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Plant Biology

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Susanne Lachmuth
Primary colonization in invasive ranges most commonly occurs in disturbed habitats, where anthropogenic disturbance may cause physical damage in plants. The tolerance to such damage may differ between cytotypes and among populations as a result of differing population histories (adaptive differentiation between ruderal vs. natural habitats). Moreover, founder populations often experience inbreeding depression, the effects of which may increase through physical damage due to inbreeding-environment interactions...
September 18, 2017: Plant Biology
Tom J de Jong, Karla Escobedo Quevedo, Karin C A M van der Veen-van Wijk, Mahmoud Moshgani
Crossings between the diploid wild Brassica rapa (AA, 2n=20) and the tetraploid cultivar B. napus (AACC, 2n=38) can readily be made. Backcrosses to the wild B. rapa (BC1 ) produce aneuploids with variable chromosome numbers between 20 and 29. How does survival and performance relate to DNA content of plants? Growth of the BC1 plants was measured in the lab. One plant in the F1 self-pollinated spontaneously and produced abundant F2 seeds that were also examined. The number of C-chromosomes was estimated from DNA-values obtained with flow cytometry...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
Qin Li, Hui-Min Yu, Xia-Fei Meng, Ji-Shan Lin, Yan-Jie Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Although plant glycosyltransferases are thought to play important roles in growth and interaction with environments, little is known about their physiological roles for the most members of plant glycosyltransferase family. We cloned and characterized an Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase gene UGT76E11. Its in vivo physiological effects in flavonoid accumulation and plant tolerance to abiotic stresses were investigated. UGT76E11 gene was up-regulated in transcription expression under various stress conditions including salinity, drought and H2 O2 treatment...
September 13, 2017: Plant Biology
Pablo Vargas, Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Ruben Heleno
A review of 27 species-rich and species-poor plant clades (26 genera) of angiosperms of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed considering phylogenetic and biological data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of the Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (40-23 Ma), far earlier than the historically proposed onset of the Mediterranean climate (c. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 clades of the species-poor group (14 clades) have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six clades within the species-rich group (13 clades) show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene...
September 11, 2017: Plant Biology
Md Tohidul Islam, Hashmath Inayath Hussain, James Edward Rookes, David Miles Cahill
The plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of disease in numerous species, is a major threat to natural vegetation and has economic impacts in agriculture. The pathogen principally invades the root system which, in susceptible species, is rapidly colonised and functionally destroyed. Few species are resistant, however, where resistance is expressed the pathogen is restricted to small, localised lesions. The molecular mechanisms that underpin this response in resistant species are not well understood...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biology
Chen Qian, Chaofan Cui, Xiaojuan Wang, Chuanyu Zhou, Ping Hu, Meina Li, Ruochen Li, Jin Xiao, Xiue Wang, Peidu Chen, Liping Xing, Aizhong Cao
A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. In this study, the transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and its recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were also conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis were performed for functional study...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biology
Bing Wang, Ning Wang, Na Song, Wumei Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Xiaojie Wang, Zhensheng Kang
Brachypodium distachyon (L.) (B. distachyon) has recently emerged as a model for temperate grasses for investigating the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. Phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) plays a regulatory role in mediating expression of genes involved in plant defense. In this research, we generated transgenic B. distachyon plants constitutively overexpressing AtPAD4. Two transgenic B. distachyon lines were verified by PCR and GUS phenotype. Constitutive expression of AtPAD4 in B. distachyon enhanced resistance to Puccinia brachypodii (P...
August 23, 2017: Plant Biology
Fang-Li Luo, Ya-Ping Xing, Guan-Wen Wei, Chao-Yang Li, Fei-Hai Yu
Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous environmental pollutant with high toxicity to plants, which has been detected in many wetlands. Clonal integration (resource translocation) between connected ramets of clonal plants can increase their tolerance to stress. We thus hypothesized that clonal integration facilitates spread of amphibious clonal plants from terrestrial to Cd-contaminated aquatic habitats. The spread of an amphibious grass Paspalum paspaloides was simulated by growing basal older ramets in uncontaminated soil connected (allowing integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) to apical younger ramets of the same fragments in Cd-contaminated water...
August 23, 2017: Plant Biology
Fernanda Baena-Díaz, Juan Fornoni, Paula Sosenski, Stephen G Weller, César A Domínguez
(1)Pollen and stigma size have the potential of influencing male fitness of hermaphroditic plants, particularly in species presenting floral polymorphisms characterized by marked differences in these traits among floral morphs. In this study, we take advantage of the evolutionary transition from tristyly to distyly experienced by Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae) and examined whether modifications in the ancillary traits (pollen and stigma size) respond to allometric changes in other floral traits. Also, we tested if these modifications are in accordance with what would be expected under the hypothesis that novel competitive scenarios (as in distylous derived reproductive system) exerts morph- and whorl-specific selective pressures to match the available stigmas...
August 23, 2017: Plant Biology
Amaru Magnin, Cristian Daniel Torres, Ricardo Villalba, Javier Guido Puntieri
The extent to which a vertical trunk is differentiated from its branches is a key trait for the architecture of trees and may affect interspecific relationships. In this study, we analyzed the effect of soil water availability on biomass partitioning for Nothofagus pumilio by means of a nursery experiment. Juvenile trees were subject to three irrigation conditions: no irrigation, intermediate irrigation and high irrigation. Irrigation conditions emulated the mean precipitation of the most representative environments inhabited by N...
August 23, 2017: Plant Biology
Erik Rodríguez-García, Eduardo T Mezquida, José M Olano
Changes in land use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, there is a scarce knowledge on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera...
August 19, 2017: Plant Biology
Cesar A Ordoñez-Salanueva, Alma Orozco-Segovia, Margarita Canales-Martínez, Charlotte E Seal, Hugh W Pritchard, Cesar M Flores-Ortiz
Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, we studied over a five year period the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of P. chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico...
August 8, 2017: Plant Biology
Yupeng Wang, Shuangqin Tang, Huizhen Chen, Zhifeng Wu, Huan Zhang, Erchao Duan, Qinghua Shi, Ziming Wu
Metabolism of strigolactones (SLs) can improve the efficiency of nutrient use by regulating the development of roots and shoots in crops, making them an important research focus for molecular breeding. However, as a momentous plant hormone, the molecular mechanism of SL signal transduction still remains largely unknown. In this study, we isolated an indica high-tillering dwarf mutant 4 (htd4), a spontaneous mutant of rice from the restorer line Gui99. Mapping and sequencing analysis showed that htd4 was a novel allelic mutant of D14, in which a single base substitution forms a premature termination codon...
August 8, 2017: Plant Biology
Marco Porceddu, Efisio Mattana, Hugh W Pritchard, Gianluigi Bacchetta
Threshold-based thermal time models provide insight to the physiological switch from the dormant to the non-dormant, germinating seed. This approach was used to quantify the different growth responses of the embryo of seeds purported to have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) through the complex phases of dormancy release and germination. Aquilegia barbaricina seeds were incubated at constant temperatures (10 - 25°C) and 25/10°C, without pre-treatment, after warm+cold stratification (W+C), and GA3 treatment...
August 1, 2017: Plant Biology
José Neiva Mesquita-Neto, Bruna Karen Pinheiro Costa, Clemens Schlindwein
Heteranthery, the presence of feeding and pollinating anthers in the same flower, seems to mediate the evolutionary dilemma for plants to protect their gametes and yet provide food for pollinators. This study aims to elucidate the role of heteranthery in the buzz-pollinated Senna reniformis. The fecundity of pollen from long, medium and short-sized anthers was determined by hand cross-pollination experiments, and the quantity, size, ornamentation and viability of pollen of different anthers were compared. Rates of flower rejection by bees were measured in anther removal experiments to assess the preferences of flower visitors for feeding or pollinating anthers...
August 1, 2017: Plant Biology
T Amorim, B Marazzi, A A Soares, E R Forni-Martins, C R Muniz, C Westerkamp
Naturalists Fritz and Hermann Müller hypothesised that heteranthery often leads to a division of labour into 'feeding' and 'pollinating' stamens; the latter often being as long as the pistil so as to promote successful pollination on the bees' back. In many buzz-pollinated species of Senna, however, the so-called pollinating stamens are short and not level with the stigma, raising the question of how pollen is shed on the bees' back. Here we explore a mechanism called 'ricochet pollination'. We test whether division of labour is achieved through the interaction between short lower stamens and strongly concave 'deflector petals'...
July 27, 2017: Plant Biology
Laura Pistelli, Virginia Ulivieri, Silvia Giovanelli, Luciano Avio, Manuela Giovannetti, Luisa Pistelli
Secondary metabolites may be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are beneficial symbionts associated with the roots of most plant species. Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H.Stirt is known as a source of several phytochemicals and therefore used in folk medicine as vulnerary, cicatrizing, disinfectant agent. Characteristic metabolites found in B. bituminosa are furanocoumarins and pterocarpans which are used in cosmetics and as chemotherapeutic agents. Here we address the question whether AMF inoculation may affect positively the synthesis of these phytochemicals...
July 27, 2017: Plant Biology
Sandra Varga, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
In gynodioecious plants, females are expected to produce more or better seeds than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained within the same population. Even though rarely measured, higher seed production can be achieved through differences in physiology. In this work, we measured sexual dimorphism in several physiological traits in the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and isotopic signatures were measured in plants growing in two habitats differing in light availability...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
A Jesus Muñoz-Pajares, Francisco Perfectti, João Loureiro, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Paolo Biella, Mariana Castro, Sílvia Castro, Jose M Gómez
Polyploidization has played an important role in plant diversification, and variation in ploidy level may be found not only between species of the same genus, but also within a single species. Although establishing the adaptive significance of polyploidy to explain the geographic distribution of cytotypes is challenging, the occurrence of different cytotypes in different ecological niches may suggest an adaptive role of genome duplication. We have studied the adaptive significance of the geographic distribution of cytotypes across the entire distribution range of the endemic Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae)...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
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