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Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

Neily Zakiyah, A D I van Asselt, D Setiawan, Q Cao, F Roijmans, M J Postma
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of improved family planning interventions to reduce the unmet need in low- and middle-income countries, with Indonesia and Uganda as reference cases. METHODS: The analysis was performed using a Markov decision analytic model, where current situation and several scenarios to reduce the unmet need were incorporated as the comparative strategies. Country-specific evidence was synthesized from the demographic and health survey and published studies...
September 4, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Judith J Gout-Zwart, Erien H J Olde Hengel, Petra Hoogland, Maarten J Postma
OBJECTIVES: Medication errors that lead to adverse drug reactions are a key cause of unintentional patient harm and subsequent economic burden. To prevent this, measurement of renal function could be considered. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of obtaining and evaluating renal function in community pharmacies in the Netherlands to prevent antibiotic-related hospitalizations. METHODS: A decision model was built to simulate the process of antibiotic prescriptions in community pharmacies with and without the use of a point-of-care test (PoCT) in patients aged 65 years and older...
September 3, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Etienne Nédellec, Judith Pineau, Patrice Prognon, Nicolas Martelli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present work was to assess the level of evidence in economic evaluations of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure devices, and to test the complementarity of three different tools for assessing the quality of economic evaluations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of articles in English or French listed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis registry and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database...
August 31, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Scott A McDonald, Amirah Azzeri, Fatiha Hana Shabaruddin, Maznah Dahlui, Soek S Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Rosmawati Mohamed
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set ambitious goals to reduce the global disease burden associated with, and eventually eliminate, viral hepatitis. OBJECTIVE: To assist with achieving these goals and to inform the development of a national strategic plan for Malaysia, we estimated the long-term burden incurred by the care and management of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared cumulative healthcare costs and disease burden under different treatment cascade scenarios...
August 25, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Trine Tornøe Platz, Nikolaj Siersbæk, Lars Peter Østerdal
The number of living donations of human organs, tissues, and cells falls far short of the need. Market-like arrangements to increase donation rates have been proposed, but they are broadly considered unacceptable due to ethical concerns and are therefore not policy relevant in most countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore a different approach to increasing living donations, namely through the use of ethically acceptable compensation of donors. We review the compensation practices in Europe and find a lack of reimbursement of incurred costs and lack of compensation for non-monetary losses, which create disincentives for donation...
August 25, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Cagdas Agirdas, Jordan G Holding
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires non-grandfathered private insurance plans, starting with plan years on or after September 23rd, 2010, to provide certain preventive care services without any cost sharing in the form of deductibles, copayments or co-insurance. This requirement may affect racial and ethnic disparities in preventive care as it provides the largest copay reduction in preventive care. OBJECTIVES: We ask whether the ACA's free preventive care benefits are associated with a reduction in racial and ethnic disparities in the utilization of four preventive services: cholesterol screenings, colonoscopies, mammograms, and Pap smears...
August 24, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Prithviraj Lakkakula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Jonathan J Darrow, Reed F Beall, Aaron S Kesselheim
BACKGROUND: Most new brand-name drugs are protected by patents from generic competition, but these patents are occasionally granted in error. Invalidating such patents has traditionally been accomplished via court litigation by generic manufacturers, which is expensive and time consuming. In 2011, Congress created an administrative alternative to court litigation of patents, called inter partes review, intended to be much faster and less expensive. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of inter partes review to challenge pharmaceutical patents, including the number of challenges, the number of associated drug products, and the extent to which challengers have been successful...
August 24, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Atta Abbas Naqvi, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Fatima Zehra, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Saman Usmani, Sehrish Badar, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is one of the last few countries in which poliomyelitis is endemic. Evidence indicates that out-of-pocket expenditures are a barrier to polio rehabilitation treatment, yet there are no reported figures related to the financial burden of this disease on patients in a recently polio-endemic country. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated direct costs attributed to rehabilitation treatment of poliomyelitis among Pakistani patients and reported its duration along with the socioeconomic status of poliomyelitis survivors...
August 21, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Tom Macmillan, Mark Pennington, Jennifer A Summers, Kate Goddard, Darshan Zala, Naomi Herz, Janet L Peacock, Stephen Keevil, Anastasia Chalkidou
Central venous catheters are commonly used to deliver therapies and to monitor patients, and require securing at the point of percutaneous entry to avoid dislodgement. SecurAcath is a catheter securement device designed for central venous catheters. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, as a part of its Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme, selected this device for evaluation and invited the manufacturer, Interrad Medical, to submit clinical and economic evidence. The King's Technology Evaluation Centre, an External Assessment Centre commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, independently critiqued the manufacturer's submissions...
August 20, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Sulmaz Ghahramani, Najmeh Moradi, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Farhad Lotfi, Behnam Honarvar
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at estimating the value of the general population's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for one quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in Iran. METHODS: Using multistage randomized cluster sampling, we recruited and interviewed 651 adult residents of Shiraz, south Iran. The mean age of the interviewees was 43.9 ± 16.3 years, and 326 (50.1%) of them were male. To each interviewee, we presented one of the hypothetical health scenarios that were used in the European value of a QALY project...
August 20, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Erik Landfeldt, Niklas Zethraeus, Peter Lindgren
Costs of informal care account for a significant component of total societal costs for many chronic and disabling illnesses. Yet, costs associated with the provision of informal care is seldom included in economic evaluations of new health technologies, increasing the risk of suboptimal decisions on the allocation of resources from the perspective of society. Our objective was to propose a standardized questionnaire for the measurement, valuation, and estimation of caregiver indirect (productivity) and informal care costs as separate mutually exclusive subsets of total costs in cost-of-illness studies and as an input to economic evaluations from the societal perspective...
August 13, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Jamison Pike, Scott D Grosse
Cost-of-illness (COI) studies often include the 'indirect' cost of lost production resulting from disease, disability, and premature death, which is an important component of the economic burden of chronic conditions assessed from the societal perspective. In most COI studies, productivity costs are estimated primarily as the economic value of production forgone associated with loss of paid employment (foregone gross earnings); some studies include the imputed value of lost unpaid work as well. This approach is commonly but imprecisely referred to as the human capital approach (HCA)...
August 9, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Jaime Espin, Michael Schlander, Brian Godman, Pippa Anderson, Jorge Mestre-Ferrandiz, Isabelle Borget, Adam Hutchings, Steven Flostrand, Adam Parnaby, Claudio Jommi
BACKGROUND: Within (European) healthcare systems, the predominant goal for pharmaceutical expenditure is cost containment. This is due to a general belief among healthcare policy makers that pharmaceutical expenditure-driven by high prices-will be unsustainable unless further reforms are enacted. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide more realistic expectations of pharmaceutical expenditure for all key stakeholder groups by estimating pharmaceutical expenditure at 'net' prices...
August 7, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Alison Peel, Michelle Jenks, Moni Choudhury, Rosemary Lovett, Juan Carlos Rejon-Parrilla, Andrew Sims, Joyce Craig
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review current use of experts within National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance-making programmes, identify improvements in use of expert judgement, and to assess tools and protocols to support the elicitation of information from experts for use by NICE. METHODS: The study comprised a review of NICE process guides; semi-structured interviews with individuals representing each NICE guidance-making programme and a comparison of the suitability of currently available tools and protocols for expert elicitation to the requirements of NICE programmes...
August 3, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Katherine M Prioli, Julie Katz Karp, Nina M Lyons, Vera Chrebtow, Jay H Herman, Laura T Pizzi
BACKGROUND: US FDA draft guidance includes pathogen reduction (PR) or secondary rapid bacterial testing (RT) in its recommendations for mitigating risk of platelet component (PC) bacterial contamination. An interactive budget impact model was created for hospitals to use when considering these technologies. METHODS: A Microsoft Excel model was built and populated with base-case costs and probabilities identified through literature search and a survey of US hospital transfusion service directors...
July 31, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
William V Padula, Jeromie Ballreich, Gerard F Anderson
In 2018, the Medicare Part D catastrophic threshold is $5000 in out-of-pocket total drug spending incurred by the beneficiary. Above this, Medicare pays 80%, prescription drug plans (PDPs) pay 15%, and beneficiaries pay a 5% copay. However, recent growth in catastrophic spending is caused by expensive specialty drugs. The 5% copay, on top of out-of-pocket spending, could result in beneficiaries not accessing specialty drugs. To assist beneficiaries, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) proposes to eliminate beneficiary catastrophic cost sharing, while PDPs pay 80% and Medicare pays 20%...
July 30, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Thathya V Ariyaratne, Zanfina Ademi, Molla Huq, Franklin Rosenfeldt, Stephen J Duffy, Bonny Parkinson, Cheng-Hon Yap, Julian Smith, Baki Billah, Bryan P Yan, Angela L Brennan, Lavinia Tran, Christopher M Reid
BACKGROUND: There are limited economic evaluations comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD) in contemporary, routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing CABG and PCI in patients with MVCAD, from the perspective of the Australian public hospital payer, using observational data sources. METHODS: Clinical data from the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) and the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) registries were analysed for 1022 CABG (treatment) and 978 PCI (comparator) procedures performed between June 2009 and December 2013...
July 12, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Nikolaos Maniadakis, Anke-Peggy Holtorf, José Otávio Corrêa, Fotini Gialama, Kalman Wijaya
Policy makers in countries, aiming to build and expand their healthcare systems and coverage, need effective procedures to support the most efficient use of limited financial resources. Tendering is commonly deployed to minimize and fix the purchasing price for the contract duration, especially for off-patent pharmaceuticals. While tenders can reduce acquisition costs, they may also expose the healthcare systems to risks including drug shortages, quality trade-offs, and ultimately, compromised patient health outcomes...
July 10, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Wallace Breno Barbosa, Juliana de Oliveira Costa, Lívia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Rosângela Maria Gomes, Helian Nunes de Oliveira, Cristina Mariano Ruas, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Corrado Barbui, Marion Bennie, Brian Godman, Augusto Afonso Guerra
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with significant economic burden. In Brazil, antipsychotic drugs and outpatient and hospital services are provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) for patients with schizophrenia. However, few studies capture the cost of managing these patients within the Brazilian NHS. This is important to appraise different management approaches within universal healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use real-world data to describe the costs associated with the treatment of schizophrenia in adults receiving atypical antipsychotics in Brazil from 2000 to 2010...
October 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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