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Plant Biology

Simon Pierce, Alberto Spada, Elisabetta Caporali, Roberta M Ceriani, Gabriella Buffa
The seed coat of many species contains hydrophobic lignins, and in soil the action of microbial ligninases may contribute to release from dormancy. Laboratory use of ligninases to stimulate germination is promising because of the specific action on the seed coat, whereas chemical scarification agents may also corrode the embryo. We hypothesized that exposure of Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae) seeds to fungal laccase stimulates germination, and that the mechanism involves lignin degradation and increased imbibition...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
K Paredes-Páliz, R Rodríguez-Vázquez, B Duarte, M A Caviedes, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, E Pajuelo
Pollution of coasts by toxic metals and metalloids is a worldwide problem for which phytoremediation using halophytes and associated microbiomes is getting relevance. Metal(loid)s excess is a constraint for plant establishment and development, and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate plant stress under these conditions. However, mechanisms underlying this effect remain elusive. In this paper, the effect of toxic metal(loid)s on the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes in roots of the halophyte Spartina densiflora grown on real polluted sediments in a green house experiment, was investigated...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Olga Bykova, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Isabelle Chuine
Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Lubia M Guedes, Narciso Aguilera, Bruno G Ferreira, José Becerra, Victor Hernández, Rosy Ms Isaias
The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronization with host plant phenology and climatic conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survivorship. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronization strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was herein evaluated, and was compared to that of the congeneric C...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Denise Herbert, Klemens Ekschmitt, Volker Wissemann, Annette Becker
Regrowth of fodder plants after grazing and mowing drives the profitability of their cultivation and is therefore an important target trait for plant breeding and agricultural engineering. However, for some fodder plants little is known about their regrowth dynamics in response to grazing or mowing. We analyzed the native response of plant architecture, leaf morphology and growth performance to experimental cutting in wild Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) plants. One hundred fifty potted clover plants were established under controlled field conditions, and half of the plants were cut to 5 cm 3 months after sowing...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
J M Elías, M F Guerrero-Molina, M G Martínez-Zamora, J C Díaz-Ricci, R O Pedraza
• The induced systemic resistance (ISR) is one of the indirect mechanisms of growth promotion exerted by plant growth-promoting bacteria, and can be mediated by ethylene (ET). We assessed the ET production and the expression of related genes in the Azospirillum-strawberry plant interaction. • ET production was evaluated by gas chromatography in plants inoculated or not with A. brasilense REC3. Also, plants were treated with AgNO3 , an inhibitor of ET biosynthesis; with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC), a precursor of ET biosynthesis; and with indole acetic acid (IAA)...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Aneta Słomka, Justyna Żabicka, Lulëzim Shuka, Jerzy Bohdanowicz, Elżbieta Kuta
(1) The research conducted including its rationale. The development of different pollen morphs by one specimen - pollen heteromorphism - occurs in ca. one-third species of the genus Viola. Melanium section species (pansies) stand out to produce the widest range of apertures among Viola species. Aperture number decrease with elevation increase and faster germination of 5-aperturate pollen as compared with 3-aperturate were previously postulated. (2) Central methods applied. We re-examined pollen heteromorphism in the context of its viability, and we made correlations with elevation (>1500 m a...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Chandan Barman, Vineet Kumar Singh, Sandip Das, Rajesh Tandon
• Reproductive success of a plant species is largely influenced by the outcomes of mating pattern in a population. It is believed that a significantly greater proportion of animal-pollinated plants have evolved a mixed-mating strategy, the extent of which may vary among species. It is thus pertinent to investigate the key contributors of mating success, especially to identify the reproductive constraints in depauperated populations of threatened plant species. • We looked into the contribution of floral architecture, pollination mechanism and breeding system on the extent of outcrossing rate in a near threatened tree species, W...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Pieter De Frenne, Haben Blondeel, Jörg Brunet, Maria Mercedes Caron, Olivier Chabrerie, Mathias Cougnon, Sara A O Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Martin Diekmann, Bente J Graae, Mick E Hanley, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jaan Liira, Anna Orczewska, Anna Shevtsova, Thomas Vanneste, Kris Verheyen
Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilization. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Y C Hoe, M Gibernau, S Y Wong
Field studies integrating pollination investigations with an assessment of floral scent composition and thermogenesis in tropical aroids are rather few. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the pollination biology of nine species belonging to Schismatoglottis Calyptrata Complex Clade. The flowering mechanism, visiting insect activities, reproductive system, thermogenesis, and floral scent composition were examined. Anthesis for all species started at dawn and lasted between 25 - 29 hours. Colocasiomyia (Diptera, Drosophilidae) are considered as the main pollinators for all the investigated species...
January 5, 2018: Plant Biology
Patricio Garcia-Fayos, Maria Clara Castellanos, José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues
1.Self-pollination by geitonogamy is likely in self-compatible plants that simultaneously expose large numbers of flowers to pollinators. However, the progeny of these plants is often highly allogamous. Although mechanisms to increase cross-pollination have been identified and studied, their relative importance has rarely been addressed simultaneously in plant populations. 2.We used Rosmarinus officinalis to explore the factors that influence the probability of self-fertilization due to geitonogamy or that purge its consequences, focusing on their effect on seed germination and allogamy rate...
December 28, 2017: Plant Biology
T N Suinyuy, S D Johnson
Heat and odour production can have profound effects on pollination in cycads. It is therefore expected that these traits would co-vary geographically with pollinator assemblages. Such intraspecific variation, may lead to the evolution of pollination ecotypes which can be an early stage of pollinator-mediated speciation. We measured cone temperatures using miniature temperature data loggers and examined the composition of cone volatile odours using headspace sampling and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in four populations spanning the range of the African cycad Encephalartos ghellinckii...
December 27, 2017: Plant Biology
Amine Elkhouni, Mokded Rabhi, Alexander G Ivanov, Mariana Krol, Walid Zorrig, Abderazzek Smaoui, Chedly Abdelly, Norman P A Huner
The abundance of calcareous soils makes bicarbonate-induced iron (Fe) deficiency a major problem for plant growth and crop yield. Therefore, Fe-efficient plants may constitute a solution for calcareous soil use. In the present work, we investigated the ability of the forage legume Sulla carnosa (Desf.) to maintain the integrity of its photosynthetic apparatus under iron deficiency conditions. Three treatments were applied: control, direct iron deficiency and bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency. At the harvest, all organs of deficient plants showed severe growth inhibition, the effect being less pronounced under indirect iron deficiency...
December 22, 2017: Plant Biology
Y Aranguren, B J Płachno, M Stpiczyńska, V F O Miranda
Genlisea violacea is a Brazilian endemic carnivorous plant species distributed in the cerrado biome, mainly in humid environments, on sandy and oligotrophic soil or wet rocks. Studies about reproductive biology or pollination in the Lentibulariaceae family are notably scarce; regarding the genus Genlisea, the current study is the first to show a systematic and standardised research of reproductive biology concerning field studies to describe the foraging of visiting insects and to determine the effective pollinators of Genlisea...
December 20, 2017: Plant Biology
Jesús Villellas, María B García
Trade-offs between reproduction, growth and survival arise from limited resource availability in plants. Environmental stress is expected to exacerbate these negative correlations, but no studies have evaluated variation in life-history trade-offs throughout species geographic ranges. Here we analyze the costs of growth and reproduction across the latitudinal range of the widespread herb Plantago coronopus in Europe. We monitored the performance of thousands of individuals in 11 populations of P. coronopus, and tested whether the effects of growth and reproduction on a set of vital rates (growth, probability of survival, probability of reproduction and fecundity) varied with local precipitation and soil fertility...
December 16, 2017: Plant Biology
P Sotiriou, E Giannoutsou, E Panteris, B Galatis, P Apostolakos
The distribution of homogalacturonans (HGAs) displaying different degrees of esterification as well as of callose was examined in the cell walls of mature pavement cells in two angiosperm and two fern species. It was investigated whether local cell wall matrix differentiation may enable pavement cells to respond to mechanical tension forces by transiently altering their shape. HGA epitopes, identified by the 2F4, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, and callose were immunolocalized in hand-made or semithin leaf sections...
December 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Islam A Abd El-Daim, Sarosh Bejai, Ingela Fridborg, Johan Meijer
Abiotic stressors are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth promoting bacteria have been successfully used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several crops including wheat. However, the molecular changes involved in the improvement of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation intended to address some molecular factors involved in bacterially induced plant abiotic stress responses by identifying some differentially expressed genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings treated with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp...
December 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Hesheng Yao, Yali Zhang, Xiaoping Yi, Xiangjuan Zhang, Dayong Fan, Wah Soon Chow, Wangfeng Zhang
Phototropic leaf movement of plants is an effective mechanism for adapting to light conditions. Light is the major driver of plant photosynthesis. Leaf N is also an important limiting factor on leaf photosynthetic potential. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) exhibits diaheliotropic leaf movement. Here, we compared the long-term photosynthetic acclimation of fixed leaves (restrained) and free leaves (allowed free movement) in cotton. The fixed leaves and free leaves were used for the determinations of photosynthetically active radiation, leaf chlorophyll concentration, leaf N content and leaf gas exchange...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biology
Yubin Ma, Ming Zhu, Changjiang Yu, Yu Wang, Yu Liu, Mingliang Li, Youde Sun, Jinshan Zhao, Gongke Zhou
Duckweed has been considered as a promising feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high biomass and starch production. Selection of duckweed strain with high starch accumulation is an essential process in application of duckweeds for bioethanol production. Geographic differentiation had great influence on genetic diversity of duckweed. Biomass production, starch content and starch production of 20 Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza geographically isolated strains were calculated to evaluate their potential for bioethanol production...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biology
Carol Goodwillie, Hetal R Patel, DeAnna M Dvorak
Self-fertilization that is delayed until after opportunities for outcrossing have ceased has been argued to provide both the reproductive assurance benefits of selfing and the genetic advantages of outcrossing. In the Campanulaceae, presentation of pollen on stylar hairs and progressive stigma curvature have been hypothesized to facilitate delayed selfing, but experimental tests are lacking. Stigma curvature is common in Campanula, a genus largely characterized by self-incompatibility, and therefore is unlikely to have initially evolved to promote self-fertilization...
December 7, 2017: Plant Biology
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