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Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#1
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727249/dynamics-of-amino-acid-redistribution-in-the-carnivorous-venus-flytrap-dionaea-muscipula-after-digestion-of-13-c-15-n-labeled-prey
#2
Jörg Kruse, Peng Gao, Monika Eibelmeier, Saleh Alfarraj, Heinz Rennenberg
Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ(13) C- and δ(15) N-signatures, after half of all traps per plant had been fed with contrasting amounts of double-labeled insect powder (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg per trap)...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718203/landscape-effects-on-pollination-networks-in-mediterranean-gypsum-islands
#3
Silvia Santamaría, Ana M Sánchez, Jesús López-Angulo, Concepción Ornosa, Iñaki Mola, Adrián Escudero
Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of global change that has operated historically on Mediterranean ecosystems. However, more needs to be understood about how fragmentation influences ecological interactions, particularly pollination. Gypsum outcrops are historically fragmented Mediterranean habitats and settings for the evolution of many endangered soil-specialist plants with narrow ranges. In this study, we aimed to determine how fragmentation (area and connectivity) affects: (i) the pollinator community composition, and (ii) the structural properties of pollination networks; and whether there are differences in the effects of fragmentation on: (iii) the number of interactions and visits among pollinator functional groups; and (iv) the number of interactions and specialization degree between soil-specialist and soil-generalist plants...
July 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707323/exogenous-application-of-indole-acetic-acid-alleviates-the-effects-of-supplemental-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera-dunal
#4
S Takshak, S B Agrawal
Supplemental (s)-UV-B radiation has adverse effects on majority of plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of the growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on various morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of Withania somnifera, an indigenous medicinal plant, subjected to s-UV-B. The s-UV-B treated plants received ambient+3.6 kJm(-2) day(-1) biologically effective UV-B and IAA was applied at two doses (200 ppm and 400 ppm) to s-UV-B exposed plants...
July 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691341/divergence-is-not-enough-the-use-of-ecological-niche-models-for-the-validation-of-taxa-boundaries
#5
Davide Dagnino, Luigi Minuto, Gabriele Casazza
Delimiting taxa boundaries is a crucial point for any evolutionary research and conservation regulation. In order to avoid mistaken description of species, the approach of integrative taxonomy recommends to consider multidisciplinary lines of evidence, including ecology. Unfortunately, ecological data are often difficult to quantify in an objective way. Here we test and discuss the potential use of Ecological Niche Models for validating taxa boundaries, using three pairs of closely related plant taxa endemic to South-western Alps as a case study...
July 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667797/differential-growth-costs-and-nitrogen-fixation-in-cytisus-multiflorus-l-h%C3%A3-r-sweet-and-cytisus-scoparius-l-link-are-mediated-by-sources-of-inorganic-n
#6
M A Pérez-Fernández, E Calvo-Magro, J Rodríguez-Sánchez, A Valentine
Shrubby legumes in Mediterranean-type ecosystems face strong nutrient limitations that worsen in summer time, when water is absent. Nitrogen fixing legumes are likely to be able to switch between soil nitrogen (N) and atmospheric nitrogen (N2 ) sources to adjust the C costs of N acquisition in different seasons. We investigated the utilisation of different inorganic N sources by two indigenous shrubby legumes (Cytisus multiflorus and Cytisus scoparius). Plant performance in terms of photosynthesis and biomass production was also analysed...
July 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646629/mechanisms-of-inhibitory-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-photosynthetic-primary-processes-in-pea-leaves-and-thylakoid-preparations
#7
V D Kreslavski, M Brestic, S K Zharmukhamedov, V Yu Luybimov, A V Lankin, A Jajoo, S I Allakhverdiev
Inhibitory effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on plants is studied in pea leaves in order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene (Naph) and phenanthrene (Phen) on activity of photosystem 2 (PS-2). The changes in different Chl fluorescence parameters were calculated on the basis of Chl fluorescence induction curves. Hydrogen peroxide content was measured in leaf homogenates by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. We demonstrated that due to PAH treatment, the total energy dissipation (DI0 /ABS) and amount of QB -non-reducing complexes of PS-2 significantly increased...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646622/dormancy-cycles-in-buried-seeds-of-three-perennial-xyris-xyridaceae-species-from-the-brazilian-campo-rupestre
#8
T G S Oliveira, I P Diamantino, Q S Garcia
Seed dormancy cycles are an important mechanism for avoiding germination under unfavorable periods for seedling establishment. This mechanism has been scarcely studied in tropical species. Here, we studied three tropical and perennial species of Xyris, X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla, to investigate in situ longevity and the existence of seasonal seed dormancy cycles. Seeds of three species of Xyris were buried in their natural habitat with samples exhumed bimonthly for 18 months. Germination of exhumed seeds was assessed under a 12h-photoperiod over a broad range of temperatures...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644576/size-dependency-of-tree-growth-response-to-drought-among-norway-spruce-and-european-beech-individuals-in-monospecific-and-mixed-species-stands
#9
Haiyu Ding, Hans Pretzsch, Gerhard Schütze, Thomas Rötzer
Climatic anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to the forest stands. This study analysed the size dependency of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]) in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response of drought stress, indices including basal area increment, resistance, recovery, and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644542/the-conservation-significance-of-natural-hybridisation-in-mediterranean-plants-from-a-case-study-on-cyclamen-primulaceae-to-a-general-perspective
#10
John D Thompson, Perrine Gauthier, Guillaume Papuga, Virginie Pons, Max Debussche, Emmanuele Farris
Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637098/uncovering-the-contribution-of-epigenetics-to-plant-phenotypic-variation-in-mediterranean-ecosystems
#11
REVIEW
F Balao, O Paun, C Alonso
Epigenetic signals can affect plant phenotype and fitness and be stably inherited across multiple generations. Epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the mechanisms of plant response to the environment without altering DNA sequence. As plants cannot adapt behaviourally or migrate instantly, such dynamic epigenetic responses may be particularly crucial for survival of plants within changing and challenging environments, such as the Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MTEs). These ecosystems suffer recurrent stressful events (warm and dry summers with associated fire regimes) that have selected for plants with similar phenotypic complex traits, resulting in similar vegetation growth forms...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637094/acclimation-responses-to-high-light-by-guazuma-ulmifolia-lam-malvaceae-leaves-at-different-stages-of-development
#12
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Juliana Silva Rocha, Geovana Lourenço, Karina Sanada, Cristiano Medri, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira
The recomposition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excessive light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded leaves (NewL, expanded after the light shift) of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637086/climate-drives-plant-pollinator-interactions-even-along-small-scale-climate-gradients-the-case-of-the-aegean
#13
T Petanidou, A S Kallimanis, M Lazarina, T Tscheulin, J Devalez, A Stefanaki, E Ηanlidou, A Vujić, A Kaloveloni, S P Sgardelis
Plant-pollinator network structure is the outcome of ecological and evolutionary processes, and although the importance of environmental factors is beyond doubt, our knowledge of how abiotic factors (e.g. climate) shape plant-pollinator networks remains limited. This knowledge gap is critical, as climate change poses a major threat to ecosystems, especially in the Mediterranean. This study focuses on one of the hottest parts of the Basin, the Aegean Archipelago, Greece, and examines how climate affects species richness and network properties (e...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627760/reproductive-phenology-of-melastomataceae-species-with-contrasting-reproductive-systems-contemporary-and-historical-drivers
#14
V L G Brito, F R Maia, F A O Silveira, C M Fracasso, J P Lemos-Filho, G W Fernandes, R Goldenberg, L P C Morellato, M Sazima, V G Staggemeier
Flowering and fruiting are key events in the life history of plants, and both are critical to their reproductive success. Besides the role of evolutionary history, plant reproductive phenology is regulated by abiotic factors and shaped by biotic interactions with pollinators and seed dispersers. In Melastomataceae, a dominant Neotropical family, the reproductive systems vary from allogamous with biotic pollination to apomictic, and seed dispersal varies from dry (self-dispersed) to fleshy (animal-dispersed) fruits...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612366/a-graphical-method-for-identifying-the-six-types-of-nondeep-physiological-dormancy-in-seeds
#15
REVIEW
Elias Soltani, Carol C Baskin, Jerry M Baskin
We present a new seed dormancy classification scheme for the nondeep level of the class physiological dormancy (PD), which contains six types. Nondeep PD is divided into two sublevels: one for seeds that exhibit a dormancy continuum (types 1, 2 and 3) and the other for those that do not exhibit a dormancy continuum (types 4, 5 and 6). Analysis of previous studies showed that different types of nondeep PD also can be identified using a graphical method. Seeds with a dormancy (D) ↔ conditional dormancy (CD) ↔ nondormancy (ND) cycle have a low germination percentage in the early stages of CD, and during dormancy loss the germination capacity increases...
June 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603945/grafting-response-to-excess-boron-and-expression-analysis-of-genes-coding-boron-transporters-in-tomato
#16
Francesco Di Gioia, Alessio Aprile, Erika Sabella, Pietro Santamaria, Alberto Pardossi, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis, Eliana Nutricati
Boron (B) is essential for plant growth, however its excess in soil and/or in irrigation water can severely compromise plant growth and yield. The goal of this work was to determine whether grafting onto 'Arnold', a commercial interspecific hybrid (Solanum lycopersicum × S. habrochaites) rootstock, which in a previous study was found to be tolerant to salt stress, could improve tomato (S. lycopersicum L. 'Ikram') tolerance to excess B, and whether this effect is associated with an exclusion mechanism. Non-grafted, self-grafted, and grafted plants were hydroponically grown in a greenhouse with B concentration in the nutrient solution of 0...
June 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590517/flower-specialization-the-occluded-corolla-of-snapdragons-antirrhinum-exhibits-two-pollinator-niches-of-large-long-tongued-bees
#17
Pablo Vargas, Isabel Liberal, Concepción Ornosa, Jose María Gómez
• Flower specialization of angiosperms includes the occluded corollas of snapdragons (Antirrhinum and some relatives), which have been postulated to be one of the most efficient structures to physical limit access to pollinators. The Iberian Peninsula harbours the highest number of species (18 Iberian of the 20 species of Antirrhinum) that potentially share similar pollinator fauna. • Crossing experiments with 18 Iberian species from this study and literature revealed a general pattern of self-incompatibility-failure in this SI system has been also observed in a few plants-, which indicates the need of pollinator agents in Antirrhinum pollination...
June 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581674/radial-oxygen-loss-by-the-cushion-plant-eriocaulon-schimperi-prevents-methane-emissions-from-an-east-african-mountain-mire
#18
B W Dullo, A P Grootjans, J G M Roelofs, A F Senbeta, C Fritz, L P M Lamers
Groundwater-fed fens are known sources of methane (CH4 ) emissions to the atmosphere, and these are known to be mediated by the vegetation. In a fen located in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, we assessed the effects of a cushion plant (Eriocaulon schimperi) and a sedge (Carex monostachya) on rhizosphere biogeochemistry. Methane and CO2 concentrations and pH were measured in pore-water at different depths in the profile. Redox potentials and NaCl-extractable element concentrations were analysed in soil samples from sites dominated by either E...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580601/morphological-and-chemical-variation-of-stemona-tuberosa-from-southern-china-evidences-for-the-heterogeneity-of-this-medicinal-plant-species
#19
Gao Chen, Lothar Brecker, Susanne Felsinger, Xiang-Hai Cai, Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon, Johann Schinnerl
The occurrence of bioactive alkaloids and tocopherols were studied from 15 different provenances of Stemona tuberosa Lour. collected in southern China, in order to reveal the chemical variation of individuals which show some notable differences in their flower characters. The morphological variations stimulated the examination of chemical characters of these individuals. Methanolic root extracts of 15 individuals of the studied species were comparatively assessed by HPLC-UV-DAD/ELSD. Five out of seven compounds were co-chromatographically identified...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561940/reproductive-biology-of-ferocactus-recurvus-mill-borg-subsp-recurvus-cactaceae-in-the-tehuac%C3%A3-n-cuicatl%C3%A3-n-valley-mexico
#20
Esperanza Córdova-Acosta, Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado José, Jordan Golubov, Alejandro Casas
Mexico has one of the highest diversity of barrel cacti species worldwide; however, all of them are threatened and require conservation policies. Information on their reproductive biology is crucial, but few studies are still available. Ferocactus recurvus subsp. recurvus is a barrel cactus species, endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Our research aimed to characterize its floral and pollination biology. We hypothesized bee-pollination as suggested by its floral morphology and behaviour and self-incompatibility like most barrel cacti studied...
May 31, 2017: Plant Biology
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