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Plant Biology

Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, M S Madhav, P B Kirti
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) protein regulates growth and development in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. Though the TOR regulatory networks are involved in nutrient and energy signaling, and transcriptional and translational control of multiple signaling pathways, the molecular mechanism of TOR regulation of plant abiotic stress responses is still unclear. The TOR-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes encoding Ribosomal Proteins (RPs) is a necessity under stress conditions for balanced growth and productivity in plants...
November 9, 2018: Plant Biology
Regino Zamora, Ana Mellado
Climate change will alter the biotic and abiotic environment and dissipate ecological barriers, reorganizing maps of current distribution of parasites and their hosts. In this study, we analyse the population dynamics of the parasitic plant Viscum album subsp. austriacum and explore key biotic (host availability and seed dispersal) as well as abiotic (temperature) factors influencing elevational distribution. The study was conducted along an ample elevational gradient of a Mediterranean mountain, covering the distribution belts of three potential pine hosts: Pinus halepensis (1300-1500 m), P...
November 8, 2018: Plant Biology
Thomas Henneresse, Aurélien Kaiser, Renate A Wesselingh, Daniel Tyteca
In Angiosperms, a decrease of fruit production towards the apex of individual inflorescences is usually observed. Orchids are thought to be primarily pollination-limited species and non-uniform pollination could cause this decrease pattern in several species. Fruit production was investigated in relation to flower position and floral display size in Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae), a deceptive species. During two years, eight populations of O. militaris were studied and fruit position along the inflorescence was recorded...
November 2, 2018: Plant Biology
P E Novo, F Galdeano, F Espinoza, C L Quarin
Paspalum is a noteworthy grass genus due to the forage quality of most species, the total number of approximately 330 species, and the high proportion of those that reproduce via apomixis. Harnessing apomictic reproduction and widening the knowledge about the cytogenetic relationships among species are elemental tools for plant breeding. We conducted cytogenetic analyses of inter- and intraspecific hybridizations involving a sexual, colchicine-induced autotetraploid plant of P.plicatulum Michx. and five indigenous apomictic tetraploid (2n = 40) species: P...
November 1, 2018: Plant Biology
Patrik Mráz, Pavel Zdvořák, Matthias Hartmann, Michal Štefánek, Jindřich Chrtek
Though reproductive assurance has been suggested to be one of the most important factors shaping the differential distributional patterns between sexuals and asexuals (geographical parthenogenesis), it has only rarely been studied in natural populations of vascular plants with autonomous apomixis. Moreover, there are almost no data concerning the putative relationship between the level of apomictic versus sexual reproduction on one hand, and reproductive assurance on the other. We assessed the level of sexual versus apomictic reproduction in diploid and triploid plants of Hieracium alpinum across its distributional range using flow cytometric analyses of seeds, and compared the level of potential and realized seed sets, i...
October 28, 2018: Plant Biology
Chengcheng Li, Haiyan Li, Yunfei Yang
Senescence is a puzzling phenomenon. Few convincing studies of senescence in perennial herbaceous plants exist. While ramets senesce apparently, whether the senescence of bunchgrasses actually occurs is not clear. In this study, we grew a set of plants of Elymus excelsus, a bunchgrass, to examine plant size, sexual reproduction and bud formation in individual plants in relation to their gradual ageing, intending to determine whether E. excelsus experiences senescence. We collected data in two consecutive years (2009 and 2010) from field samples of plants which were one to five years old...
October 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Elena Castillo-Lorenzo, Hugh W Pritchard, William E Finch-Savage, Charlotte E Seal
Seed functional traits of native Helianthus species contribute towards ecosystems services but limitations to their use in managed programmes exist. Many perennial Helianthus possess seed dormancy. The ability for germination to occur under different temperature and drought conditions, as well as the capacity of germinated seeds to convert into normal seedlings is rarely considered. Our aim was to identify and quantify these constraints through functional trait analyses. In five seed lots of native Helianthus (four perennial and one annual) and five genotypes of sunflower (H...
October 24, 2018: Plant Biology
Márcio Shigueaki Mito, Adriano Antonio Silva, Fernanda Lima Kagami, Jéssica Dario de Almeida, Gislaine Cristiane Mantovanelli, Mauro Cezar Barbosa, Kátia Aparecida Kern-Cardoso, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto
The exogenous applications of plant hormones and their analogues have been exploited to improve crop performance in the field. Protodioscin is a saponin whose steroidal moiety in its structure has some similarities with plant steroidal hormones brassinosteroids. To test the possibility that protodioscin acts as an agonist or antagonist of brassinosteroids or other plant growth regulator, in this work, we compared the responses of the weed species Bidens pilosa L. to treatment with protodioscin, brassinosteroids, auxins and abscisic acid (ABA)...
October 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Julia Jaca, Manuel Nogales, Anna Traveset
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oceanic island ecosystems favor the appearance of novel interactions as a consequence of their depauperate and disharmonic flora and fauna. Echium simplex, endemic to the Anaga Biosphere Reserve in NE Tenerife, Canary Islands, belongs to the Canarian bird-flower element. METHODS: Along two flowering seasons, we studied its breeding system, identified the floral visitors, and compared the pollination effectiveness of different animal guilds (insects vs...
October 17, 2018: Plant Biology
Alfredo López-Caamal, Lilian Florencia Ferrufino-Acosta, Rina Fabiola Díaz-Maradiaga, Dagoberto Rodríguez-Delcid, Patricia Mussali-Galante, Efraín Tovar-Sánchez
The impacts of the historical geologic and climatic events on the diversity and genetic structure of Neotropical taxa have recently become a subject of study. However, annual plants associated to tropical dry forests remain understudied. The exploration of additional taxa in contrasting environments will improve the current understanding of responses of the Neotropical biota to those events. Here, we explored the species distribution and the geographic structure of the annual herb Tithonia rotundifolia. We sampled 175 individuals from 19 populations of T...
October 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Aimé Rubini Pisano, Marcela Moré, Mauricio A Cisternas, Robert A Raguso, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra
Phenotypic intermediacy is an indicator of putative hybrid origin, and has provided the main clues to discovering hybrid plants in nature. Mandevilla pentlandiana and M. laxa (Apocynaceae) are sister species with clear differences in floral phenotype and associated pollinator guilds: diurnal Hymenoptera and nocturnal hawkmoths, respectively. The presence of individuals with intermediate phenotypes in a wild population raises questions about the roles of visual and olfactory signals (i.e. corolla morphology and floral fragrances) as barriers to interbreeding, and how the breakdown of floral isolation occurs...
October 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Yuki Osako, Naoki Takata, Nuoendagula, Shinnosuke Ishikawa, Taishi Umezawa, Toru Taniguchi, Shinya Kajita
Gene duplication in plants occurs via several different mechanisms, including whole-genome duplication, and the copied genes acquire various forms and types. The cellulose synthase (CesA) family functions in cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) formation, which is involved in the synthesis of primary and secondary cell walls in plants. In the genome of Populus, 17 CesAs have been annotated, and some of them have appeared by whole-genome duplication. The nucleotide sequence of the duplicated genes has changed during subsequent evolution, and functional differentiation of the genes might have occurred...
October 13, 2018: Plant Biology
Ursula Scheerer, Florian Netzer, Andrea Franziska Bauer, Cornelia Herschbach
Phosphorus (P) nutrition of beech ecosystems depends on soil processes, plant internal P cycling and P acquisition. P uptake of trees in the field is currently not validated due to the lack of an experimental approach applicable in natural forests. Application of radiolabeled tracers such as 33 P and 32 P is limited to special research sites and not allowed in natural environments and, furthermore, only one stable isotope of P namely 31 P exist. One alternative tool to measure P acquisition in the field could be the use of 18 O-enriched 31 P-phosphate (Pi )...
October 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Ali El-Keblawy, Sameh Soliman, Racha Al-Khoury, Afrah Ghauri, Haya Al Rammah, Sakina E Hussain, Shaikha Rashid, Zara Manzoor
Seed germination of Citrullus colocynthis, as in many other species of Cucurbitaceae, is inhibited by light, particularly at low temperatures. Germination response to light and temperature has been attributed to day length and temperature during seed maturation. This study assessed the effects of these factors on the germination response of C. colocynthis to temperature and light quality. Ripened fruits were collected from natural habitats during December and February and germinated at three temperatures (15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 °C) in five light treatments {dark, white light and Red:Far Red (R:FR) ratios of 0...
October 11, 2018: Plant Biology
B Djian, E Hornung, T Ischebeck, I Feussner
The green microalga Lobosphaera incisa is an oleaginous eukaryotic alga that is rich in arachidonic acid (20:4). Being rich in this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), however, makes it sensitive to oxidation. In plants, lipoxygenases (LOXs) are the major enzymes that oxidise these molecules. Here, we describe, to our best knowledge, the first characterisation of a cDNA encoding a LOX (LiLOX) from a green alga. To obtain first insights into its function, we expressed it in E. coli, purified the recombinant enzyme and analysed its enzyme activity...
October 1, 2018: Plant Biology
Phabliny M S Bomfim, João C F Cardoso, Uiara C Rezende, Vitor C Martini, Denis C Oliveira
1.Several studies have hypothesized why galls have conspicuous colors, but none of the ideas was confirmed. However, what if the vibrant colors of some galls are explained simply by the effect of light exposure? This may lead to anthocyanin accumulation, functioning as a defense mechanism against the sunlight effects. 2.We studied the globoid galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) on Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae), relating anthocyanin accumulation and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to light incidence in abaxial and adaxial galls...
September 26, 2018: Plant Biology
P Tripathi, A Chandra, J Prakash
Drought is one of the most serious environmental factors limiting production of sugarcane worldwide. In order to assess the influence of gibberellins (GA3 ) on drought and plant growth, along with associated physio-biochemical attributes, expression of eight drought-responsive genes were quantified and analysed. At grand growth stage (120 DAP) two sugarcane varieties (CoLk94184, CoPK05191) were exposed to drought by withholding irrigation. GA3 (35 ppm) was applied using battery-operated uniform controlled dispensing sprayer twice at 1-week intervals on 2-week drought-stressed plants...
September 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Sandra Varga, Carl D Soulsbury
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression in plants. DNA methylation has been shown to vary among species and also among plant tissues. However, no study has evaluated whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi affect DNA methylation levels in a tissue-specific manner. We investigated whether symbiosis with AM fungi affects DNA methylation in the host, focusing on different plant tissues (roots vs. leaves) and across time. We carried out a 6-month pot experiment using Geranium robertianum in symbiosis with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae...
September 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Sándor Szabó, Edwin T H M Peeters, Gábor Várbíró, Gábor Borics, Balázs A Lukács
Two closely related alien submerged aquatic plants were introduced in Europe. The new invader (Elodea nuttallii) gradually displaced E. canadensis even at sites where the latter was well-established. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of environmental factors on several phenotypic characteristics of the two Elodea species, and to relate these phenotypic characteristics to the invasion success of E. nuttallii over E. canadensis. In a factorial design, Elodea plants were grown in aquaria containing five different nitrogen concentrations and incubated at five different light intensities...
September 25, 2018: Plant Biology
G Forlani, M Bertazzini, G Cagnano
In most plant species, a rapid increase in free proline content occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic stress conditions. However, inconsistent results were reported concerning the role of such an increase on the plant response to water shortage or excess salt. Therefore, the possibility that proline accumulation may help the cell to withstand stress conditions, or that it simply represents a stress marker, is still a matter of debate. A possible relationship between proline accumulation and salt tolerance was investigated in a set of 17 Italian rice varieties...
September 25, 2018: Plant Biology
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