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Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148214/does-cross-acclimation-between-drought-and-freezing-stress-persist-over-ecologically-relevant-time-spans-a-test-using-the-grass-poa-pratensis
#1
Ricky S Kong, Hugh A L Henry
Despite evidence that prior exposure to drought can increase subsequent plant freezing tolerance, few studies have explored such interactions over ecologically-relevant time spans. We examined the combined effects of drought and subsequent freezing on tiller growth and leaf sugar concentrations in the grass, Poa pratensis. We exposed tillers to no drought (-0.04 MPa), moderate drought (-0.19 MPa) or severe drought (-0.42 MPa) for 3 weeks in summer. Tillers were then frozen in fall or spring at -5˚C (frost damage) or at 0˚C (control) for 3 d and harvested after a re-growth period...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148171/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-pht1-phosphate-transporters-in-wheat-in-controlled-environments-and-in-the-field
#2
A Grün, P Buchner, M R Broadley, M J Hawkesford
Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient with critical functions in plants. Phosphate (Pi) transporters which mediate Pi acquisition and Pi translocation within the plant are key factors in Pi deficiency responses. However, their relevance for adaptation to long-term Pi limitation under agronomic conditions, particularly in wheat, remains unknown. Here, we describe the identification of the complete Pi transporter gene family (Pht1) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Gene expression profiles were compared for hydroponic and field-grown plant tissues of wheat at multiple developmental stages...
November 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148143/leaf-cell-membrane-stability-based-mechanisms-of-zinc-nutrient-in-mitigation-of-salinity-stress-in-rice
#3
Abdullah Tufail, Hong Li, Asif Naeem, Tingxian Li
Excess salts affect about 955 million ha of total arable lands worldwide and 49% of agricultural lands are Zn deficient. Soil salinity and zinc deficiency can intensify plant abiotic stress. The mechanisms by which Zn nutrients can mitigate salinity effects on plant functions are not well understood. We conducted an experiment to determine the zinc and salinity effects on rice plant retention of Zn, macronutrient potassium (K) and salt ion Na, chlorophyll formation, leaf cell membrane stability and grain yield, and to examine the mechanisms of zinc nutrition in mitigating salinity stress on plant physiological and nutritional aspects...
November 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139179/involvement-of-lemrp-an-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#4
Yu Zhu, Shu-Juan Chu, Yue-Lin Luo, Jiang-Yan Fu, Cheng-Yi Tang, Gui-Hua Lu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
·Shikonin and its derivatives are important medicinal secondary metabolites accumulating in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Although some membrane proteins have been identified as transporters of secondary metabolites, the mechanisms underlying shikonin transport and accumulation in L. erythrorhizon cells still remain largely unknown. ·In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding LeMRP, an ATP-binding cassette transporter from L. erythrorhizon and further investigated its functions in the transport and biosynthesis of shikonin with the yeast transformation and transgenic hairy root method, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125673/overexpression-of-sdh-confers-tolerance-to-salt-and-osmotic-stress-but-decreases-aba-sensitivity-in-arabidopsis
#5
Xiao-Pu Shi, Jing-Jing Ren, Qin Yu, Shu-Mei Zhou, Qiu-Ping Ren, Lan-Jing Kong, Xiu-Ling Wang
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125669/the-role-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-rasd1-gene-in-aba-dependent-abiotic-stress-response
#6
Varvara Podia, Dimitra Milioni, Maria Martzikou, Kosmas Haralampidis
Abiotic stress is one of the key parameters affecting plant productivity. Drought and soil salinity, in particular, challenge the plants to activate various response mechanisms to withstand these adverse growth conditions. While the molecular events that take place are complex and to a large extent unclear, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a major player in mediating the adaptation of plants to stress. Here we report on the identification of an ABA insensitive mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125664/changes-of-nitric-oxide-levels-and-its-relationship-with-callose-deposition-during-the-interaction-between-soybean-and-soybean-mosaic-virus
#7
Dongqiang Xiao, Xixi Duan, Mengshu Zhang, Tianjie Sun, Xizhe Sun, Fukuan Li, Na Liu, Jie Zhang, Chunyan Hou, Dongmei Wang
The present study was aimed to investigate the changes of Nitric Oxide (NO) levels and its relationship with callose deposition during the interaction between soybean and Soybean mosaic virus(SMV). The soybean cv. 'Jidou 7' and the SMV strains N3 and SC-8 were used to constitute incompatible and compatible combinations. Intracellular NO was labeled with the NO-specific fluorescent probe DAF-FM DA. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was then used to observe the changes in NO production during SMV infection-induced defense responses in soybean...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125662/how-do-mediterranean-shrub-species-cope-with-shade-ecophysiological-response-to-different-light-intensities
#8
M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106780/temperatures-during-flower-bud-development-affect-pollen-germination-self-incompatibility-reaction-and-early-fruit-development-of-clementine-citrus-clementina-hort-ex-tan
#9
Gaetano Distefano, Alessandra Gentile, Afif Hedhly, Stefano La Malfa
One of the key environmental factors affecting plant reproductive systems is temperature. Characterising these effects is especially relevant for some commercially important genera such as Citrus. In this genus, failure of fertilisation results in parthenocarpic fruit development and seedlessness, which is a much prized character. Here, we characterise the effects of temperature on flower and ovary development, and on pollen-pistil interactions in 'Comune' clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). We examine flower-bud development, in vitro pollen germination and pollen-pistil interaction at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 or 30 °C)...
November 6, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106773/an-integrative-insight-on-dormancy-alleviation-in-diaspores-of-urochloa-humidicola-rendle-morrone-zuloaga-a-tropical-grass-with-great-economic-and-ecological-impact
#10
Daiani Ajala-Luccas, João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira, Lilian Elena Duarte Silveira, Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva
Even though exhaustively studied, the dormancy alleviation in diaspores of Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga remains a mystery. To clarify this unrevealed process, we asked the following question. Could the dormancy alleviation in diaspores of this species be driven by an association of ageing, GA/ABA balance and structures remaining of the panicoid spikelet? We answer this question using diaspores of Urochloa humidicola cv. BRS Tupi as a biological model, an cultivar adapted to a wide edaphoclimatic range in Neotropical areas and whose diaspores possess 'deep dormancy' when dispersed...
November 6, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105969/physiological-and-ultrastructural-characterization-of-a-desiccation-tolerant-filmy-fern-hymenophyllum-caudiculatum-influence-of-translational-regulation-and-aba-on-recovery
#11
Marcelo Garcés, Marlys Ulloa, Alvaro Miranda, León A Bravo
The filmy fern Hymenophyllum caudiculatum can lose 60% of its relative water content, remain dry for some time, and recover 88% of photochemical efficiency after 30 minutes of rehydration. Little is known about the protective strategies and regulation of the cellular rehydration process in this filmy fern species. The aim of this study was to perform a characterization of the filmy fern ultrastructure during a desiccation- rehydration cycle, and to measure the physiological effects of transcription/ translation inhibitors and abscisic acid during desiccation recovery...
November 6, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106048/changes-in-floral-biology-and-inbreeding-depression-in-native-and-invaded-regions-of-datura-stramonium
#12
Vania Jiménez-Lobato, Estefanía Martínez-Borda, Juan Núñez-Farfán, Pedro L Valverde, Laura L Cruz, Armando López-Velázquez, Rocío Santos-Gally, Juan Arroyo
Plant populations invading new environments might compromise their fitness contribution to the next generation, owing to the lack of native specialist pollinators and/or potential mates. Thus, changes in plant mating system and traits linked to it are expected in populations colonising new environments where selection would favour selfing and floral traits that maximise reproductive output. To test this, we studied native (Mexico) and non-native (Spain) populations of the obligate sex reproducing annual weed Datura stramonium...
November 4, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105981/the-function-of-the-floral-corona-in-the-pollination-of-a-mediterranean-style-dimorphic-daffodil
#13
Rocío Pérez-Barrales, César A Abarca, Rocío Santos-Gally, Florian P Schiestl, Juan Arroyo
Narcissus papyraceus is a style dimorphic species with two floral forms, with anthers at similar height and stigmas above (long-styled L) and below (short-styled S) the anther level. The species is self-incompatible, but intra and inter-morph compatible. Populations are either dimorphic (including both morphs) in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar, or L-monomorphic (with only L plants) in the inland of the Iberian Peninsula. This variation correlates with the most common floral visitors, be these primarily long-tongued and short-tongued pollinators respectively, a rare condition in Mediterranean plants...
November 4, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105935/silique-valves-as-sails-in-anemochory-of-lunaria-brassicaceae
#14
Peter Leins, Kerstin Fligge, Claudia Erbar
The generally held opinion that the seeds of Lunaria remain at the replum after detachment of the two valves and then the wind causes a shaking or rattling of the replum with its diaphragm, thus launching the seeds was challenged by the first author. In a sparse forest in the Swabian Alb, he noticed flying valves of Lunaria rediviva to which the narrow-winged flat seeds are attached. Investigations by SEM and histology have shown that the valves secrete a glue just at those sites where the seeds rest on the valves before the dying of the valvar tissues...
November 4, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083079/reproductive-ecology-of-the-carnivorous-plant-pinguicula-moranensis-lentibulariaceae
#15
S G Villegas, R E Alcalá
The interaction of plants with pollinators can be determinant of their reproductive fitness. However, information about the pollination biology of carnivorous plants is scarce. To increase the knowledge about reproductive ecology of carnivorous plant we focused on Pinguicula moranensis. In specific, based on the presence of large, zygomorphic and spurred flowers, we predicted a higher reproductive fitness in cross-pollinated in comparison with self-pollinated flowers. Within a plot of 51 m(2) we characterized the reproductive phenology, including flower span time and stigmatic receptivity...
October 30, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069536/unexpectedly-high-genetic-diversity-and-divergence-among-populations-of-the-apomictic-neotropical-tree-miconia-albicans
#16
Ana Carolina Cordeiro Dias, Annelise C Serra, Diana S Sampaio, Eduardo L Borba, Ana M Bonetti, Paulo E Oliveira
• Since tropical trees often have long generation time and relatively small reproductive populations, breeding systems and genetic variation are important for population viability and have consequences for conservation. Miconia albicans is an obligate, diplosporous, apomictic species widespread in the Brazilian Cerrado, the savanna areas in Central Brazil, and elsewhere in the Neotropics. The genetic variability would be, theoretically, low within these male sterile and possibly clonal populations, although some variation would be expected due to recombination during restitutional meiosis...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069524/small-but-attractive-female-biased-nectar-production-and-floral-visitors-in-a-dimorphic-shrub
#17
Cinthya Cervantes, Anai Alvarez, Eduardo Cuevas
In sexually dimorphic species, hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious species, or male flowers in dioecious species, often are larger and produce more nectar than their conspecific female flowers. As a consequence, hermaphrodite or male flowers frequently receive more pollinator visits. Sex ratio, flower size, floral display, nectar production and floral visits were evaluated in two natural populations of Fuchsia thymifolia, a morphologically gynodioecious but functionally subdioecious insect-pollinated shrub...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063726/phenological-match-drives-pollen-mediated-gene-flow-in-a-temporally-dimorphic-tree
#18
Gabriela Gleiser, Igor J Chybicki, Santiago C González-Martínez, Marcelo A Aizen
Variation in flowering phenology is common in natural populations, and is expected to be, together with inter-mate distance, an important driver of effective pollen dispersal. In populations composed by plants with temporally separated sexual phases (i.e. dichogamous or heterodichogamous populations), pollen-mediated gene flow is assumed to reflect phenological overlap between complementary sexual phases. In this study, we conducted paternity analyses to test this hypothesis in the temporally dimorphic tree Acer opalus...
October 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054119/pollinator-independent-orchid-attracts-biotic-pollinators-due-the-production-of-lipoidal-substances
#19
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054107/characterization-of-flower-coloration-in-30-rhododendron-species-via-anthocyanin-and-flavonol-identification-and-quantitative-traits
#20
Hui Du, Liming Lai, Fei Wang, Weibang Sun, Lehua Zhang, Xiaohua Li, Liangsheng Wang, Lianhe Jiang, Yuanrun Zheng
• Floral color is a key reproductive character, often associates with environmental adaptation, and undergoes human intervention. A large number of Rhododendron species spread widely with various flower colors, which makes a good model for flower coloration. The chromatic features and anthocyanin compositions of 30 species from seven subgenera were systematically analyzed. • The Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart and CIE L*a*b* system were employed to describe and investigate flower colors. The UPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) system was used to identify and quantify anthocyanins in petal extracts...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
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