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Plant Biology

Christoph Rosche, Karin Schrieber, Susanne Lachmuth, Walter Durka, Heidi Hirsch, Viktoria Wagner, Matthias Schleuning, Isabell Hensen
Habitat fragmentation and small population size can lead to genetic erosion in threatened plant populations. Classical theory implies that dioecy can counteract genetic erosion as it decreases the magnitude of inbreeding and genetic drift due to obligate outcrossing. However, in small populations, sex ratios may be strongly male- or female-biased leading to substantial reductions in effective population size. This may theoretically result in a unimodal relationship between sex ratios and genetic diversity; yet, empirical studies on this relationship are scarce...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biology
Jonas Morales-Linares, José G García-Franco, Alejandro Flores-Palacios, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Martín Mata-Rosas, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Most plants that inhabit in ant-gardens (AGs) are cultivated by ants. Some orchids occur in AGs, however, it is unknown if their seeds are dispersed by AG ants, because most of the orchid seeds are tiny and dispersed by wind. We performed in situ seed removal experiments, in which we simultaneously provided Azteca gnava ants with seeds of three AG orchid species and of another three AG epiphyte species (Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae and Gesneriaceae), as well as the non-AG orchid species Catasetum integerrimum. The seeds most removed were those of the bromeliad Aechmea tillandsioides and of the gesneriad Codonanthe uleana, while seeds of AG orchids Coryanthes picturata, Epidendrum flexuosum and Epidendrum pachyrachis were less removed...
March 5, 2018: Plant Biology
C Foti, E M Khah, O I Pavli
Salinity is one of the most severe environmental stresses, negatively affecting productivity of salt sensitive crop species. Given that germination is a most critical phase in plant lifecycle, the present study is aimed at the determination of seed germination potential, and associated traits, under salt stress conditions as a short-cut approach to identify salt tolerant lentil genotypes. The genetic material consisted of six lentil genotypes whose adaptation to various agroclimatic conditions is not well elucidated...
February 26, 2018: Plant Biology
Sandra A Aguilar-García, Dulce M Figueroa-Castro, Pedro L Valverde, F Vite
1.Intra-individual variation in the production and size of reproductive traits has been documented in columnar cacti, being higher in Equator-facing flowers. Such variation is attributed to the high amount of photosynthetic active radiation intercepted by stems oriented towards the Equator. Most studies focused on this phenomenon have documented the existence of intra-individual variation on traits associated with the female function; however, its impact on traits associated with the male function has been neglected...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Mohammed A S Arfin Khan, Vanessa M S Vetter, Zafer A Reshi, Parvaiz A Dar, Anke Jentsch
Success of germination and seedling emergence in new environments are crucial first steps in the life history of global plant invaders and thus play a key role in processes of range expansion. We examined the germination and seedling emergence success of three global plant invaders - Lupinus polyphyllus, Senecio inaequidens, and Verbascum thapsus - in greenhouses and climate chambers under climate regimes corresponding to seven eco-regions. Seed materials were collected from one non-native population for L...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Krystyna Ciarkowska
The approach based on metallophytes during reclamation of grounds contaminated with heavy metals is still sparse. Thus, we investigated the response of D. carthusianorum calamine ecotype to Pb and Cd stress. We focused on in vitro selection of tolerant plant material appropriated to direct use on chemically degraded areas. Shoot cultures were treated with various concentration of Pb or Cd ions. Plantlets status was estimated on the basis of micropropagation efficiency, growth tolerance index (GTI) and physiological analysis...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
B Baesso, D Chiatante, M Terzaghi, D Zenga, K Nieminen, A P Mahonen, R Siligato, Y Heliariutta, G S Scippa, A Montagnoli
The spatial deployment of lateral roots determines the ability of a plant to interact with the surrounding environment for nutrition and anchorage. This paper shows that besides the pericycle, the vascular cambium, becoming active in Arabidopsis thaliana taproot at a later stage of development, is also able to form new lateral roots. Demonstration of this event required the implementation of a two-step approach in which the first leads to development of a secondary structure in A. thaliana taproot, and the second applies a mechanical stress on the vascular cambium to initiate the formation of a new lateral root primordium...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Máximo Lorenzo, Marcela L Pinedo, María A Equiza, Paula V Fernández, Marina Ciancia, Darío G Ganem, Jorge A Tognetti
Temperate grasses, such as wheat, become compact plants with small, thick leaves after exposure to low temperature. These responses are associated with cold hardiness, but their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we analyze the effects of low temperature on leaf morpho-anatomical structure, cell wall composition and the activity of extracellular peroxidases, which play key roles on cell elongation and cell wall thickening, in two wheat cultivars with contrasting cold-hardening abilities. A combined microscopic and biochemical approach was applied to study actively growing leaves of winter (ProINTA-Pincén) and spring (Buck-Patacón) wheat developed under constant warm (25 °C) or low (5 °C) temperature...
February 14, 2018: Plant Biology
M Marin, G Laverack, S Matthews, A A Powell
The facultative root hemi-parasite Rhinanthus minor is often used in grassland habitat restoration projects to regulate ecosystem structure and function. Its impact on community productivity and diversity as a function of resource supply, sward composition and management has been widely investigated. However, there is a lack of information about the possible influence of seed quality on the efficacy of the hemi-parasite. Ten seed lots from commercial sources were sown in the field and their germination characteristics were investigated in the laboratory...
February 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Katrin Wagner, Gerhard Zotz
Global climate change is likely to impact all plant life. Vascular epiphytes represent a life form that may be affected more than any other by possible changes in precipitation leading to water shortage, but negative effects of drought may be mitigated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 . We studied the response of three epiphytic Aechmea species to different CO2 and watering levels in a full-factorial climate chamber study over 100 days. All species use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Response variables were relative growth rate (RGR), nocturnal acidification, and foliar nutrient levels (N, P, K, Mg)...
February 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez, Víctor Moreno-González, Adi Jonas-Levi, Rafael Álvarez
Plant galls are abnormal growths caused by an inducer that determines their morphology and anatomy. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the histological anatomy of five aphid species (Paracletus cimiciformis, Forda marginata, Forda formicaria, Baizongia pistaciae and Geoica wertheimae) that induce galls in Pistacia terebinthus shrubs growing in Israel. We also quantitatively compared these galls to those that they create on the same host in Spain. Histological study was conducted following methods described before by the authors...
February 8, 2018: Plant Biology
Philipp Köster, Lukas Wallrad, Kai H Edel, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Jörg Kudla
Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth, crop yield and the composition of ecosystems. Salinity stress impacts on plants by combined effects of Na+ toxicity and osmotic perturbance. Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms to counteract the detrimental consequences of salinity. Here we reflect on recent advances in our understanding of plant salt tolerance mechanisms. We discuss the embedding of the salt tolerance mediating SOS pathway in plant hormonal and developmental adaptation. Moreover, we review newly accumulating evidence indicating a crucial role of a transpiration dependent salinity tolerance pathway, that is centered around the function of the NADPH oxidase RBOHF and its role in endodermal and Casparian strip differentiation...
February 7, 2018: Plant Biology
Paola C Faustinelli, Imana L Power, Renée S Arias
New technologies are needed to eliminate mycotoxins and/or fungal pathogens from agricultural products. RNA interference (RNAi) has shown potential to control fungi associated with crops. In RNAi, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targets homologous mRNA for cleavage, and can reach the mRNA of pathogens in contact with the plant. The key element in this process is the movement of RNA signals cell-to-cell and over long distances within the plant, and between host plants and parasites. In this study, we selected a regulatory gene in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway, aflS/aflR, necessary for the production of aflatoxins in Aspergillus spp...
February 6, 2018: Plant Biology
Akira A Wong Sato, Makoto Kato
Explosive pollen release is a mechanism by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behavior, the breeding system, and pollinator visits to flowers of the Japanese species Meliosma tenuis in a temperate forest...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Efisio Mattana, Moctar Sacande, Gabriele Bradamante, Pablo Gomez-Barreiro, Sidi Sanogo, Tiziana Ulian
Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) has important economic and cultural value in West Africa as source of wood, dye, and medicine. Although this tree is in high demand by local communities, its planting remains limited due to its very low propagation via seed. In this study, x-rays selected filled fruits were used to characterize their morphology and seed germination responses to treatment with sulphuric acid and incubation temperatures. Morphological observations highlighted a straight orthotropous seed structure...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Alex Fajardo
The wood economics spectrum provides a general framework for interspecific trait-trait coordination across wide environmental gradients. Whether global patterns are mirrored within species constitutes a poorly explored subject. In this study, I first determined whether wood density co-varies along with elevation, tree growth and height at the within-species level. Second, I determined the variation of wood density in different stem parts (trunk, branch and twigs). In situ trunk sapwood, trunk heartwood, branch, and twig densities in addition to stem growth rates and tree height were determined in adult trees of Nothofagus pumilio at four elevations in five locations spanning 18 degrees of latitude...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Laís de Almeida Bezerra, Pedro Antonio Oliveira Mangabeira, Rosilene Aparecida de Oliveira, Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa, Maura Da Cunha
BACKGROUND: Secretory structures are common in Asteraceae, where they exhibit a high degree of morphological diversity. The species Verbesina macrophylla, popularly known as assa-peixe, is native to Brazil where it is widely used for medicinal purposes. Despite its potential medical importance there have been no studies of the anatomy of this species, especially regarding its secretory structures, or of its secreted compounds. This study aimed to study the anatomy of leaves of V. macrophylla with an emphasis on its secretory structures and secreted secondary metabolites...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Joseph A M Holtum, Lillian P Hancock, Erika J Edwards, Klaus Winter
C4 and CAM have evolved in the order Caryophyllales many times but neither C4 nor CAM have been recorded for the Basellaceae, a small family in the CAM-rich sub-order Portulacineae. 24 h gas-exchange and day-night changes in titratable acidity were measured in leaves of Anredera baselloides exposed to wet-dry-wet cycles. While net CO2 uptake was restricted to the light period in well-watered plants, net CO2 fixation in the dark, accompanied by significant nocturnal increases in leaf acidity, developed in droughted plants...
January 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Simon Pierce, Alberto Spada, Elisabetta Caporali, Roberta M Ceriani, Gabriella Buffa
The seed coat of many species contains hydrophobic lignins, and in soil the action of microbial ligninases may contribute to release from dormancy. Laboratory use of ligninases to stimulate germination is promising because of the specific action on the seed coat, whereas chemical scarification agents may also corrode the embryo. We hypothesized that exposure of Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae) seeds to fungal laccase stimulates germination, and that the mechanism involves lignin degradation and increased imbibition...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
K Paredes-Páliz, R Rodríguez-Vázquez, B Duarte, M A Caviedes, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, E Pajuelo
Pollution of coasts by toxic metals and metalloids is a worldwide problem for which phytoremediation using halophytes and associated microbiomes is getting relevance. Metal(loid)s excess is a constraint for plant establishment and development, and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate plant stress under these conditions. However, mechanisms underlying this effect remain elusive. In this paper, the effect of toxic metal(loid)s on the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes in roots of the halophyte Spartina densiflora grown on real polluted sediments in a green house experiment, was investigated...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
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