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Sports Biomechanics

Lara Antunes, Ewertton de S Bezerra, Raphael L Sakugawa, Juliano Dal Pupo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cadence on volume load (VLoad) and muscle activity during agonist-antagonist paired sets (APS) in the lower body. Twelve trained men (24.0 ± 3.3 years; 78.3 ± 9.7 kg; 1.77 ± 0.58 m) volunteered to participate in this study. After the 10 maximum repetition test for leg extension and seated leg curl, participants performed three experimental protocols: first protocol (traditional)-three sets of only leg extension (60 bpm); second protocol (fast cadence)-three sets of leg extension, with each set preceded by one set on the seated leg curl with fast cadence (90 bpm); third protocol (slow cadence)-similar to the second, but seated leg curl with slow cadence (40 bpm)...
January 26, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gali Dar, Alon Yehiel, Maya Cale' Benzoor
The landing error scoring system (LESS) assesses the quality of a landing after a jump. The quality of the jump is usually evaluated using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system or a two-dimensional (2-D) video analysis visually rated by a clinician. However, both methods have disadvantages. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of a novel portable motion analysis system ('PhysiMax System') in assessing the LESS score by comparing it to video analysis. The study population included 48 healthy participants (28...
January 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Paul W Macdermid, Stephen R Stannard
There is currently a dearth of information describing cycling performance outside of propulsive and physiological variables. The aim of the present study was to utilise a brake power meter to quantify braking during a multi-lap cross-country mountain bike time trial and to determine how braking affects performance. A significant negative association was determined between lap time and brake power (800.8 ± 216.4 W, mean ± SD; r = -0.446; p < 0.05), while the time spent braking (28.0 ± 6.4 s) was positively associated with lap time (314...
January 17, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Taeyou Jung, Yumi Kim, Hyosok Lim, Konstantinos Vrongistinos
The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematic and spatiotemporal variables of aquatic treadmill walking at three different water depths. A total of 15 healthy individuals completed three two-minute walking trials at three different water depths. The aquatic treadmill walking was conducted at waist-depth, chest-depth and neck-depth, while a customised 3-D underwater motion analysis system captured their walking. Each participant's self-selected walking speed at the waist level was used as a reference speed, which was applied to the remaining two test conditions...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Lara Elena Gomes, Vera Diogo, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J Fernandes, Pedro Figueiredo
Synchronised swimming involves a variety of sculling movements essential for body support and propulsion but its study is scarce. We aimed to biomechanically compare standard and contra-standard sculling techniques, and to observe the relationship between measures. Six synchronised swimmers performed two, 30 s maximal intensity, fully tethered standard and contra-standard sculling motions. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using a load-cell and underwater cameras, respectively. Force decreased along both techniques' bouts, but no differences in-between techniques were noted for any kinetic variables...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Jae P Yom, Tane Owens, Scott Arnett, Justin Beebe, Veronica Son
Unanticipated direction to cut after landing may alter the lower extremity landing biomechanics when performing landing motions. These alterations may potentially increase the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unanticipated side-cut affects lower extremity landing biomechanics in females. Eighteen recreational female athletes participated in two blocks of testing: the first block of testing consisted of three acceptable trials of anticipated dominant limb and non-dominant limb 45-degree diagonal cutting after landing, which were performed in a counterbalanced order...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Elif Turgut, Filiz Fatma Colakoglu, Gul Baltaci
Adult overhead athletes without a history of shoulder injury show scapular adaptations. There is a lack of detailed assessment of scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. This study aims to investigate three-dimensional scapular kinematics in junior overhead athletes. We recruited a total of 20 junior tennis players and 20 healthy children without participation in any overhead sports in this study. Bilateral scapular kinematic data were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking device for scapular plane glenohumeral elevation...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Martin Kokholm Fleron, Niels Christian Hauerbach Ubbesen, Francesco Battistella, David Leandro Dejtiar, Anderson Souza Oliveira
Motion capture through inertial sensors is becoming popular, but its accuracy to describe kinematics during changes in walking speed is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of trunk speed extracted using an inertial motion system compared to a gold standard optical motion system, during steady walking and stationary periods. Eleven participants walked on pre-established paths marked on the floor. Between each lap, a 1-second stationary transition period at the initial position was included prior to the next lap...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Christopher Papic, Peter Sinclair, Che Fornusek, Ross Sanders
Task-specific auditory training can improve sensorimotor processing times of the auditory reaction time (RT). The majority of competitive swimmers do not conduct habitual start training with the electronic horn used to commence a race. We examined the effect of four week dive training interventions on RT and block time (BT) of 10 male adolescent swimmers (age 14.0 ± 1.4 years): dive training with auditory components (speaker and electronic horn) (n = 5) and dive training without auditory components (n = 5)...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Wei-Han Chen, Ya-Chen Liu, Hsing-Hao Tai, Chiang Liu
This paper propose innovative eco-fitness equipment-a water buoyancy muscular machine (WBM machine) in which resistance is generated by buoyancy and fluid resistance. The resistance characteristics during resistance adjustment and under isometric, concentric, eccentric and isokinetic conditions were investigated and compared to a conventional machine with metal weight plates. The results indicated that the isometric, concentric and eccentric resistances could be adjusted by varying the water volume; the maximum resistances under isometric, concentric and eccentric conditions were 163...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Kyle Patrick, Luke Donovan
In-shoe plantar pressure systems are commonly used in clinical and research settings to assess foot function during functional tasks. Recently, Tekscan® has updated their F-Scan® in-shoe plantar pressure system; however, this system's test-retest reliability has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the F-Scan® 7 system in recreationally active individuals during treadmill walking. Seventeen healthy adults completed 2 sessions of treadmill walking...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Sarah L Carter, Nahoko Sato, Luke S Hopper
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Mitchell L Stephenson, Taylour J Hinshaw, Haley A Wadley, Qin Zhu, Margaret A Wilson, Mark Byra, Boyi Dai
A variety of the available time to react (ATR) has been utilised to study knee biomechanics during reactive jump-landing tasks. The purpose was to quantify knee kinematics and kinetics during a jump-land-jump task of three possible directions as the ATR was reduced. Thirty-four recreational athletes performed 45 trials of a jump-land-jump task, during which the direction of the second jump (lateral, medial or vertical) was indicated before they initiated the first jump, the instant they initiated the first jump, 300 ms before landing, 150 ms before landing or at the instant of landing...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gregory J Tierney, Hamed Joodaki, Tron Krosshaug, Jason L Forman, Jeff R Crandall, Ciaran K Simms
Player-to-player contact inherent in many unhelmeted sports means that head impacts are a frequent occurrence. Model-Based Image-Matching (MBIM) provides a technique for the assessment of three-dimensional linear and rotational motion patterns from multiple camera views of a head impact event, but the accuracy is unknown for this application. The goal of this study is to assess the accuracy of the MBIM method relative to reflective marker-based motion analysis data for estimating six degree of freedom head displacements and velocities in a staged pedestrian impact scenario at 40 km/h...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Thomas Creveaux, Violaine Sevrez, Raphaël Dumas, Laurence Chèze, Isabelle Rogowski
The aim of this study was to examine the respective aptitudes of three rotation sequences (Yt Xf 'Yh '', Zt Xf 'Yh '', and Xt Zf 'Yh '') to effectively describe the orientation of the humerus relative to the thorax during a movement involving a large horizontal abduction/adduction component: the tennis forehand drive. An optoelectronic system was used to record the movements of eight elite male players, each performing ten forehand drives. The occurrences of gimbal lock, phase angle discontinuity and incoherency in the time course of the three angles defining humerothoracic rotation were examined for each rotation sequence...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Amador García-Ramos, G Gregory Haff, Paulino Padial, Belén Feriche
This study aimed to examine the reliability of different power and velocity variables during the Smith machine bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises. Twenty-two healthy men conducted four testing sessions after a preliminary BP one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. In a counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of BP in one week and two sessions of BPT in another week. Mean propulsive power, peak power, mean propulsive velocity, and peak velocity at each tenth percentile (20-70% of 1RM) were recorded by a linear transducer...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
The use of electromyography (EMG) is widely recognised as a valuable tool for enhancing the understanding of performance drivers and potential injury risk in sprinting. The timings of muscle activations relative to running gait cycle phases and the technology used to obtain muscle activation data during sprinting are of particular interest to scientists and coaches. This review examined the main muscles being analysed by surface EMG (sEMG), their activations and timing, and the technologies used to gather sEMG during sprinting...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Tomoya Takabayashi, Mutsuaki Edama, Erika Yokoyama, Chiaki Kanaya, Masayoshi Kubo
Because previous studies have suggested that there is a relationship between injury risk and inter-segment coordination, quantifying coordination between the segments is essential. Even though the midfoot and forefoot segments play important roles in dynamic tasks, previous studies have mostly focused on coordination between the shank and rearfoot segments. This study aimed to quantify coordination among rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot segments during running. Eleven healthy young men ran on a treadmill. The coupling angle, representing inter-segment coordination, was calculated using a modified vector coding technique...
March 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Pedro Fonseca, Sara Tribuzi Morais, Márcio Borgonovo-Santos, Eduardo Filipe Cruz Coelho, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The aim of the present study was to determine which approach to calculating shoulder ratios is the most sensitive for determining shoulder torque imbalance in handball players. Twenty-six participants (handball athletes, n = 13; healthy controls, n = 13) performed isokinetic concentric and eccentric shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) assessment at 60, 180 and 300°/s. We used eight approaches to calculating shoulder ratios: four concentric (i.e. concentric ER torque divided by concentric IR torque), and four functional (i...
December 4, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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