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Molecular Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549468/microrna-608-inhibits-proliferation-of-bladder-cancer-via-akt-foxo3a-signaling-pathway
#1
Zhen Liang, Xiao Wang, Xin Xu, Bo Xie, Alin Ji, Shuai Meng, Shiqi Li, Yi Zhu, Jian Wu, Zhenghui Hu, Yiwei Lin, Xiangyi Zheng, Liping Xie, Ben Liu
BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that miR-608 is widely down-regulated in various malignant tumors including liver cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer and glioma, and acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and migration or by promoting apoptosis. The specific biological function of miR-608 in bladder cancer is still unknown. METHODS: qRT-PCR and Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization (CISH) was conducted to assess the expression of miR-608 in paired BCa tissues and adjacent non-tumor bladder urothelial tissues...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545464/c10orf10-depp-mediated-ros-accumulation-is-a-critical-modulator-of-foxo3-induced-autophagy
#2
S Salcher, M Hermann, U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, M J Ausserlechner, P Obexer
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and develops from undifferentiated progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. In neuronal tumor cells DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents activate the transcription factor FOXO3 which regulates the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death as well as a longevity program associated with therapy resistance. We demonstrated before that C10ORF10/DEPP, a transcriptional target of FOXO3, localizes to peroxisomes and mitochondria and impairs cellular ROS detoxification...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535767/circrna-functions-and-properties-of-a-novel-potential-biomarker-for-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Shujuan Meng, Hecheng Zhou, Ziyang Feng, Zihao Xu, Ying Tang, Peiyao Li, Minghua Wu
Circular RNAs, a novel class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, are characterized by their covalently closed loop structures without a 5' cap or a 3' Poly A tail. Although the mechanisms of circular RNAs' generation and function are not fully clear, recent research has shown that circular RNAs may function as potential molecular markers for disease diagnosis and treatment and play an important role in the initiation and progression of human diseases, especially in tumours. This review summarizes some information about categories, biogenesis, functions at the molecular level, properties of circular RNAs and the possibility of circular RNAs as biomarkers in cancers...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532501/pik3ca-hotspot-mutations-differentially-impact-responses-to-met-targeting-in-met-driven-and-non-driven-preclinical-cancer-models
#4
Lluís Nisa, Pascal Häfliger, Michaela Poliaková, Roland Giger, Paola Francica, Daniel Matthias Aebersold, Roch-Philippe Charles, Yitzhak Zimmer, Michaela Medová
BACKGROUND: The MET receptor tyrosine kinase represents a promising target in cancer. PIK3CA activating mutations are common in several tumor types and can potentially confer resistance to anti-receptor tyrosine kinase therapy. METHODS: MET and/or PI3K pathway inhibition was assessed in NIH3T3 cells harboring MET-activating point mutation with or without ectopic expression of PIK3CA(E545K) and PIK3CA(H1047R), as well as in MET-expressing head and neck cancer cells with endogenous PIK3CA mutations...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506269/the-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-of-exosomes-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Xiaoduan Li, Xipeng Wang
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the three types of malignant tumors in the female reproductive system, and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is its most typical form. Due to the asymptomatic nature of the early stages and resistance to chemotherapy, EOC has both a poor prognosis and a high fatality rate. Current treatments for OC are very limited, and the 5-years survival rate is approximately 30%. Exosomes, which are microvesicles ranging from approximately 30-100 nm in size that are secreted by living cells, can be produced from different cell types and detected in various body fluids...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499449/perk-induces-resistance-to-cell-death-elicited-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-chemotherapy
#6
Iris C Salaroglio, Elisa Panada, Enrico Moiso, Ilaria Buondonno, Paolo Provero, Menachem Rubinstein, Joanna Kopecka, Chiara Riganti
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, radiotherapy and chemotherapy induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which activates the so-called unfolded protein response (UPR). Extensive and acute ER stress directs the UPR towards activation of death-triggering pathways. Cancer cells are selected to resist mild and prolonged ER stress by activating pro-survival UPR. We recently found that drug-resistant tumor cells are simultaneously resistant to ER stress-triggered cell death. It is not known if cancer cells adapted to ER stressing conditions acquire a chemoresistant phenotype...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490334/hn1-contributes-to-migration-invasion-and-tumorigenesis-of-breast-cancer-by-enhancing-myc-activity
#7
Chen Zhang, Bingfei Xu, Shi Lu, Ying Zhao, Pian Liu
BACKGROUND: Hematological and neurological expressed 1 (HN1) is upregulated in many tumors, but the role of HN1 in breast cancer progression and its regulatory mechanism have not been well understood. METHODS: To study the role of HN1 in the initiation and progression of breast cancer, we examined HN1 levels in breast cancer cells and tissues and analyzed the relationship between HN1 levels and patient survival. We used mammosphere formation assay, side population analysis, wound healing assay, transwell assay, soft agar formation assay, and xenografted tumor model to determine the effect of HN1 on the expansion of breast cancer stem cells, and the migration, invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490335/ing5-suppresses-breast-cancer-progression-and-is-regulated-by-mir-24
#8
Shufang Cui, Xin Liao, Chao Ye, Xin Yin, Minghui Liu, Yeting Hong, Mengchao Yu, Yanqing Liu, Hongwei Liang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen
BACKGROUND: The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family of tumor suppressors is involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. ING5 is a new member of the ING family whose function and regulation remain largely unknown. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to examine the expression levels of ING5 in breast cancer tissues. The miRNAs that potentially targeted ING5 were determined by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486946/thymic-epithelial-tumors-phenotype-relies-on-mir-145-5p-epigenetic-regulation
#9
Teresa Bellissimo, Federica Ganci, Enzo Gallo, Andrea Sacconi, Claudia Tito, Luciana De Angelis, Claudio Pulito, Silvia Masciarelli, Daniele Diso, Marco Anile, Vincenzo Petrozza, Felice Giangaspero, Edoardo Pescarmona, Francesco Facciolo, Federico Venuta, Mirella Marino, Giovanni Blandino, Francesco Fazi
BACKGROUND: Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are the most frequent subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). A relevant advance in TET management could derive from a deeper molecular characterization of these neoplasms. We previously identified a set of microRNA (miRNAs) differentially expressed in TETs and normal thymic tissues and among the most significantly deregulated we described the down-regulation of miR-145-5p in TET. Here we describe the mRNAs diversely regulated in TETs and analyze the correlation between these and the miRNAs previously identified, focusing in particular on miR-145-5p...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476123/epigenetic-down-regulation-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Qiao Liu, Zhuojia Chen, Guanmin Jiang, Yan Zhou, Xiangling Yang, Hongbin Huang, Huanliang Liu, Jun Du, Hongsheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Estrogenic signals are suggested to have protection roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been reported to mediate non-genomic effects of estrogen in hormone related cancers except CRC. Its expression and functions in CRC were investigated. METHODS: The expression of GPER and its associations with clinicopathological features were examined. The mechanisms were further investigated using cells, mouse xenograft models, and clinical human samples...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454577/the-landscape-of-braf-transcript-and-protein-variants-in-human-cancer
#11
Andrea Marranci, Zhijie Jiang, Marianna Vitiello, Elena Guzzolino, Laura Comelli, Samanta Sarti, Simone Lubrano, Cinzia Franchin, Ileabett Echevarría-Vargas, Andrea Tuccoli, Alberto Mercatanti, Monica Evangelista, Paolo Sportoletti, Giorgio Cozza, Ettore Luzi, Enrico Capobianco, Jessie Villanueva, Giorgio Arrigoni, Giovanni Signore, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Letizia Pitto, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Laura Poliseno
BACKGROUND: The BRAF protein kinase is widely studied as a cancer driver and therapeutic target. However, the regulation of its expression is not completely understood. RESULTS: Taking advantage of the RNA-seq data of more than 4800 patients belonging to 9 different cancer types, we show that BRAF mRNA exists as a pool of 3 isoforms (reference BRAF, BRAF-X1, and BRAF-X2) that differ in the last part of their coding sequences, as well as in the length (BRAF-ref: 76 nt; BRAF-X1 and BRAF-X2: up to 7 kb) and in the sequence of their 3'UTRs...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454547/parp1-expression-drives-the-synergistic-antitumor-activity-of-trabectedin-and-parp1-inhibitors-in-sarcoma-preclinical-models
#12
Ymera Pignochino, Federica Capozzi, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, Carmine Dell'Aglio, Marco Basiricò, Marta Canta, Annalisa Lorenzato, Francesca Vignolo Lutati, Sandra Aliberti, Erica Palesandro, Paola Boccone, Danilo Galizia, Sara Miano, Giulia Chiabotto, Lucia Napione, Loretta Gammaitoni, Dario Sangiolo, Maria Serena Benassi, Barbara Pasini, Giovanna Chiorino, Massimo Aglietta, Giovanni Grignani
BACKGROUND: Enhancing the antitumor activity of the DNA-damaging drugs is an attractive strategy to improve current treatment options. Trabectedin is an isoquinoline alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action. It binds to minor groove of DNA inducing single- and double-strand-breaks. These kinds of damage lead to the activation of PARP1, a first-line enzyme in DNA-damage response pathways. We hypothesized that PARP1 targeting could perpetuate trabectedin-induced DNA damage in tumor cells leading finally to cell death...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446200/human-germ-stem-cell-specific-gene-tex19-influences-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-cancer-prognosis
#13
Vicente Planells-Palop, Ali Hazazi, Julia Feichtinger, Jana Jezkova, Gerhard Thallinger, Naif O Alsiwiehri, Mikhlid Almutairi, Lee Parry, Jane A Wakeman, Ramsay J McFarlane
BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT) genes have expression normally restricted to the testis, but become activated during oncogenesis, so they have excellent potential as cancer-specific biomarkers. Evidence is starting to emerge to indicate that they also provide function(s) in the oncogenic programme. Human TEX19 is a recently identified CT gene, but a functional role for TEX19 in cancer has not yet been defined. METHODS: siRNA was used to deplete TEX19 levels in various cancer cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446188/phosphorylation-by-mtorc1-stablizes-skp2-and-regulates-its-oncogenic-function-in-gastric-cancer
#14
Qirong Geng, Jianjun Liu, Zhaohui Gong, Shangxiang Chen, Shuai Chen, Xiaoxing Li, Yue Lu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Hui-Kuan Lin, Dazhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Both mTOR and Skp2 play critical roles in gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis. However, potential mechanisms for the association between these two proteins remains unidentified. METHODS: The regulatory role for mTORC1 in Skp2 stability was tested using ubiquitination assay. The functions of p-Skp2 (phosphorylation of Skp2) were studied in vitro and in vivo. Expression of p-Skp2 and p-mTOR (phosphorylation of mTOR) were shown in GC lines and in 169 human primary GC tissues...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441948/over-expressed-long-noncoding-rna-hoxa11-as-promotes-cell-cycle-progression-and-metastasis-in-gastric-cancer
#15
Zhili Liu, Zhenyao Chen, Ruihua Fan, Bin Jiang, Xin Chen, Qinnan Chen, Fengqi Nie, Kaihua Lu, Ming Sun
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). However, the function and mechanisms responsible for these molecules in GC are not fully understood. In our previous study, we found that GC associated lncRNA HOXA11-AS is significantly upregulated in GC tissues. Over-expressed HOXA11-AS promotes GC cells proliferation and invasion through scaffolding the chromatin modification factors PRC2, LSD1 and DNMT1...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431580/cripto-1-acts-as-a-functional-marker-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-predicts-prognosis-of-the-patients-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Qiang Liu, Xiang Cui, Xi Yu, Bai-Shi-Jiao Bian, Feng Qian, Xu-Gang Hu, Cheng-Dong Ji, Lang Yang, Yong Ren, Wei Cui, Xia Zhang, Peng Zhang, Ji Ming Wang, You-Hong Cui, Xiu-Wu Bian
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highly malignant with highly invasive and metastatic capabilities and poor prognosis. It is believed that the ESCC cancer stem-like cells (ECSLCs) are critical for tumorigenicity, invasion and metastasis of ESCC. However, the properties of ECSLCs vary with different markers used in isolation, so that new and more effective markers of ECSLCs need to be identified. This study aimed to estimate the potentiality of Cripto-1 (CR-1) as an ECSLC surface marker and investigate the clinical significance of CR-1 expression in ESCC...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410618/liquid-biopsy-a-step-forward-towards-precision-medicine-in-urologic-malignancies
#17
REVIEW
Ashley Di Meo, Jenni Bartlett, Yufeng Cheng, Maria D Pasic, George M Yousef
There is a growing trend towards exploring the use of a minimally invasive "liquid biopsy" to identify biomarkers in a number of cancers, including urologic malignancies. Multiple aspects can be assessed in circulating cell-free DNA, including cell-free DNA levels, integrity, methylation and mutations. Other prospective liquid biopsy markers include circulating tumor cells, circulating RNAs (miRNA, lncRNAs and mRNAs), cell-free proteins, peptides and exosomes have also emerged as non-invasive cancer biomarkers...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407774/ros-signaling-under-metabolic-stress-cross-talk-between-ampk-and-akt-pathway
#18
REVIEW
Yang Zhao, Xingbin Hu, Yajing Liu, Shumin Dong, Zhaowei Wen, Wanming He, Shuyi Zhang, Qiong Huang, Min Shi
Cancer cells are frequently confronted with metabolic stress in tumor microenvironments due to their rapid growth and limited nutrient supply. Metabolic stress induces cell death through ROS-induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells can adapt to it by altering the metabolic pathways. AMPK and AKT are two primary effectors in response to metabolic stress: AMPK acts as an energy-sensing factor which rewires metabolism and maintains redox balance. AKT broadly promotes energy production in the nutrient abundance milieu, but the role of AKT under metabolic stress is in dispute...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403883/dc-signr-by-influencing-the-lncrna-hnrnpkp2-upregulates-the-expression-of-cxcr4-in-gastric-cancer-liver-metastasis
#19
Yu Zhang, Qianshi Zhang, Mengyang Zhang, Menglang Yuan, Zhaohui Wang, Jingbo Zhang, Xu Zhou, Yinan Zhang, Fang Lin, Heya Na, Shuangyi Ren, Yunfei Zuo
BACKGROUND: Profiling evidences of selectin demonstrate that they play an crucial role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, DC-SIGNR as a family member of selectin participates in gastric cancer liver metastasis remains unknown. METHODS: The serum level of DC-SIGNR was evaluated in gastric cancer patients by ELISA. Manipulation DC-SIGNR expression in BGC823 and SGC7901 cell lines was mediated by lentivirus. Investigation the biological effects of DC-SIGNR were verified by MTT, wounding and transwell in vitro and experiments on animals to confirm gastric cancer liver metastasis by IVIS...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399876/emerging-roles-of-lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Xiangjian Luo, Can Cheng, Zheqiong Tan, Namei Li, Min Tang, Lifang Yang, Ya Cao
Cancer cells frequently display fundamentally altered cellular metabolism, which provides the biochemical foundation and directly contributes to tumorigenicity and malignancy. Rewiring of metabolic programmes, such as aerobic glycolysis and increased glutamine metabolism, are crucial for cancer cells to shed from a primary tumor, overcome the nutrient and energy deficit, and eventually survive and form metastases. However, the role of lipid metabolism that confers the aggressive properties of malignant cancers remains obscure...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer
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