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Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

Igor Radanović, Robert Likić
Blockchain technology is a decentralized database that stores a registry of assets and transactions across a peer-to-peer computer network, which is secured through cryptography, and over time, its history gets locked in blocks of data that are cryptographically linked together and secured. So far, there have been use cases of this technology for cryptocurrencies, digital contracts, financial and public records, and property ownership. It is expected that future uses will expand into medicine, science, education, intellectual property, and supply chain management...
July 18, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Samuel N Frempong, Clare Davenport, Andrew J Sutton, Justice Nonvignon, Pelham Barton
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential, there is limited uptake of formal qualitative methods in model development by modellers and health economists. The aim of this case study was to highlight in a real-world context how a qualitative approach has been applied to gain insight into current practice (delineating existing care pathways) for typhoid fever in Ghana, which can then assist in model structure conceptualisation in a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: The perspectives of a range of healthcare professionals working in different settings and across different practices in the Eastern region of Ghana were captured with a self-administered survey using open-ended questions and analysed using the framework method...
July 18, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Gerard T Vondeling, Qi Cao, Maarten J Postma, Mark H Rozenbaum
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of patent expiry on drug prices by means of a systematic literature review. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed to identify all published literature on the impact of patent expiration on drug prices. Additional literature was identified using a less distinct syntax in Google Scholar and EconLit. Data extraction followed a standardized assessment form containing the domains study type, study aim, reported outcomes, number of drugs and drug classes assessed, and originators or generics assessed...
July 17, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Thathya V Ariyaratne, Zanfina Ademi, Molla Huq, Franklin Rosenfeldt, Stephen J Duffy, Bonny Parkinson, Cheng-Hon Yap, Julian Smith, Baki Billah, Bryan P Yan, Angela L Brennan, Lavinia Tran, Christopher M Reid
BACKGROUND: There are limited economic evaluations comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD) in contemporary, routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing CABG and PCI in patients with MVCAD, from the perspective of the Australian public hospital payer, using observational data sources. METHODS: Clinical data from the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) and the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) registries were analysed for 1022 CABG (treatment) and 978 PCI (comparator) procedures performed between June 2009 and December 2013...
July 12, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Nikolaos Maniadakis, Anke-Peggy Holtorf, José Otávio Corrêa, Fotini Gialama, Kalman Wijaya
Policy makers in countries, aiming to build and expand their healthcare systems and coverage, need effective procedures to support the most efficient use of limited financial resources. Tendering is commonly deployed to minimize and fix the purchasing price for the contract duration, especially for off-patent pharmaceuticals. While tenders can reduce acquisition costs, they may also expose the healthcare systems to risks including drug shortages, quality trade-offs, and ultimately, compromised patient health outcomes...
July 10, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Qinglu Cheng, Nicholas Graves, Rosana E Pacella
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review all published economic evaluations of guideline-based care for chronic wounds and to assess how useful these studies are for decision making in health services. METHODS: Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) were searched on April 16th, 2018. We included studies that evaluated the economic impact and health outcomes associated with implementing evidence-based guidelines as a bundle of care for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic wounds...
July 2, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Chun Fan Lee, Raymond Ng, Nan Luo, Yin Bun Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) measures are commonly mapped to a value that represents a utility for economic evaluation via regression models, which may lead to shrinkage of the variance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and compare conversion functions that map the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) total score to the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions, 5-Levels (EQ-5D-5L) utility value via four methods. METHODS: We used the HRQoL scores of 238 Singapore patients with breast cancer to develop the conversion function for the equipercentile, linear equating, mean rank and ordinary least squares (OLS) methods...
June 26, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Megha Bansal, Mona Shah, Brian Reilly, Susan Willman, Max Gill, Francine R Kaufman
INTRODUCTION: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is considered a "gold standard" measure of glycemic control in patients with diabetes and is correlated with a lower risk of diabetes complications and cost savings. This retrospective claims-analysis assessed the impact of A1C reduction on healthcare costs in patients with uncontrolled Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a large repository of US health plan administrative data linked to A1C values, patients with a diabetes diagnosis and at least two A1C values between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014 were selected to identify changes in A1C and associated changes in healthcare expenditure...
June 23, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Fredrik Salvesen Haukaas, Audun Ohna, Tania Krivasi
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with bendamustine followed by obinituzumab maintenance (Obin-Benda) compared to bendamustine alone (Benda) in patients with refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) in a Norwegian setting. METHODS: A three-state area-under-the-curve (AUC) model was developed. The states included were progression-free-survival (PFS), progressed disease (PD), and death. Each state had costs and utilities assigned to it...
June 19, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Theepakorn Jithitikulchai, Tatiana Andreyeva
BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...
June 19, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Gerard Harty, James Jarrett, Mireia Jofre-Bonet
BACKGROUND: Therapies may be more efficacious when targeting a patient subpopulation with specific attributes, thereby enhancing the cost-effectiveness of treatment. In the CRYSTAL study, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were treated with cetuximab plus FOLFIRI or FOLFIRI alone until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects or withdrawal of consent. OBJECTIVE: To determine if stratified use of cetuximab based on genetic biomarker detection improves cost-effectiveness...
June 9, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Fan Yang, Brenda Gannon, Andrew Weightman
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is a common and serious complication among diabetic patients. A medical device has been developed to prevent the occurrence of DFU. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for this device among the general public in the UK. METHODS: A contingent valuation survey was administered to 1051 participants through an online survey including questions on socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health, knowledge of diabetes and medical devices, and WTP...
August 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Sarah Wood Pallas, Marissa Courey, Chhaily Hy, Wm Perry Killam, Dora Warren, Brittany Moore
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) test has been shown to be effective and cost-effective for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) under conditions with high HIV prevalence and HIV-TB co-infection but less is known about Xpert's cost in low HIV prevalence settings. Cambodia, a country with low HIV prevalence (0.7%), high TB burden, and low multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB burden (1.4% of new TB cases, 11% of retreatment cases) introduced Xpert into its TB diagnostic algorithms for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and people with presumptive MDR TB in 2012...
August 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Rui Duarte, Eleanor Kotas, Nerys Woolacott, Robert Hodgson, Rob Riemsma, Sabine Grimm, Bram Ramaekers, Manuela Joore, Nasuh Büyükkaramikli, Eva Kaltenthaler, Matt Stevenson, Abdullah Pandor, Steve Edwards, Martin Hoyle, Jonathan Shepherd, Xavier Armoiry, Miriam Brazzelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Kenneth Bagwell, Xiao Wu, Eric D Baum, Ajay Malhotra
PURPOSE: We performed an economic evaluation using a decision-tree model to analyze the relative cost effectiveness from the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) perspective of two different methods of tonsillectomy (traditional total tonsillectomy and partial intracapsular) for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Procedural costs were drawn from published literature and Medicare values. Effectiveness and probabilities were drawn from medical literature...
August 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Vasilios D Kosteas, Francesco Renna
BACKGROUND: Over the first ten years of this century, the share of the US population covered by employer-sponsored health insurance plans experienced a significant decline. A decrease in the take-up rate accounts for about a quarter of this decline. Usually, the increasing share of the premium that is paid by workers is used to explain the decline in the take-up rate. However, in recent years the increase in copayments, deductible and coinsurance rate has far outpaced the increase in worker contribution...
June 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Padraig Dixon, Kinta Beaver, Susan Williamson, Chris Sutton, Pierre Martin-Hirsch, William Hollingworth
BACKGROUND: Regular outpatient follow-up programmes are usually offered to patients following treatment for gynaecological and other cancers. Despite the substantial resources involved in providing these programmes, there is evidence that routine follow-up programmes do not affect survival or the likelihood of detecting recurrence and may not meet patient needs. Alternative follow-up modalities may offer the same outcomes at lower cost. We examined the costs of using telephone-based routine follow-up of women treated for endometrial cancer undertaken by specialist gynaecology oncology nurses in comparison to routine hospital-based follow-up...
June 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Diana Pacheco Barzallo
BACKGROUND: Care and support of people dealing with long-term disabilities involves the entire family. OBJECTIVE: This paper evaluates the effect of living with a relative dealing with a long-term disability on the health status of all family members in the household. METHODS: Using information from the Swiss household panel from the year 1999 to 2003 (n = 18,030), a linear regression is implemented to compare the health status of family members cohabiting with individuals dealing with a long-term disability with the health status of individuals of similar characteristics in the general population...
June 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Lijoy Varghese, Louise Talbot, Andrea Govender, Xu-Hao Zhang, Bruce A Mungall
OBJECTIVES: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) still represent a significant medical burden in children < 5 years of age in New Zealand (NZ), with marked disparities across socio-economic and ethnic groups. This cost-effectiveness evaluation aims to compare the potential impact of two childhood universal immunisation strategies: vaccination with a 3 + 1 schedule of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix, GSK) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13, Prevenar 13, Pfizer)...
June 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Indrani Gupta, Arjun Roy
BACKGROUND: The burden from non-communicable diseases and injuries (NCDI) in India is increasing rapidly. With low public sector investment in the health sector generally, and a high financial burden on households for treatment, it is important that economic evidence is used to set priorities in the context of NCDI. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to understand the extent to which economic analysis has been used in India to (1) analyze the impact of NCDI and (2) evaluate prevention and treatment interventions...
June 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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