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Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders

Michael Camilleri, Andres Acosta
The objective of this review is to examine advances in the development of combination therapies for the treatment of obesity beyond diet or lifestyle interventions. Experimental combination pharmacotherapies include combinations of pramlintide and phentermine as well as amylin and bupropion-naltrexone. Incretin and pancreatic hormones generally inhibit upper gastrointestinal motor functions, and combinations showing efficacy in obesity are coadministration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with glucagon, a unimolecular dual incretin of PEGylated GLP-1/GIP coagonist, the combination of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 , and, in proof of concept studies, combined infusions of GLP-1, peptide YY, and oxyntomodulin...
July 11, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
J D Adams, Adrian Vella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia occurring as a result of impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Among the various genetic factors associated with T2DM, a common genetic variant within the transcription factor 7-like 2 locus (TCF7L2) confers the greatest genetic risk for development of the disease. However, the mechanism(s) by which TCF7L2 predisposes to diabetes remain uncertain. Here we review the current literature pertaining to the potential mechanisms by which TCF7L2 confers risk of T2DM, using genetic variation as a probe to understand the pathogenesis of the disease...
July 11, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Kameliya Bratoeva, Silviya Nikolova, Albena Merdzhanova, George St Stoyanov, Eleonora Dimitrova, Javor Kashlov, Nikolay Conev, Mariya Radanova
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) involves the activation of apoptosis in steatotic hepatocytes. Caspase-generated fragments such as cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in patients with various hepatic impairments are investigated as markers for diagnosis and assessment of disease severity. The goal of the study was to capture early biomarkers of apoptosis and elucidate their role in assessing the presence and extent of hepatic damage in a MetS model...
July 10, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Insub Kim, Yun-Mi Song, Hyeonyoung Ko, Joohon Sung, Kayoung Lee, Jinyoung Shin, Sujeong Shin
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between educational level as a surrogate marker of socioeconomic status and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Study subjects were 1915 Korean adults (1193 women and 722 men) who participated in a cohort study. Educational level was categorized into two groups: (1) high education (more than 12 years of education), and (2) low education (less than 12 years of education)...
July 5, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Ahmed Ghachem, Jasmine Paquin, Martin Brochu, Isabelle J Dionne
OBJECTIVE: A sex-specific standard waist circumference (WC) is widely used to determine cardiometabolic risk across ages even though aging impacts the link between fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to propose WC thresholds that better predict metabolic abnormalities according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) categories. METHODS: First, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to identify optimal age (20-49, 50-64, and 65-80 years) and BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II+) specific WC thresholds to correctly identify at-risk individuals, that is, presenting ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors of metabolic syndrome (n = 23,482; NHANES 2007-2014)...
July 5, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Carmen Paulina Rodríguez, María Cristina González, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Oralia Nájera-Medina
BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low-intensity chronic inflammatory process in which immune system cells interact in a complex network, which affects systemic metabolic processes. This raises interest in analyzing possible changes in the proportions of immune system cells in individuals with obesity with and without metabolic syndrome (MS), in relation to their body composition. METHODS: Circulating cells were analyzed with flow cytometry in young adults: monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T, B, and natural killer [NK]), TCD4+ CD62- , TCD8+ CD28- , and naive and memory cells of TCD3+ and TCD4+ ...
June 29, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Manuel T Velasquez
Diet with increased intake of energy-rich foods has long been implicated in the etiology of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, an increasing body of evidence has emerged that suggests that the intestinal microbial flora or "gut microbiota" may play a crucial role in the development of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders. Studies on animals and humans have shown that diet-induced changes in gut microbiota may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the available evidence from studies on animal models and humans with or without metabolic syndrome that have investigated the impact of diet on intestinal microbial composition and activity on the metabolic syndrome...
June 29, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Golbon Sohrab, Javad Nasrollahzadeh, Maryam Tohidi, Hamid Zand, Omid Nikpayam
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate juice (PJ). The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of PJ on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and sirtuin1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and plasma vascular inflammation biomarkers. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the PJ (n = 22) or the placebo group (n = 22). The patients in the PJ group received 250 mL of PJ daily for 12 weeks, whereas the placebo group received corresponding control beverages of similar color and energy content...
June 29, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Kuanlin Chen, Tiejun Zhuo, Jian Wang, Qing Mei
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Saxagliptin as one of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors can effectively improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nesfatin-1 is regarded as a very important factor in regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. In this trial, we observed the effect of saxagliptin on regulating nesfatin-1 secretion and ameliorating insulin resistance and metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred two type 2 diabetes participants (M/F = 48/54) were investigated...
June 18, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Seok Hui Kang, Kyu Hyang Cho, Jun Young Do
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Korean women without diabetes. METHODS: Our study enrolled postmenopaual women without diabetes (n = 6826). We used the DASH-Korean quartile (KQ) model using six nutrients. For protein, fiber, calcium, and potassium, we scored 1 for the first quartile (1Q), 2 for the second quartile (2Q), 3 for the third quartile (3Q), and 4 for the fourth quartile (4Q)...
June 14, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Ho Seok Koo, Soo Min Hong
BACKGROUND: The incidence of periodontitis is higher when metabolic syndrome (MS) is present. However, only few Korean studies have compared the risk factors for MS and periodontitis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for periodontitis relative to the presence of MS. METHODS: The data collected from 13,196 respondents of the 2010-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in South Korea, which include periodontitis and MS parameters, were analyzed after propensity score matching of sex and age...
June 12, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Manvi Vernekar, Rekha Singhal, Kalpana Joshi, Deepak Amarapurkar
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are becoming a major cause of chronic liver diseases globally. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been postulated as a potential treatment for NAFLD. They can be obtained from diet and are also endogenously synthesized by enzymes delta-6-desaturase (D6D), delta-5-desaturase, and elongases. The current study is aimed at investigating the differences in the intake and levels of plasma PUFA between NAFLD patients and controls in Asian Indians...
June 6, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Timothy Wang, Wei Yang, Sidika Karakas, Souvik Sarkar
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of disease, including hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. NAFLD carries the risk of progression to cirrhosis with its associated complications and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is now the most common liver disease in the Western world and its prevalence is increasing. While the association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes has been well documented, there is significantly less understanding of the pathophysiology and progression of NAFLD in patients with other endocrine disorders affecting metabolism in various ways...
June 6, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
James C Barton, Jackson Clayborn Barton, Ronald T Acton
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine associations with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in African Americans. METHODS: We studied African American adults without diabetes in a postscreening examination. Participants included Cases: transferrin saturation (TS) >50% and serum ferritin (SF) >300 μg/L (M), and TS >45% and SF >200 μg/L (F), regardless of HFE genotype; and Controls: TS/SF 25th to 75th percentiles and HFE wt/wt (wild type)...
May 31, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Yohei Saito, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yumi Yamamoto, Masatoshi Suzuki, Manabu Fukumoto, Fumihiko Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Excessive intake of a high-calorie diet has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies have investigated the effect of NAFLD on liver regeneration, but the effects of simple steatosis have been found to be inconsistent. We aimed to assess whether the initial phase of diet-induced lipid accumulation, induced by a diet containing moderate levels of fat, impairs liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) of mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice are prone to obesity, even when fed a relatively low-fat diet (FD)...
May 23, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Erin M Shellington, Sonja M Reichert, Robert J Petrella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) imparts an increased risk for cognitive decline, specifically executive function, which is important to maintain for diabetes self-management. There is evidence to suggest that exercise improves cognition in healthy older adults; however, the literature in adults with T2DM is lacking. This commentary is in complement to Podolski et al.'s systematic review evaluating the effects of physical activity on cognitive function in adults with T2DM. We have included eight additional studies and further highlight their conclusions on the heterogeneity of the literature thus far...
May 16, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Gustavo Mora-García, Doris Gómez-Camargo, Ángelo Alario, Claudio Gómez-Alegría
BACKGROUND: The caveolin 1 (CAV1) gene has been associated with metabolic traits in animal models and human cohorts. Recently, a prevalent variant in CAV1 has been found to be related to metabolic syndrome in Hispanics living in North America. Since Hispanics represent an admixed population at high risk for cardiovascular diseases, in this study a Latin American population with a similar genetic background was assessed. OBJECTIVE: To analyze a genetic association between CAV1 and metabolic traits in an admixed Latin American population...
May 15, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Janet M Wojcicki, Deena Elwan, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Elissa Epel
AIMS: Shorter telomere length is associated with increased chronic disease risk in adulthood including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have evaluated the relationship between telomere length change and incident disease risk in populations with a high percentage of overweight and obesity. RESULTS: In an urban Latina population recruited in San Francisco (n = 82) with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (78.4%), we assessed leukocyte telomere length and telomere length change over a 1-year period in relation to obesity, chronicity of obesity, and incident metabolic disease risk 5-6 years later...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Yoo Mee Kim, Sunghoon Kim, Se Hwa Kim, Young Jun Won
BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are increasing rapidly worldwide, but metabolically healthy population exists. Thus, this study evaluated the proportion of obesity and MetS and investigated clinical and body compositional factors associated with MetS in obese Koreans. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study enrolled subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 15,408). Obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) cutoff points of 25 and 27...
May 2, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Gobon Sohrab, Samira Ebrahimof, Somayeh Hosseinpour-Niazi, Emad Yuzbashian, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal association of total polyphenol and its main four subclasses intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. METHODS: The present prospective study was conducted on 1265 Tehranian adults, aged 19-74 years. Usual dietary intake was evaluated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using NCEP ATP III guidelines. Intakes of total polyphenol and its four main subclasses, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and lignans, were estimated using Phenol-Explorer database...
May 2, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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