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Plant Biology

Kun Liu, Suzhen Cao, Guozhen Du, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Haiyan Bu, Wei Qi, Ting Liang
Seed germination is the earliest trait expressed in a plant's life history, and it can directly affect the expression of post germination traits. Plant height is central to plant ecological strategies, because it is a major determinant of the ability of a species to compete for light. Thus, linking seed germination and plant height at the community level is very important to understanding plant fitness and community structure. Here, we tested storage condition and temperature requirements for germination of 31 species from a wetland plant community on the eastern Tibet Plateau, and analyzed correlation of germination traits with plant height in relation to storage condition...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
Isabel B Schmidt, Danilo I de Urzedo, Fatima C M Piña-Rodrigues, Daniel L M Vieira, Gustavo M de Rezende, Alexandre B Sampaio, Rodrigo G P Junqueira
Large-scale restoration programs in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyze three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialization issues for upscaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
Jessamine Finch, Jeffrey L Walck, Siti N Hidayati, Andrea T Kramer, Victoria Lason, Kayri Havens
Species responses to climate change will be primarily driven by their environmental tolerance range, or niche breadth, with the expectation that broad niches will increase resilience. Niche breadth is expected to be greater in more heterogeneous environments and moderated by life history. Niche breadth also varies across life stage. Therefore, the life stage with the narrowest niche may serve as the best predictor of climatic vulnerability. To investigate the relationship between niche breadth, climate, and life stage we identify germination niche breadth for dormant and nondormant seeds in multiple populations of three milkweed (Asclepias) species...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
V Di Cecco, M Di Musciano, A A D'Archivio, A R Frattaroli, L Di Martino
This work aims to study the seeds of the endemic species Astragalus aquilanus from four different populations of Central Italy. We investigated the seed morpho-colorimetric features (shape and size) and chemical differences (through infrared spectroscopy) among populations and between dark and light seeds. Seed morpho-colorimetric quantitative variables, describing shape, size and colour seed traits, were measured using image analysis techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to attempt seed chemical characterization...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
Yasoja S Athugala, K M G G Jayasuriya, A M T A Gunarathne, Carol C Baskin
Fruiting season of many Sri Lankan tropical montane species is not synchronized and may not occur when conditions are favorable for seedling establishment. We hypothesized that species with different fruiting seasons have different seed dormancy mechanisms to synchronize timing of germination with a favorable season for establishment. Using six species with different fruiting seasons, we tested this hypothesis. Germination and imbibition of intact and manually-scarified seeds were studied. Effect of GA3 on germination was examined...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
Pierre-François Perroud, Rabea Meyberg, Stefan A Rensing
Physcomitrella patens is a monoicous moss that is predominantly selfing in the wild. Laboratory crossing techniques have been established and crosses between the sequenced Gransden ecotype and the genetically divergent Villersexel ecotype were used for genetic mapping. The recently introduced ecotype Reute displays a high fertility rate and is genetically more closely related to the Gransden reference genome than the Villersexel ecotype. The Reute sexual reproduction phenology is similar to Gransden, which should allow successful crossing...
May 17, 2018: Plant Biology
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Pedro Henrique Godoy Paiva, Lorrant Cavanha Gabriel, André Luiz Martinez de Oliveira, Karina Milani, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Maria Cristina Neves de Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias-Pereira, Renata Stolf-Moreira
Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense...
May 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Yi-Ching Hsueh, Kerstin Nicolaisen, Lucia E Gross, Joachim Nöthen, Nicolas Schauer, Lea Vojta, Franziska Ertel, Ina Koch, Roman Ladig, Hrvoje Fulgosi, Alisdair R Fernie, Enrico Schleiff
Omp85 proteins form a large membrane protein family found in bacteria and eukaryotes. Omp85 proteins are composed of a C-terminal β-barrel-shaped membrane domain and one, or more, N-terminal polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) domain(s). However, Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes coding for Omp85 proteins without POTRA domain. One gene is designated P39, according to the molecular weight of the encoded protein. The protein is targeted to plastids and it was established that p39 shows electrophysiological properties similar to the other Omp85 family members, particularly to the one designated Toc75V/Oep80...
May 14, 2018: Plant Biology
T Hölttä, M D R Dominguez Carrasco, Y Salmon, J Aalto, A Vanhatalo, J Bäck, A Lintunen
Positive sap pressures are produced in the xylem of birch trees in boreal conditions during the time between the thawing of the soil and bud break. During this period, xylem embolisms accumulated during wintertime are refilled with water. The mechanism for xylem sap pressurization and its environmental drivers are not well known. We measured xylem sap flow, xylem sap pressure, xylem sap osmotic concentration, xylem and whole stem diameter changes, and stem and root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations along with meteorological conditions at two sites in Finland during and after the sap pressurization period...
May 6, 2018: Plant Biology
Most Amena Khatun, Md Monayem Hossain, Md Azizul Bari, Kafi Md Abdullahil, Md Sarwar Parvez, Md Firoz Alam, Ahmad Humayan Kabir
Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of plants. However, Zn deficiency is a common abiotic stress causing yield loss in crop plants. This study elucidates the mechanisms of Zn deficiency tolerance in maize through physiological and molecular techniques. Zn deficiency caused no significant effect on root parameters compared with control plants in PAC (tolerant line) and DAC (sensitive line) but showed a substantial reduction in shoot parameters in DAC. In addition, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) analysis showed a significant decrease in Zn concentrations in both roots and shoots of DAC (sensitive) but not in PAC (tolerant) under Zn deficiency, implying that Zn-deficiency tolerance mechanisms exist in PAC...
May 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Hai-Dong Li, Zong-Xin Ren, Wei Zhou, Peter Bernhardt, Yan-Hui Zhao, Zhi-Kun Wu, De-Zhu Li, Hong Wang
Distyly is a mechanism promoting cross-pollination within a balanced polymorphism. Numerous studies show that the degree of inter-morph sexual organ reciprocity (SOR) within species relates to its pollen-mediated gene flow. Similarly, a lower inter-specific SOR should promote inter-specific isolation when congeners are sympatric, co-blooming, and share pollinators. In this comparative study, we address the significance of SOR at both intra- and inter-specific levels. Seventeen allopatric and eight sympatric populations representing four Primula species (P...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Yi-Fei Xie, Li Yang, Rongyan Deng, Min-Hao Chen, Xiao-Feng Luan, Elisa Gottardi, Zhi-Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Eriocaulon buergerianum Koern. (Eriocaulaceae) is one of the most common and least expensive herbal medicines for eye diseases. This species is facing potential threats from climate change. Insufficient biogeographical knowledge of this plant species can hinder its effective management for long-term population survival. METHODS: We integrated ecological niche modelling (Biomod2) with 70 records of E. buergerianum and 8 environmental variables to estimate the changes in distribution over time...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Qian Wu, Peng-Cheng Li, Hui-Jin Zhang, Cheng-Yong Feng, Shan-Shan Li, Dan-Dan Yin, Jie Tian, Wen-Zhong Xu, Liang-Sheng Wang
Victoria (Nymphaeaceae), an annual or perennial aquatic plant genus, contains only two species: V. amazonica (Poepp.) J. C. Sowerby and V. cruziana A. D. Orb. Both species exhibit large floating leaves and variable flower color. Both Victoria are night bloomers, which have white petals on the first blooming night, which then turn pink or ruby red on the second blooming day. The mechanism of the color change of Victoria petals during anthesis is still unclear. In this study, flavonoids in Victoria petals of both species were evaluated and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the first time...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Huan Liang, Zong-Xin Ren, Zhi-Bin Tao, Yan-Hui Zhao, Peter Bernhardt, De-Zhu Li, Hong Wang
Pedicularis is the largest genus in the Orobanchaceae (> 300) with many species co-occurring and co-blooming in sub-alpine to alpine meadows in the Himalayas. Although it is well-known that different Pedicularis species place pollen on different parts of the same bumblebee's body, thus reducing interspecific pollen transfer, it is not known whether post-pollination components also contribute to reproductive isolation (RI). In this study, we quantified the individual strengths and absolute contributions of six pre- and post-pollination components of RI between three sympatric species in two pairs; P...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Kenji Suetsugu
• Although orthopterans are rarely considered to be effective seed dispersal agents, the large flightless crickets known as weta have been suggested to function as ecological replacements for small mammals in New Zealand, where such mammals are absent. In addition, a recent study reported that camel crickets mediate seed dispersal of several heterotrophic plants including Yoania amagiensis in Japan. • I investigated the seed dispersal mechanism of Yoania japonica because the fruit morphology is similar to Yoania amagiensis...
April 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Marko Chersicola, Aleš Kladnik, Magda Tušek Žnidarič, Amnon Lers, Marina Dermastia
The abscission of tomato leaves occurs in the petiole abscission zone, and its late stage includes two spatially divided processes: cell separation, and programmed cell death (PCD). Both of these processes are regulated by ethylene. The last step in ethylene biosynthesis is conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, which is catalyzed by the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO); however, a location of ACO in the leaf petiole abscission zone is not known. The tomato gene LeLX encodes ribonuclease LX, which is a marker for PCD and is induced by ethylene during abscission, but its association with ACO has not been explored...
April 6, 2018: Plant Biology
M Johansson, T Köster
The circadian clock is an important regulator of growth and development that has evolved to help organisms to anticipate the predictably occurring events on the planet, such as light-dark transitions, and adapt growth and development to these. This review looks back in history on how knowledge about the endogenous biological clock has been acquired over the centuries, with a focus on discoveries in plants. Key findings at the physiological, genetic and molecular level are described and the role of the circadian clock in important molecular processes is reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Plant Biology
Simon Bulman, Franziska Richter, Sabine Marschollek, Freia Benade, Sabine Jülke, Jutta Ludwig-Müller
The plant pathogenic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae causes the clubroot disease of Brassicaceae. The biotrophic organism has the capacity to downregulate plant defence responses. The previously characterised P. brassicae PbBSMT methyltransferase has substrate specificity for salicylic, benzoic and anthranilic acids. We therefore propose a role for the methylation of SA in attenuating the plant's defence response in infected roots as a novel strategy for intracellular parasitism. To further elucidate the function of PbBSMT, we overexpressed the gene under the control of an inducible promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana and performed physiological, molecular and phytopathological analyses with these transgenic plants under control and induced conditions in comparison to wild type...
April 1, 2018: Plant Biology
Fernando Vera Hernández Pedro, Marcelino Martínez Núñez, Magali Ruiz Rivas, Ramiro Eduardo Vázquez Portillo, Martha Dolores Bibbins Martínez, Silvia Luna Suárez, Flor de Fátima Rosas Cárdenas
Studies of gene expression are very important for the identification of genes that participate in different biological processes. Currently, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a high-throughput, sensitive and widely used method forgene expression analysis. Nevertheless, RT-qPCR requires a precise normalization of data to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental data. In this sense, the selection of reference genes is critical for gene expression analysis. At this time, several studies are focused on the selection of reference genes in several plants...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
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