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Plant Biology

M Fambrini, M Bellanca, M Costa Muñoz, G Usai, A Cavallini, C Pugliesi
Members of CYCLOIDEA (CYC)/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) transcription factor family are essential to control flower symmetry and inflorescence architecture. In the Helianthus annuus genome, ten CYC/TB1 genes have been identified. Studies performed on mutants recognized HaCYC2c as one of the key players controlling zygomorphism in sunflower. We identified CYC2c genes in the diploid Helianthus decapetalus (HdCYC2c) and in the interspecific hybrid Helianthus × multiflorus (H×mCYC2cA and H×mCYC2cB), a triploid (2n = 3x = 51), originated from unreduced eggs of H...
July 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Eduardo Cuevas, Judith Espino, Isabel Marques
The integrity of species in sympatric contact sites is dependent on the existence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, which restrict gene flow between them. Co-flowering plants with divergent floral traits or syndromes may evolve in order to attract divergent functional groups of pollinators, facilitating plant coexistence. However, we know little about the mechanisms that enable the coexistence of species with similar floral morphologies. We evaluated several reproductive isolation barriers between Salvia elegans and S...
July 13, 2018: Plant Biology
E Narbona, J Jaca, J C Del Valle, F Valladares, M L Buide
The phenology of anthocyanin accumulation in leaves has been widely studied in perennial plants; several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. Here, we explored the photoprotection hypothesis in Silene germana, a Mediterranean annual plant with late-spring/summer flowering. We analyzed the temporal patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in photosynthetic calyces, leaves and stems and throughout the reproductive season, and their relationship with flower abortion, florivory and plant mortality due to drought...
July 12, 2018: Plant Biology
Emese Eysholdt-Derzsó, Margret Sauter
Soil water logging and flooding are common environmental stress conditions that can impair plant fitness. Roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced oxygen tension as a result of flooding. While anatomical and morphological adaptations of roots are extensively studied, the root system architecture is only now getting in the focus of flooding research. Adventitious root (AR) formation shifts the root system higher up the plant thereby facilitating supply with oxygen, and thereby improving root and plant survival...
July 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Cristina Blandino, Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Maria Marin, Aude Vernet, Hugh W Pritchard
Conopodium majus is a geophyte with pseudomonocotyly, distributed in Atlantic Europe. It is an indicator of two declining European habitats: ancient woodland understories and oligotrophic hay meadows. Attempts to reintroduce it by seed have been hindered by scarce seedling emergence and limited knowledge of its seed biology. Micro-CT scanning was used to assess pseudomonocotyly. Embryo growth and germination were studied in the laboratory and the field, using dissection and image analysis. The effects of temperature, light, nitrate and GA3 on germination were tested...
July 4, 2018: Plant Biology
M A Arif, S Alseekh, J Harb, A Fernie, W Frank
Salt and cold are major abiotic stresses that have adverse effects on plant growth and development. To cope with these stresses and their detrimental effects plants have evolved several metabolic, biochemical and physiological processes that are mainly triggered and mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). To elucidate the metabolic responses of the moss Physcomitrella patens that serves as a model plant for abiotic stress adaptation we performed GC-MS based metabolic profiling of plants challenged for 5 h and 28 h with either salt, cold or ABA...
June 26, 2018: Plant Biology
Pedro J Rey, Inmaculada Cancio, Antonio J Manzaneda, Ana González-Robles, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Julio M Alcántara
Global change drivers are currently affecting semiarid ecosystems. Because these ecosystems differ from others in biotic and abiotic filters, cues for plant regeneration and management derived from elsewhere may not be applicable to semiarid ecosystems. We sought to determine the extent to which regional variation in regeneration prospects of a long-lived semiarid keystone shrub depends on anthropogenic habitat degradation, plant-animal interactions and climate determinants. We investigated the regeneration ability (via population size structure, juvenile density and juvenile/adult ratio), fruit set and seed dispersal of Ziziphus lotus in 25 localities spanning the range of its threatened habitats in Spain...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe
Malate valves act as powerful systems for balancing the ATP/NAD(P)H ratio required in various subcellular compartments in plant cells. As components of malate valves, isoforms of malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) and dicarboxylate translocators catalyze the reversible interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate and their transport. Depending on the coenzyme specificity of the MDH isoforms, either NADH or NADPH can be transported indirectly. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses nine genes encoding MDH isoenzymes: Activities of NAD-dependent MDHs have been detected in mitochondria, peroxisomes, cytosol and plastids, respectively...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Lucía Lindow-López, Guadalupe Galíndez, Silvia Sühring, Valeria Pastrana-Ignes, Pablo Gorostiague, Angela Gutiérrez, Pablo Ortega-Baes
There is controversy over whether cactus species form soil seed banks. Although it is commonly assumed that cacti do not form seed banks, very few studies have evaluated them. In this work, we analyzed whether cactus species form soil seed banks, studying seed distribution, seed density and seed longevity in the Southern Central Andes. Soil samples were collected in two microhabitats (under nurse plants and in bare areas) at 12 selected sites. We determined seed presence-absence, density and distribution for 32 native cactus species...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Lina Podda, Andrea Santo, Efisio Mattana, Olga Mayoral, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Invasions by alien Carpobrotus spp. have been recognized as one of the most severe threats to Mediterranean-climate coastal ecosystems and Carpobrotus is considered one of the most widespread invasive alien genera in the Mediterranean Basin. The aims of this study were to characterize seed germination of both C. edulis and its hybrid C. affine acinaciformis, in terms of photoperiod, temperature and salinity. Inter- and intra-specific variability in the responses to photoperiod (12/12 h light and total darkness), constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25°C) and an alternating temperature regime (25/10°C), salt stress (0, 125, 250, 500 mM NaCl) and the recovery of seed germination were evaluated for two seed lots of C...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Ann Kareen Mainz, Markus Wieden
Many renaturation projects and compensation areas are based on the use of seeds from regional indigenous wild plants, in the following: native or regional seeds. Despite this, such seeds make up only a small proportion of the total number of seeds used for greening projects - in Germany, for example, it is only around 1% (= 200 t/yr). Although the market for regional seeds is small, it is highly competitive. High-priced native seeds compete with flower mixes of unspecified origin and can only be differentiated from them by reliable quality seals...
June 21, 2018: Plant Biology
Annelie Gutsch, Els Keunen, Gea Guerriero, Jenny Renaut, Ann Cuypers, Jean-François Hausman, Kjell Sergeant
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential, toxic heavy metal that poses serious threats to both the ecosystem and the health of humans. Plants employ various cellular and molecular mechanisms to minimize the impact of Cd toxicity and the cell walls function as defensive barrier during Cd exposure. In this study, we adopted a quantitative gel-based proteomic approach (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis) to investigate changes in the abundance of cell wall- and soluble proteins in stems of Medicago sativa L...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
A L Garcia-Oliveira, C Benito, H Guedes-Pinto, P Martins-Lopes
Recently, members of the MATE family have been implicated in aluminium (Al) tolerance by facilitating citrate efflux in plants. The aim of the present work was to perform a molecular characterisation of the MATE2 gene in bread wheat. Here, we cloned a member of the MATE gene family in bread wheat and named it TaMATE2, which showed the typical secondary structure of MATE-type transporters maintaining all the 12 transmembrane domains. Amplification in Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines revealed that TaMATE2 is located on the long arm of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
S Abdelkrim, S H Jebara, O Saadani, M Jebara
The ability of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to enhance Lathyrus sativus tolerance to lead (Pb) stress was investigated. Ten consortia formed by mixing four efficient and Pb-resistant PGPR strains were assessed for their beneficial effect in improving Pb (0.5 mM) uptake and in inducing the host defence system of L. sativus under hydroponic conditions based on various physiological and biochemical parameters. Lead stress significantly decreased shoot (SDW) and root (RDW) dry weight, but PGPR inoculation improved both dry weights, with highest increases in SDW and RDW of plants inoculated with I5 (R...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
G Puglia, A Carta, R Bizzoca, P Toorop, G Spampinato, S A Raccuia
Seed germination responsiveness to environmental cues is crucial for plant species living in changeable habitats and can vary among populations within the same species as a result of adaptation or modulation to local climates. Here, we investigate the germination response to environmental cues of Sisymbrella dentata (L.) O.E. Schulz, an annual endemic to Sicily living in Mediterranean Temporary Ponds (MTP), a vulnerable ecosystem. Germination of the only two known populations, Gurrida and Pantano, was assessed over a broad range of conditions to understand the role of temperatures, nitrate, hormones (abscisic acid - ABA and gibberellins - GA) and after-ripening in dormancy release in this species...
June 15, 2018: Plant Biology
M Barták, E Pláteníková, H Carreras, J Hájek, J Morkusová, A C Mateos, M Marečková
We studied the resistance of Parmotrema austrosinense to UV-B stress. We focused on the effects of a high dose UV-B radiation on the content of chlorophylls, carotenoids and UV-B screening compounds. Photosynthetic parameters were measured by chlorophyll fluorescence (potential and effective quantum yields, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching) and evaluated in control and UV-B-treated lichens. Lichens from two different locations in Cordoba, Argentina, were selected: (i) high altitude and dry plots at (Los Gigantes) and (ii) lowland high salinity plots (Salinas Grandes)...
June 11, 2018: Plant Biology
M Gohar, R Gäbelein, A S Mason
Quartet pollen, where pollen grains remain attached to each other post-meiosis, is useful for tetrad analysis, crossover assessment and centromere mapping. We observed the quartet pollen phenotype for the first time in the agriculturally significant Brassica genus, in an experimental population of allohexaploid Brassica hybrids derived from the cross (Brassica napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea followed by two self-pollination generations. Quartet pollen production was assessed in 144 genotypes under glasshouse conditions, following which a set of 16 genotypes were selected to further investigate the effect of environment (warm: 25 °C and cold: 10 °C temperatures) on quartet pollen production in growth cabinets...
June 8, 2018: Plant Biology
E Farris, R Filigheddu, G Mameli, V Falanga, I Vanetti, L Rosati, G Binelli
All known populations of the Sardinian endemic Centaurea filiformis Viv. (Asteraceae) were studied in order to understand the impact of both geographic and ecological factors on the genetic structuring of this species. Fourteen populations and 234 individuals were sampled. The demographic structure of the populations and the reproductive ecology were estimated in 28 plots. Population genetic analyses were based on SSR markers. Genetic structure was investigated by spatial Bayesian methods. Average densities of 0...
June 6, 2018: Plant Biology
S Oldfield
The National Seed Strategy for Rehabilitation and Restoration was developed by a partnership of 12 federal agencies and over 300 non-federal cooperators in the United States and launched in 2015. Implementation aims to ensure the availability of genetically appropriate native seed for ecological restoration across the country. Ecological restoration is required in response to a wide range of human impacts. The four main goals of the strategy are: identification of seed needs and availability of genetically appropriate seed; research to improve seed production and ecosystem restoration; development of decision support tools for ecological restoration; and communication and outreach...
June 5, 2018: Plant Biology
F J Corpas, J M Palma
Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process involving significant external and internal modifications. Classic edible fleshy fruits have been classified as climacteric or non-climacteric according to their dependence on the phyto hormone ethylene; however, data have increasingly confirmed the involvement of the free radical nitric oxide (NO) in this process. Moreover, the exogenous application of NO demonstrates its beneficial effects on fruit quality.
June 5, 2018: Plant Biology
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