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Plant Biology

I Saro, C García-Verdugo, M A González-Pérez, A Naranjo, A Santana, P A Sosa
Oceanic islands are dynamic settings that often promote within-island patterns of strong population differentiation. Species with high colonization abilities, however, are less likely to be affected by genetic barriers, but island size may impact on species genetic structure regardless of dispersal abilities. The aim of the present study was to identify the patterns and factors responsible for the structure of genetic diversity at the island scale in Phoenix canariensis, a palm species with high dispersal potential...
September 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Kevin M Folta
Agricultural production in controlled environments is increasingly feasible, and may play an important role providing nutrition and choice to growing urban centers. New technologies in lighting, ventilation, robotics, and irrigation are just a few of the innovations that enable production of high-value specialty crops outside of a traditional field setting. However, despite all of the advances in the hardware within the plant factory operation, innovation of the most complex machine has been neglected-the plant itself...
September 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Hang Shi, Quan Zhou, Xiaobin Liu, Fenglin Xie, Tao Li, Quanfa Zhang, Haishan Dang
Cold-adapted trees display an acclimation in both carbon source and carbon sink capacity to low-temperature stress at their upper elevational range limits, so a balanced carbon source-sink capacity might be required for their persistence and survival at the elevational tree-limits. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of carbon source-sink relationship in subalpine fir (Abies fargesii) trees along elevational gradients in the northern slope of the temperate region and in the southern slope of the subtropics in terms of climate in the Qinling mountain range, north-central China...
September 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Urszula Zajączkowska, Włodzimierz Kasprzak, Marek Nałęcz
Nutations of plant organs are significantly affected by the circatidal modulation in the gravitational force exerted by the Moon and Sun (lunisolar tidal acceleration, Etide). In a previous study on nutational rotations of stem apices, we observed abrupt alterations in their direction and irregularities of the recorded trajectories. Such transitions have not yet been analysed in detail. Peppermint plants were continuously recorded with timelapse photography and aligned with contemporaneous time courses of the Etide estimates...
September 15, 2018: Plant Biology
Sandra Rodrigues da Silva, Natan Messias Almeida, Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira, Jefferson Thiago Souza, Cibele Cardoso Castro
Loss and fragmentation of native vegetation negatively affects crop pollinators and productivity of several crop species. The yellow passion fruit is an excellent model to investigate this issue, because its main pollinators are sensitive to deforestation. Seasonality also influences fruit set of crop species that are pollinated by bees. Climate determines plant flowering patterns and consequently affects pollinators' activity. Little is known on effects of pollinators on crops quality in general, and particularly of many tropical fruits that have multiple fruiting season throughout the year, such as passion fruit...
September 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Mateus Ribeiro Mota, Fabio Pinheiro, Barbara Simões Santos Leal, Tania Wendt, Clarisse Palma-Silva
Hybridization is a widespread phenomenon present in numerous lineages across the tree of life. Its evolutionary consequences range from effects on the origin and maintenance, to the loss of biodiversity. We study genetic diversity and intra- and interspecific gene flow between two sympatric populations of closely-related species, Pitcairnia flammea and P. corcovadensis (Bromeliaceae), which are adapted to naturally fragmented Neotropical inselbergs, based on nuclear and plastidial DNA. Our main results indicate strong reproductive isolation barrier, although low levels of interspecific gene flow were observed in both sympatric populations...
September 8, 2018: Plant Biology
Nadine Brinkmann, Werner Eugster, Nina Buchmann, Ansgar Kahmen
Temperate tree species differ in their physiological sensitivity to declining soil moisture and drought. Although species-specific responses to drought have often been suggested to be the result of different water uptake depths, empirical evidence for such a mechanism is scarce. Here we test if differences in water uptake depths can explain previously observed species-specific physiological responses of temperate trees to drought and if the water uptake depth of different species varies in response to declining soil moisture...
September 5, 2018: Plant Biology
A L Teixido, M O Duarte, I Ballego-Campos, D Sanín, J S Cunha, C S Oliveira, F A O Silveira
Long-lived flowers increase pollen transfer rates, but they entail higher water and carbon maintenance costs. The retention of pollinated and rewardless old flowers enhances pollinator visitation to young receptive flowers by increasing floral display size. This mechanism is associated with acropetal inflorescences or changes in flower colour and openness, but the retention of unchanging solitary flowers remains overlooked. We examined pollination-dependent variation in floral longevity and determined stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability and pollen removal rates among flower ages, in Kielmeyera regalis, a Neotropical savanna shrub...
September 5, 2018: Plant Biology
Huijun Zhao, Yuqing Wei, Jing Wang, Tuanyao Chai
Phytolacca Americana (P. Americana) has been recognized as a hyperaccumulator that accumulates cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn). Although most studies have provided abundant physiological evidence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in P. Americana. In this study, Cd-induced genes were isolated by using Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and gene expression patterns under Cd stress were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR technique. The functions of PaGST, PaMT and PaFe-SOD were confirmed in transformat yeast; the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death in root tips were detected, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf tissue were also analyzed...
September 5, 2018: Plant Biology
Sissi Lozada-Gobilard, Maximilian Weigend, Eberhard Fischer, Steven B Janssens, Markus Ackermann, Stefan Abrahamczyk
RESEARCH RATIONALE: Pollen/ovule (P/O) ratios are often used as proxy for breeding systems. Here, we investigate the relations between breeding systems and P/O ratios, pollination syndromes, life history and climate zone in Balsaminaceae. METHODS: We conducted controlled breeding system experiments (autonomous and active self-pollination and outcrossing tests) for 65 Balsaminaceae species, analysed pollen grain and ovule numbers and evaluated the results in combination with data on pollination syndrome, life history and climate zone on a phylogenetic basis...
August 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Urte Schlüter, Andrea Bräutigam, Jean-Marie Droz, Jörg Schwender, Andreas Pm Weber
Alanine and aspartate are essential transfer metabolites for C4 species of the NAD-malic enzyme and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase subtype. To some degree both amino acids are also part of the metabolite shuttle in NADP-malic enzyme plants. In comparison with C3 species, the majority of C4 species are therefore characterised by enhanced expression and activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in the photosynthetically active tissue. Both enzymes exist in multiple copies and have been found in different subcellular compartments...
August 20, 2018: Plant Biology
R Picciau, S Serra, M Porceddu, G Bacchetta
Helichrysum microphyllum subsp. tyrrhenicum (Asteraceae) is an endemic taxon of Sardinia and Corsica, where it grows at different altitudes. The objective of this study was to investigate the seed traits and germination behaviour of four Sardinian populations of this taxon located at different altitudes. Seed traits were evaluated, and germination tests were carried out by incubating seeds at a range of constant (5-30 °C) and alternating (25/10 °C) temperatures. The dry after-ripening (DAR) pre-treatment was also applied by storing seed in dry conditions for 3 months at 25 °C...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biology
E Dello Jacovo, T A Valentine, M Maluk, P Toorop, L Lopez Del Egido, N Frachon, G Kenicer, L Park, M Goff, V A Ferro, C Bonomi, E K James, P P M Iannetta
Lathyrus linifolius L. (Reichard) Bässler (Fabiaceae, bitter vetch) is a nitrogen (N) fixing species. A coloniser of low nutrient (N) soils, it supports biodiversity such as key moth and butterfly species, and its roots are known for their organoleptic and claimed therapeutic properties. Thus, the species has high potential for restoration, conservation, novel cropping and as a model species. The last because of its genetic synteny with important pulse crops. However, regeneration and functional attributes of L...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biology
Rouven Nagel, Walter Durka, Oliver Bossdorf, Anna Bucharova
The growing number of restoration projects worldwide increases the demand for seed material of native species. To meet this demand, seeds are often produced through large-scale cultivation on specialized farms, using wild-collected seeds as the original sources. However, during cultivation plants experience novel environmental conditions compared to those in natural populations, and there is a danger that the plants in cultivation are subject to unintended selection and lose their adaptation to natural habitats...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biology
E Castillo-Mendoza, D Salinas-Sánchez, L Valencia-Cuevas, A Zamilpa, E Tovar-Sánchez
Natural hybridization has significant ecological, genetic and evolutionary consequences altering morphological and chemical characters of individuals. Quercus glabrescens, Q. rugosa and Q. obtusata are white oak species well separated by their morphological characters when they occur in allopatry in Mexican temperate forests. However, in sympatry, individuals with atypical morphology have been observed, suggesting hybridization events. In this study, we determined with microsatellites and secondary metabolites if interspecific gene flow occurs when these three-oak species coexist in sympatry...
August 17, 2018: Plant Biology
G C Amico, D L Nickrent, R Vidal-Russell
The number of host species infected by a mistletoe (host range) is critical in that it influences prevalence, virulence and overall distribution of the parasite; however, macroecological analyses of this life history feature are lacking for many regions. The Andean-Patagonian forest, found along the southern Andes from 35 °S to Tierra del Fuego at 55 °S, contains 12 mistletoe species in three families (Loranthaceae, Misodendraceae and Santalaceae). By tabulating herbarium records, the host ranges and geographical distributions of these mistletoes were explored...
August 16, 2018: Plant Biology
D Niu, C Zhang, P Ma, H Fu, J J Elser
Based on the elemental composition of major biochemical molecules associated with different biological functions, the 'growth rate hypothesis' proposed that organisms with a higher growth rate would be coupled to lower C:N, especially lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the growth rate hypothesis for plants is unclear, especially for shrubs growing under different water supply. We performed an experiment with eight soil moisture levels (soil water content: 4%, 6%, 8%, 13%, 18%, 23%, 26% and 28%) to evaluate the effects of water availability on leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in the shrub Zygophyllum xanthoxylum...
August 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Eva Ivanov Kavkova, Constantin Blöchl, Raimund Tenhaken
Ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis in plants predominantly occurs via a pathway with D-mannose and L-galactose as intermediates. One alternative pathway for AsA synthesis, which is similar to the biosynthesis route in mammals, is controversially discussed for plants. Here, myo-inositol is cleaved to glucuronic acid and then converted via L-gulonate to AsA. In contrast to animals, plants have an effective recycling pathway for glucuronic acid being a competitor for the metabolic rate. Recycling involves a phosphorylation at C1 by the enzyme glucuronokinase...
August 13, 2018: Plant Biology
D Du, M Liu, Y Xing, X Chen, Y Zhang, M Zhu, X Lu, Q Zhang, Y Ling, X Sang, Y Li, C Zhang, G He
Plants have evolved a sophisticated two-branch defence system to prevent the growth and spread of pathogen infection. The novel Cys-rich repeat (CRR) containing receptor-like kinases, known as CRKs, were reported to mediate defence resistance in plants. For rice, there are only two reports of CRKs. A semi-dominant lesion mimic mutant als1 (apoptosis leaf and sheath 1) in rice was identified to demonstrate spontaneous lesions on the leaf blade and sheath. A map-based cloning strategy was used for fine mapping and cloning of ALS1, which was confirmed to be a typical CRK in rice...
August 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Y Dong, A A Teleman, C Jedmowski, M Wirtz, R Hell
Low temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that affect global survival of humans and animals and equally importantly the distribution of plants and crop productivity. Survival of metazoan cells under cold stress requires regulation of the sensor-kinase Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). TOR controls growth of eukaryotic cells by adjusting anabolic and catabolic metabolism. Previous studies identified the Thyroid Adenoma Associated (THADA) gene as the major effect locus by positive selection in the evolution of modern human adapted to cold...
August 11, 2018: Plant Biology
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