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Sports Biomechanics

Samuel D Todd, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian A Coleman, Mathew B Brown
During practice and competition, golfers are required to use submaximal effort to hit the ball a given distance, i.e., perform a partial shot. While the full golf swing has undergone extensive research, little has addressed partial shots and the biomechanical modifications golfers employ. This study investigates the biomechanical changes between full and partial swings, and determines if the partial swing is a scaled version of the full swing. Using a repeated measures design, 13 male golfers completed a minimum of 10 swings in the full and partial swing conditions, whilst club, ball, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were recorded...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Paolo Caravaggi, Alberto Leardini, Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler
Head and neck injuries are common in contact sports such as American football. Different mechanisms can produce such injuries, including compressive impact forces on the crown of the helmet with the neck in a flexed chin-down position. The aim of this paper was developing and testing a novel Cervical Spine Protection Device (CSPD) designed to keep the neck within its safe physiological range. The cervical spine range of motion (ROM) of ten participants was measured under four conditions: free; wearing a football gear; wearing the CSPD; and wearing the CSPD underneath the gear...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Hannah E Wyatt, Marianne J R Gittoes, Gareth Irwin
Female gymnasts have been evidenced to experience sport-specific growth, of which broad shoulders and narrow hips are common characteristics. In addition to being a central component of handstand performance, postural control mechanisms, including whole-body and lumbo-pelvic stability, have been identified as risk factors for overuse spinal pathology. The study aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of musculoskeletal growth and postural control responses of female artistic gymnasts in order to extend longitudinal insights into overuse spinal pathology risk...
July 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Nobuyasu Nakano, Senshi Fukashiro, Shinsuke Yoshioka
The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of shooting distance on energy flow in basketball jump shot. Ten male right-handed basketball players participated in this study, and three successful shots at three different distances (short condition, equating to a free-throw; long condition, equating to a three-point shot; and mid condition, equating to the mid-point of the short- and long-condition shots) were recorded using a motion capture system and force platforms. Kinetic variables of joints during shooting were analysed using inverse dynamics method...
July 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gustavo Leporace, Marcio Tannure, Gabriel Zeitoune, Leonardo Metsavaht, Moacir Marocolo, Alex Souto Maior
The aim of this study was to test the correlation between knee-to-hip flexion ratio during a single leg landing task and hip and knee strength, and ankle range of motion. Twenty-four male participants from a professional soccer team performed a continuous single leg jump-landing test during 10s, while lower limb kinematics data were collected using a motion analysis system. After biomechanical testing, maximal isometric hip (abduction, extension, external rotation), knee extension and flexion strength were measured...
July 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Hans C von Lieres Und Wilkau, Gareth Irwin, Neil E Bezodis, Scott Simpson, Ian N Bezodis
The aim of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal and kinematic changes between the initial acceleration, transition and maximum velocity phases of a sprint. Sagittal plane kinematics from five experienced sprinters performing 50-m maximal sprints were collected using six HD-video cameras. Following manual digitising, spatiotemporal and kinematic variables at touchdown and toe-off were calculated. The start and end of the transition phase were identified using the step-to-step changes in centre of mass height and segment angles...
July 4, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Mathieu Menard, Mathieu Domalain, Arnaud Decatoire, Patrick Lacouture
Knee functional disorders are one of the most common lower extremity non-traumatic injuries reported by cyclists. Incorrect bicycle configuration may predispose cyclist to injury but the evidence of an effect of saddle setback on knee pain remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of saddle setback on knee joint forces during pedalling using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Ten cyclists were assessed under three saddle setback conditions (range of changes in saddle position ~6 cm) while pedalling at a steady power output of 200 W and cadence of 90 rpm...
June 19, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Gareth Irwin, David G Kerwin, Genevieve Williams, Richard E A Van Emmerik, Karl M Newell, Joseph Hamill
A case study visualisation approach to examining the coordination and variability of multiple interacting segments is presented using a whole-body gymnastic skill as the task example. One elite male gymnast performed 10 trials of 10 longswings whilst three-dimensional locations of joint centres were tracked using a motion analysis system. Segment angles were used to define coupling between the arms and trunk, trunk and thighs and thighs and shanks. Rectified continuous relative phase profiles for each interacting couple for 80 longswings were produced...
June 18, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Yasuharu Nagano, Shogo Sasaki, Ayako Higashihara, Hiroshi Ichikawa
This study aimed to elucidate the movements requiring greater trunk accelerations and its frequencies during badminton games, and compare the acceleration components among such movements. Trunk acceleration was measured using a triaxial accelerometer during badminton games. The moments that generated >4 G resultant acceleration were extracted, and movements consistent with the extracted moments were identified. We calculated the extracted movement ratio and frequency and compared the resultant, mediolateral, vertical and anteroposterior accelerations between the top five extracted movements...
June 18, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Thomas Gus Almonroeder, Sarah Marie Tighe, Taylor Matthew Miller, Christopher Ray Lanning
A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases...
June 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Joan Aguilera-Castells, Bernat Buscà, Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Alicia M Montalvo, Javier Peña
Suspension training is an adjunct to traditional strength and conditioning. The effect of added instability on muscle activation during traditional exercises is unclear and depends on the exercise and type of instability. The purpose of this review was to compare the activations of different muscles in suspension training exercises and their traditional counterparts. A search of the current literature was performed without language restrictions using the electronic databases PubMed (1969-12 January 2017), SPORTDiscus (1969-12 January 2017) and Scopus (1969-12 January 2017)...
June 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Caroline Ruschel, Gilmar Moraes Santos, Taylor Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Atherinos Pierri, Helio Roesler
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the quality of evidence of studies assessing isokinetic hip muscle strength in adult non-injured individuals. We also aimed to summarise and pool data of normative values for hip muscle strength. The influence of methodological and participant-related factors on hip strength performance was explored as well. Guidelines proposed in the PRISMA were used to undertake a search strategy involving the keyword 'hip' associated with a set of keywords reflecting muscle strength...
June 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Richard A Brindle, Clare E Milner
Insufficient hip neuromuscular control may contribute to non-contact sport injuries. However, the current evaluative test of hip neuromuscular control, the single-leg squat, requires hip abductor muscle strength to complete. The purpose of this study was to develop the hip control test (HCT) and determine the test's reliability and construct validity. Nineteen healthy adults visited the laboratory twice. The HCT is a 10-s test of reciprocal toe-tapping accuracy. Both automated and manual HCT ratings were recorded simultaneously during each visit...
June 13, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Yang Liu, Binghong Gao, Jiru Li, Zuchang Ma, Yining Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes on foot-stretcher height were associated with characteristics of better rowing performance. Ten male rowers performed a 200 m rowing trial at their racing rate at each of three foot-stretcher heights. A single scull was equipped with an accelerometer to collect boat acceleration, an impeller with embedded magnets to collect boat speed, specially designed gate sensors to collect gate force and angle, and a compact string potentiometer to collect leg drive length...
June 7, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Michael Clemens Rumpf, John Cronin, Jonathan Oliver, Michael Hughes
The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of kinematic and kinetic variables using a sample of pre-peak-height-velocity (PHV) male athletes sprinting on a non-motorised treadmill. Following variables were measured and their normative data presented, average and peak velocity, average and peak power, average and peak horizontal force, average and peak vertical force, average step frequency, average step length, average work. Twenty-five participants performed three 5-s all-out sprints from a standing split start on a non-motorised treadmill on three separate occasions...
June 5, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Eline van der Kruk, Marco M Reijne, Bjorn de Laat, DirkJan H E J Veeger
This study performed an analysis of the push-off forces of elite-short-track speed skaters using a new designed instrumented short-track speed skate with the aim to improve short-track skating performance. Four different skating strokes were distinguished for short-track speed skaters at speed. The strokes differed in stroke time, force level in both normal and lateral directions, and the centre of pressure (COP) on the blade. Within the homogeneous group of male elite speed skaters (N = 6), diversity of execution of the force patterns in the four phases of skating was evident, while skating at the same velocities...
May 30, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Leland Barker, Bryan Burnstein, John Mercer
The purpose of this study was to describe the mechanical characteristics of a trampoline circus act and its individual tracks performed in training and shows using a tri-axial accelerometer. A track is an artist's specific role within a choreographed act. Seven male acrobats performed their trampoline act during training and shows while wearing a triaxial accelerometer and reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after each trial. Average acceleration (AVG), root mean square (RMS), root mean to the fourth (RM4), time spent in specific acceleration ranges and RPE were measured/recorded from training and show acts...
May 24, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
James C A Peacock, Kevin Ball
In football, kicking with high ball velocity can increase scoring opportunities and reduce the likelihood of interception. Efficient energy transfer from foot to ball during impact is important to attain a high ball velocity. It is considered impact efficiency can be increased by reducing the change in ankle plantarflexion during foot-ball impact. However, conflicting evidence exists, questioning its effectiveness as a coaching cue. The aim of the present study was to systematically analyse joint stiffness, foot velocity and impact location with a mechanical kicking machine to determine if change in ankle plantarflexion during foot-ball impact and ball velocity are influenced...
May 22, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Ken Van Alsenoy, Athol Thomson, Angus Burnett
Little is known about the reliability, validity and smallest detectable differences of selected kinetic and temporal variables recorded by the Zebris FDM-THQ instrumented treadmill especially during running. Twenty male participants (age = 31.9 years (±5.6), height = 1.81 m (±0.08), mass = 80.2 kg (±9.5), body mass index = 24.53 kg/m2 (±2.53)) walked (5 km/h) and ran (10 and 15 km/h) on an instrumented treadmill, wearing running shoes fitted with Pedar-X insoles. A test-double retest protocol was conducted over two consecutive days...
May 22, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Jason P Lake, Peter D Mundy, Paul Comfort, Timothy J Suchomel
The aim of this study was to assess agreement between peak and mean force methods of quantifying force asymmetry during the countermovement jump (CMJ). Forty-five men performed four CMJ with each foot on one of two force plates recording at 1,000 Hz. Peak and mean were obtained from both sides during the braking and propulsion phases. The dominant side was obtained for the braking and propulsion phase as the side with the largest peak or mean force and agreement was assessed using percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient...
May 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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