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International Journal for Equity in Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221451/inequality-in-early-childhood-neurodevelopment-in-six-poor-rural-counties-of-china-a-decomposition-analysis
#1
Cuihong Zhang, Chunxia Zhao, Xiangyu Liu, Qianwei Wei, Shusheng Luo, Sufang Guo, Jingxu Zhang, Xiaoli Wang, Robert W Scherpbier
BACKGROUND: Previous studies about inequality in children's health focused more on physical health than the neurodevelopment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inequality in early childhood neurodevelopment in poor rural China and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the inequality. METHOD: Information of 2120 children aged 0 to 35 months and their households in six poor rural counties of China was collected during July - September, 2013...
December 8, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212501/equity-implications-for-sanitation-from-recent-health-and-nutrition-evidence
#2
EDITORIAL
A A Cronin, M E Gnilo, M Odagiri, S Wijesekera
Recent evidence points to the possible underestimation of the health and nutrition impact of sanitation. Community sanitation coverage may first need to reach thresholds in the order of 60% or higher, to optimize health and nutrition gains. Increasing coverage of sanitation to levels below 60% of community coverage may not result in substantial gains. For example, moving Indonesia from 60% to 100% improved sanitation coverage could significantly reduce diarrhoea in children under 5 years old (by an estimated 24% reduction in odds ratio for child diarrhoea morbidity) with gains split equally by reaching underserved communities and the unserved within communities...
December 6, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202843/socioeconomic-inequalities-of-outpatient-and-inpatient-service-utilization-in-china-personal-and-regional-perspectives
#3
Dawei Zhu, Na Guo, Jian Wang, Stephen Nicholas, Li Chen
BACKGROUND: China's health system has shown remarkable progress in health provision and health outcomes in recent decades, however inequality in health care utilization persists and poses a serious social problem. While government pro-poor health policies addressed affordability as the major obstacle to equality in health care access, this policy direction deserves further examination. Our study examines the issue of health care inequalities in China, analyzing both regional and individual socioeconomic factors associated with the inequality, and provides evidence to improve governmental health policies...
December 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202757/spatially-balanced-provision-of-health-equipment-a-cross-sectional-study-oriented-to-the-identification-of-challenges-to-access-promotion
#4
Pedro Vasconcelos Amaral, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Allan Claudius Queiroz Barbosa, Adriana Lein, João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci
BACKGROUND: Access to health services is in part defined by the spatial distribution of healthcare equipment. To ensure equity in the provision of health services, it is important to examine availability across different health care providers taking into account population demand. Given the importance of the equitable provision of health equipment, we evaluate its spatial distribution in Brazil. METHODS: This study is classified as cross-sectional with an ecological design...
December 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197403/setting-priorities-for-knowledge-translation-of-cochrane-reviews-for-health-equity-evidence-for-equity
#5
Peter Tugwell, Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Jennifer Vincent, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Rachel Churchill, Don deSavigny, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Tomas Pantoja
BACKGROUND: A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187257/urbanization-economic-development-and-health-evidence-from-china-s-labor-force-dynamic-survey
#6
Hongsheng Chen, Ye Liu, Zhigang Li, Desheng Xue
BACKGROUND: The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood...
November 29, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183335/evaluating-medical-convenience-in-ethnic-minority-areas-of-southwest-china-via-road-network-vulnerability-a-case-study-for-dehong-autonomous-prefecture
#7
Xiaoyan Wei, Xuejun Liu, Liang Cheng, Lele Sun, Yingying Pan, Wenwen Zong
BACKGROUND: Southwest China is home to more than 30 ethnic minority groups. Since most of these populations reside in mountainous areas, convenient access to medical services is an important metric of how well their livelihoods are being protected. METHODS: This paper proposes a medical convenience index (MCI) and computation model for mountain residents, taking into account various conditions including topography, geology, and climate. Data on road networks were used for comprehensive evaluation from three perspectives: vulnerability, complexity, and accessibility...
November 28, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179730/control-under-times-of-uncertainty-the-relationship-between-hospital-competition-and-physician-patient-disputes
#8
Qian Yang, Jay Pan
BACKGROUND: Recently, cases of medical disputes and even acts of violence toward physicians by patients in China have been escalating. It remains unknown whether competition improves the patient-physician relationship. METHODS: This paper analyzes the relationship between hospital competition and the probability of medical disputes occurrence according to the theory of social control. Data from all hospitals in the Sichuan province of China from 2011 to 2014 were included in the study...
November 28, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178889/lookism-hurts-%C3%A2-appearance-discrimination-and-self-rated-health-in-south-korea
#9
Hyemin Lee, Inseo Son, Jaehong Yoon, Seung-Sup Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of evidence suggesting that discrimination harms health, the association between appearance discrimination and health has been understudied. Our study investigated the association between perceived appearance discrimination and self-rated health among emerging adults using a nationally representative cohort study in South Korea. METHODS: We analyzed the 2nd-10th (2005-2013) waves of cohort data from the Korean Education Employment Panel (KEEP)...
November 25, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166913/socioeconomic-disadvantage-fetal-environment-and-child-development-linked-scottish-administrative-records-based-study
#10
Christopher James Playford, Chris Dibben, Lee Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive development in childhood is negatively affected by socioeconomic disadvantage. This study examined whether differences in fetal environment might mediate the association between family socioeconomic position and child development. METHODS: Data were linked from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, maternity inpatient records and the Child Health Surveillance Programme - Pre School for 32,238 children. The outcome variables were based on health visitor assessment of gross motor, hearing and language, vision and fine motor, and social development...
November 22, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157251/slender-women-and-overweight-men-gender-differences-in-the-educational-gradient-in-body-weight-in-south-korea
#11
Yeonjin Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been observed in the educational inequalities in weight status. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Survey (N = 17,947) conducted in 2008-2012 conditional quantile regression models were estimated to assess the associations between education and body weight distribution...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149897/enablers-and-barriers-to-secondary-prophylaxis-for-rheumatic-fever-among-m%C3%A4-ori-aged-14-21-in-new-zealand-a-framework-method-study
#12
Hilary Barker, John G Oetzel, Nina Scott, Michelle Morley, Polly E Atatoa Carr, Keri Bolton Oetzel
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) rates have declined to near zero in nearly all developed countries. However, in New Zealand rates have not declined since the 1980s. Further, ARF diagnoses in New Zealand are inequitably distributed--occurring almost exclusively in Māori (the indigenous population) and Pacific children--with very low rates in the majority New Zealand European population. With ARF diagnosis, secondary prophylaxis is key to prevent recurrence. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived enablers and barriers to secondary recurrence prophylaxis following ARF for Māori patients aged 14-21...
November 17, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145849/monitoring-so2emission-trends-and-residents-perceived-health-risks-from-pgm-smelting-at-selous-metallurgical-complex-in-zimbabwe
#13
Patrick Gwimbi
BACKGROUND: Persistently high sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from platinum group metal (PGM) smelting pose a major threat to communities located around smelters. This paper examined SO2 emission trends, emission regulations and residents' perceived health risks from exposures to such emissions at Selous Metallurgical Complex (SMC) PGM smelting facility in Zimbabwe. METHODS: SO2 data from roof monitoring sites at the smelter furnace were aggregated into annual, quarterly and monthly emission trends from 2008 to 2015...
November 16, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141642/doing-implementation-research-on-health-governance-a-frontline-researcher-s-reflexive-account-of-field-level-challenges-and-their-management
#14
Gupteswar Patel, Surekha Garimella, Kerry Scott, Shinjini Mondal, Asha George, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Implementation Research (IR) in and around health systems comes with unique challenges for researchers including implementation, multi-layer governance, and ethical issues. Partnerships between researchers, implementers, policy makers and community members are central to IR and come with additional challenges. In this paper, we elaborate on the challenges faced by frontline field researchers, drawing from experience with an IR study on Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs)...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141634/the-effects-of-neoliberal-policies-on-access-to-healthcare-for-people-with-disabilities
#15
Dikaios Sakellariou, Elena S Rotarou
Neoliberal reforms lead to deep changes in healthcare systems around the world, on account of their emphasis on free market rather than the right to health. People with disabilities can be particularly disadvantaged by such reforms, due to their increased healthcare needs and lower socioeconomic status. In this article, we analyse the impacts of neoliberal reforms on access to healthcare for disabled people. This article is based on a critical analytical review of the literature and on two case studies, Chile and Greece...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132365/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-under-five-mortality-in-rural-bangladesh-evidence-from-seven-national-surveys-spreading-over-20%C3%A2-years
#16
Asiful Haidar Chowdhury, Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi, Mohammad Nahid Mia, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequality in health and mortality remains a disturbing reality across nations including Bangladesh. Inequality drew renewed attention globally. Bangladesh though made impressive progress in health, it makes an interesting case for learning. This paper examined the trends and changing pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in under-five mortality in rural Bangladesh. It also examined whether mother's education had any effect in reducing socioeconomic inequalities...
November 13, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132364/-i-m-not-strong-enough-i-m-not-good-enough-i-can-t-do-this-i-m-failing-a-qualitative-study-of-low-socioeconomic-status-smokers-experiences-with-accesssing-cessation-support-and-the-role-for-alternative-technology-based-support
#17
Veronica C Boland, Richard P Mattick, Hayden McRobbie, Mohammad Siahpush, Ryan J Courtney
BACKGROUND: The social gradient in smoking rates persist with an overrepresentation of smoking and its associated harms concentrated within lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Low-SES smokers are motivated to quit but face multiple barriers when engaging a quit attempt. An understanding of the current treatment service model from the perspectives of treatment-seeking low-SES smokers is needed to inform the design of alternative smoking cessation support services tailored to the needs of low-SES populations...
November 13, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126420/healthcare-access-for-refugee-women-with-limited-literacy-layers-of-disadvantage
#18
Annette Floyd, Dikaios Sakellariou
BACKGROUND: Record numbers of people, across the world, are forced to be displaced because of conflict or other violations of their human rights, thus becoming refugees. Often, refugees not only have a higher burden of disease but also compromised access to healthcare, as they face many barriers, such as limited knowledge of the local language. However, there is very limited knowledge on the lived experiences of this population. Moreover, the strategies people might develop in their efforts to access healthcare have not been explored in depth, despite their value in establishing peer- support, community based programs...
November 10, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115960/should-the-poor-have-no-medicines-to-cure-a-study-on-the-association-between-social-class-and-social-security-among-the-rural-migrant-workers-in-urban-china
#19
Ming Guan
BACKGROUND: The rampant urbanization and medical marketization in China have resulted in increased vulnerabilities to health and socioeconomic disparities among the rural migrant workers in urban China. In the Chinese context, the socioeconomic characteristics of rural migrant workers have attracted considerable research attention in the recent past years. However, to date, no previous studies have explored the association between the socioeconomic factors and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115955/health-financing-and-integration-of-urban-and-rural-residents-basic-medical-insurance-systems-in-china
#20
Kun Zhu, Luying Zhang, Shasha Yuan, Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhiruo Zhang
BACKGROUND: China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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