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Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787550/ecological-longevity-in-the-soil-seed-bank-seedling-emergence-and-survival-of-polaskia-chende-rol-goss-a-c-gibson-k-e-horak-cactaceae
#1
Cesar A Ordoñez-Salanueva, Alma Orozco-Segovia, Margarita Canales-Martínez, Charlotte E Seal, Hugh W Pritchard, Cesar M Flores-Ortiz
Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, we studied over a five year period the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of P. chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico...
August 8, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787541/identification-and-molecular-mapping-of-indica-high-tillering-dwarf-mutant-htd4-a-mild-phenotype-allelic-mutant-of-d14-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#2
Yupeng Wang, Shuangqin Tang, Huizhen Chen, Zhifeng Wu, Huan Zhang, Erchao Duan, Qinghua Shi, Ziming Wu
Metabolism of strigolactones (SLs) can improve the efficiency of nutrient use by regulating the development of roots and shoots in crops, making them an important research focus for molecular breeding. However, as a momentous plant hormone, the molecular mechanism of SL signal transduction still remains largely unknown. In this study, we isolated an indica high-tillering dwarf mutant 4 (htd4), a spontaneous mutant of rice from the restorer line Gui99. Mapping and sequencing analysis showed that htd4 was a novel allelic mutant of D14, in which a single base substitution forms a premature termination codon...
August 8, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762612/dissecting-seed-dormancy-and-germination-in-aquilegia-barbaricina-through-thermal-kinetics-of-embryo-growth
#3
Marco Porceddu, Efisio Mattana, Hugh W Pritchard, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Threshold-based thermal time models provide insight to the physiological switch from the dormant to the non-dormant, germinating seed. This approach was used to quantify the different growth responses of the embryo of seeds purported to have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) through the complex phases of dormancy release and germination. Aquilegia barbaricina seeds were incubated at constant temperatures (10 - 25°C) and 25/10°C, without pre-treatment, after warm+cold stratification (W+C), and GA3 treatment...
August 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762598/heteranthery-as-a-solution-to-the-demands-for-pollen-as-food-and-for-pollination-legitimate-flower-visitors-reject-flowers-without-feeding-anthers
#4
José Neiva Mesquita-Neto, Bruna Karen Pinheiro Costa, Clemens Schlindwein
Heteranthery, the presence of feeding and pollinating anthers in the same flower, seems to mediate the evolutionary dilemma for plants to protect their gametes and yet provide food for pollinators. This study aims to elucidate the role of heteranthery in the buzz-pollinated Senna reniformis. The fecundity of pollen from long, medium and short-sized anthers was determined by hand cross-pollination experiments, and the quantity, size, ornamentation and viability of pollen of different anthers were compared. Rates of flower rejection by bees were measured in anther removal experiments to assess the preferences of flower visitors for feeding or pollinating anthers...
August 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749609/ricochet-pollination-in-senna-fabaceae-petals-deflect-pollen-jets-and-promote-division-of-labour-among-flower-organs
#5
Thiago Amorim, Brigitte Marazzi, Arlete A Soares, Eliana R Forni-Martins, Celli R Muniz, Christian Westerkamp
Naturalists Fritz and Hermann Müller hypothesised that heteranthery often leads to a division of labour into 'feeding' and 'pollinating' stamens; the latter often being as long as the pistil so as to promote successful pollination on the bees' back. In many buzz-pollinated species of Senna, however, the so-called pollinating stamens are short and do not level with the stigma, raising the question of how pollen is shed on the bees' back. Here we explore a mechanism called "ricochet pollination". We test whether division of labour is achieved through the interaction between short lower stamens and strongly concave "deflector petals"...
July 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749560/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-alter-the-content-and-composition-of-secondary-metabolites-in-bituminaria-bituminosa-l
#6
Laura Pistelli, Virginia Ulivieri, Silvia Giovanelli, Luciano Avio, Manuela Giovannetti, Luisa Pistelli
Secondary metabolites may be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are beneficial symbionts associated with the roots of most plant species. Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H.Stirt is known as a source of several phytochemicals and therefore used in folk medicine as vulnerary, cicatrizing, disinfectant agent. Characteristic metabolites found in B. bituminosa are furanocoumarins and pterocarpans which are used in cosmetics and as chemotherapeutic agents. Here we address the question whether AMF inoculation may affect positively the synthesis of these phytochemicals...
July 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742938/sexes-in-gynodioecious-geranium-sylvaticum-do-not-differ-in-their-isotopic-signature-or-photosynthetic-capacity
#7
Sandra Varga, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
In gynodioecious plants, females are expected to produce more or better seeds than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained within the same population. Even though rarely measured, higher seed production can be achieved through differences in physiology. In this work, we measured sexual dimorphism in several physiological traits in the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and isotopic signatures were measured in plants growing in two habitats differing in light availability...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741843/niche-differences-may-explain-the-geographic-distribution-of-cytotypes-in-erysimum-mediohispanicum
#8
A Jesus Muñoz-Pajares, Francisco Perfectti, João Loureiro, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Paolo Biella, Mariana Castro, Sílvia Castro, Jose M Gómez
Polyploidization has played an important role in plant diversification, and variation in ploidy level may be found not only between species of the same genus, but also within a single species. Although establishing the adaptive significance of polyploidy to explain the geographic distribution of cytotypes is challenging, the occurrence of different cytotypes in different ecological niches may suggest an adaptive role of genome duplication. We have studied the adaptive significance of the geographic distribution of cytotypes across the entire distribution range of the endemic Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae)...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#9
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727249/dynamics-of-amino-acid-redistribution-in-the-carnivorous-venus-flytrap-dionaea-muscipula-after-digestion-of-13-c-15-n-labeled-prey
#10
Jörg Kruse, Peng Gao, Monika Eibelmeier, Saleh Alfarraj, Heinz Rennenberg
Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ(13) C- and δ(15) N-signatures, after half of all traps per plant had been fed with contrasting amounts of double-labeled insect powder (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg per trap)...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718203/landscape-effects-on-pollination-networks-in-mediterranean-gypsum-islands
#11
Silvia Santamaría, Ana M Sánchez, Jesús López-Angulo, Concepción Ornosa, Iñaki Mola, Adrián Escudero
Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of global change that has operated historically on Mediterranean ecosystems. However, more needs to be understood about how fragmentation influences ecological interactions, particularly pollination. Gypsum outcrops are historically fragmented Mediterranean habitats and settings for the evolution of many endangered soil-specialist plants with narrow ranges. In this study, we aimed to determine how fragmentation (area and connectivity) affects: (i) the pollinator community composition, and (ii) the structural properties of pollination networks; and whether there are differences in the effects of fragmentation on: (iii) the number of interactions and visits among pollinator functional groups; and (iv) the number of interactions and specialization degree between soil-specialist and soil-generalist plants...
July 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707323/exogenous-application-of-indole-acetic-acid-alleviates-the-effects-of-supplemental-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera-dunal
#12
S Takshak, S B Agrawal
Supplemental (s)-UV-B radiation has adverse effects on majority of plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of the growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on various morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of Withania somnifera, an indigenous medicinal plant, subjected to s-UV-B. The s-UV-B treated plants received ambient+3.6 kJm(-2) day(-1) biologically effective UV-B and IAA was applied at two doses (200 ppm and 400 ppm) to s-UV-B exposed plants...
July 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691341/divergence-is-not-enough-the-use-of-ecological-niche-models-for-the-validation-of-taxa-boundaries
#13
Davide Dagnino, Luigi Minuto, Gabriele Casazza
Delimiting taxa boundaries is a crucial point for any evolutionary research and conservation regulation. In order to avoid mistaken description of species, the approach of integrative taxonomy recommends to consider multidisciplinary lines of evidence, including ecology. Unfortunately, ecological data are often difficult to quantify in an objective way. Here we test and discuss the potential use of Ecological Niche Models for validating taxa boundaries, using three pairs of closely related plant taxa endemic to South-western Alps as a case study...
July 10, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667797/differential-growth-costs-and-nitrogen-fixation-in-cytisus-multiflorus-l-h%C3%A3-r-sweet-and-cytisus-scoparius-l-link-are-mediated-by-sources-of-inorganic-n
#14
M A Pérez-Fernández, E Calvo-Magro, J Rodríguez-Sánchez, A Valentine
Shrubby legumes in Mediterranean-type ecosystems face strong nutrient limitations that worsen in summer, when water is absent. Nitrogen-fixing legumes are likely to be able to switch between soil N and atmospheric N (N2 ) sources to adjust the C costs of N acquisition in different seasons. We investigated the utilisation of different inorganic N sources by two indigenous shrubby legumes (Cytisus multiflorus and Cytisus scoparius). Plant performance in terms of photosynthesis and biomass production was also analysed...
July 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646629/mechanisms-of-inhibitory-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-photosynthetic-primary-processes-in-pea-leaves-and-thylakoid-preparations
#15
V D Kreslavski, M Brestic, S K Zharmukhamedov, V Yu Lyubimov, A V Lankin, A Jajoo, S I Allakhverdiev
Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plants were studied in pea leaves in order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of PAHs such as naphthalene (Naph) and phenanthrene (Phen) on activity of photosystem II (PSII). The changes in different Chl fluorescence parameters were calculated on the basis of Chl fluorescence induction curves. H2 O2 content was measured in leaf homogenates with the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method. We demonstrated that following PAH treatment, total energy dissipation (DI0 /ABS) and amount of QB -non-reducing complexes of PSII significantly increased...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646622/dormancy-cycles-in-buried-seeds-of-three-perennial-xyris-xyridaceae-species-from-the-brazilian-campo-rupestre
#16
T G S Oliveira, I P Diamantino, Q S Garcia
Dormancy cycles are an important mechanism for avoiding seed germination under unfavourable periods for seedling establishment. This mechanism has been scarcely studied in tropical species. Here, we studied three tropical and perennial species of Xyris, X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla, to investigate in situ longevity and the existence of seasonal seed dormancy cycles. Seeds of three species of Xyris were buried in their natural habitat, with samples exhumed bimonthly for 18 months. Germination of exhumed seeds was assessed under a 12-h photoperiod over a broad range of temperatures...
June 24, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644576/size-dependence-of-tree-growth-response-to-drought-for-norway-spruce-and-european-beech-individuals-in-monospecific-and-mixed-species-stands
#17
H Ding, H Pretzsch, G Schütze, T Rötzer
Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644542/the-conservation-significance-of-natural-hybridisation-in-mediterranean-plants-from-a-case-study-on-cyclamen-primulaceae-to-a-general-perspective
#18
John D Thompson, Perrine Gauthier, Guillaume Papuga, Virginie Pons, Max Debussche, Emmanuele Farris
Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637098/uncovering-the-contribution-of-epigenetics-to-plant-phenotypic-variation-in-mediterranean-ecosystems
#19
REVIEW
F Balao, O Paun, C Alonso
Epigenetic signals can affect plant phenotype and fitness and be stably inherited across multiple generations. Epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the mechanisms of plant response to the environment without altering DNA sequence. As plants cannot adapt behaviourally or migrate instantly, such dynamic epigenetic responses may be particularly crucial for survival of plants within changing and challenging environments, such as the Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MTEs). These ecosystems suffer recurrent stressful events (warm and dry summers with associated fire regimes) that have selected for plants with similar phenotypic complex traits, resulting in similar vegetation growth forms...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637094/acclimation-responses-to-high-light-by-guazuma-ulmifolia-lam-malvaceae-leaves-at-different-stages-of-development
#20
A K Calzavara, J S Rocha, G Lourenço, K Sanada, C Medri, E Bianchini, J A Pimenta, R Stolf-Moreira, H C Oliveira
The re-composition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excess light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded (NewL, expanded after the light shift) leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
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