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Sports Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743205/do-baseball-pitchers-improve-mechanics-after-biomechanical-evaluations
#1
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
The purpose of this study was to determine how often flaws in pitching mechanics identified from biomechanical analysis are corrected. The biomechanics of 46 baseball pitchers were evaluated twice, with an average of 12 months (range 2-48 months) between evaluations. Pitchers were healthy at the time of both evaluations, competing at the high school, college, minor league or Major League level. After warming up, each participant pitched 10 full-effort fastballs. Automated three-dimensional motion analysis was used to compute eight kinematic parameters which were compared with a database of elite professional pitchers...
July 25, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730946/contribution-of-upper-limb-muscles-to-two-different-gripping-styles-in-elite-indoor-tug-of-war-athletes
#2
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730921/kinematic-repeatability-of-a-multi-segment-foot-model-for-dance
#3
Sarah L Carter, Nahoko Sato, Luke S Hopper
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730920/validity-of-a-device-designed-to-measure-braking-power-in-bicycle-disc-brakes
#4
Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Paul William Macdermid, Blake G Perry, Stephen R Stannard
Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730917/novice-runners-show-greater-changes-in-kinematics-with-fatigue-compared-with-competitive-runners
#5
Ellen Maas, Jorien De Bie, Riet Vanfleteren, Wouter Hoogkamer, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Fatigue, developed over the course of a run, may cause changes in running kinematics. Training status may influence the effect of fatigue on running kinematics, since well trained, competitive runners are used to running until exhaustion, whereas novice runners are not. This study aimed to determine changes in running kinematics during an exhaustive run in both novice (NOVICE) and competitive (COMP) long-distance runners. About 15 NOVICE and 15 COMP runners performed a treadmill run, until voluntary exhaustion at 3,200 m time trial pace...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730911/important-learning-factors-in-high-and-low-achieving-students-in-undergraduate-biomechanics
#6
ChengTu Hsieh, Duane Knudson
The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730881/comparison-of-jump-landing-protocols-with-biodex-balance-system-as-measures-of-dynamic-postural-stability-in-athletes
#7
Zarko Krkeljas
The objective of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the two common methods for assessing postural stability in athletes: the time-to-stabilisation (TTS) via force-plate and the Biodex Balance System (BBS). The conditions under which these measurements assess dynamic postural control may not provide sufficient feedback to practitioners. Fourty-four amateur soccer players with no history of musculoskeletal disorders volunteered for the study. Pearson correlation was used to compare the anterior-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML), and the overall stability indexes measured by BBS, with the corresponding parameters of TTS assessed via force plate...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730871/effects-of-timing-of-signal-indicating-jump-directions-on-knee-biomechanics-in-jump-landing-jump-tasks
#8
Mitchell L Stephenson, Taylour J Hinshaw, Haley A Wadley, Qin Zhu, Margaret A Wilson, Mark Byra, Boyi Dai
A variety of the available time to react (ATR) has been utilised to study knee biomechanics during reactive jump-landing tasks. The purpose was to quantify knee kinematics and kinetics during a jump-land-jump task of three possible directions as the ATR was reduced. Thirty-four recreational athletes performed 45 trials of a jump-land-jump task, during which the direction of the second jump (lateral, medial or vertical) was indicated before they initiated the first jump, the instant they initiated the first jump, 300 ms before landing, 150 ms before landing or at the instant of landing...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730867/external-load-training-does-not-alter-balance-performance-in-well-trained-women
#9
Jeffrey D Simpson, Brandon L Miller, Eric K O'Neal, Harish Chander, Adam C Knight
This study investigated the influence of external load training (ELT) on static and dynamic balance. Nineteen females stratified into two groups (ELT = 9, control = 10) completed three testing sessions over 6 weeks. The ELT group wore weighted vests (WV) of ~8% body mass for 32 h/week during daily living and three training sessions/week for 3 weeks. Following completion of ELT, a 3 week detraining (DET) phase was completed. Bilateral and unilateral static balance were assessed with eyes open and closed...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657503/sequence-dependent-rotation-axis-changes-in-tennis
#10
Clint Hansen, Caroline Martin, Nasser Rezzoug, Philippe Gorce, Benoit Bideau, Brice Isableu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of rotation axes during a tennis serve. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the contribution of the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis) during the four discrete tennis serve phases (loading, cocking, acceleration and follow through). Ten ranked athletes (International Tennis Number 1-3) repeatedly performed a flat service aiming at a target on the other side of the net. The four serve phases are distinct and thus, each movement phase seems to be organised around specific rotation axes...
June 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610477/lower-extremity-joint-coupling-variability-during-gait-in-young-adults-with-and-without-chronic-ankle-instability
#11
Thomas Lilley, Christopher C Herb, Joseph Hart, Jay Hertel
Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition resulting from a lateral ankle sprain. Shank-rearfoot joint-coupling variability differences have been found in CAI patients; however, joint-coupling variability (VCV) of the ankle and proximal joints has not been explored. Our purpose was to analyse VCV in adults with and without CAI during gait. Four joint-coupling pairs were analysed: knee sagittal-ankle sagittal, knee sagittal-ankle frontal, hip frontal-ankle sagittal and hip frontal-ankle frontal. Twenty-seven adults participated (CAI:n = 13, Control:n = 14)...
June 13, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555532/insights-into-the-epidemiology-aetiology-and-associations-of-infraspinatus-atrophy-in-overhead-athletes-a-systematic-review
#12
Dimitrios Challoumas, Georgios Dimitrakakis
Infraspinatus atrophy (IA) is much more prevalent in overhead sports compared with the general population. Its exact aetiology in this group of athletes remains unclear and definitive associations with pathology and performance have not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review is to present the evidence on IA in overhead athletes focussing on the proposed mechanisms of suprascapular neuropathy and its associations with shoulder pathology and performance. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and Scopus was performed...
May 30, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554300/relationships-between-clubshaft-motions-and-clubface-orientation-during-the-golf-swing
#13
Tokio Takagi, Toshiharu Yokozawa, Yuki Inaba, Yuji Matsuda, Hitoshi Shiraki
Since clubface orientation at impact affects ball direction and ball spin, the ability to control clubface orientation is one of the most important skills for golfers. This study presents a new method to describe clubface orientation as a function of the clubshaft motions (i.e., swing plane orientation, clubshaft angle in the swing plane, and clubshaft rolling angle) during a golf swing and investigates the relationships between the clubshaft motions and clubface orientation at impact. The club motion data of driver shots were collected from eight skilled golfers using a three-dimensional motion capture system...
May 29, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553879/the-relationship-between-lower-body-stiffness-and-injury-incidence-in-female-netballers
#14
Elizabeth C Pickering Rodriguez, Mark L Watsford, Rob G Bower, Aron J Murphy
The aim of this study was to provide contemporary information on injury rates in an elite and sub-elite netball population and to explore the relationship between lower body stiffness and lower body injuries. One elite and two sub-elite teams of female netballers (n = 29) performed the vertical hop test to assess active lower body stiffness (Kvert) and myometry to assess quasi-static stiffness. Lower body injuries were monitored via self-reporting and liaison with physiotherapists. Twelve lower body non-contact injuries were sustained by 10 players, equating to 11...
May 29, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534436/perceptions-of-sport-science-students-on-the-potential-applications-and-limitations-of-blended-learning-in-their-education-a-qualitative-study
#15
Justin W L Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle McLean
This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from either the undergraduate or postgraduate sports science programmes were conducted. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher who was not involved in sports science...
May 23, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534433/skating-start-propulsion-three-dimensional-kinematic-analysis-of-elite-male-and-female-ice-hockey-players
#16
Jaymee R Shell, Shawn M K Robbins, Philippe C Dixon, Philippe J Renaud, René A Turcotte, Tom Wu, David J Pearsall
The forward skating start is a fundamental skill for male and female ice hockey players. However, performance differences by athlete's sex cannot be fully explained by physiological variables; hence, other factors such as skating technique warrant examination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the body movement kinematics of ice hockey skating starts between elite male and female ice hockey participants. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) elite ice hockey players performed five forward skating start accelerations...
May 23, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523981/classification-of-lunge-biomechanics-with-multiple-and-individual-inertial-measurement-units
#17
Martin A O'Reilly, Darragh F Whelan, Tomas E Ward, Eamonn Delahunt, Brian Caulfield
Lunges are a common, compound lower limb resistance exercise. If completed with aberrant technique, the increased stress on the joints used may increase risk of injury. This study sought to first investigate the ability of inertial measurement units (IMUs), when used in isolation and combination, to (a) classify acceptable and aberrant lunge technique (b) classify exact deviations in lunge technique. We then sought to investigate the most important features and establish the minimum number of top-ranked features and decision trees that are needed to maintain maximal system classification efficacy...
May 19, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464750/effects-of-forefoot-bending-stiffness-of-badminton-shoes-on-agility-comfort-perception-and-lower-leg-kinematics-during-typical-badminton-movements
#18
Sang-Kyoon Park, Wing-Kai Lam, Sukhoon Yoon, Ki-Kwang Lee, Jiseon Ryu
This study investigated whether an increase in the forefoot bending stiffness of a badminton shoe would positively affect agility, comfort and biomechanical variables during badminton-specific movements. Three shoe conditions with identical shoe upper and sole designs with different bending stiffness (Flexible, Regular and Stiff) were used. Elite male badminton players completed an agility test on a standard badminton court involving consecutive lunges in six directions, a comfort test performed by a pair of participants conducting a game-like practice trial and a biomechanics test involving a random assignment of consecutive right forward lunges...
May 2, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372537/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-successful-and-unsuccessful-power-clean-attempts
#19
Kristof Kipp, Carolyn Meinerz
Although the power clean is an almost ubiquitous exercise in the strength and conditioning setting, relatively little is known about the biomechanics of successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical differences between successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts in male collegiate athletes. Fifteen male lacrosse players (Age: 20.1 ± 1.2; Height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; Body mass: 80.4 ± 8.1 kg; Relative one-repetition maximum power clean: 1...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998206/determination-of-a-quantitative-parameter-to-evaluate-swimming-technique-based-on-the-maximal-tethered-swimming-test
#20
Rafael Soncin, Bruno Mezêncio, Jacielle Carolina Ferreira, Sara Andrade Rodrigues, Rudolf Huebner, Julio Cerca Serrão, Leszek Szmuchrowski
The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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