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Sports Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343172/quantification-of-brake-data-acquired-with-a-brake-power-meter-during-simulated-cross-country-mountain-bike-racing
#1
Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Paul W Macdermid, Stephen R Stannard
There is currently a dearth of information describing cycling performance outside of propulsive and physiological variables. The aim of the present study was to utilise a brake power meter to quantify braking during a multi-lap cross-country mountain bike time trial and to determine how braking affects performance. A significant negative association was determined between lap time and brake power (800.8 ± 216.4 W, mean ± SD; r = -0.446; p < 0.05), while the time spent braking (28.0 ± 6.4 s) was positively associated with lap time (314...
January 17, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334869/the-influence-of-water-depth-on-kinematic-and-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-during-aquatic-treadmill-walking
#2
Taeyou Jung, Yumi Kim, Hyosok Lim, Konstantinos Vrongistinos
The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic and spatiotemporal variables of aquatic treadmill walking at three different water depths. A total of 15 healthy individuals completed three two-minute walking trials at three different water depths. The aquatic treadmill walking was conducted at waist-depth, chest-depth and neck-depth, while a customised 3-D underwater motion analysis system captured their walking. Each participant's self-selected walking speed at the waist level was used as a reference speed, which was applied to the remaining two test conditions...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334868/biomechanical-analyses-of-synchronised-swimming-standard-and-contra-standard-sculling
#3
Lara Elena Gomes, Vera Diogo, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J Fernandes, Pedro Figueiredo
Synchronised swimming involves a variety of sculling movements essential for body support and propulsion but its study is scarce. We aimed to biomechanically compare standard and contra-standard sculling techniques, and to observe the relationship between measures. Six synchronised swimmers performed two, 30 s maximal intensity, fully tethered standard and contra-standard sculling motions. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using a load-cell and underwater cameras, respectively. Force decreased along both techniques' bouts, but no differences in-between techniques were noted for any kinetic variables...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334862/the-effects-of-an-unanticipated-side-cut-on-lower-extremity-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-during-a-drop-landing
#4
Jae P Yom, Tane Owens, Scott Arnett, Justin Beebe, Veronica Son
Unanticipated direction to cut after landing may alter the lower extremity landing biomechanics when performing landing motions. These alterations may potentially increase the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unanticipated side-cut affects lower extremity landing biomechanics in females. Eighteen recreational female athletes participated in two blocks of testing: the first block of testing consisted of three acceptable trials of anticipated dominant limb and non-dominant limb 45-degree diagonal cutting after landing, which were performed in a counterbalanced order...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334846/scapular-motion-adaptations-in-junior-overhead-athletes-a-three-dimensional-kinematic-analysis-in-tennis-players-and-non-overhead-athletes
#5
Elif Turgut, Filiz Fatma Colakoglu, Gul Baltaci
Adult overhead athletes without a history of shoulder injury show scapular adaptations. There is a lack of detailed assessment of scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. This study aims to investigate three-dimensional scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. We recruited a total of 20 junior tennis players and 20 healthy children without participation in any overhead sports in this study. Bilateral scapular kinematic data were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking device for scapular plane glenohumeral elevation...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327655/accuracy-between-optical-and-inertial-motion-capture-systems-for-assessing-trunk-speed-during-preferred-gait-and-transition-periods
#6
Martin Kokholm Fleron, Niels Christian Hauerbach Ubbesen, Francesco Battistella, David Leandro Dejtiar, Anderson Souza Oliveira
Motion capture through inertial sensors is becoming popular, but its accuracy to describe kinematics during changes in walking speed is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of trunk speed extracted using an inertial motion system compared to a gold standard optical motion system, during steady walking and stationary periods. Eleven participants walked on pre-established paths marked on the floor. Between each lap, a 1-second stationary transition period at the initial position was included prior to the next lap...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327649/the-effect-of-auditory-stimulus-training-on-swimming-start-reaction-time
#7
Christopher Papic, Peter Sinclair, Che Fornusek, Ross Sanders
Task-specific auditory training can improve sensorimotor processing times of the auditory reaction time (RT). The majority of competitive swimmers do not conduct habitual start training with the electronic horn used to commence a race. We examined the effect of four week dive training interventions on RT and block time (BT) of 10 male adolescent swimmers (age 14.0 ± 1.4 years): dive training with auditory components (speaker and electronic horn) (n = 5) and dive training without auditory components (n = 5)...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199523/functional-shoulder-ratios-with-high-velocities-of-shoulder-internal-rotation-are-most-sensitive-to-determine-shoulder-rotation-torque-imbalance-a-cross-sectional-study-with-elite-handball-players-and-controls
#8
Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Pedro Fonseca, Sara Tribuzi Morais, Márcio Borgonovo-Santos, Eduardo Filipe Cruz Coelho, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The aim of the present study was to determine which approach to calculating shoulder ratios is the most sensitive for determining shoulder torque imbalance in handball players. Twenty-six participants (handball athletes, n = 13; healthy controls, n = 13) performed isokinetic concentric and eccentric shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) assessment at 60, 180 and 300°/s. We used eight approaches to calculating shoulder ratios: four concentric (i.e. concentric ER torque divided by concentric IR torque), and four functional (i...
December 4, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192550/kinematic-analysis-of-proximal-to-distal-and-simultaneous-motion-sequencing-of-straight-punches
#9
Philip Xaver Fuchs, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Hermann Schwameder
Consecutive proximal-to-distal sequencing of motion is considered to be integral for generating high velocity of distal segments in many sports. Simultaneous usage of proximal and distal segments as seen in martial arts is by far less well investigated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterise and differentiate the concepts of consecutive (CSM) and simultaneous (SSM) sequence of motion in straight reverse punches as practised in Practical Wing Chun. Four experienced martial artists succeeded an eligibility test for technical proficiency in both concepts and performed a total number of 20 straight punches per concept...
December 1, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192540/thoracoabdominal-breathing-motion-pattern-and-coordination-of-professional-ballet-dancers
#10
Isabella Martins Rodrigues, Gustavo Ramos Dalla Bernardina, Karine Jacon Sarro, Guido Baroni, Pietro Cerveri, Amanda Piaia Silvatti
Ballet training includes exercises of high and moderate intensities, which require breathing control for a good performance. This study describes the thoracoabdominal motion of professional dancers and compares the breathing patterns between professional dancers and non-dancers. Participants of this study were four male and four female (30.33 ± 4.64 years) professional dancers and four male and four female (22.75 ± 1.49 years) non-dancers. The participants executed two breathing manoeuvres while sitting motionless: quiet breathing (QB) and vital capacity (VC)...
December 1, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171352/the-one-week-and-six-month-reliability-and-variability-of-three-dimensional-tibial-acceleration-in-runners
#11
Kelly R Sheerin, Thor F Besier, Duncan Reid, Patria A Hume
Tibial acceleration is a surrogate measure for impact loading and lower limb fatigue injury in runners. Triaxial accelerometers may offer reliable and practical measurement of resultant peak tibial acceleration (PTA). With such potential in mind, this study examined variability and measurement reliability of tibial acceleration in 14 runners at baseline at one week, and eight of the runners again at six months. Triaxial accelerometers were attached to the distal tibiae of runners before they ran on a treadmill for two minutes each, at speeds of 2...
November 24, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166851/novel-mathematical-model-to-estimate-ball-impact-force-in-soccer
#12
Takahito Iga, Hiroyuki Nunome, Shinya Sano, Nahoko Sato, Yasuo Ikegami
To assess ball impact force during soccer kicking is important to quantify from both performance and chronic injury prevention perspectives. We aimed to verify the appropriateness of previous models used to estimate ball impact force and to propose an improved model to better capture the time history of ball impact force. A soccer ball was fired directly onto a force platform (10 kHz) at five realistic kicking ball velocities and ball behaviour was captured by a high-speed camera (5,000 Hz). The time history of ball impact force was estimated using three existing models and two new models...
November 22, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166832/conditioning-exercises-in-ski-jumping-biomechanical-relationship-of-squat-jumps-imitation-jumps-and-hill-jumps
#13
Silvio Lorenzetti, Fabian Ammann, Sabrina Windmüller, Ramona Häberle, Sören Müller, Micah Gross, Michael Plüss, Stefan Plüss, Berni Schödler, Klaus Hübner
As hill jumps are very time-consuming, ski jumping athletes often perform various imitation jumps during training. The performed jumps should be similar to hill jumps, but a direct comparison of the kinetic and kinematic parameters has not been performed yet. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate 11 common parameters during hill jumps (Oberstdorf Germany), squat jumps (wearing indoor shoes), and various imitation jumps (rolling 4°, rolling flat, static; jumping equipment or indoor shoes) on a custom-built instrumented vehicle with a catch by the coach...
November 22, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160152/effect-of-wetted-surface-area-on-friction-pressure-wave-and-total-drag-of-a-kayak
#14
Beatriz B Gomes, Leandro Machado, Nuno V Ramos, Filipe A V Conceição, Ross H Sanders, Mário A P Vaz, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David R Pendergast
Using theoretical principles, the components of drag (friction DF, pressure DPR and wave DW) of a single-seat kayak were analysed. The purpose was to examine the effect of changes in wetted surface area due to changes in kayaker's weight and the relative contribution of DF, DPR and DW to the total passive drag as function of velocity. The total passive drag values were based on experimental data collected in a single-seat kayak. Three different kayaker simulated weights were tested - 65, 75 and 85 kg. DF was the drag component that contributed the greatest percentage (between 60 and 68% at 5...
November 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#15
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141500/considerations-for-the-use-of-functional-principal-components-analysis-in-sports-biomechanics-examples-from-on-water-rowing
#16
John Warmenhoven, Stephen Cobley, Conny Draper, Andrew Harrison, Norma Bargary, Richard Smith
The proliferation of new biomechanical technology in laboratory and field settings facilitates the capture of data-sets consisting of complex time-series. An understanding of the appropriate statistical approaches for analysing and interpreting these data-sets is required and the functional data analysis (FDA) family of statistical techniques has emerged in the biomechanical literature. Given the use of FDA is currently in its infancy with biomechanical data, this paper will form the first of a two part series aiming to address practical issues surrounding the application of FDA techniques in biomechanics...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141496/power-and-pacing-calculations-based-on-real-time-locating-data-from-a-cross-country-skiing-sprint-race
#17
Mikael Swarén, Anders Eriksson
Pacing strategies in cross-country skiing have been investigated in several studies. However, none of the previous studies have been verified by collected skiing data giving the skiing velocities along a measured track. These can be used to calculate the propulsive power output. Collected real-time positioning data from a cross-country sprint skiing race were used to estimate the propulsive power by applying a power balance model. Analyses were made for the time-trial and the final for one female and one male skier...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132264/leg-amputation-side-determines-performance-in-curve-sprinting-a-case-study-on-a-paralympic-medalist
#18
Johannes Funken, Kai Heinrich, Steffen Willwacher, Ralf Müller, Jonas Böcker, Hiroaki Hobara, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Wolfgang Potthast
The lower limb kinetics of curve sprinting in amputees are not well described in the literature, particularly with respect to the effect of the side of amputation. This is an issue due to the importance of the knowledge for prosthetic design and classification of athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of side of amputation on curve sprinting performance in athletes with a unilateral leg amputation. A three-dimensional motion analysis system (Vicon), four force plates (Kistler) and a modified mathematical human model (ALASKA) were used to compare clockwise and counter clockwise curve sprinting lower limb kinematics and kinetics of a Paralympic medalist with a left-sided knee exarticular amputation...
November 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129137/citation-metrics-of-excellence-in-sports-biomechanics-research
#19
Duane Knudson
This study extended research on key citation metrics of winners of two career scholar awards in sports biomechanics. Google Scholar (GS) was searched using Harzing's Publish or Perish software for the 13 most recent winners of the ISBS Geoffrey Dyson Award and the ASB Jim Hay Memorial Award. Returned records were corrected for author, and publications excluded for all but peer-reviewed journal articles, proceedings articles, chapters and books in English. These recent award winners had published about 150 publications that had been cited typically 4,082 and 6,648 times over a 26- and 28-year period before receiving these career awards for sports biomechanics research...
November 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129134/divided-attention-during-cutting-influences-lower-extremity-mechanics-in-female-athletes
#20
Thomas Gus Almonroeder, Thomas Kernozek, Stephen Cobb, Brooke Slavens, Jinsung Wang, Wendy Huddleston
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in basketball appear to be more common when players are in possession of the ball. The greater risk of ACL injury when in possession of the ball may result from the athlete's inability to fully attend to their movement. However, it is also possible that having to carry/manipulate the ball restricts the athlete's ability to utilise their upper extremities for stability during a manoeuvre. The purpose of this study was to explore how possession of a basketball and divided attention influence lower extremity mechanics during cutting and landing...
November 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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