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International Journal for Equity in Health

Alejandro Rodriguez-Caro, Laura Vallejo-Torres, Beatriz Lopez-Valcarcel
BACKGROUND: There is a well-documented social gradient in obesity in most developed countries. Many previous studies have conventionally categorised individuals according to their body mass index (BMI), focusing on those above a certain threshold and thus ignoring a large amount of the BMI distribution. Others have used linear BMI models, relying on mean effects that may mask substantial heterogeneity in the effects of socioeconomic variables across the population. METHOD: In this study, we measure the social gradient of the BMI distribution of the adult population in Spain over the past two decades (1993-2014), using unconditional quantile regressions...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
António Dos Anjos Luis, Pedro Cabral
BACKGROUND: Access to healthcare services has an essential role in promoting health equity and quality of life. Knowing where the places are and how much of the population is covered by the existing healthcare network is important information that can be extracted from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and used in effective healthcare planning. The aim of this study is to measure the geographic accessibility of population to existing Healthcare Centers (HC), and to estimate the number of persons served by the health network of Mozambique...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Chengchao Zhou, Qian Long, Jiaying Chen, Li Xiang, Qiang Li, Shenglan Tang, Fei Huang, Qiang Sun, Henry Lucas, Shitong Huan
BACKGROUND: Health expenditure for tuberculosis (TB) care often pushes households into catastrophe and poverty. New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) aims to protect households from catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment in rural China. This article assesses the effect of NCMS on relieving CHE and impoverishment from TB care in rural China. METHODS: Three hundred fourty-seven TB cases are included in the analysis. We analyze the incidence and intensity of CHE and poverty, and assess the protective effect of NCMS by comparing the CHE and impoverishment before and after reimbursement...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Alissa Davis, Beth E Meyerson, Blessing Aghaulor, Katherine Brown, Adisyn Watson, Kathryn E Muessig, Ligang Yang, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Increased trade between China and Uganda has fueled trafficking of female Ugandans into China. These women may face challenges accessing health services. This study focused on examining barriers to health care access among female Ugandan sex workers in China. METHODS: In 2014, we undertook in-depth interviews with 19 female Ugandan sex workers in Guangzhou, China. Interviews focused on barriers to health service access and were analyzed using an a priori coding framework followed by open-coding to capture emergent themes...
October 14, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Vu Duy Kien, Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Amy Dao, Le Thanh Tuan, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam...
October 13, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Md Sadik Pavel, Sayan Chakrabarty, Jeff Gow
BACKGROUND: A central aim of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is protection for all against the cost of illness. In a low income country like Bangladesh the cost burden of health care in tertiary facilities is likely to be significant for most citizens. This cost of an episode of illness is a relatively unexplored policy issue in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to estimate an outpatient's total cost of illness as result of treatment in private and public hospitals in Sylhet, Bangladesh...
October 10, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Vladimir Khanassov, Pierre Pluye, Sarah Descoteaux, Jeannie L Haggerty, Grant Russell, Jane Gunn, Jean-Frederic Levesque
: Access to community-based primary health care (hereafter, 'primary care') is a priority in many countries. Health care systems have emphasized policies that help the community 'get the right service in the right place at the right time'. However, little is known about organizational interventions in primary care that are aimed to improve access for populations in situations of vulnerability (e.g., socioeconomically disadvantaged) and how successful they are. The purpose of this scoping review was to map the existing evidence on organizational interventions that improve access to primary care services for vulnerable populations...
October 10, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Nandita Bhan, Krishna Dipankar Rao, Shivani Kachwaha
BACKGROUND: Research on health inequalities can be instrumental in drawing attention to the health of socioeconomically vulnerable groups in India in the context of rapid economic growth. It can shape the dialogue for public health action, emphasizing the need for greater investments in health, and monitor effectiveness of health programs. Our objective was to examine trends in studies on health inequalities in the last 25 years. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on health inequalities published from 1990...
October 6, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ileana Vilcu, Lilli Probst, Bayarsaikhan Dorjsuren, Inke Mathauer
BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries with a social health insurance system face challenges on their road towards universal health coverage (UHC), especially for people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups or the informally employed. One way to address this is to subsidize their contributions through general government revenue transfers to the health insurance fund. This paper provides an overview of such health financing arrangements in Asian low- and middle-income countries...
October 4, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Carol Davy, Stephen Harfield, Alexa McArthur, Zachary Munn, Alex Brown
BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples often find it difficult to access appropriate mainstream primary health care services. Securing access to primary health care services requires more than just services that are situated within easy reach. Ensuring the accessibility of health care for Indigenous peoples who are often faced with a vast array of additional barriers including experiences of discrimination and racism, can be complex. This framework synthesis aimed to identify issues that hindered Indigenous peoples from accessing primary health care and then explore how, if at all, these were addressed by Indigenous health care services...
September 30, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Hua Zhou, Di Mo, Chengchao Zhou, Alexis Medina, Yaojiang Shi, Linxiu Zhang, Scott Rozelle
BACKGROUND: The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes...
September 29, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ju Moon Park
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding equity in health care utilization among Koreans since 2008. This study examines the extent to which equity in the use of health care services has been achieved in Korea. METHODS: Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed. The sample for this study was 17,035 individuals who participated in interviews. RESULTS: Differences in need substantially account for the original differences observed between subgroups of Koreans...
September 29, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Mónica Terán-Hernández, Rebeca Ramis-Prieto, Jaqueline Calderón-Hernández, Carlos Félix Garrocho-Rangel, Juan Campos-Alanís, José Antonio Ávalos-Lozano, Miguel Aguilar-Robledo
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Cervical Cancer (CC) is the fourth most common type of cancer and cause of death in women. It is a significant public health problem, especially in low and middle-income/Gross Domestic Product (GDP) countries. In the past decade, several studies of CC have been published, that identify the main modifiable and non-modifiable CC risk factors for Mexican women. However, there are no studies that attempt to explain the residual spatial variation in CC incidence In Mexico, i...
September 29, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Krystallia Mantziki, Carry M Renders, Achilleas Vassilopoulos, Gabriella Radulian, Jean-Michel Borys, Hugues du Plessis, Maria João Gregório, Pedro Graça, Stefaan de Henauw, Svetoslav Handjiev, Tommy L S Visscher, Jacob C Seidell
BACKGROUND: Increasing social inequalities in health across Europe are widening the gap between low and high socio-economic groups, notably in the prevalence of obesity. Public health interventions may result in differential effects across population groups. Therefore, the EPHE (EPODE for the Promotion of Health Equity) project analysed the added value of community-based programmes, based on the EPODE (Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants-Together Let's Prevent Obesity) model, to reduce socio-economic inequalities in energy balance-related behaviours of children and their family-environmental related determinants in seven European communities...
September 29, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
William Chi Wai Wong, Sealing Cheng, Eleanor Holroyd, Julie Chen, Kelley Ann Loper, Lynn Tran, Heidi Yin Hai Miu
BACKGROUND: Hong Kong's resistance to be a signatory of the 1951 Geneva Convention and lack of domestic policies in this area has resulted in restrictions on access to healthcare amongst asylum seekers and refugees (ASRs). Using social determinants of health framework this study sought to identify health practices, problems and needs of African ASRs in Hong Kong. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey comprising of six domains including health status, health-seeking behaviour and social experience targeted at adult African ASRs in Hong Kong was conducted through three local non-governmental organisations between February and April 2013...
September 27, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Stephanie M Topp, Clement N Moonga, Constance Mudenda, Nkandu Luo, Michael Kaingu, Chisela Chileshe, George Magwende, Jody S Heymann, German Henostroza
BACKGROUND: Research exploring the drivers of health outcomes of women who are in prison in low- and middle-income settings is largely absent. This study aimed to identify and examine the interaction between structural, organisational and relational factors influencing Zambian women prisoners' health and healthcare access. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews of 23 female prisoners across four prisons, as well as 21 prison officers and health care workers. The prisoners were selected in a multi-stage sampling design with a purposive selection of prisons followed by a random sampling of cells and of female inmates within cells...
September 26, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Laia Bécares, Polly Atatoa-Carr
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies document the association between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and adverse children's outcomes, but our understanding of how experiences of racial discrimination are associated with pre- and post-natal maternal mental health, is limited. In addition, existent literature rarely takes into consideration racial discrimination experienced by the partner. METHODS: We analysed data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study to examine the burden of lifetime and past year experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal and postnatal mental health among Māori, Pacific, and Asian women in New Zealand (NZ), and to study the individual and joint contribution of mother's and partner's experiences of lifetime and past year racial discrimination to women's prenatal and postnatal mental health...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Thomas Mason, Yiu-Shing Lau, Matthew Sutton
BACKGROUND: The limited number of existing previous studies of the distribution of quality under NHS Pay-for-performance (P4P) by income deprivation have not analysed the relationship at the individual level and have been restricted to assessing P4P in the primary care setting. In this study, we set out to examine how achievement of P4P 'quality measures' for which NHS hospitals were paid was distributed by income deprivation. METHODS: Design: Retrospective analysis of performance data reported by hospitals, examining how the probability of receiving 23 indicators varied by patients' area deprivation using logistic regression controlling for age and gender...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Anna T Höglund, Marianne Carlsson, Inger K Holmström, Elenor Kaminsky
BACKGROUND: The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person's human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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