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Sports Biomechanics

Guillermo Peña García-Orea, Noelia Belando-Pedreño, Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Abel Jiménez-Ruiz, Juan Ramón Heredia-Elvar
The purpose of this study was to analyse the reliability and validity of an opto-electronic sensor system (Velowin) compared to a linear velocity transducer (T-Force System) considered as the gold standard. Mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) generated in the Smith machine bar placed on the shoulders in counter-movement jump exercise (CMJ) were analysed. The study was conducted with a sample of 21 men with experience in resistance training. Five measurements were analysed for CMJ exercise in concentric phase using a progressive loading increase...
November 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Karla De Jesus, Kelly De Jesus, Pedro Gonçalves, Maria Olga Vasconcelos, Alexandre Igor Araripe Medeiros, Diogo António Duarte Carvalho, Ricardo J Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
We aimed to compare preferred, non-preferred, hand, foot kinetics and their asymmetry in two backstroke start variants. Complementarily, asymmetries were correlated to the resultant take-off velocity. Nine swimmers completed four 15 m backstroke starts with horizontal handgrips and four with vertical handgrips on an instrumented block (right, left hand, foot forces and impulse, normalised to swimmers' weight and time). We applied handedness and footedness questionnaires. Preferred hand and foot depicted a very and most likely moderate to large increase on horizontal force before hands-off (-0...
November 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Rafael Lima Kons, Jorge Nelson Da Silva Junior, Bruno Follmer, Luiz Felipe Guarise Katcipis, Ramdane Almansba, Daniele Detanico
Uchi-komi Fitness Test (UFT) is a specific judo test that evaluates physiological fitness of judo athletes in similar conditions to judo matches. Neuromuscular parameters obtained by generic and judo-specific tests would aid to get more information about its criterion validity. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between UFT and shoulder external (PTEX ) and internal (PTINT ) rotation torque, handgrip strength (HGS) and vertical jumps (VJs) performance. The relationship between UFT and Judogi grip strength test (JGST) was also investigated...
November 9, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Benoît Gillet, Mickaël Begon, Marine Diger, Christian Berger-Vachon, Isabelle Rogowski
The tennis serve generates high musculoskeletal loads at the shoulder complex, making athletes particularly vulnerable to chronic injuries, especially adolescent players. Chronic injuries are commonly related to altered scapular kinematics. This study explored the effects of a history of shoulder problems involving humerothoracic and scapulothoracic kinematics during the tennis serve at low speed in adolescent competitive players with and without a history of dominant shoulder problems. Totally, 28 adolescent tennis players were split into two groups, those with and those without a history of shoulder problems...
November 9, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Danguole Satkunskiene, Sigitas Kamandulis, Marius Brazaitis, Audrius Snieckus, Albertas Skurvydas
The study aims were to investigate the effects of muscle damage induced by high-volume stretch-shortening cycle exercise on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and vertical leg stiffness during squat and landing phases. Changes in the peak torque of knee extensor muscles, soreness, plasma CK activity, vertical leg stiffness, and CMJ characteristics were measured in recreationally active men after 50, 100, 150 and 200 drop jumps (DJs) and again 24 h later. The isometric voluntary peak torque after 50 DJs decreased by 22 ± 12% (p < 0...
November 9, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Shawn M Robbins, Philippe J Renaud, David J Pearsall
The objective was to compare joint angles during full stride skating on ice between high- and low-calibre hockey players. High (n = 8) and low (n = 8) calibre male participants completed full stride skating on ice for two to five trials. A 10-camera motion capture system collected kinematic data. Ankle, knee, and hip angles were calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified important angle characteristics and each trial was scored against principal components (PC-scores). Hierarchical linear models examined relationships between PC-scores and skill level with and without controlling for speed...
November 9, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Grace A Couture, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Anna V Lorimer, Andrew E Kilding, Paul Macadam
Wearable resistance training involves added load attached directly to the body during sporting movements. The effects of load position during running are not yet fully established. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics during submaximal running using upper, lower and whole-body wearable resistance (1-10% body mass (BM)). Twelve trained male runners completed eight 2-min treadmill running bouts at 3.9 m/s with and without wearable resistance. The first and last bouts were unloaded, while the middle 6 were randomised wearable resistance conditions: upper body (UB) 5% BM, lower body (LB) 1%, 3%, 5% BM and whole body (WB) 5%, 10% BM...
October 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Joshua P Bailey, Janet S Dufek, Julia Freedman Silvernail, James Navalta, John Mercer
During the course of a training programme, runners will typically increase running velocity and volume possibly encountering fatigue during a run, which is characterised as a feeling of general tiredness. The purpose of the current study was to identify whether or not level of perceived fatigue affects coordination and coordination variability in healthy runners during the recovery velocity of an endurance interval run. A total of 20 endurance runners completed a 1-hour run that included running velocity intervals at 75% of estimated 10 k race pace (5 minutes) and estimated 10 k race pace (1 minute)...
October 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Duane Knudson
This study tested the hypothesis of the strong scholar perception of the journal Sports Biomechanics with a bibliometric analysis of top-cited articles. Three major databases, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched for the most cited articles published in Sports Biomechanics for the first 15 years (2002-2016) of publication. The top 20 (4%) cited articles from each database were qualitatively analysed for research themes and descriptive statistics calculated for citations and citation rates...
October 10, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Wissem Dhahbi, Helmi Chaabene, Anis Chaouachi, Johnny Padulo, David G Behm, Jodie Cochrane, Angus Burnett, Karim Chamari
Push-ups represent one of the simplest and most popular strengthening exercise. The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature on the kinetics-related characteristics of different types of push-ups, with the objective of optimising training prescription and exercise-related load. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct up to April 2018. Studies that reported kinetic data (e.g. initial and peak-force supported by the upper-limbs, impact-force, peak-flexion-moment of the elbow-joint, rate of propulsive- and impact-, and vertebral-joint compressive-forces) related to push-ups and included trained, recreational and untrained participants, were considered...
October 4, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Komsak Sinsurin, Roongtiwa Vachalathiti, Sarun Srisangboriboon, Jim Richards
Knee joint coordination during jump landing in different directions is an important consideration for injury prevention. The aim of the current study was to investigate knee and hip kinematics on the non-dominant and dominant limbs during landing. A total of 19 female volleyball athletes performed single-leg jump-landing tests in four directions; forward (0°), diagonal (30° and 60°) and lateral (90°) directions. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected using a 10-camera Vicon system and an AMTI force plate...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
J Michio Clark, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist
Goaltenders in the sport of ice hockey are at high risk for concussions from falls to the ice, player collisions and puck impacts. However, current methods used to certify helmets only consider head accelerations for drop tests which may not describe all common injury mechanisms relating to concussion. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of 3 events associated with concussions for ice hockey goaltenders. A helmeted medium National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) headform was impacted under conditions representing 3 injury events...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ewertton S Bezerra, Brad J Schoenfeld, Gabriel Paz, Déborah de Araújo Farias, Raphael L Sakugawa, Iago Vieira, Mateus Rossato, Humberto Miranda
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise order on volume load (VL) and myoelectric activation (EMG) during the bench press (BP), military press (MP) and close-grip bench press (CGBP) exercises executed with a barbell and Smith machine. Twelve men experienced in resistance training performed four different exercise sessions in randomised order. Each session consisted of four sets of a given exercise order: O1 = CGBP + MP + BP with barbell; O2 = inverse O1 with barbell, O3 = same O1 with Smith Machine; O4 = same O2 with Smith machine...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha, Fernando de Moraes Fernandes, Camila Carvalho de Souza, Joseph Hamill
Fractionated reaction time can be used to determine distinct epochs known as pre-motor, response and movement times (MTs) of a reaction time task. The purpose of this study was to compare elite and novice athletes performing a taekwondo kick in terms of the fractionated reaction time and electromyography (EMG) activation patterns of the muscles of the striking lower limb and the lower back. We hypothesised that the pre-motor time, response time (RT) and MT would be the shorter for elite athletes compared to novices...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Laura J Judson, Sarah M Churchill, Andrew Barnes, Joseph A Stone, Ian G A Brookes, Jon Wheat
Sprint velocity decreases on the bend when compared with the straight, therefore understanding technique during bend sprinting could have important implications for aiding race performance. Few bend sprinting studies have used optoelectronic cameras to investigate kinematic variables. Limited published evidence regarding the reliability of marker sets in conditions representative of elite bend sprinting makes model selection difficult. Therefore, a test-retest protocol was conducted to establish the reliability and minimum detectable difference of a lower limb and trunk marker set during bend sprinting (radius: 36...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Nicole M Mueske, Akash R Patel, J Lee Pace, Tracy L Zaslow, Curtis D VandenBerg, Mia J Katzel, Bianca R Edison, Tishya A L Wren
Motion analysis offers objective insight into biomechanics, rehabilitation progress and return to sport readiness. This study examined changes in three-dimensional movement patterns during drop jump landing between early and late stages of rehabilitation in adolescent athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Twenty-four athletes (58% female; mean age 15.4 years, SD 1.2) with unilateral ACLR underwent motion analysis testing 3-6 months and again 6-10 months post-operatively. Kinematics and kinetics were compared between visits and between limbs using repeated measures ANOVA...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ann Bailey, James Funk, David Lessley, Chris Sherwood, Jeff Crandall, William Neale, Nathan Rose
Professional American football games are recorded in digital video with multiple cameras, often at high resolution and high frame rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a videogrammetry technique to calculate translational and rotational helmet velocity before, during and after a helmet impact. In total, 10 football impacts were staged in a National Football League (NFL) stadium by propelling helmeted 50th percentile male crash test dummies into each other or the ground at speeds and orientations representative of concussive impacts for NFL players...
October 2, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Meredith D Wells, D Clark Dickin, Jennifer Popp, Henry Wang
Hill running is often used as a foundational training mechanism to build strength and speed. Distance runners in particular are at an increased likelihood of encountering steep hills during training runs. There is limited research regarding downhill running, and there is no research available on the biomechanics of females specifically during downhill running. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences in loading when running downhill at different grades compared to a level surface in female distance runners to determine the potential risk for injury...
October 1, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Donna Moxley Scarborough, Ashley J Bassett, Lucas W Mayer, Eric M Berkson
Conceptually, an efficient baseball pitch demonstrates a proximal-to-distal transfer of segmental angular velocity. Such a timing pattern (or kinematic sequence) reduces stress on musculoskeletal structures of the throwing arm and maximises ball velocity. We evaluated the variability of kinematic sequences in 208 baseball pitches. 3D biomechanical pitch analyses were performed on 8-10 fastball pitches from 22 baseball pitchers (5 high school, 11 collegiate and 6 professional). The kinematic sequence patterns - time of peak angular velocity of five body segments: pelvis, trunk, arm, forearm and hand - were measured...
September 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Aleksandra R Budarick, Jaymee R Shell, Shawn M K Robbins, Tom Wu, Philippe J Renaud, David J Pearsall
The skating acceleration to maximal speed transition (sprint) is an essential skill that involves substantial lower body strength and effective propulsion technique. Coaches and athletes strive to understand this optimal combination to improve performance and reduce injury risk. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare body centre of mass and lower body kinematic profiles from static start to maximal speed of high calibre male and female ice hockey players on the ice surface. Overall, male and female skaters showed similar centre of mass trajectories, though magnitudes differed...
September 11, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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