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Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637098/uncovering-the-contribution-of-epigenetics-to-plant-phenotypic-variation-in-mediterranean-ecosystems
#1
REVIEW
F Balao, O Paun, C Alonso
Epigenetic signals can affect plant phenotype and fitness and be stably inherited across multiple generations. Epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the mechanisms of plant response to the environment without altering DNA sequence. As plants cannot adapt behaviourally or migrate instantly, such dynamic epigenetic responses may be particularly crucial for survival of plants within changing and challenging environments, such as the Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MTEs). These ecosystems suffer recurrent stressful events (warm and dry summers with associated fire regimes) that have selected for plants with similar phenotypic complex traits, resulting in similar vegetation growth forms...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637094/acclimation-responses-to-high-light-by-guazuma-ulmifolia-lam-malvaceae-leaves-at-different-stages-of-development
#2
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Juliana Silva Rocha, Geovana Lourenço, Karina Sanada, Cristiano Medri, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira
The recomposition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excessive light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded leaves (NewL, expanded after the light shift) of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637086/climate-drives-plant-pollinator-interactions-even-along-small-scale-climate-gradients-the-case-of-the-aegean
#3
T Petanidou, A S Kallimanis, M Lazarina, T Tscheulin, J Devalez, A Stefanaki, E Ηanlidou, A Vujić, A Kaloveloni, S P Sgardelis
Plant-pollinator network structure is the outcome of ecological and evolutionary processes, and although the importance of environmental factors is beyond doubt, our knowledge of how abiotic factors (e.g. climate) shape plant-pollinator networks remains limited. This knowledge gap is critical, as climate change poses a major threat to ecosystems, especially in the Mediterranean. This study focuses on one of the hottest parts of the Basin, the Aegean Archipelago, Greece, and examines how climate affects species richness and network properties (e...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627760/reproductive-phenology-of-melastomataceae-species-with-contrasting-reproductive-systems-contemporary-and-historical-drivers
#4
Vinícius L G Brito, Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia, Fernando A O Silveira, Carla Magioni Fracasso, José Pires Lemos-Filho, G Wilson Fernandes, Renato Goldenberg, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Marlies Sazima, Vanessa G Staggemeier
Flowering and fruiting are key events in the life history of plants, and both are critical to their reproductive success. Besides the role of evolutionary history, plant reproductive phenology is regulated by abiotic factors and shaped by biotic interactions with pollinators and seed dispersers. In Melastomataceae, a dominant Neotropical clade, the reproductive systems vary from allogamous with biotic pollination to apomitic, and seed dispersal varies from dry (self-dispersed) to fleshy fruits (animal-dispersed)...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612366/a-graphical-method-for-identifying-the-six-types-of-nondeep-physiological-dormancy-in-seeds
#5
REVIEW
Elias Soltani, Carol C Baskin, Jerry M Baskin
We present a new seed dormancy classification scheme for the nondeep level of the class physiological dormancy (PD), which contains six types. Nondeep PD is divided into two sublevels: one for seeds that exhibit a dormancy continuum (types 1, 2 and 3) and the other for those that do not exhibit a dormancy continuum (types 4, 5 and 6). Analysis of previous studies showed that different types of nondeep PD also can be identified using a graphical method. Seeds with a dormancy (D) ↔ conditional dormancy (CD) ↔ nondormancy (ND) cycle have a low germination percentage in the early stages of CD, and during dormancy loss the germination capacity increases...
June 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603945/grafting-response-to-excess-boron-and-expression-analysis-of-genes-coding-boron-transporters-in-tomato
#6
Francesco Di Gioia, Alessio Aprile, Erika Sabella, Pietro Santamaria, Alberto Pardossi, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis, Eliana Nutricati
Boron (B) is essential for plant growth, however its excess in soil and/or in irrigation water can severely compromise plant growth and yield. The goal of this work was to determine whether grafting onto 'Arnold', a commercial interspecific hybrid (Solanum lycopersicum × S. habrochaites) rootstock, which in a previous study was found to be tolerant to salt stress, could improve tomato (S. lycopersicum L. 'Ikram') tolerance to excess B, and whether this effect is associated with an exclusion mechanism. Non-grafted, self-grafted, and grafted plants were hydroponically grown in a greenhouse with B concentration in the nutrient solution of 0...
June 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590517/flower-specialization-the-occluded-corolla-of-snapdragons-antirrhinum-exhibits-two-pollinator-niches-of-large-long-tongued-bees
#7
Pablo Vargas, Isabel Liberal, Concepción Ornosa, Jose María Gómez
• Flower specialization of angiosperms includes the occluded corollas of snapdragons (Antirrhinum and some relatives), which have been postulated to be one of the most efficient structures to physical limit access to pollinators. The Iberian Peninsula harbours the highest number of species (18 Iberian of the 20 species of Antirrhinum) that potentially share similar pollinator fauna. • Crossing experiments with 18 Iberian species from this study and literature revealed a general pattern of self-incompatibility-failure in this SI system has been also observed in a few plants-, which indicates the need of pollinator agents in Antirrhinum pollination...
June 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581674/radial-oxygen-loss-by-the-cushion-plant-eriocaulon-schimperi-prevents-methane-emissions-from-an-east-african-mountain-mire
#8
B W Dullo, A P Grootjans, J G M Roelofs, A F Senbeta, C Fritz, L P M Lamers
RESEARCH RATIONALE: Groundwater-fed fens are known sources of methane (CH4 ) emissions to the atmosphere, but these are known to be mediated by vegetation. In a fen located in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, we assessed the effects of a cushion plant (Eriocaulon schimperi) and a sedge species (Carex monostachya) on rhizosphere biogeochemistry. CENTRAL METHODS: CH4 and CO2 concentrations and pH were measured in pore water at different depths in the profile. Redox potentials and NaCl-extractable element concentrations were analyzed in soil samples from sites dominated by either E...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580601/morphological-and-chemical-variation-of-stemona-tuberosa-from-southern-china-evidences-for-the-heterogeneity-of-this-medicinal-plant-species
#9
Gao Chen, Lothar Brecker, Susanne Felsinger, Xiang-Hai Cai, Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon, Johann Schinnerl
The occurrence of bioactive alkaloids and tocopherols were studied from 15 different provenances of Stemona tuberosa Lour. collected in southern China, in order to reveal the chemical variation of individuals which show some notable differences in their flower characters. The morphological variations stimulated the examination of chemical characters of these individuals. Methanolic root extracts of 15 individuals of the studied species were comparatively assessed by HPLC-UV-DAD/ELSD. Five out of seven compounds were co-chromatographically identified...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561940/reproductive-biology-of-ferocactus-recurvus-mill-borg-subsp-recurvus-cactaceae-in-the-tehuac%C3%A3-n-cuicatl%C3%A3-n-valley-mexico
#10
Esperanza Córdova-Acosta, Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado José, Jordan Golubov, Alejandro Casas
Mexico has one of the highest diversity of barrel cacti species worldwide; however, all of them are threatened and require conservation policies. Information on their reproductive biology is crucial, but few studies are still available. Ferocactus recurvus subsp. recurvus is a barrel cactus species, endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Our research aimed to characterize its floral and pollination biology. We hypothesized bee-pollination as suggested by its floral morphology and behaviour and self-incompatibility like most barrel cacti studied...
May 31, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548454/corema-album-unbiased-dioecy-in-a-competitive-environment
#11
Ana Martins, Helena Freitas, Sofia Costa
1.Corema album is a dioecious coastal shrub. Dioecious plants growing in these resource-limited habitats may present spatial segregation of the sexes (SSS) or demographic biases because of the different reproductive effort between sexes. In these environments facilitation is a more common interaction between plants than competition. To assess factors determining the distribution of C. album male and female plants, we investigated the influence of habitat type (sand dunes and coastal woodlands), assessed the occurrence of SSS or demographic biases, and also a possible role of these shrubs as nurse plants...
May 26, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544492/epistatic-influence-in-tomato-ve1-mediated-resistance
#12
Christian Danve M Castroverde, Xin Xu, Josefa Blaya Fernández, Ross N Nazar, Jane Robb
Resistance to Verticillium wilt disease is associated with the tomato Ve-locus; however, the individual functional roles of Ve1 and Ve2 in host plants remain controversial. As a first step towards Ve mutational analyses in planta, the Ve1 coding region from a resistant tomato near-isoline (cv. Craigella GCR218) was introduced into a susceptible near-isoline (cv. Craigella GCR26). 35S:Ve1 plants segregated into two distinct classes; roughly half were resistant and half were susceptible. Ve1 transcript levels were upregulated in both classes compared to wild-type plants, showing stable transgenic expression...
May 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544154/floral-nectar-of-the-obligate-outcrossing-canavalia-gladiata-jacq-dc-fabaceae-contains-only-one-predominant-protein-a-class-iii-acidic-chitinase
#13
Xue-Long Ma, Richard I Milne, Hong-Xia Zhou, Jiang-Yu Fang, Hong-Guang Zha
Floral nectar can affect the fitness of insect-pollinated plants, through both attraction and manipulation of pollinators. Self-incompatible insect-pollinated plants receive more insect visits than their self-compatible relatives, and the nectar of such species might face more risk to be infested by the pathogens carried by pollinators than self-compatible plants. Proteins in nectar (nectarins) play an important role in the protection of nectar, but little is known regarding nectarins in self-incompatible species...
May 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509436/pollinators-shift-to-nectar-robbers-when-florivory-occurs-with-effects-on-reproductive-success-in-iris-bulleyana-iridaceae
#14
Zhong-Ming Ye, Xiao-Fang Jin, Qing-Feng Wang, Chun-Feng Yang, David W Inouye
Studies have indicated that florivory and nectar robbing may reduce reproductive success of host plants. However, whether and how these effects might interact when plants are attacked by both florivores and nectar robbers simultaneously still need further investigation. We used Iris bulleyana to detect the interactions among florivory, nectar robbing, and pollination, and moreover, their effects on plant reproductive success. Field investigations and hand pollination treatments were conducted on two experimental plots from a natural population, in which Experimental plot was protected from florivores and Control plot was unmanipulated...
May 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504871/pollination-and-breeding-system-of-the-enigmatic-south-african-parasitic-plant-mystropetalon-thomii-mystropetalaceae-rodents-welcome-but-not-needed
#15
Nina Hobbhahn, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Toni Olsen, Jeremy J Midgley, Steven D Johnson
Unrelated plants adapted to particular pollinator types tend to exhibit convergent evolution in floral traits. However, inferences about likely pollinators from "pollination syndromes" can be problematic due to trait overlap among some syndromes and unusual floral architecture in some lineages. An example is the rare South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae), which has highly unusual brush-like inflorescences that exhibit features of both bird- and rodent-pollination syndromes. We used camera traps to record flower visitors, quantified floral spectral reflectance and nectar and scent production, experimentally determined self-compatibility and breeding system, and studied pollen dispersal using fluorescent dyes...
May 15, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493285/hidden-floral-adaptation-to-nocturnal-moths-in-an-apparently-bee-pollinated-flower-adenophora-triphylla-var-japonica-campanulaceae
#16
Daichi Funamoto, Kazuharu Ohashi
• The discrepancy between observed flower visitors and those predicted based on floral phenotype has often cast doubt on the pollination syndrome concept. Here we show that this paradox may be alleviated by gaining a better knowledge of the contributions of different flower visitors to pollination and the effects of floral traits that cannot be readily perceived by humans in Adenophora triphylla var. japonica. The blue, bell-shaped and pendent flowers of A. triphylla appear to fit a bee pollination syndrome...
May 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480629/drivers-of-tree-fecundity-in-pedunculate-oak-quercus-robur-refugial-populations-at-the-species-southwestern-range-margin
#17
Eva Moracho, Pedro Jordano, Arndt Hampe
RATIONALE: The current low-latitudinal range margins of many extra-tropical plant species consist of small and scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial distribution affects mating patterns and reproductive success. Here we examine flower and acorn production and their determinants in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). METHODS: We monitored male flower, female flower and acorn production in 159 adult trees from 12 oak stands over two years...
May 8, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453883/stomatal-function-density-and-pattern-and-co2-assimilation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-tmm1-and-sdd1-1-mutants
#18
Martina Vráblová, Daniel Vrábl, Marie Hronková, Jiří Kubásek, Jiří Šantrůček
Stomata modulate the exchange of water and CO2 between plant and atmosphere. Although stomatal density is known to affect CO2 diffusion into the leaf and thus photosynthetic rate, the effect of stomatal density and patterning on CO2 assimilation is not fully understood. We used wild-types Col-0 and C24 and stomatal mutants sdd1-1 and tmm1 of Arabidopsis thaliana, differing in stomatal density and pattern, to study the effects of these variations on both stomatal and mesophyll conductance and CO2 assimilation rate...
April 28, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449392/osmotic-stress-decreases-complexity-underlying-the-electrophysiological-dynamic-in-soybean
#19
G F R Saraiva, A S Ferreira, G M Souza
Studies on plant electrophysiology are mostly focused on specific traits of single cells. Inspired by the complexity of the signalling network in plants, and by analogy with neurons in human brains, we sought evidence of high complexity in the electrical dynamics of plant signalling and a likely relationship with environmental cues. An EEG-like standard protocol was adopted for high-resolution measurements of the electrical signal in Glycine max seedlings. The signals were continuously recorded in the same plants before and after osmotic stimuli with a -2 MPa mannitol solution...
April 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430395/flower-colour-polymorphism%C3%A2-in-the-mediterranean-basin-occurrence-maintenance-and-implications-for-speciation
#20
REVIEW
E Narbona, H Wang, P L Ortiz, M Arista, E Imbert
Flower colour polymorphism (FCP) is the occurrence of at least two discrete flower colour variants in the same population. Despite a vast body of research concerning the maintenance and evolutionary consequences of FCP, only recently has the spatial variation in morph frequencies among populations been explored. Here we summarise the biochemical and genetic basis of FCP, the factors that have been proposed to explain their maintenance, and the importance of FCP and its geographic variation in the speciation process...
April 21, 2017: Plant Biology
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