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Plant Biology

P Nieberl, C Ehrl, B Pommerrenig, D Graus, I Marten, B Jung, F Ludewig, W Koch, K Harms, U-I Flügge, E Neuhaus, R Hedrich, N Sauer
• Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the BvSUT1 gene and on the func- tional characterization of the encoded transporter. • In contrast to the recently identified, tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which has evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
R Milla, S Matesanz
• Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. • We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether the photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size, and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
Franca J Bongers, Manuel Olmo, Barbara Lopez-Iglesias, Niels P R Anten, Rafael Villar
Climate models predict a further drying of the Mediterranean summer. One way for plant species to persist during such climatic changes is through acclimation. Here, we determine the extent to which trait plasticity in response to drought differs between species and between sites, and address the question whether there is a trade-off between drought survival and phenotypic plasticity. Through the summer we measured physiological traits (Photosynthesis - Amax , stomatal conductance - gs , transpiration - E, leaf water potential - ψl) and structural traits (specific leaf area - SLA, leaf density - LD, leaf dry matter content - LDMC, leaf relative water content - LRWC) of leaves of eight woody species in two sites with slightly different microclimate (north versus south-facing slopes) in southern Spain...
January 5, 2017: Plant Biology
Meenakumari Muthuramalingam, Yixing Wang, Yongfang Li, Ramamurthy Mahalingam
• RNA binding proteins (RBPs), important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation usually exist in ribonuclear complexes. However, even in model systems like Arabidopsis characterization of RBP associated proteins are limited. In this study, we investigated the interacting proteins of the Arabidopsis AtRBP45b, which is involved in stress signaling. • In vivo localization of AtRBP45b was conducted using 35S-GFP. FLAG-tagged AtRBP45b under the control of 35S promoter in the Atrbp45b-1 mutant background was used to pull down AtRBP45b interacting proteins...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
R Álvarez-Espino, L Ríos-Casanova, H Godínez-Álvarez
To determine seed removal influence on seed populations, we need to quantify pre- and post-dispersal seed removal. Several studies have quantified seed removal in temperate American deserts, but few studies have been performed in tropical deserts. These studies have only quantified pre- or post-dispersal seed removal, thus underestimating the influence of seed removal. We evaluated pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in a Mexican tropical desert. We performed selective exclosure experiments to estimate percentage of seeds removed by ants, birds and rodents during the pre- and post-dispersal phases...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
A P Avelino, D F A de Oliveira, H A Silva, C E C de Macêdo, E L Voigt
• Reserve mobilization, metabolite partitioning, and reserve-degrading enzyme activities were studied in sunflower seedlings cultivated in vitro under 12-h photoperiod or in the dark to investigate the involvement of source-sink relation and carbon starvation in the regulation of reserve mobilization under continuous darkness. • Reserves, metabolites, and enzyme activities were determined by standard spectrophotometric methods. • At the first 24 h of treatment (acclimation phase), darkness did not affect growth, but restricted carbon and nitrogen utilization, indicated by sugar and amino acid accumulation in the different seedling parts...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
Cheng Peng, Xiu Liang, E-E Liu, Jian-Jun Zhang, Xin-Xiang Peng
Oxalic acid is widely distributed in biological systems and known to play functional roles in plants. The gene AAE3 was recently identified to encode an oxalyl-CoA synthetase (OCS) in Arabidopsis that catalyzes the conversion of oxalate and CoA into oxalyl-CoA. It will be even particularly significant to characterize the homologous gene in rice since rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant, but also a staple food crop. Our current study firstly defined that AAE3 in the rice genome (OsAAE3) also encodes an OCS enzyme...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
Andrea Santo, Efisio Mattana, Luca Frigau, Antoni Marzo Pastor, Mari Carme Picher Morelló, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Brassica insularis is a protected plant that grows on both coastal and inland cliffs in the western Mediterranean Basin. The objective of this study was to test if any variability exists in the salt stress response during seed germination and seedling development in this species relative to its provenance habitat. Variability among three populations in the salt stress effects on the seed germination and its recovery under different temperatures was evaluated. The effect of nebulisation of a salt solution on seedling development was evaluated between populations growing to different distance from the sea...
December 30, 2016: Plant Biology
T Ghate, S Deshpande, S Bhargava
Near isogenic lines (NILs) of sweet sorghum genotype S35 into which individual stay green loci were introgressed, were used to understand the contribution of Stay green loci to stem sugar accumulation and its remobilization under drought stress exposure. Sugar and starch content, activities of sugar metabolism enzymes and levels of their expression were studied in the 3rd (source) leaf from panicle and the 5th (sugar storing) internode of the three lines, in irrigated plants and in plants exposed to a brief drought exposure at the panicle emergence stage...
December 29, 2016: Plant Biology
Xoaquín Moreira, Ian S Pearse
Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g., leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits...
December 23, 2016: Plant Biology
Zhiwen Chen, Hushuai Nie, Corrinne E Grover, Yumei Wang, Pengbo Li, Meiyan Wang, Haili Pei, Yanpeng Zhao, Shuangshuang Li, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and an allotetraploid genomic group, AD. Gossypium raimondii (D5 ) and Gossypium arboreum (A2 ) are the putative contributors to the progenitor of G. hirsutum (AD1 ), the economically important fiber-producing cotton species. Mitochondrial DNA from week-old etiolated seedlings was extracted from isolated organelles using discontinuous sucrose density gradient method. Mitochondrial genomes were sequenced, assembled, annotated and analyzed orderly...
December 23, 2016: Plant Biology
A Bano, R Muqarab
: The research conducted including its rationale: Spodoptera litura is the major pest of tomato causing significant reduction in tomato yield. Application of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) prevent use of chemical fertilizer and synthetic pesticides through enhancement of plant growth and yield and induction of systemic resistance. Present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the role of PGPR, Pseudomonas putida and Rothia sp. on the physiology and yield of tomato fruit infested with the S...
December 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Ernesto Gianoli
Relative growth rate (RGR) plays an important role in plant adaptation to the light environment through the growth potential/survival trade-off. RGR is a complex trait with physiological and biomass allocation components. It has been argued that herbivory may influence the evolution of plant strategies to cope with the light environment, but little is known about the relation between susceptibility to herbivores and growth-related functional traits. Here, we examined in 11 evergreen tree species from a temperate rainforest the association between growth-related functional traits and (i) species' shade-tolerance, and (ii) herbivory rate in the field...
December 20, 2016: Plant Biology
U Zajączkowska, K Grabowska, G Kokot, M Kruk
The study concerns the mechanics and water relationships of clumps of a species of endohydric moss, Polytrichastrum formosum. Anatomical and morphological studies were done using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Experiments on waterdrop capture and their distribution to adjacent shoots within a moss clump were performed with the experimental set-up for the droplet collision phenomena and ultra-high speed camera. The mechanical strength of the moss clump was tested on an electromechanical testing machine...
December 19, 2016: Plant Biology
Daniel J Chmura, Jerzy Modrzyński, Paweł Chmielarz, Mark G Tjoelker
Mechanisms of shade tolerance in tree seedlings, and thus growth in shade, may differ by leaf habit and vary with ontogeny following seed germination. To examine early responses of seedlings to shade in relation to morphological, physiological and biomass allocation traits, we compared seedlings of ten temperate species, varying in their leaf habit (broadleaved vs. needleleaved) and observed tolerance to shade, growing in two contrasting light treatments - open (about 20% of full sunlight), and shade (about 5% of full sunlight)...
December 16, 2016: Plant Biology
V Pruthvi, N Rama, M S Parvathi, K N Nataraja
Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types...
December 16, 2016: Plant Biology
Arizbe Ponce-Bautista, Pedro L Valverde, Joel Flores, Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Fernando Vite, Gerardo López-Ortega, Marco A Pérez-Hernández
The equatorial orientation of reproductive structures is known in some columnar cacti from extratropical deserts. It has been hypothesized that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception is the main reason for this orientation, due its key effect on nocturnal CO2 uptake. However, there are no studies addressing, both, the effect of PAR and its consequence, carbon gain, on fruit orientation. Accordingly, we tested whether PAR and carbon gain could explain the southern fruits orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, an intertropical columnar cactus...
December 10, 2016: Plant Biology
Marisol Lo Bianco, Oscar Grillo, Eva Cañadas, Gianfranco Venora, Gianluigi Bacchetta
This work aims to discriminate among different species of the genus Cistus, using seeds parameters and following the scientific plant names included as accepted in The Plant List. Also the intra-specific phenotypic differentiation of C. creticus, through the comparison of three subspecies (C. creticus subsp. creticus, C. c. subsp. eriocephalus and C. c. subsp. corsicus) and the inter-population variability among five C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus populations, were evaluated. Seed mean weight and 137 morpho-colorimetric quantitative variables, describing shape, size, color and textural seed traits, were measured using image analysis techniques...
December 5, 2016: Plant Biology
A P Moraes, S Koehler, J S Cabral, S S L Gomes, L F Viccini, F Barros, L P Felix, M Guerra, E R Forni-Martins
(1) Orchidaceae is a widely distributed plant family with a very diverse vegetative and floral morphology and such variability is also reflected in their karyotypes. However, since only a low proportion of Orchidaceae has been analysed for chromosome data, a greater diversity may await to be unveiled. Here we analyse both genome size (GS) and karyotype in two subtribes recently included in the broadened Maxillariineae to detect how much chromosome and GS variation there are in these groups and to evaluate which genome rearrangements were involved in the species evolution...
December 5, 2016: Plant Biology
S Orsenigo, F Guzzon, T Abeli, G Rossi, I Vagge, A Balestrazzi, A Mondoni, J V Müller
Crop Wild Relatives are often used to improve crop quality and yields because they contain genetically important traits that can contribute to stress resistance and adaptation. Seed germination of different populations of Aegilops geniculata Roth collected along a latitudinal gradient was studied under different drought stress in order to find populations suitable for improving drought tolerance in wheat. Different accessions of Aegilops neglecta Req. ex Bertol., Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. were used as comparison...
December 5, 2016: Plant Biology
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