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Molecular Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086904/the-lncrna-crnde-promotes-colorectal-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-chemoresistance-via-mir-181a-5p-mediated-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#1
Peng Han, Jing-Wen Li, Bo-Miao Zhang, Jia-Chen Lv, Yong-Min Li, Xin-Yue Gu, Zhi-Wei Yu, Yun-He Jia, Xue-Feng Bai, Li Li, Yan-Long Liu, Bin-Bin Cui
BACKGROUND: With more than 600,000 mortalities each year, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer worldwide. Recently, mechanisms involving noncoding RNAs have been implicated in the development of CRC. METHODS: We examined expression levels of lncRNA CRNDE and miR-181a-5p in 64 cases of CRC tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays were performed to examine the effect of CRNDE and miR-181a-5p on proliferation and chemoresistance of CRC cells...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069000/long-non-coding-rna-tug1-is-involved-in-cell-growth-and-chemoresistance-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-regulating-limk2b-via-ezh2
#2
Yuchun Niu, Feng Ma, Weimei Huang, Shun Fang, Man Li, Ting Wei, Linlang Guo
BACKGROUND: Taurine upregulated gene1 (TUG1) as a 7.1-kb lncRNA, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in various cancers. However, the biological functions of lncRNA TUG1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of TUG1 in cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: The expression of TUG1 in thirty-three cases of SCLC tissues and SCLC cell line were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993170/choosing-the-right-cell-line-for-renal-cell-cancer-research
#3
REVIEW
Klaudia K Brodaczewska, Cezary Szczylik, Michal Fiedorowicz, Camillo Porta, Anna M Czarnecka
Cell lines are still a tool of choice for many fields of biomedical research, including oncology. Although cancer is a very complex disease, many discoveries have been made using monocultures of established cell lines. Therefore, the proper use of in vitro models is crucial to enhance our understanding of cancer. Therapeutics against renal cell cancer (RCC) are also screened with the use of cell lines. Multiple RCC in vitro cultures are available, allowing in vivo heterogeneity in the laboratory, but at the same time, these can be a source of errors...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978829/mir-138-5p-contributes-to-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-targeting-survivin-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#4
Rong Yang, Minghui Liu, Hongwei Liang, Suhan Guo, Xu Guo, Min Yuan, Huibo Lian, Xiang Yan, Shiwei Zhang, Xi Chen, Feng Fang, Hongqian Guo, Chenyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Survivin (encoded by the gene BIRC5) plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. Identifying miRNAs that target Survivin in the setting of bladder cancer will help to develop Survivin-based therapies for bladder cancer. METHODS: The expression levels of miR-138-5p and Survivin protein were measured in 12 resected bladder cancer specimens. The correlation between miR-138-5p and Survivin was further examined by evaluating Survivin expression in human bladder cancer cell lines that either overexpressed or knocked down miR-138-5p...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955654/depletion-of-sag-rbx2-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-suppresses-prostate-tumorigenesis-via-inactivation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-axis
#5
Mingjia Tan, Jie Xu, Javed Siddiqui, Felix Feng, Yi Sun
BACKGROUND: SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2, ROC2 or RNF7, is a RING component of CRL (Cullin-RING ligase), required for its activity. Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 co-operated with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis, but antagonized Kras to inhibit skin tumorigenesis, suggesting a tissue/context dependent function of Sag. However, it is totally unknown whether and how Sag would play in prostate tumorigenesis, triggered by Pten loss. METHODS: Sag and Pten double conditional knockout mice were generated and prostate specific deletion of Sag and Pten was achieved by PB4-Cre, and their effect on prostate tumorigenesis was evaluated by H&E staining...
December 12, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938406/notch-receptors-in-gastric-and-other-gastrointestinal-cancers-oncogenes-or-tumor-suppressors
#6
REVIEW
Tingting Huang, Yuhang Zhou, Alfred S L Cheng, Jun Yu, Ka Fai To, Wei Kang
Gastric cancer (GC) ranks the most common cancer types and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Due to delayed diagnosis and high metastatic frequency, 5-year survival rate of GC is rather low. It is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and host genetic alterations that deregulate multiple signaling pathways. The Notch signaling pathway, a highly conserved system in the regulation of the fate in several cell types, plays a pivotal role in cell differentiation, survival and proliferation...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938379/stat3-signaling-drives-ezh2-transcriptional-activation-and-mediates-poor-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#7
Yuan-Ming Pan, Cheng-Gang Wang, Min Zhu, Rui Xing, Jian-Tao Cui, Wen-Mei Li, De-Dong Yu, Shu-Bin Wang, Wei Zhu, Ying-Jiang Ye, Yun Wu, Shan Wang, You-Yong Lu
BACKGROUND: STAT3 signaling plays the pivotal role in tumorigenesis through EZH2 epigenetic modification, which enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Here, another possible feedback mechanism and clinical significance of EZH2 and STAT3 were investigated in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: STAT3, p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) and EZH2 expression were examined in 63 GC specimens with matched normal tissues by IHC staining. EZH2 and STAT3 were also identified in five GC cell lines using RT-PCR and western blot analyses...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919264/acidic-tumor-microenvironment-abrogates-the-efficacy-of-mtorc1-inhibitors
#8
Seraina Faes, Adrian P Duval, Anne Planche, Emilie Uldry, Tania Santoro, Catherine Pythoud, Jean-Christophe Stehle, Janine Horlbeck, Igor Letovanec, Nicolo Riggi, Nicolas Demartines, Olivier Dormond
BACKGROUND: Blocking the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) with chemical inhibitors such as rapamycin has shown limited clinical efficacy in cancer. The tumor microenvironment is characterized by an acidic pH which interferes with cancer therapies. The consequences of acidity on the anti-cancer efficacy of mTORC1 inhibitors have not been characterized and are thus the focus of our study. METHODS: Cancer cell lines were treated with rapamycin in acidic or physiological conditions and cell proliferation was investigated...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912767/lipocalin2-suppresses-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-by-attenuating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-activation-of-snail-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Meibao Feng, Jieqiong Feng, Wuzhen Chen, Wubin Wang, Xuesong Wu, Jing Zhang, Fangying Xu, Maode Lai
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer and has been involved in metastatic progression. However, neither mechanisms nor the role that LCN2 plays in the metastasis of colorectal cancer are clear. METHODS: LCN2 expression in colorectal cancer was detected by immunohistochemistry in 400 tissue specimens and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. In vitro, real-time PCR, western blot, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence assay, wound healing assay, migration and invasion experiment were performed to investigate the effects of LCN2 in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion, respectively...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887606/cancer-somatic-mutations-cluster-in-a-subset-of-regulatory-sites-predicted-from-the-encode-data
#10
Nisar A Shar, M S Vijayabaskar, David R Westhead
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is essential for cellular differentiation and function, and defects in the process are associated with cancer. The ENCODE project has mapped potential regulatory sites across the complete genome in many cell types, and these regions have been shown to harbour many of the somatic mutations that occur in cancer cells, suggesting that their effects may drive cancer initiation and development. The ENCODE data suggests a very large number of regulatory sites, and methods are needed to identify those that are most relevant and to connect them to the genes that they control...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871326/tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-and-5-ht7-receptor-preferentially-expressed-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-promote-cancer-progression-through-autocrine-serotonin-signaling
#11
Jaya Gautam, Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Subi Ahn, Yong Hyun Jeon, Hyunyoung Jeong, Seung Joo Kim, Tae-Gyu Nam, Byeong-Seon Jeong, Jung-Ae Kim
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high risk of relapse and there are few chemotherapy options. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) signaling pathways have been suggested as potential targets for anti-cancer drug development, the mechanism responsible for the action of 5-HT in TNBC remains unknown. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871300/pi3-kinase-pathway-regulated-mirnome-in-glioblastoma-identification-of-mir-326-as-a-tumour-suppressor-mirna
#12
Zahid Nawaz, Vikas Patil, Yashna Paul, Alangar S Hegde, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh, Kumaravel Somasundaram
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBM) continue to remain one of the most dreaded tumours that are highly infiltrative in nature and easily preclude comprehensive surgical resection. GBMs pose an intricate etiology as they are being associated with a plethora of genetic and epigenetic lesions. Misregulation of the PI3 kinase pathway is one of the most familiar events in GBM. While the PI3 kinase signalling regulated pathways and genes have been comprehensively studied, its impact on the miRNome is yet to be explored...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852311/caveolin-1-in-the-regulation-of-cell-metabolism-a-cancer-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Zeribe Chike Nwosu, Matthias Philip Ebert, Steven Dooley, Christoph Meyer
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an oncogenic membrane protein associated with endocytosis, extracellular matrix organisation, cholesterol distribution, cell migration and signaling. Recent studies reveal that CAV1 is involved in metabolic alterations - a critical strategy adopted by cancer cells to their survival advantage. Consequently, research findings suggest that CAV1, which is altered in several cancer types, influences tumour development or progression by controlling metabolism. Understanding the molecular interplay between CAV1 and metabolism could help uncover druggable metabolic targets or pathways of clinical relevance in cancer therapy...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852308/systems-analysis-identifies-mir-29b-regulation-of-invasiveness-in-melanoma
#14
Miles C Andrews, Joseph Cursons, Daniel G Hurley, Matthew Anaka, Jonathan S Cebon, Andreas Behren, Edmund J Crampin
BACKGROUND: In many cancers, microRNAs (miRs) contribute to metastatic progression by modulating phenotypic reprogramming processes such as epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity. This can be driven by miRs targeting multiple mRNA transcripts, inducing regulated changes across large sets of genes. The miR-target databases TargetScan and DIANA-microT predict putative relationships by examining sequence complementarity between miRs and mRNAs. However, it remains a challenge to identify which miR-mRNA interactions are active at endogenous expression levels, and of biological consequence...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852271/comprehensive-screening-of-target-molecules-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-patients-with-malignant-solid-tumors-guiding-entry-into-phase-i-clinical-trials
#15
LETTER
Yuko Tanabe, Hitoshi Ichikawa, Takashi Kohno, Hiroshi Yoshida, Takashi Kubo, Mamoru Kato, Satoru Iwasa, Atsushi Ochiai, Noboru Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Kenji Tamura
It is still controversial whether comprehensive genome screening of target molecules by next generation sequencing (NGS) is needed to increase clinical efficacy of investigational drugs or accelerate drug development, although several studies are being carried out. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive gene screening in this setting. Our findings indicate that actionable alterations were identified in 45% of the analyzed patients, most frequently in those with breast cancer...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832783/mir-375-induces-docetaxel-resistance-in-prostate-cancer-by-targeting-sec23a-and-yap1
#16
Yuan Wang, Rachel Lieberman, Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Meijun Du, Peng Zhang, Marja Nevalainen, Manish Kohli, Niraj K Shenoy, Hui Meng, Ming You, Liang Wang
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are limited and typically are centered on docetaxel-based chemotherapy. We previously reported that elevated miR-375 levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival of mCRPC patients. In this study, we evaluated if miR-375 induced chemo-resistance to docetaxel through regulating target genes associated with drug resistance. METHODS: We first compared miR-375 expression level between prostate cancer tissues and normal prostate tissues using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
November 10, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825361/cancer-stem-cell-metabolism-a-potential-target-for-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Kedar Deshpande, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a unipotent cell population present within the tumour cell mass. CSCs are known to be highly chemo-resistant, and in recent years, they have gained intense interest as key tumour initiating cells that may also play an integral role in tumour recurrence following chemotherapy. Cancer cells have the ability to alter their metabolism in order to fulfil bio-energetic and biosynthetic requirements. They are largely dependent on aerobic glycolysis for their energy production and also are associated with increased fatty acid synthesis and increased rates of glutamine utilisation...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809841/pharmacological-targeting-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-in-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#18
M Katie Conley-LaComb, Louie Semaan, Rajareddy Singareddy, Yanfeng Li, Elisabeth I Heath, Seongho Kim, Michael L Cher, Sreenivasa R Chinni
BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis transactivates HER2 and promotes intraosseous tumor growth. To further explore the transactivation of HER2 by CXCL12, we investigated the role of small GTP protein Gαi2 in Src and HER2 phosphorylation in lipid raft membrane microdomains and the significance of CXCR4 in prostate cancer bone tumor growth. METHODS: We used a variety of methods such as lipid raft isolation, invasion assays, an in vivo model of intratibial tumor growth, bone histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry to determine the role of CXCR4 signaling in lipid raft membrane microdomains and effects of targeting of CXCR4 for bone tumor growth...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784305/emerging-roles-of-t-helper-17-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-lung-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Erin A Marshall, Kevin W Ng, Sonia H Y Kung, Emma M Conway, Victor D Martinez, Elizabeth C Halvorsen, David A Rowbotham, Emily A Vucic, Adam W Plumb, Daiana D Becker-Santos, Katey S S Enfield, Jennifer Y Kennett, Kevin L Bennewith, William W Lockwood, Stephen Lam, John C English, Ninan Abraham, Wan L Lam
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer risk factors, including smoking and exposure to environmental carcinogens, have been linked to chronic inflammation. An integral feature of inflammation is the activation, expansion and infiltration of diverse immune cell types, including CD4(+) T cells. Within this T cell subset are immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells and pro-inflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) cells that act in a fine balance to regulate appropriate adaptive immune responses...
October 27, 2016: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756408/prediction-of-chemo-response-in-serous-ovarian-cancer
#20
Jesus Gonzalez Bosquet, Andreea M Newtson, Rebecca K Chung, Kristina W Thiel, Timothy Ginader, Michael J Goodheart, Kimberly K Leslie, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Nearly one-third of serous ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients will not respond to initial treatment with surgery and chemotherapy and die within one year of diagnosis. If patients who are unlikely to respond to current standard therapy can be identified up front, enhanced tumor analyses and treatment regimens could potentially be offered. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) serous OVCA database, we previously identified a robust molecular signature of 422-genes associated with chemo-response...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer
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