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Sports Biomechanics

Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Dimitrios Challoumas, Antonio Stavrou, Georgios Dimitrakakis
In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified...
September 23, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Wen-Lan Wu, Hsiu-Tao Hsu, I-Hua Chu, Feng-Hua Tsai, Jing-Min Liang
In order to help coaches analyse the techniques of professional in-line speed skaters for making the required fine adjustments and corrections in their push-off work, this study analysed the specific plantar pressure characteristics during a 300-m time-trial test. Fourteen elite in-line speed skaters from the national team were recruited in this study. The total completion time of the 300-m time-trial test, duration of each skating phase, and plantar pressure distribution were measured. The correlation between plantar pressure distribution and skating performance was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses...
September 23, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Hannelore Boey, Jeroen Aeles, Kurt Schütte, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Laurent Vigouroux, Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, Chris Hayot, Philippe Androuet, Éric Berton
Previous studies suggested that a pronounced weakness of the extensor muscles relative to the flexor muscles could increase the risk of occurrence of lateral epicondylalgia. This study investigates this hypothesis by estimating the ratio of extensor to flexor muscle capacities among healthy non-players (n = 10), healthy tennis players (n = 20), symptomatic players (n = 6), and players who have recovered from lateral epicondylalgia (n = 6). Maximum net joint moments in flexion or extension were measured during seven tasks involving the voluntary contraction of wrist and fingers...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Yoann Blache, Thomas Creveaux, Raphaël Dumas, Laurence Chèze, Isabelle Rogowski
The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Shalaya Kipp, Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram
Athletes in the 3,000 m steeplechase track and field event negotiate unmovable hurdles and waterjumps. Ground reaction forces (GRF) in the steeplechase were quantified to elucidate injury risks / mechanisms and to inform coaches. Five male and five female steeplechasers participated. GRF were measured during treadmill running, and using specially mounted force platforms, during hurdle and waterjump takeoffs and landings at 5.54 m/s (males) or 5.00 m/s (females). Results are presented as: male mean ± SD / female mean ± SD...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Jader Sant'Ana, Emerson Franchini, Vinicius da Silva, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Reaction time and response time are considered important abilities and can potentially affect combat performance. This study investigated the effect of a specific fatigue protocol on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact. Seven male athletes reported to the laboratory on two different days. During day one, athletes performed a specific progressive taekwondo test, and on day two, a protocol for determining reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact before and after a time to exhaustion test at an intensity level corresponding to the maximal kick frequency obtained during the specific progressive taekwondo test...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Roy T H Cheung, Rodney Y L Wong, Tim K W Chung, R T Choi, Wendy W Y Leung, Diana H Y Shek
Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89...
September 4, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Yasushi Kariyama, Hiroaki Hobara, Koji Zushi
This study aimed to clarify the differences between the horizontal single-leg rebound jump (HJ) and vertical single-leg rebound jump (VJ) in terms of three-dimensional joint kinetics for the take-off leg, while focusing on frontal and transverse plane movements. Eleven male track and field athletes performed HJ and VJ. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using data recorded with a motion capture system and force platforms. The hip abduction torque, trunk lateral flexion torque (flexion for the swing-leg side), hip external and internal torque, trunk rotational torque, and the powers associated with these torques were larger when performing HJ because of resistance to the impact ground reaction force and because of pelvic and posture control...
September 4, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Ricardo Peterson Silveira, Pro Stergiou, Felipe P Carpes, Flávio A de S Castro, Larry Katz, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The aim of this study was to determine the precision and accuracy of the vertical and anterior-posterior force components of the portable PASCO PS-2142 force plate. Impulse, peak force, and time to peak force were assessed and compared to a gold standard force plate in three different tasks: vertical jump, forward jump, and sprint start. Two healthy male participants performed ten trials for each task, resulting in 60 trials. Data analyses revealed good precision and accuracy for the vertical component of the portable force plate, with relative bias and root mean square (RMS) error values nearly the same in all tasks for the impulse, time to peak force, and peak force parameters...
September 2, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Karla de Jesus, Kelly de Jesus, J Arturo Abraldes, Luis Mourão, Márcio Borgonovo-Santos, Alexandre I A Medeiros, Pedro Gonçalves, Phornpot Chainok, Ricardo J Fernandes, Mário A P Vaz, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Foot and hand set-up position effects were analysed on backstroke start performance. Ten swimmers randomly completed 27 starts grouped in trials (n = 3) of each variation, changing foot (totally immersed, partially and totally emerged) and hand (lowest, highest horizontal and vertical) positioning. Fifteen cameras recorded kinematics, and four force plates collected hands and feet kinetics. Standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were used. Variations with feet immersed have shown lower vertical centre of mass (CM) set-up position (0...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Erica M Buckeridge, Robert A Weinert-Aplin, Anthony M J Bull, Alison H McGregor
Strength, technique, and coordination are crucial to rowing performance, but external interventions such as foot-stretcher set-up can fine-tune technique and optimise power output. For the same resultant force, raising the height of foot-stretchers on a rowing ergometer theoretically alters the orientation of the resultant force vector in favour of the horizontal component. This study modified foot-stretcher heights and examined their instantaneous effect on foot forces and rowing technique. Ten male participants rowed at four foot-stretcher heights on an ergometer that measured handle force, stroke length, and vertical and horizontal foot forces...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Erik Kowalski, Jing Xian Li
This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Kevin A Valenzuela, Divya Bhaskaran, Cicily Hummer, Antonio Schefano, Songning Zhang
Although landing in a plantarflexion and inversion position is a well-known characteristic of lateral ankle sprains, the associated kinematics of the knee and hip is largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the changes in knee and hip kinematics during landings on an altered landing surface of combined plantarflexion and inversion. Participants performed five drop landings from 30 cm onto a trapdoor platform in three different conditions: flat landing surface, 25° inversion, or a combined 25° plantarflexion and 25° inversion...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Guilherme M Cesar, Curtis L Tomasevicz, Judith M Burnfield
The potential to use the vertical jump (VJ) to assess both athletic performance and risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury could have widespread clinical implications since VJ is broadly used in high school, university, and professional sport settings. Although drop jump (DJ) and VJ observationally exhibit similar lower extremity mechanics, the extent to which VJ can also be used as screening tool for ACL injury risk has not been assessed. This study evaluated whether individuals exhibit similar knee joint frontal plane kinematic and kinetic patterns when performing VJs compared with DJs...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Mark Atkinson, Simon Rosalie, Kevin Netto
The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
This paper examines the use of sensor devices in sports biomechanics, focusing on current frequency of use of Electromyography (EMG) device preferences. Researchers in the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports were invited to participate in an online survey. Responses on multiple sensor devices highlighting frequency of use, device features and improvements researchers sought in acquisition and analysis methods were obtained via an online questionnaire. Results of the investigation showed that the force platform is the most frequently used device, with inertial measurement units and EMG devices growing in popularity...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Mathieu Menard, Mathieu Domalain, Arnaud Decatoire, Patrick Lacouture
Besides its regulation by Union Cycliste Internationale, the evidence relating saddle setback to pedalling performance remains inconclusive. This study investigates the influence of saddle setback on pedalling effectiveness through two indexes: an index of pedalling force effectiveness and an index of pedalling work effectiveness. Eleven cyclists were assessed six saddle setback conditions while pedalling at a steady power output of 200 W and cadence of 90 rpm. A force sensor was integrated within the seat post to compute the centre of pressure on the saddle...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Sebastian Fischer, Armin Kibele
The aim of this study was to analyse the significance of various biomechanical parameters in swim start performance for the grab and track start techniques. To do so, structural equation models were analysed, incorporating measurements for the take-off phase, flight phase and entry phase. Forty-six elite German swimmers (18 female and 28 male; age: 20.1 ± 4.2 yrs; PB (100 m Freestyle): 53.6 ± 2.9 s) participated in the study. Their swim start performance was examined within a 25-m sprint test. Structural equation modelling was conducted in separate models for the block time, flight time and water time and in a combined model for swim start time...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
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