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Plant Biology

Xue-Fang Yang, Chui-Hua Kong
BACKGROUD: Despite increasing knowledge of allelopathy involved in negative interactions among plants, relatively little is known about its action at the root level. This study aims at further enhancing the understanding of the interactions of roots of crop and associated weeds via allelopathy. METHODS: Based on a series of experiments with window rhizobox and root segregation methods, we examined root-placement patterns and root interactions between allelopathic rice and major paddy weeds including Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Leptochloa chinesis and Oryza sativa (weedy rice)...
February 20, 2017: Plant Biology
G Michavila, C Adler, P R De Gregorio, M J Lami, M C Caram Di Santo, A M Zenoff, R E de Cristobal, P A Vincent
Citrus canker is a worldwide-distributed disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. One of the most used strategies to control the disease is centered on copper-based compounds that cause environmental problems. Therefore, it is of interest to develop new strategies to manage the disease. Previously, we reported the ability of the siderophore pyochelin, produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inhibit in vitro several bacterial species including X. citri subsp. citri. The action mechanism, addressed with the model bacterium Escherichia coli, was connected to the generation of reactive oxygen species...
February 14, 2017: Plant Biology
Karl J Duffy, Steven D Johnson
Rewardless plants can attract pollinators by mimicking floral traits of rewarding heterospecific plants. This should result in the pollination success of floral mimics being dependent on the relative abundance of their models, as pollinator abundance and conditioning on model signals should be greater in the vicinity of the models. However, the attraction of pollinators to signals of the models may be partially innate, such that spatial isolation of mimics from model species may not strongly affect pollination success of mimics...
February 1, 2017: Plant Biology
T Custodio, P Comtois, A C Araujo
Triplaris gardneriana (Polygonaceae) is a dioecious pioneer tree reported as insect pollinated, despite possessing traits related to anemophily. Here, we analyze the possible roles of insects and wind on the pollination of this species to establish whether the species is ambophilous. We carried out observations of floral biology, as well as on the frequency and behaviour of pollinators visiting flowers in a population of T. gardneriana in the Chaco vegetation of Brazil. We conducted experimental pollinations to determine the maternal fertility of female plants and whether they were pollen limited and aerobiological experiments to provide evidence of how environmental factors influence atmospheric pollen dispersal...
February 1, 2017: Plant Biology
Perla Carolina Kozub, Karina Barboza, Florencia Galdeano, Camilo Luis Quarin, Juan Bruno Cavagnaro, Pablo Federico Cavagnaro
Trichloris crinita is a perennial forage grass species native to arid regions of the American continent. Due to its extensive area of distribution, good forage quality, and resistance to drought and grazing, this species is widely utilized as forage and for revegetation purposes in environments with low water availability. Despite its importance, genetic improvement of T. crinita has been very limited, partly as consequence of the lack of knowledge on its mode of reproduction. In the present work, we studied the reproductive biology of T...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
A M Sánchez, M Rodríguez, M J Albert, A Escudero
Pollinator guilds may change throughout extended flowering periods, affecting plant reproductive output especially in seasonal climates. We recorded pollinator identity, abundance and behavior in relation to flower density from plant to population throughout the extended flowering of Ononis tridentata. We evaluated female reproductive output by recording pollination success and predispersal seed predation in eight populations of contrasting size and density. Offspring quality was also characterized through seed weight and germination...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
Dario I Ojeda, Ruth Jaén-Molina, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, Juli Caujape-Castells, Quentin Cronk
In the generally bee-pollinated genus Lotus a group of four species have evolved bird-pollinated flowers. The floral changes in these species include altered petal orientation, shape and texture. In Lotus these characters are associated with dorsiventral petal identity, suggesting that shifts in the expression of dorsal identity genes may be involved in the evolution of bird pollination. Of particular interest is Lotus japonicus CYCLOIDEA 2 (LjCYC2), known to determine the presence of papillate conical cells on the dorsal petal in Lotus japonicus...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, C Fabian Vargas, Victor Parra-Tabla
It is well known that animals can exert strong selective pressures on plant traits. However, studies on the evolutionary consequences of plant-animal interactions have mainly focused on understanding how these interactions shape trait means, while overlooking its potential direct effect on the variability among structures within a plant (e.g. flowers and fruits). The degree of within-plant variability can have strong fitness effects but few studies have evaluated its role as a potential target of selection...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
Xiao Sun, Yue Gao, Donger Wang, Jihui Chen, Fengge Zhang, Jingbo Zhou, Yuanhe Li
Variation in soil salt may change the stoichiometry of a halophyte by altering plant ecophysiology, and exerting different influences on various plant organs, which has potentially important consequences for the nutrition of consumers as well as the nutrient cycling in a saline ecosystem. Using a greenhouse pot experiment, we investigated the effect of salinity variability on the stoichiometry of different organs and on the growth of Suaeda glauca B and Salicornia europaea L-two dominant species of important ecological and economic value in the saline ecosystem...
January 30, 2017: Plant Biology
M L Navarro-Pérez, J López, T Rodríguez-Riaño, G Bacchetta, C de Miguel Gordillo, A Ortega-Olivencia
Both bird and mixed vertebrate-insect (MVI) pollination systems are very rare in Europe and the Mediterranean region. Because MVI can ensure reproduction over a wider range of environmental conditions than when insects are the sole pollinators, under certain circumstances such systems are highly advantageous to plants. Here, we investigated the pollination and some reproductive traits of the Tyrrhenian Scrophularia trifoliata, the only species of the genus possessing two showy dark spots inside the corolla, for which MVI pollination system had been inferred on the basis of limited censuses...
January 28, 2017: Plant Biology
P Nieberl, C Ehrl, B Pommerrenig, D Graus, I Marten, B Jung, F Ludewig, W Koch, K Harms, U-I Flügge, H E Neuhaus, R Hedrich, N Sauer
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar-producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on molecular characterisation of the BvSUT1 gene and on the functional characterisation of the encoded transporter. In contrast to the recently identified tonoplast-localised sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
R Milla, S Matesanz
Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
F J Bongers, M Olmo, B Lopez-Iglesias, N P R Anten, R Villar
Climate models predict a further drying of the Mediterranean summer. One way for plant species to persist during such climate changes is through acclimation. Here, we determine the extent to which trait plasticity in response to drought differs between species and between sites, and address the question whether there is a trade-off between drought survival and phenotypic plasticity. Throughout the summer we measured physiological traits (photosynthesis - Amax , stomatal conductance - gs , transpiration - E, leaf water potential - ψl) and structural traits (specific leaf area - SLA, leaf density - LD, leaf dry matter content - LDMC, leaf relative water content - LRWC) of leaves of eight woody species in two sites with slightly different microclimate (north- versus south-facing slopes) in southern Spain...
January 5, 2017: Plant Biology
Meenakumari Muthuramalingam, Yixing Wang, Yongfang Li, Ramamurthy Mahalingam
• RNA binding proteins (RBPs), important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation usually exist in ribonuclear complexes. However, even in model systems like Arabidopsis characterization of RBP associated proteins are limited. In this study, we investigated the interacting proteins of the Arabidopsis AtRBP45b, which is involved in stress signaling. • In vivo localization of AtRBP45b was conducted using 35S-GFP. FLAG-tagged AtRBP45b under the control of 35S promoter in the Atrbp45b-1 mutant background was used to pull down AtRBP45b interacting proteins...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
R Álvarez-Espino, L Ríos-Casanova, H Godínez-Álvarez
To determine seed removal influence on seed populations, we need to quantify pre- and post-dispersal seed removal. Several studies have quantified seed removal in temperate American deserts, but few studies have been performed in tropical deserts. These studies have only quantified pre- or post-dispersal seed removal, thus underestimating the influence of seed removal. We evaluated pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in a Mexican tropical desert. We performed selective exclosure experiments to estimate percentage of seeds removed by ants, birds and rodents during the pre- and post-dispersal phases...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
A P Avelino, D F A de Oliveira, H A da Silva, C E C de Macêdo, E L Voigt
Reserve mobilisation, metabolite partitioning and reserve-degrading enzyme activity were studied in sunflower seedlings cultivated in vitro under a 12-h photoperiod or in the dark to investigate the involvement of source-sink relation and carbon starvation in the regulation of reserve mobilisation under continuous darkness. Reserves, metabolites and enzyme activity were determined with standard spectrophotometric methods. At the first 24 h of treatment (acclimation phase), darkness did not affect growth, but restricted carbon and nitrogen use, as indicated by sugar and amino acid accumulation in the different seedling parts...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
Cheng Peng, Xiu Liang, E-E Liu, Jian-Jun Zhang, Xin-Xiang Peng
Oxalic acid is widely distributed in biological systems and known to play functional roles in plants. The gene AAE3 was recently identified to encode an oxalyl-CoA synthetase (OCS) in Arabidopsis that catalyzes the conversion of oxalate and CoA into oxalyl-CoA. It will be even particularly significant to characterize the homologous gene in rice since rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant, but also a staple food crop. Our current study firstly defined that AAE3 in the rice genome (OsAAE3) also encodes an OCS enzyme...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
Andrea Santo, Efisio Mattana, Luca Frigau, Antoni Marzo Pastor, Mari Carme Picher Morelló, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Brassica insularis is a protected plant that grows on both coastal and inland cliffs in the western Mediterranean Basin. The objective of this study was to test if any variability exists in the salt stress response during seed germination and seedling development in this species relative to its provenance habitat. Variability among three populations in the salt stress effects on the seed germination and its recovery under different temperatures was evaluated. The effect of nebulisation of a salt solution on seedling development was evaluated between populations growing to different distance from the sea...
December 30, 2016: Plant Biology
T Ghate, S Deshpande, S Bhargava
Near isogenic lines (NILs) of sweet sorghum genotype S35 into which individual stay green loci were introgressed, were used to understand the contribution of Stay green loci to stem sugar accumulation and its remobilization under drought stress exposure. Sugar and starch content, activities of sugar metabolism enzymes and levels of their expression were studied in the 3rd (source) leaf from panicle and the 5th (sugar storing) internode of the three lines, in irrigated plants and in plants exposed to a brief drought exposure at the panicle emergence stage...
December 29, 2016: Plant Biology
Xoaquín Moreira, Ian S Pearse
Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g., leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits...
December 23, 2016: Plant Biology
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