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Plant Biology

Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Guaraci D Cordeiro, Mardiore Pinheiro, Stefan Dötterl, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit was developed, yet, little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and the breeding system of C...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
S Navarro-Torre, J M Barcia-Piedras, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, M Camacho, M A Caviedes, E Pajuelo, I D Rodríguez-Llorente
There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. 8 endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Bernardo Duarte, Maria Teresa Cabrita, Carla Gameiro, Ana Rita Matos, Rita Godinho, João Carlos Marques, Isabel Caçador
A profound analysis of A. tripolium photochemical traits under salinity exposure is lacking in the literature, with very few references focusing on its fatty acid profile role in photophysiology. To address this, the deep photochemical processes were evaluated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry coupled with a discrimination of its leaf fatty acid profile. Plants exposed to 125-250 mM NaCl showed higher photochemical light harvesting efficiencies and lower energy dissipation rates. under higher NaCl exposure, there is evident damage of the oxygen evolving complexes (OECs)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Biology
Jan Plue, Floriane Colas, Alistair G Auffret, Sara A O Cousins
Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesize that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences...
October 14, 2016: Plant Biology
Bárbara Castro Vieira, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Queila Souza Garcia
The relationship between the phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) and light and temperature on seed germination is still not well understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between light, temperature, ABA and GA in seed germination of Vellozia caruncularis, V. intermedia, and V. alutacea. Seeds were incubated in 100 μM solutions of GA (GA3 or GA4 ), ABA and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors (paclobutrazol - PAC, and fluridone - FLU) at two temperatures (25 and 40 °C). Furthermore, endogenous concentrations of active gibberellins (GAs), including GA1 , GA3 and GA4 , and those of ABA were measured in seeds of V...
October 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Xiang He, Lihua Li, Hong Xu, Jiang Xi, Xufeng Cao, Haoran Xu, Songhao Rong, Yilun Dong, Chuan Wang, Rongjun Chen, Jinghong Xu, Xiaoling Gao, Zhengjun Xu
Abiotic stresses have a significant impact on plant productivity and crop quality. Although plant lectins are thought to play important roles in plant defense signaling during pathogen attack, little is known about the contribution of plant lectins to stress resistance. We cloned and functionally characterized a rice jacalin-related mannose-binding lectin gene, OsJRL, from rice 'Nipponbare'. The cDNA of OsJRL contained a 438 bp open reading frame, which encodes a polypeptide of 145 amino acids. OsJRL was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm...
October 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Mohammad M Al-Gharaibeh, Hassan R Hamasha, Christoph Rosche, Susanne Lachmuth, Karsten Wesche, Isabell Hensen
Environmental gradients, and particularly climatic variables, exert a strong influence on plant distribution and, potentially, population genetic diversity and differentiation. Differences in water availability can cause among-population variation in ecological processes and can thus interrupt populations' connectivity and isolate them environmentally. The present study examines the effect of environmental heterogeneity on plant populations due to environmental isolation unrelated to geographic distance. Using AFLP markers, we analyzed genetic diversity and differentiation among 12 Salvia spinosa populations and 13 Salvia syriaca populations from three phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian) representing the extent of the species' geographic range in Jordan...
October 7, 2016: Plant Biology
Paula I Marcora, Paula A Tecco, Sebastián R Zeballos, Isabell Hensen
Steep climatic gradients boost morphological and physiological adjustments in plants, with consequences on performance. The three principal woody species of the Sierras Grandes Mountains of central Argentina have marked differences in sapling performance along their altitudinal distribution. We hypothesize that the steep gradient of climatic conditions across the species' altitudinal distribution promotes trait differences between populations of different altitudes that are inherited by the following generation...
October 7, 2016: Plant Biology
Sandra Varga, Rocío Vega-Frutis, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment...
October 1, 2016: Plant Biology
Yao Zhang, Jiang-Bo Xie, Yan Li
Tree mortality induced by drought is one of the most complex processes in ecology. Although two mechanisms associated with water and carbon balance respectively are proposed to explain tree mortality, outstanding problems still exist. In the greenhouse experiment, various water and carbon related physiological indicators (shoot water potential, photosynthesis, dark respiration, hydraulic conductance and non-structural carbohydrates) were examined on drought and control Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings, and how the root system benefited the survival and resprouting of seedlings was tested...
October 1, 2016: Plant Biology
Na Lyu, Wei Du, Xiao-Fan Wang
Pollen-pistil interactions are a fundamental process in the reproductive biology of angiosperms and play a particularly important role in maintaining incipient species that exist in sympatry. However, the majority of previous studies have focused on species with syncarpous gynoecia (fused carpels) and not those with apocarpous gynoecia (unfused carpels). In the present study, we investigated the growth of conspecific pollen tubes compared to heterospecific pollen tubes in Sagittaria species, which have apocarpous gynoecia...
September 30, 2016: Plant Biology
R Delgado-Dávila, S Martén-Rodríguez, G Huerta-Ramos
This study tested the hypothesis that self-compatibility would be associated with floral traits that facilitate autonomous self-pollination to ensure reproduction under low pollinator visitation. In a comparison of two pairs of Ipomoea species with contrasting breeding systems, we predicted that self-compatible (SC) species would have smaller, less variable flowers, reduced herkogamy, lower pollinator visitation and higher reproductive success than their self-incompatible (SI) congeners. We studied sympatric species pairs, I...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biology
Tanja Milotić, Maurice Hoffmann
1.Endozoochory is one of the main drivers shaping temperate grassland communities by maintaining plant populations of its constituents and enabling plants to colonize new habitats. Successful endozoochorous dispersal implies that seeds not only get consumed and survive the digestive tract but are also able to develop into viable seedlings in a dung environment. 2.We experimentally assessed the germination probability and timing of 15 annual and perennial temperate European grassland species in cattle and horse dung and in different climatic conditions (greenhouse and outdoor conditions)...
September 12, 2016: Plant Biology
Iti Gontia-Mishra, Swapnil Sapre, Anubha Sharma, Sharad Tiwari
RATIONALE: Drought stress adversely affects the growth and yield of wheat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of inoculation of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains IG 3 (Klebsiella sp.), IG 10 (Enterobacter ludwigii) and IG 15 (Flavobacterium sp.) in improving drought tolerance in wheat. METHODS: These PGPR strains were screened for drought tolerance in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (0-25%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000)...
September 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Melanie Nowak, Dirk Selmar
In this essay the physico-chemical background of alkaloid allocation within plants is outlined and discussed exemplarily for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and nicotine. Trigger for this discourse is the finding that for example PAs, which are taken up from the soil are translocated in the xylem, whereas - when genuinely present in plants - they are allocated as N-oxides via phloem. Special emphasis is put on the impact of different pH values in certain compartments, as this entails significant changes in the relative lipophilic character of alkaloids: tertiary alkaloids diffuse readily through biomembranes, while the corresponding protonated ones are retained in acidic compartments, i...
September 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Birgit Oelschlägel, Michael V Tschirnhaus, Matthias Nuss, Toni Nikolić, Stefan Wanke, Stefan Dötterl, Christoph Neinhuis
Pollination success of highly specialized flowers is susceptible to fluctuations of the pollinator fauna. Mediterranean Aristolochia rotunda has deceptive trap flowers exhibiting a highly specialized pollination system. The sole pollinators are kleptoparasitic flies in search for food. This study investigates these pollinators on a spatio-temporal scale and the impact of weather conditions on their availability. Two potential strategies of the plants to cope with pollinator limitation, i.e. autonomous selfing and an increased floral life span, were tested...
August 27, 2016: Plant Biology
J C Santos, N A V de Araujo, H V Silva, J F Andrade, E A Silva, W R Almeida, R C de Oliveira
Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants, altering host traits, and their growth and survival. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of the seasonal woodland tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity...
August 20, 2016: Plant Biology
Emerson R Pansarin, Silvia R de M Pedro
Ornithophily is a well-known pollination syndrome that has evolved in parallel several times along the evolution of Angiosperms. Bird-pollination is reported for 65 families of Angiosperms, including Bromeliaceae. One of the most diverse genera within bromeliads is Billbergia, which comprises species pollinated mainly by hummingbirds. Based on investigations on flowering phenology, flower morpho-anatomy, volume and concentration of floral nectar, pollinators, and breeding system, this paper explores the reproductive biology and pollinator specificity of widely distributed species (B...
August 20, 2016: Plant Biology
Litao Zhang, Yongfu Li, Jianguo Liu
• The filaments of Trentepohlia jolithus cells at 25% relative air humidity (RH) are significantly shrunk compared with those at 100% and 87% RH, decreasing the surface area for light absorption. The cellular morphology at 25% RH recovered rapidly after 5 s of rehydration. • At 25% RH, the shape and intensity of the chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transient disappeared, but recovered in a moment to the level of that at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration, indicating that photosynthetic photochemical activity was reversibly down-regulated in desiccated T...
August 16, 2016: Plant Biology
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