball velocity. We evaluated the variability of kinematic sequences in 208 baseball pitches. 3D biomechanical pitch analyses were performed on 8-10 fastball pitches from 22 baseball pitchers (5 high school, 11 collegiate and 6 professional). The kinematic sequence patterns - time of peak angular velocity of five body segments: pelvis, trunk, arm, forearm and hand - were measured...
September 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Aleksandra R Budarick, Jaymee R Shell, Shawn M K Robbins, Tom Wu, Philippe J Renaud, David J Pearsall
The skating acceleration to maximal speed transition (sprint) is an essential skill that involves substantial lower body strength and effective propulsion technique. Coaches and athletes strive to understand this optimal combination to improve performance and reduce injury risk. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare body centre of mass and lower body kinematic profiles from static start to maximal speed of high calibre male and female ice hockey players on the ice surface. Overall, male and female skaters showed similar centre of mass trajectories, though magnitudes differed...
September 11, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Aaron S Fox, Jason Bonacci, Natalie Saunders
Field-based screening methods have a limited capacity to identify high-risk postures during netball-specific landings associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. This study determined the biomechanical relationship between a single-leg squat and netball-specific leap landing, to examine the utility of including a single-leg squat within netball-specific ACL injury risk screening. Thirty-two female netballers performed single-leg squat and netball-specific leap landing tasks, during which three-dimensional (3D) kinematic/kinetic data were collected...
August 28, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ran Wang, David H Fukuda, Peng Cheng, Yang Hu, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
The majority of barefoot running studies have not considered speed as an influential factor on foot strike pattern. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in foot strike pattern and spatiotemporal characteristics between barefoot and shod overground running at varying speeds. We first determined maximal running speed (Vm) over 50 m in 15 recreationally active men who self-reported as habitual rearfoot strikers. Participants then completed shod and barefoot running trials at different speeds equivalent to approximately 90%, 80%, 70% and 60% of Vm...
August 23, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
George Dallas, Apostolos S Theodorou
The aim of this study was to investigate if a visible target for the hurdle take-off would influence the onset of visual regulation and hurdle kinematics during the approach run. Ten elite male gymnasts (age 23.4 ± 4.9 years, height 1.68 ± 0.06 m, mass 63.3 ± 6.2 kg) performed six handspring vaults with a full approach run under two controlled conditions: (a) with a 5-cm white tape on the runway marking the last touchdown of the approach run and the commencement of the hurdle (tape condition-T) and (b) under the standard vaulting regulations (non-tape condition-NT)...
August 23, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Thomas Dos'Santos, Paul Comfort, Paul A Jones
The aims of this study were twofold: firstly, to compare lower limb kinematic and kinetic variables during a sprint and 90° cutting task between two averaging methods of obtaining discrete data (peak of average profile vs. average of individual trial peaks); secondly, to determine the effect of averaging methods on participant ranking of each variable within a group. Twenty-two participants, from multiple sports, performed a 90° cut, whereby lower limb kinematics and kinetics were assessed via 3D motion and ground reaction force (GRF) analysis...
August 20, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Morten Hauge Nielsen, Jan Noergaard Lund, Wing-Kai Lam, Uwe Gustav Kersting
This study identified the effect of badminton lunging directions on impact characteristics, joint kinetics and measurement reliability. A total of 14 badminton players performed 20 lunges in both forehand and backhand sides. Ground reaction force (GRF) and three-dimensional joint moment variables were determined for further analyses. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to determine any differences between the two lunge directions and intra-class correlation (ICC) and sequential averaging analysis (SAA) were used to estimate the minimum number of trials...
August 17, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Jason M Avedesian, Lawrence W Judge, Henry Wang, D Clark Dickin
Female volleyball athletes incorporate dynamic and static stretching into a warm-up, with evidence generally supporting dynamic stretching to improve performance. However, the effects of these stretching practices on injury risk during subsequent volleyball manoeuvres have yet to be fully elucidated in the warm-up literature. Three-dimensional kinematic data associated with non-contact, lower extremity injury were recorded on 12 female collegiate club volleyball athletes during unilateral landing tasks on the dominant and non-dominant limb...
August 17, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Kazumichi Ae, Sekiya Koike, Takashi Kawamura
The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetic functions of the lower limbs at different hitting-point heights to provide key information for improving batting technique in baseball players. Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired using a motion capture system (250 Hz) and ground reaction forces were measured using three force platforms (1000 Hz) in 22 male collegiate baseball players during tee-batting set at three different hitting-point heights (high, middle, and low). Kinetic data were used to calculate joint torque and mechanical work in the lower limbs by the inverse dynamics approach...
August 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Timothy J Suchomel, Sophia Nimphius, Michael H Stone
This study examined the validity of various scaling methods, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force using various scaling methods, and the relationships between IMTP peak force and countermovement jump height.  Fifty-one collegiate baseball and soccer athletes performed two maximal IMTPs.  Absolute peak force was compared between teams and when data were scaled using ratio (RS), traditional allometric (ALLOTrad ), and fitted allometric (ALLOFit ) scaling.  ALLOTrad and ALLOFit validity was violated because different derived exponents existed for baseball (b = 0...
August 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Kohei Watanabe, Hiroyuki Nunome, Koichiro Inoue, Takahiro Iga, Hiroshi Akima
A possible link between soccer-specific injuries, such as groin pain and the action of hip adductor muscles has been suggested. This study aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of the adductor magnus (AM) and longus (AL) muscles during instep and side-foot soccer kicks. Eight university soccer players performed the two types of kick at 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximal ball speed. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the AM, AL, vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles of both kicking and supporting legs and the kicking motions were three-dimensionally captured...
August 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Chandler Moore, Luke Donovan, Amanda M Murray, Charles Armstrong, Neal R Glaviano
Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries and as a response, clinicians often use external ankle taping prophylactically to reduce the prevalence of injuries. External ankle taping techniques have been shown to significantly reduce passive ankle range of motion; however, there is limited research on the effects of external ankle taping on lower extremity kinematics or kinetics during sport specific tasks. Therefore, our objective was to compare the effects of external ankle taping on ankle, knee and hip kinematics and kinetics compared to no taping during an anticipated sidestep cutting task and a straight sprint task...
July 23, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Samuel D Todd, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian A Coleman, Mathew B Brown
During practice and competition, golfers are required to use submaximal effort to hit the ball a given distance, i.e., perform a partial shot. While the full golf swing has undergone extensive research, little has addressed partial shots and the biomechanical modifications golfers employ. This study investigates the biomechanical changes between full and partial swings, and determines if the partial swing is a scaled version of the full swing. Using a repeated measures design, 13 male golfers completed a minimum of 10 swings in the full and partial swing conditions, whilst club, ball, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were recorded...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Paolo Caravaggi, Alberto Leardini, Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler
Head and neck injuries are common in contact sports such as American football. Different mechanisms can produce such injuries, including compressive impact forces on the crown of the helmet with the neck in a flexed chin-down position. The aim of this paper was developing and testing a novel Cervical Spine Protection Device (CSPD) designed to keep the neck within its safe physiological range. The cervical spine range of motion (ROM) of ten participants was measured under four conditions: free; wearing a football gear; wearing the CSPD; and wearing the CSPD underneath the gear...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Hannah E Wyatt, Marianne J R Gittoes, Gareth Irwin
Female gymnasts have been evidenced to experience sport-specific growth, of which broad shoulders and narrow hips are common characteristics. In addition to being a central component of handstand performance, postural control mechanisms, including whole-body and lumbo-pelvic stability, have been identified as risk factors for overuse spinal pathology. The study aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of musculoskeletal growth and postural control responses of female artistic gymnasts in order to extend longitudinal insights into overuse spinal pathology risk...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Nobuyasu Nakano, Senshi Fukashiro, Shinsuke Yoshioka
The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of shooting distance on energy flow in basketball jump shot. Ten male right-handed basketball players participated in this study, and three successful shots at three different distances (short condition, equating to a free-throw; long condition, equating to a three-point shot; and mid condition, equating to the mid-point of the short- and long-condition shots) were recorded using a motion capture system and force platforms. Kinetic variables of joints during shooting were analysed using inverse dynamics method...
July 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gustavo Leporace, Marcio Tannure, Gabriel Zeitoune, Leonardo Metsavaht, Moacir Marocolo, Alex Souto Maior
The aim of this study was to test the correlation between knee-to-hip flexion ratio during a single leg landing task and hip and knee strength, and ankle range of motion. Twenty-four male participants from a professional soccer team performed a continuous single leg jump-landing test during 10s, while lower limb kinematics data were collected using a motion analysis system. After biomechanical testing, maximal isometric hip (abduction, extension, external rotation), knee extension and flexion strength were measured...
July 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Hans C von Lieres Und Wilkau, Gareth Irwin, Neil E Bezodis, Scott Simpson, Ian N Bezodis
The aim of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal and kinematic changes between the initial acceleration, transition and maximum velocity phases of a sprint. Sagittal plane kinematics from five experienced sprinters performing 50-m maximal sprints were collected using six HD-video cameras. Following manual digitising, spatiotemporal and kinematic variables at touchdown and toe-off were calculated. The start and end of the transition phase were identified using the step-to-step changes in centre of mass height and segment angles...
July 4, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Josephine Grigg, Eric Haakonssen, Evelyne Rathbone, Robin Orr, Justin W L Keogh
The aim of this study was to quantify the validity and intra-tester reliability of a novel method of kinematic measurement. The measurement target was the joint angles of an athlete performing a BMX Supercross (SX) gate start action through the first 1.2 s of movement in situ on a BMX SX ramp using a standard gate start procedure. The method employed GoPro® Hero 4 Silver (GoPro Inc., USA) cameras capturing data at 120 fps 720 p on a 'normal' lens setting. Kinovea 0.8.15 (, France) was used for analysis...
September 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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September 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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