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Sports Biomechanics

Rafael Soncin, Bruno Mezêncio, Jacielle Carolina Ferreira, Sara Andrade Rodrigues, Rudolf Huebner, Julio Cerca Serrão, Leszek Szmuchrowski
The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique...
December 21, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbosacral kinetics on sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 50 m sprints at maximal effort. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded at approximately 40 m from sprint commencement. A whole-body inverse dynamics approach was applied to calculate joint forces and torques at the hip and lumbosacral joints. The contribution of the hips and lumbosacral joint torques to pelvic rotation was subsequently calculated, with joint force powers indicating the rate of mechanical energy transfer between segments across joint centres calculated for both hip joints...
November 15, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Karla de Jesus, Kelly de Jesus, J Arturo Abraldes, Luis Mourão, Márcio Borgonovo-Santos, Alexandre I A Medeiros, Pedro Gonçalves, Phornpot Chainok, Ricardo J Fernandes, Mário A P Vaz, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Foot and hand set-up position effects were analysed on backstroke start performance. Ten swimmers randomly completed 27 starts grouped in trials (n = 3) of each variation, changing foot (totally immersed, partially and totally emerged) and hand (lowest, highest horizontal and vertical) positioning. Fifteen cameras recorded kinematics, and four force plates collected hands and feet kinetics. Standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were used. Variations with feet immersed have shown lower vertical centre of mass (CM) set-up position (0...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Erica M Buckeridge, Robert A Weinert-Aplin, Anthony M J Bull, Alison H McGregor
Strength, technique, and coordination are crucial to rowing performance, but external interventions such as foot-stretcher set-up can fine-tune technique and optimise power output. For the same resultant force, raising the height of foot-stretchers on a rowing ergometer theoretically alters the orientation of the resultant force vector in favour of the horizontal component. This study modified foot-stretcher heights and examined their instantaneous effect on foot forces and rowing technique. Ten male participants rowed at four foot-stretcher heights on an ergometer that measured handle force, stroke length, and vertical and horizontal foot forces...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Erik Kowalski, Jing Xian Li
This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Kevin A Valenzuela, Divya Bhaskaran, Cicily Hummer, Antonio Schefano, Songning Zhang
Although landing in a plantarflexion and inversion position is a well-known characteristic of lateral ankle sprains, the associated kinematics of the knee and hip is largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the changes in knee and hip kinematics during landings on an altered landing surface of combined plantarflexion and inversion. Participants performed five drop landings from 30 cm onto a trapdoor platform in three different conditions: flat landing surface, 25° inversion, or a combined 25° plantarflexion and 25° inversion...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Guilherme M Cesar, Curtis L Tomasevicz, Judith M Burnfield
The potential to use the vertical jump (VJ) to assess both athletic performance and risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury could have widespread clinical implications since VJ is broadly used in high school, university, and professional sport settings. Although drop jump (DJ) and VJ observationally exhibit similar lower extremity mechanics, the extent to which VJ can also be used as screening tool for ACL injury risk has not been assessed. This study evaluated whether individuals exhibit similar knee joint frontal plane kinematic and kinetic patterns when performing VJs compared with DJs...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Mark Atkinson, Simon Rosalie, Kevin Netto
The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
This paper examines the use of sensor devices in sports biomechanics, focusing on current frequency of use of Electromyography (EMG) device preferences. Researchers in the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports were invited to participate in an online survey. Responses on multiple sensor devices highlighting frequency of use, device features and improvements researchers sought in acquisition and analysis methods were obtained via an online questionnaire. Results of the investigation showed that the force platform is the most frequently used device, with inertial measurement units and EMG devices growing in popularity...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Mathieu Menard, Mathieu Domalain, Arnaud Decatoire, Patrick Lacouture
Besides its regulation by Union Cycliste Internationale, the evidence relating saddle setback to pedalling performance remains inconclusive. This study investigates the influence of saddle setback on pedalling effectiveness through two indexes: an index of pedalling force effectiveness and an index of pedalling work effectiveness. Eleven cyclists were assessed six saddle setback conditions while pedalling at a steady power output of 200 W and cadence of 90 rpm. A force sensor was integrated within the seat post to compute the centre of pressure on the saddle...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Sebastian Fischer, Armin Kibele
The aim of this study was to analyse the significance of various biomechanical parameters in swim start performance for the grab and track start techniques. To do so, structural equation models were analysed, incorporating measurements for the take-off phase, flight phase and entry phase. Forty-six elite German swimmers (18 female and 28 male; age: 20.1 ± 4.2 yrs; PB (100 m Freestyle): 53.6 ± 2.9 s) participated in the study. Their swim start performance was examined within a 25-m sprint test. Structural equation modelling was conducted in separate models for the block time, flight time and water time and in a combined model for swim start time...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Marcela Munera, William Bertucci, Sebastien Duc, Xavier Chiementin
Whole body vibration (WBV) is used as a training method but its physical risk is not yet clear. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the exposure to WBV by a measure of acceleration at the lower limb under dynamic and static postural conditions. The hypothesis of this paper is that this assessment is influenced by the frequency, position, and movement of the body. Fifteen healthy males are exposed to vertical sinusoidal vibration at different frequencies (20-60 Hz), while adopting three different static postures (knee extension angle: 180°, 120° and 90°) or performing a dynamic half-squat exercise...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Darrin Richards, B Johan Ivarsson, Irving Scher, Ryan Hoover, Kathleen Rodowicz, Peter Cripton
Ice hockey body checks involving direct shoulder-to-head contact frequently result in head injury. In the current study, we examined the effect of shoulder pad style on the likelihood of head injury from a shoulder-to-head check. Shoulder-to-head body checks were simulated by swinging a modified Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) with and without shoulder pads into a stationary Hybrid-III ATD at 21 km/h. Tests were conducted with three different styles of shoulder pads (traditional, integrated and tethered) and without shoulder pads for the purpose of control...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Dimitrios Challoumas, Antonio Stavrou, Georgios Dimitrakakis
In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified...
September 23, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Wen-Lan Wu, Hsiu-Tao Hsu, I-Hua Chu, Feng-Hua Tsai, Jing-Min Liang
In order to help coaches analyse the techniques of professional in-line speed skaters for making the required fine adjustments and corrections in their push-off work, this study analysed the specific plantar pressure characteristics during a 300-m time-trial test. Fourteen elite in-line speed skaters from the national team were recruited in this study. The total completion time of the 300-m time-trial test, duration of each skating phase, and plantar pressure distribution were measured. The correlation between plantar pressure distribution and skating performance was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses...
September 23, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Hannelore Boey, Jeroen Aeles, Kurt Schütte, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Research has focused on parameters that are associated with injury risk, e.g. vertical acceleration. These parameters can be influenced by running on different surfaces or at different running speeds, but the relationship between them is not completely clear. Understanding the relationship may result in training guidelines to reduce the injury risk. In this study, thirty-five participants with three different levels of running experience were recruited. Participants ran on three different surfaces (concrete, synthetic running track, and woodchip trail) at two different running speeds: a self-selected comfortable speed and a fixed speed of 3...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Laurent Vigouroux, Benjamin Goislard de Monsabert, Chris Hayot, Philippe Androuet, Éric Berton
Previous studies suggested that a pronounced weakness of the extensor muscles relative to the flexor muscles could increase the risk of occurrence of lateral epicondylalgia. This study investigates this hypothesis by estimating the ratio of extensor to flexor muscle capacities among healthy non-players (n = 10), healthy tennis players (n = 20), symptomatic players (n = 6), and players who have recovered from lateral epicondylalgia (n = 6). Maximum net joint moments in flexion or extension were measured during seven tasks involving the voluntary contraction of wrist and fingers...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Yoann Blache, Thomas Creveaux, Raphaël Dumas, Laurence Chèze, Isabelle Rogowski
The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Shalaya Kipp, Paolo Taboga, Rodger Kram
Athletes in the 3,000 m steeplechase track and field event negotiate unmovable hurdles and waterjumps. Ground reaction forces (GRF) in the steeplechase were quantified to elucidate injury risks / mechanisms and to inform coaches. Five male and five female steeplechasers participated. GRF were measured during treadmill running, and using specially mounted force platforms, during hurdle and waterjump takeoffs and landings at 5.54 m/s (males) or 5.00 m/s (females). Results are presented as: male mean ± SD / female mean ± SD...
September 5, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
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