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Plant Biology

E Narbona, H Wang, P L Ortiz, M Arista, E Imbert
Flower colour polymorphism (FCP) is the occurrence of at least two discrete flower colour variants in the same population. Despite a vast body of research concerning the maintenance and evolutionary consequences of FCP, only recently has the spatial variation in morph frequencies among populations been explored. Here we have summarized the biochemical and genetic basis of FCP, the factors that have been proposed to explain their maintenance, and the importance of FCP and its geographic variation in the speciation process...
April 21, 2017: Plant Biology
Giacomo Puglielli, Francisco J Cuevas Román, Rosangela Catoni, José M Moreno Rojas, Loretta Gratani, Laura Varone
The potential resilience of shrub species to environmental change deserves attention in those areas threatened by climate change such as the Mediterranean basin. We asked if leaves produced under climatically different conditions through the winter season up to spring can highlight the leaf traits involved in determining the potential resilience of three Cistus spp. to changing environmental conditions and to what extent intra-specific differences affect such a response. We analyzed carbon assimilation, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv /Fm ) and the leaf morphological control of the photosynthetic process in leaves formed through the winter season up to spring in C...
April 18, 2017: Plant Biology
M E Carezzano, J P Sotelo, E Primo, E B Reinoso, M F Paletti Rovey, M S Demo, W F Giordano, M de Las M Oliva
Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in the leaves during the colonization process. The damage is associated to the production of many virulence factors such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare have demonstrated the ability to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on the production of virulence factors of phytopatogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
Milton Costa Lima Neto, João Victor A Cerqueira, Juliana Ribeiro da Cunha, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Joaquim Albenísio G Silveira
Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely known. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant-species with differential tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiradion...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
Grzegorz Migdałek, Justyna Nowak, Marta Saługa, Elżbieta Cieślak, Magdalena Szczepaniak, Michał Ronikier, Thomas Marcussen, Aneta Słomka, Elżbieta Kuta
Viola reichenbachiana (2n = 4x = 20) and V. riviniana (2n = 8x = 40) are closely related species widely distributed in Europe, often sharing the same habitat throughout their overlapping ranges. It has been suggested in numerous studies that their high intraspecific morphological variability and plasticity might have been further increased by interspecific hybridization in contact zones, given the sympatry of the species and the incomplete sterility of their hybrid. The aims of this study were to (i) confirm that V...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
Simone Tausch, Martin Leipold, Peter Poschlod, Christoph Reisch
• Calcareous grasslands belong to the most species rich and endangered habitats in Europe. However, little is known about the origin of the species typically occurring in these grasslands. In this study we analysed, therefore, the glacial and postglacial history of Sanguisorba minor (Salad Burnett), a typical plant species frequently occurring in calcareous grasslands. • The study comprised 38 populations throughout the whole distribution range of the species across Europe. We used molecular markers (AFLPs) and applied Bayesian cluster analysis as well as spatial Principal Component Analysis (sPCA) to identify glacial refugia and postglacial migration routes to Central Europe...
April 7, 2017: Plant Biology
Andrzej M Jagodziński, Paweł Horodecki, Katarzyna Rawlik, Marcin K Dyderski
One of the most important threats to peatland ecosystems is drainage, resulting in encroachment of woody species. The main aim of this study was to check which features -NDASH- overstory or understory vegetation -NDASH- are more important for shaping the seedling bank of pioneer trees colonizing peatlands (Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens). We hypothesized that tree stand parameters will be more important predictors of natural regeneration density than understory vegetation parameters, and the former will be negatively correlated with species diversity and richness and also with functional richness and functional dispersion, which indicate a high level of habitat filtering...
April 4, 2017: Plant Biology
Amanda K Huen, Caren Rodriguez-Medina, Angela Y Y Ho, Craig A Atkins, Penelope M C Smith
Plant microRNAs are small RNAs that are important for genetic regulation of processes such as plant development or environmental responses. Specific microRNAs accumulate in the phloem during phosphate starvation, and may act as long-distance signalling molecules. We performed quantitative PCR on Arabidopsis hypocotyl micrograft tissues of wild-type and hen1-6 mutants to assess the mobility of several phosphate starvation-responsive microRNA species. In addition to the previously-confirmed mobile species miR399d, the corresponding microRNA* (miR399d*) was identified for the first time as mobile between shoots and roots...
March 21, 2017: Plant Biology
Beatriz Guzmán, José María Gómez, Pablo Vargas
The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches (i...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
B Amato, S Petit
The knowledge of floral nectar sugar characteristics such as concentration, ratio, and mass is essential to understand the complex nature of nectar production and pollination systems. Although nectar is commonly stored in ecology, storage reliability and effectiveness have rarely been quantified. Inappropriate nectar storage between sampling and analysis can alter nectar chemistry as a result of enzyme or microbial action. Our review of the literature indicates that measures to preserve nectar sugars before analysis include refrigeration, freezing, the addition of an antimicrobial agent, spotting and drying on filter paper, the addition of a desiccant, or a combination of these storage treatments...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
Lucía DeSoto, Rubén Torices, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Cristina Nabais
The study of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different populations may allow a better understanding of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. Juniperus thurifera (Cupressaceae) provides a good model to study this due to the existence of two subspecies differentiated by phenotypic traits, such as seed size and cone seediness (number of seeds inside a cone) across its range. The aim of this study was to analyse seed packaging (seed mass and cone seediness) variation at different scales (subspecies, populations and individuals) and the relationship between cone and seed traits in European and African J...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
M Escudero, F Balao, S Martín-Bravo, L Valente, V Valcárcel
The Mediterranean Basin region, home to 25,000 plant species, is included in the worldwide list of hotspots of biodiversity. Despite the indisputably important role of chromosome transitions in plant evolution and diversification, no reference study to date has dealt with the possible relationship between chromosome evolution and lineage diversification in the Mediterranean Basin. Here we study patterns of diversification, patterns of chromosome number transition (either polyploidy or dysploidy) and the relationship between the two for 14 Mediterranean Basin angiosperm lineages using previously published phylogenies...
March 13, 2017: Plant Biology
H Meng, X Wei, S B Franklin, H Wu, M Jiang
Intraspecific trait variation and trait-climate relationships are crucial for understanding a species' response to climate change. However, these phenomena have rarely been studied for tree species. Euptelea pleiospermum is a relict tree species with a wide distribution in China that offers a novel opportunity to examine such relationships. Here, we measured 13 leaf traits of E. pleiospermum in 20 sites across its natural distribution in China. We investigated the extent of trait variation at local and regional scales, and developed geographic and climate models to explain trait variation at the regional scale...
March 13, 2017: Plant Biology
Shuoqian Liu, Liping Liu, Yuwei Tang, Shuo Xiong, Jinhua Long, Zhonghua Liu, Na Tian
(1) The regulation mechanism of flavonoids, which were found to synergize anti-malarial and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, is still unclear. (2) In this study, an anthocyanidin-accumulating mutant callus was induced from A. annua, and then comparative transcriptomic analysis of the wild-type and mutant calli was performed, based on the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. (3) As a result, a total of 82,393 unigenes were obtained and 34,764 unigenes were annotated in the public database...
March 7, 2017: Plant Biology
Urszula Zajączkowska, Peter W Barlow
• Orbital movement of the Moon generates a system of gravitational fields which periodically alters the gravitational force on Earth. This lunar tidal acceleration (Etide) is known to act as an external environmental factor affecting many growth and developmental phenomena in plants. Our study has focused on the lunar tidal influence on stem elongation growth, nutations, and leaf movements of peppermint. • Plants were continuously recorded by time-lapse photography under constant illumination as well in constant illumination following five days of alternating dark-light cycles...
March 3, 2017: Plant Biology
Ping Li, Xiaochen Chen, Fengli Sun, Hansong Dong
Recently we elucidated that tobacco TTG2 cooperates with ARF8 to regulate the vegetative growth and seed production. Here we show that TTG2 and ARF8 control flower colorization by regulating the expression of ANS and DFR genes, which function in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Genetic modifications that substantially altered expression levels of the TTG2 gene and production quantities of the TTG2 protein were correlated with flower development and colorization. Degrees of flower colorization were increased by TTG2 overexpression but decreased by TTG2 silencing in coincidence with high and low concentrations of anthocyanins in flowers...
March 1, 2017: Plant Biology
Fabiana Alves Mourão, Rafael Barros Pereira Pinheiro, Claudia Maria Jacobi, José Eugênio Côrtes Figueira
RATIONALE: Some parasitic plants are capable of vegetative propagation that allows them access to new hosts and improve nutrient availability. We aimed to determine what factors positively influence this propagation in the xylem-tapping Struthanthus flexicaulis, focusing on the use of directed foraging as a means of optimizing access to resources. METHODS: The study site was a rupicolous plant community in southeastern Brazil. We evaluated how the success of branch propagation (by contagion) of the mistletoe is influenced by the crown height and density of its main host, the legume Mimosa calodendron...
February 28, 2017: Plant Biology
A Marcer, D S Vidigal, P M A James, M-J Fortin, B Méndez-Vigo, H W M Hilhorst, L Bentsink, C Alonso-Blanco, F X Picó
To understand how adaptive evolution in life-cycle phenology operates in plants, we need to unravel the effects of geographical variation in putative agents of natural selection on life-cycle phenology by considering all key developmental transitions and their co-variation patterns. We address this goal by quantifying the temperature-driven and geographically varying relationship between seed dormancy and flowering time in the annual Arabidopsis thaliana across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data on genetic variation in two major life-cycle traits, seed dormancy (DSDS50) and flowering time (FT), in a collection of 300 A...
February 27, 2017: Plant Biology
Xue-Fang Yang, Chui-Hua Kong
BACKGROUD: Despite increasing knowledge of allelopathy involved in negative interactions among plants, relatively little is known about its action at the root level. This study aims at further enhancing the understanding of the interactions of roots of crop and associated weeds via allelopathy. METHODS: Based on a series of experiments with window rhizobox and root segregation methods, we examined root-placement patterns and root interactions between allelopathic rice and major paddy weeds including Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Leptochloa chinesis and Oryza sativa (weedy rice)...
February 20, 2017: Plant Biology
G Michavila, C Adler, P R De Gregorio, M J Lami, M C Caram Di Santo, A M Zenoff, R E de Cristobal, P A Vincent
Citrus canker is a worldwide-distributed disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. One of the most used strategies to control the disease is centered on copper-based compounds that cause environmental problems. Therefore, it is of interest to develop new strategies to manage the disease. Previously, we reported the ability of the siderophore pyochelin, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inhibit in vitro several bacterial species including X. citri subsp. citri. The action mechanism, addressed with the model bacterium Escherichia coli, was connected to the generation of reactive oxygen species...
February 14, 2017: Plant Biology
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