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African Health Sciences

James K Tumwine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Constance Sibongile Shumba, Kenneth Kabali, Jonathan Miyonga, Jairus Mugadu, Luke Lakidi, Patrick Kerchan, Tonny Tumwesigye
BACKGROUND: Client satisfaction surveys are important in evaluating quality of the healthcare processes and contribute to health service improvements by assisting health program managers to develop appropriate strategies. The goal of this study was to assess clients' level of satisfaction with services provided by private-not-for-profit member health facilities affiliated to Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using an interviewer-administered questionnaire conducted in 254/278 (91%) of UPMB member health facilities between 27th April and 14th July 2014 among 927 clients...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Ding Baomiao, Yi Xiangzhou, Li Li, Yang Hualin
BACKGROUND: Iron fortification of foods is currently a strategy employed to fight iron deficiency in countries. Liposomes were assumed to be a potential carrier of iron supplements. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the iron transport from ferrous glycinate liposomes, and to estimate the effects of liposomal carriers, phytic acid, zinc and particle size on iron transport using Caco-2 cell models. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were cultured and seeded in DMEM medium...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Samuel Kyei, Alfred Asiem Nketsiah, Kofi Asiedu, Agnes Awuah, Andrew Owusu-Ansah
PURPOSE: To study the time course (onset, time and duration of maximal cycloplegia, and the full duration) of cycloplegic action of 1% Cyclopentolate - 1% Tropicamide. METHODS: Seventy-seven students, aged 15-24 years were purposively sampled from the University of Cape Coast and Cape Coast Technical Institute. Subjective near addition (ADD) determination and pupil diameter measurement before and after a drop of the test agent (1% Cyclopentolate - 1% Tropicamide combination in the right eye) and the control (1% Cyclopentolate in the left eye) were performed...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Sebastiana Z Kalula, Monica Ferreira, George H Swingler, Motasim Badri, Avan A Sayer
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in older persons, but have been under researched in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To describe challenges encountered in a community-based study on falls in a multi-ethnic population aged ≥65 years in a low-income setting. METHODS: The study was conducted in four stages: A pilot study (n=105) to establish a sample size for the survey. An equipment validation study (n=118) to use for fall risk determination...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Folake Lawal, Omolola Alade
BACKGROUND: Experience and awareness of adult females concerning dental caries is important in its prevention particularly in children because of their natural role as care givers. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in an adult female Nigerian population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, adult females attending outreach programmes were examined for dental caries using the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth caries index (DMFT)...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Refilwe Philadelphia Bokaba, Ronald Anderson, Annette Johanna Theron, Gregory Ronald Tintinger
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitute a network of chromatin fibres containing histone and antimicrobial peptides that are released by activated neutrophils. NETs protect the host against infection by trapping and facilitating phagocytosis of potentially harmful pathogens. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on phorbol-ester (PMA)-mediated NETosis in vitro. METHODS: Isolated human blood neutrophils were exposed to PMA (6...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Obianuju B Ozoh, Maxwell O Akanbi, Casmir E Amadi, William Vollmer, Nigel Bruce
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with tobacco smoking are useful in designing tobacco control programs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking among long-distance drivers. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Stratified cluster sampling approach was used to select drivers based on if they received annual health screening (AHS) or not (non AHS). We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information and weighted the resulting observations to derive population based estimates...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Patience Kinengyere, Samuel Kizito, John Baptist Kiggundu, Anne Ampaire, Geoffrey Wabulembo
BACKGROUND: Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago National Referral Hospital. METHODS: This was a cross sectional hospital based study among 318 children attending the Mulago Hospital eye clinic between January 2015 to March 2015...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera
BACKGROUND: The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Akachukwu Nwosu, Canice Chukwudi Anyachukwu, Georgian C Ibeneme, Muideen O Bakare, Gerhard Fortwengel, Dnyanesh Limaye
OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden and factors associated with post-stroke depression in East central Nigeria. METHOD: We carried out this cross-sectional study of 50 stroke survivors (mean age=54.8 ± 8.8 years), at the physiotherapy Department of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Data were collected using Becks Depression Inventory , it was analyzed using Z-scores, Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: PSD was more common in females (45...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Peter Omoniyi Ajiboye, Olatunji Alao Abiodun, Alexander Ikponmwosa Ogbebor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relevance of Electroencephalography (EEG) in the management of various neuropsychiatric conditions in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin. BACKGROUND: EEG is still relevant in the diagnosis and management of patients with seizure disorders and extends to other neuropsychiatric conditions. However, very few studies have examined the use of EEG in developing countries, including Nigeria. METHODS: The EEG records of 154 patients between January 2012 and December 2012 were reviewed...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Habtamu Kerebih, Mohammed Ajaeb, Hailemariam Hailesilassie
BACKGROUND: Medical students are at risk of common mental disorders due to difficulties of adjustment to the medical school environment, exposure to death and human suffering. However there is limited data on this aspect. Therefore, the current study assessed the magnitude of common mental disorders and contributing factors among medical students. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 12-16, 2015 using stratified sampling technique...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu, Tochukwu Ifenyinwa Ejikeme, Adaobi Chioma Ezike, Okechukwu Ndu, Theophine Chinwuba Akunne, Collins Azubuike Onyeto, Paul Okpalanduka, Peter Achunike Akah
BACKGROUND: Oldenlandia affinis, commonly called 'kalata-kalata', a versatile plant used locally to treat malaria fever in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa was investigated for anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the antiplasmodial as well as anti-inflammatory activities of whole extract and cyclotide-rich fraction of Oldenlandia affinis. METHOD: The dichloromethane-methanol extract (ODE) of the plant, O...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Xue Bai, Bingxue Hu, Qi Yan, Ting Luo, Bo Qu, Nan Jiang, Jie Liu, Yaxin Zhu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM). METHODS: The incidences of MCM and meteorology data between 1981 and 2010 were obtained from Chaoyang city. Structure Equation Modeling was used to analyze the relationships between meteorological factors and the incidence of MCM, using the LISREL software...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Hisham A Abbas, Ahmed M Elsherbini, Moutaz A Shaldam
BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing is a mechanism of intercellular communication that controls the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of quorum sensing can disarm the virulence factors without exerting stress on bacterial growth that leads to emergence of antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: Finding a new quorum sensing inhibitor and determining its inhibitory activities against virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain. METHODS: Quorum sensing was evaluated by estimation of violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Olajuyigbe Olufunmiso, Ikpehae Tolulope, Coopoosamy Roger
BACKGROUNDS: Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major public health concern because of the occurrence of multi-drug resistant strains. This study aimed at investigating the multi-drug and vancomycin resistance profile of S. aureus from different infection sites in some teaching hospitals in Nigeria. METHODS: Swabs were collected from different infection sites from out-patients in three teaching hospitals from October 2015 to May, 2016. The antibiotic-susceptibility test was carried out with selected antibiotics usually administered anti-microbials in the treatment of infections in these hospitals...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Stella Makgabo Lamola, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Francien Botha, Candice van Wyk
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cause vomiting, diarrhoea and even systemic disease. There is a need for the development of natural products into alternative and safer medicines. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the anti-microbial activity of extracts prepared from berries, leaves, bark and roots of the edible plant Grewia flava. METHODS: The anti-bacterial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Elizabeth B Famewo, Anna M Clarke, Ian Wiid, Andile Ngwane, Paul van Helden, Anthony J Afolayan
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a global public health problem. Polyherbal medicines offer great hope for developing alternative drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-tubercular activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: The remedies were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Middlebrook 7H9 media and MGIT BACTEC 960 system...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Kajal D Chhaganlal, Claudia Fabrizio, Laura Monno, Giovanni Putoto, Annalisa Saracino
INTRODUCTION: Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scarce. DM screening among TB patients in Mozambique was carried out. METHODS: The study was implemented from January to August 2016 in three Urban Health Centers in Beira, Mozambique and recruited adult (>18 years) patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB. RESULTS: Three hundred and one patients were enrolled (67.4%, males mean age 31...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
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