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Sports Biomechanics

Sofie Debaere, Benedicte Vanwanseele, Christophe Delecluse, Dirk Aerenhouts, Friso Hagman, Ilse Jonkers
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in joint power generation between well-trained adult athletes and young sprinters from block clearance to initial contact of second stance. Eleven under 16 (U16) and 18 under 18 (U18) promising sprinters executed an explosive start action. Fourteen well-trained adult sprinters completed the exact same protocol. All athletes were equipped with 74 spherical reflective markers, while an opto-electronic motion analysis system consisting of 12 infrared cameras (250 Hz, MX3, Vicon, Oxford Metrics, UK) and 2 Kistler force plates (1,000 Hz) was used to collect the three-dimensional marker trajectories and ground reaction forces (Nexus, Vicon)...
March 29, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Mathieu Plautard, Gaël Guilhem, Vincent Fohanno, Antoine Nordez, Christophe Cornu, Arnaud Guével
Compared to isokinetic and isometric tests, isoinertial movements have been poorly used to assess single-joint performance. Two calculation procedures were developed to estimate mechanical performance during single-joint isoinertial movements performed on a customised isokinetic dynamometer. The results were also compared to appreciate the effects of measurement systems and calculation procedures. Five participants performed maximal knee extensions at four levels of resistance (30, 50, 70 and 90% of the one-repetition maximum, 1-RM)...
March 16, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Kam-Ming Mok, Roald Bahr, Tron Krosshaug
The purpose of this study was to assess the within- and between-session reliability of lower limb biomechanics in two sport-specific sidestep cutting tasks performed by elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes. Moreover, we aimed at determining the minimum number of trials necessary to obtain a reliable measure. Nineteen elite female handball and 22 elite female football (soccer) athletes (M ± SD: 22 ± 4 yrs old, 168 ± 5 cm, 66 ± 8 kg) were tested. The reliability was quantified by intra-class correlations (ICCs), typical error and Spearman's rank correlation...
March 10, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Kristof Kipp, Carolyn Meinerz
Although the power clean is an almost ubiquitous exercise in the strength and conditioning setting, relatively little is known about the biomechanics of successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical differences between successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts in male collegiate athletes. Fifteen male lacrosse players (Age: 20.1 ± 1.2; Height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; Body mass: 80.4 ± 8.1 kg; Relative one-repetition maximum power clean: 1...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Rafael Soncin, Bruno Mezêncio, Jacielle Carolina Ferreira, Sara Andrade Rodrigues, Rudolf Huebner, Julio Cerca Serrão, Leszek Szmuchrowski
The aim of this study was to propose a new force parameter, associated with swimmers' technique and performance. Twelve swimmers performed five repetitions of 25 m sprint crawl and a tethered swimming test with maximal effort. The parameters calculated were: the mean swimming velocity for crawl sprint, the mean propulsive force of the tethered swimming test as well as an oscillation parameter calculated from force fluctuation. The oscillation parameter evaluates the force variation around the mean force during the tethered test as a measure of swimming technique...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbosacral kinetics on sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 50 m sprints at maximal effort. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded at approximately 40 m from sprint commencement. A whole-body inverse dynamics approach was applied to calculate joint forces and torques at the hip and lumbosacral joints. The contribution of the hips and lumbosacral joint torques to pelvic rotation was subsequently calculated, with joint force powers indicating the rate of mechanical energy transfer between segments across joint centres calculated for both hip joints...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Dimitrios Challoumas, Antonio Stavrou, Georgios Dimitrakakis
In volleyball, the dominant shoulder of the athlete undergoes biomechanical and morphological adaptations; however, definitive conclusions about their exact nature, aetiology, purpose and associations with shoulder injury have not been reached. We present a systematic review of the existing literature describing biomechanical adaptations in the dominant shoulders of volleyball players and factors that may predispose to shoulder pain/injury. A thorough literature search via Medline, EMBASE and SCOPUS was conducted for original studies of volleyball players and 15 eligible articles were identified...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Jader Sant'Ana, Emerson Franchini, Vinicius da Silva, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Reaction time and response time are considered important abilities and can potentially affect combat performance. This study investigated the effect of a specific fatigue protocol on reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact. Seven male athletes reported to the laboratory on two different days. During day one, athletes performed a specific progressive taekwondo test, and on day two, a protocol for determining reaction time, response time, performance time, and kick impact before and after a time to exhaustion test at an intensity level corresponding to the maximal kick frequency obtained during the specific progressive taekwondo test...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Ricardo Peterson Silveira, Pro Stergiou, Felipe P Carpes, Flávio A de S Castro, Larry Katz, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The aim of this study was to determine the precision and accuracy of the vertical and anterior-posterior force components of the portable PASCO PS-2142 force plate. Impulse, peak force, and time to peak force were assessed and compared to a gold standard force plate in three different tasks: vertical jump, forward jump, and sprint start. Two healthy male participants performed ten trials for each task, resulting in 60 trials. Data analyses revealed good precision and accuracy for the vertical component of the portable force plate, with relative bias and root mean square (RMS) error values nearly the same in all tasks for the impulse, time to peak force, and peak force parameters...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Matthew J Solomito, Joel V Ferreira, Carl W Nissen
Left-handed baseball pitchers are thought to have a number of theoretical advantages compared to right-handed pitchers; however, there is limited scientific research detailing differences in the pitching mechanics of right- and left-handed pitchers. Therefore, this study sought to understand whether any kinematic and kinetic differences existed between right- and left-handed baseball pitchers. A total of 52 collegiate pitchers were included in this study; 26 left-handed pitchers were compared to 26 age-, height-, weight- and ball velocity-matched right-handed pitchers...
June 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Yoann Blache, Thomas Creveaux, Raphaël Dumas, Laurence Chèze, Isabelle Rogowski
The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Daniele Detanico, Rodolfo André Dellagrana, Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, Angel Góes
This study aimed to analyse the effects of a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) tournament on vertical jump performance, grip strength test and perceived effort responses. 22 male BJJ athletes participated in a simulated tournament consisting of three 7 min matches separated by 14 min of rest. Kimono grip strength test (KGST), counter movement jump (CMJ) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after each match, while RPE of specific areas was assessed after three matches. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare strength parameters after each match with the level of significance set at 5%...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Akiko Imura, Yoichi Iino
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hip external rotation (turnout) on lower limb kinetics during vertical jumps by classical ballet dancers. Vertical jumps in a turnout (TJ) and a neutral hip position (NJ) performed by 12 classical female ballet dancers were analysed through motion capture, recording of the ground reaction forces, and inverse dynamics analysis. At push-off, the lower trunk leaned forward 18.2° and 20.1° in the TJ and NJ, respectively. The dancers jumped lower in the TJ than in the NJ...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Paolo Bardella, Irene Carrasquilla García, Marco Pozzo, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Eduardo Saez de Villareal, Luis Suarez-Arrones
The purpose of this study was to analyse the raw lifting speed collected during four different resistance training exercises to assess the optimal sampling frequency. Eight physically active participants performed sets of Squat Jumps, Countermovement Jumps, Squats and Bench Presses at a maximal lifting speed. A linear encoder was used to measure the instantaneous speed at a 200 Hz sampling rate. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the signal was computed by evaluating its Discrete Fourier Transform. The sampling frequency needed to reconstruct the signals with an error of less than 0...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Elena Seminati, Dario Cazzola, Ezio Preatoni, Grant Trewartha
Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Brock Laschowski, Cameron C Hopkins, John R de Bruyn, Volker Nolte
The deflection of rowing oar shafts subjected to a static load was investigated. Two sets of sculling oars of different design stiffness were tested at three different lengths from 2.66 to 2.70 m. Loads up to 201 N were applied to the blade end of the oar shafts, and deflections were measured at six positions along the length of the shafts. The experimental results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained by modelling the oar shafts as homogenous end-loaded cantilever beams. The results show that the oar shafts are not uniform, in contradiction to the assumed model, but rather are most compliant near the sleeves and up to 80% stiffer towards the blades...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Mohsen Damavandi, Mansour Eslami, David J Pearsall
Running on side-sloped surfaces is a common obstacle in the environment; however, how and to what extent the lower extremity kinematics adapt is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of side-sloped surfaces on three-dimensional kinematics of hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase of running. Ten healthy adult males ran barefoot along an inclinable runway in level (0°) and side-sloped (10° up-slope and down-slope inclinations, respectively) configurations. Right hip, knee, and ankle angles along with their time of occurrence were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
YaoHui K Chua, Raymond K K Quek, Pui W Kong
This study aimed (1) to profile the plantar loading characteristics when performing the basketball lay-up in a realistic setting and (2) to determine the number of trials necessary to establish a stable mean for plantar loading variables during the lay-up. Thirteen university male basketball players [age: 23.0 (1.4) years, height: 1.75 (0.05) m, mass: 68.4 (8.6) kg] performed ten successful basketball lay-ups from a stationary position. Plantar loading variables were recorded using the Novel Pedar-X in-shoe system...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Santiago Veiga, Andreu Roig
In the present research, we examined the effect of the starting and turning performances on the subsequent swimming parameters by (1) comparing the starting and turning velocities with the swimming parameters on the emersion and mid-pool segments and (2) by relating the individual behaviour of swimmers during the start and turns with subsequent behaviour on each swimming lap. One hundred and twelve 100 m performances on the FINA 2013 World Swimming Championships were analysed by an image-processing system (InThePool 2...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Georgia Giblin, David Whiteside, Machar Reid
The serve is considered amongst the most important strokes in tennis. Not surprisingly, the development of a mechanically consistent and proficient serve is paramount. Correspondingly, drills that involve players serving with their eyes closed are thought to promote mechanical consistency. The purpose of this study was therefore to contrast the effect of the removal of visual feedback on ball and racket kinematics in the serve. A 10-camera 500-Hz VICON MX motion analysis system recorded the service actions of eight elite young players as they performed three serves with eyes open and three serves with eyes closed...
March 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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