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Plant Biology

Shiyu Ma, Pieter De Frenne, Safaa Wasof, Jörg Brunet, Sara Ao Cousins, Guillaume Decocq, Annette Kolb, Isa Lemke, Jaan Liira, Tobias Naaf, Anna Orczewska, Jan Plue, Monika Wulf, Kris Verheyen
Climate change is driving movements of many plants beyond, as well as within, their current distributional ranges. Even migrant plants moving within their current range may experience different plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) because of divergent nonlocal biotic soil conditions. Yet, our understanding to what extent soil biotic conditions can affect the performance of within-range migrant plants is still very limited. We assessed the emergence and growth of migrant forest herbs (Milium effusum and Stachys sylvatica) using soils and seeds collected along a 1,700 km latitudinal gradient across Europe...
January 19, 2019: Plant Biology
Johanne Brunet, Ross Ziobro, Jay Osvatic, Murray K Clayton
Pollen viability affects the probability that a pollen grain deposited on a plant's stigma will produce a viable seed. Because a mature seed is needed before a gene flow event can occur, pollen viability will influence the risk of escape for genetically-engineered (GE) crops. Pollen viability was measured at intervals for up to two hours following removal of the pollen from the anthers. It was quantified at three temperatures and for different alfalfa varieties, including both conventional and Roundup Ready (RR) varieties...
January 17, 2019: Plant Biology
Min Yang, Guo-Cui Deng, Yan-Bing Gong, Shuang-Quan Huang
It has been hypothesized that intense metabolism of nectar-inhabiting yeasts (NIYs) may change nectar chemistry including volatile profile which may affect pollinator foraging behaviours and consequently plant fitness. However, empirical evidence for the plant-microbe-pollinator interactions remains little known. To test this hypothesis, we use a bumblebee-pollinated vine Clematis akebioides endemic to southwest China as an experimental model plant. To quantify the incidence and density of Metschnikowia reukaufii, a cosmopolitan NIY in floral nectar, a combination of yeast cultivation and microscopic cell-counting method was used...
January 13, 2019: Plant Biology
B Vlasáková, J Pinc, F Jůna, Z Kotyková Varadínová
Cockroaches have rarely been documented as pollinators. In this paper we examine whether this is because they might be inefficient at pollination compared to other pollinators. Clusia blattophila, a dioecieous shrub growing on isolated rocky outcrops in French Guiana, is pollinated by Amazonina platystylata cockroaches and provides a valuable system for the study of cockroach pollination efficiency. We examined the species composition of the visitor guild and visitation rates by means of camcorder recordings and visitor sampling...
January 8, 2019: Plant Biology
Cheng Zhang, Huili Li, Congying Yuan, Shucan Liu, Meiling Li, JingJing Zhu, Xiaoxia Lin, Yan Lu, Xinhong Guo
Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme in higher organisms, plays an essential role in plant development and diverse abiotic stresses. CKB1 is a regulatory subunit beta of CK2. For expanding our understand of functions of CKB1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, proteins changes among wild-type (WT) and CKB1 gain- and loss-of-function mutants were compared. Proteins extracted from CKB1 knockout mutant and over-expressing mutant were compared with Col-0 plants by 2D-PAGE. Proteins regulated by CKB1 were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and its transcript was verified by qRT-PCR...
December 31, 2018: Plant Biology
Salvatore Esposito, Riccardo Aversano, James M Bradeen, Antonio Di Matteo, Clizia Villano, Domenico Carputo
Among wild species used in potato breeding, Solanum commersonii displays the highest tolerance to low temperatures under both acclimated (ACC) and non-acclimated (NACC) conditions. It is also the first wild potato relative with a known whole genome sequence. Recent studies have shown that abiotic stresses induce changes in the expression of many small non-coding RNA (sncRNA). Therefore, we determined the small non-coding RNA (sncRNAome) of two clones of S. commersonii contrasting in their cold response phenotypes via smRNAseq...
December 31, 2018: Plant Biology
Carmen Arena, Ermenegilda Vitale, Bruno Hay Mele, Pia Rosa Cataletto, Mimmo Turano, Palma Simoniello, Veronica De Micco
The realisation of manned Space exploration requires the development of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs). In such self-sufficient closed habitats, higher plants have a fundamental role in air regeneration, water recovery, food production and waste recycling. In the Space environment, ionising radiation represents one of the main constraints to plant growth. In this study, we explore whether low doses of heavy ions, namely Ca 25 Gy, delivered at the seed stage, may induce positive outcomes on growth and functional traits in plants of Solanum lycopersicum L...
December 26, 2018: Plant Biology
Stefano Papazian, James D Blande
The focus of this review is on how plants respond to combinations of multiple air pollutants. Global pollution trends, plant physiological responses, and ecological perspectives in natural and agricultural systems, are all discussed. In particular, we highlight the importance of studying sequential or simultaneous exposure of plants to pollutants, rather than exposure to individual pollutants in isolation, and explore how these responses may interfere with the way plants interact with their biotic community...
December 25, 2018: Plant Biology
A Cochrane
The study of climate-driven effects on seed traits such as germination has gained momentum over the past decade as the impact of global warming becomes more apparent on the health and survival of plant diversity. Seed response to warming was evaluated in a suite of short-range endemic species from the biodiverse Greenstone Belt of southern Western Australia. The temperature dimensions for germination in 20 woody perennials were identified using small un-replicated samples over 6 weeks on a temperature gradient plate (constant and fluctuating temperatures between 5 and 40 °C)...
December 17, 2018: Plant Biology
Egli C Georgiadou, Georgios Koubouris, Vlasios Goulas, Chrysi Sergentani, Nikolaos Nikoloudakis, George A Manganaris, Panagiotis Kalaitzis, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Vitamin E is a general term used to describe a group of eight lipophilic compounds known as tocochromanols. These vitamin E variants are chemically categorized into two classes formed by α-, β-, γ-, and δ- tocopherols and tocotrienols isoforms, respectively. The present study describes the concurrent regulation of genes and metabolites orchestrating vitamin E biosynthesis in olive drupes of five distinctive Greek olive cultivars. A combination of physiological, analytical, biochemical and molecular approaches was employed in order to carry out comparative analyses including real-time RT-qPCR for gene expression levels and HPLC analysis of metabolite contents...
December 17, 2018: Plant Biology
Mar Sobral, José Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Cyrille Violle, Asier R Larrinaga
Within-individual trait variation -otherwise known as subindividual variation- is an important component of phenotypic variation, with a genetic and epigenetic basis. We explore its adaptive value and the effects of ontogeny and the environment on subindividual variability. We conducted a field study to analyze the effects of tree age, soil pH, soil water content, and soil nutrients on subindividual variability in fruit size of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in three sites in Northwestern Spain. Additionally, we examined how bird-mediated selection influences average and subindividual variation in fruit size...
December 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Lugui Sortibrán, Miguel Verdú, Alfonso Valiente-Banuet
Plant facilitation promotes coexistence by maintaining differences in the regeneration niche because some nurse species recruit under arid conditions, whereas facilitated species recruit under more mesic conditions. In one Mexican community, 95% of species recruit through facilitation, being Mimosa luisana a keystone nurse for many of them. M. luisana individuals manifest greater fitness when growing in association with their facilitated plants than when growing in isolation. This observation suggests that nurses also benefit from their facilitated plants, a benefit thought to be mediated by mycorrhizal fungi...
December 9, 2018: Plant Biology
Anish Kundu, Jyothilakshmi Vadassery
Chlorogenic acid is one of the most abundant beneficial polyphenols in plants and is well known as nutritional anti-oxidant in plant based foods. Apart from its dietary antioxidant activity, it has been proven to be an efficient defense molecule against a broad range of insect herbivores. In the last two decades, several reports have shown the effectiveness of chlorogenic acid for insect's growth deterrence. Biosynthetic pathway for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis in plants was previously elucidated and metabolic engineering of the principal pathway showed high chlorogenic acid production in tomato plants...
December 6, 2018: Plant Biology
Elisa Poltronieri Filipin, Débora Tomazi Pereira, Luciane Cristina Ouriques, Zenilda Laurita Bouzon, Carmen Simioni
This study aimed to examine evidence of direct interaction among actin, myosin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the polarization and formation of the tetraspore germ tube of Gelidium floridanum. After release, tetraspores were exposed to cytochalasin B, latrunculin B, LY294002 and BDM for a period of 6 hours. In control samples, formation of the germ tube occurred after the experimental period with cellulose formation and elongated chloroplasts moving through the tube region with the presence of F-actin...
November 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Saranya Srisuwan, Darasingh Sihachakr, Joan Martín, Joan Vallès, Adrienne Ressayre, Spencer C Brown, Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev
Genome size evolution, and its relationships with pollen grain size, has been investigated in the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), an economically important crop, and closely related diploid and tetraploid species, assessing the nuclear DNA content of 22 accessions from five Ipomoea species, 10 sweet potato varieties and two outgroup taxa. Nuclear DNA amounts were determined by flow cytometry. Pollen grains have been studied at scanning and transmission electron microscopy. 2C DNA content of hexaploid I. batatas ranged over 3...
November 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Y Zhu, Y Li, S Zhang, X Zhang, J Yao, Q Luo, F Sun, X Wang
The prevention of Botrytis cinerea infection and the study of grape seedlessness are very important for grape industries. Finding correlated regulatory genes is an important approach towards understanding their molecular mechanisms. Ethylene responsive factor (ERF) gene family play critical roles in defence networks and the growth of plants. To date, no large-scale study of the ERF proteins associated with pathogen defence and ovule development has been performed in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In the present study, we identified 113 ERF genes (VvERF) and named them based on their chromosome locations...
November 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Andrea Balmer, Gaétan Glauser, Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ivan Baccelli
We have recently discovered that β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a molecule known for its ability to prime defenses in plants, is a natural plant metabolite. However, the role played by endogenous BABA in plants is currently unknown. In this study we investigated the systemic accumulation of BABA during pathogen infection, the levels of BABA during plant growth and development, and analyzed mutants possibly involved in BABA transport or regulation. BABA was quantified by LC-MS using an improved method adapted from a previously published protocol...
November 17, 2018: Plant Biology
K F Fang, B S Du, Q Zhang, Y Xing, Q Q Cao, L Qin
Boron (B) is essential for plant normal growth including pollen tube growth. B deficiency influences various physiological and metabolic processes of plants. However, the underlying mechanism of B deficiency in pollen tube growth is insufficiently understood. In the present research, the influence of B deficiency on apple (Malus domestica) pollen tube growth was studied and the possible regulatory mechanism was evaluated. Apple pollen grains were cultured under different concentrations of B. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique, fluorescent labeling and Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR) were used to detect calcium ion flux, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt), actin filaments and cell wall components of pollen tubes...
November 16, 2018: Plant Biology
S Magrini, M De Vitis, D Torelli, L Santi, L Zucconi
Good-quality dry seeds of some orchids have the potential to survive for decades under conventional seed bank conditions, but further research is needed to fill existing gaps in knowledge regarding seed behaviour under long-term dry storage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate germination ability on two asymbiotic culture media with different nitrogen source; to assess seed desiccation tolerance needed for the storage at sub-zero temperatures; and to study the effects of dry storage at low temperature...
November 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Lucas A Cernusak
In this review, I first address the basics of gas exchange, water-use efficiency, and carbon isotope discrimination in C3 plant canopies. I then present a case study of water-use efficiency in northern Australian tree species. In general, C3 plants face a trade-off whereby increasing stomatal conductance for a given set of conditions will result in a higher CO2 assimilation rate, but a lower photosynthetic water-use efficiency. A common garden experiment suggested that tree species which are able to establish and grow in drier parts of northern Australia have a capacity to use water rapidly when it is available through high stomatal conductance, but that they do so at the expense of low water-use efficiency...
November 14, 2018: Plant Biology
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