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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#1
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759065/high-resolution-mapping-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-with-google-street-view-cars-and-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-within-neighborhoods-in-oakland-ca
#2
Stacey E Alexeeff, Ananya Roy, Jun Shan, Xi Liu, Kyle Messier, Joshua S Apte, Christopher Portier, Stephen Sidney, Stephen K Van Den Eeden
BACKGROUND: Some studies have linked long-term exposure to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) with adverse cardiovascular health outcomes; however, previous studies have not linked highly variable concentrations of TRAP measured at street-level within neighborhoods to cardiovascular health outcomes. METHODS: Long-term pollutant concentrations for nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], nitric oxide [NO], and black carbon [BC] were obtained by street-level mobile monitoring on 30 m road segments and linked to residential addresses of 41,869 adults living in Oakland during 2010 to 2015...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751838/association-between-air-pollution-and-suicide-a-time-series-analysis-in-four-colombian-cities
#3
Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Claudia Iveth Astudillo-García, Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar, Víctor Alfonso Florez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that air pollution could be associated with suicide. However, other studies have criticized these results for being analytically weak and not taking into account potential confounding factors. As such, further studies examining the relationship under diverse contexts are necessary to help clarify this issue. This study explored the association between specific air pollutants (NO2 , SO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 , CO and O3 ) and suicide incidence in four Colombian cities after adjusting for climatic variables and holidays...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743082/combined-effect-of-silica-dust-exposure-and-cigarette-smoking-on-total-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-iron-miners-a-cohort-study
#4
Hanpeng Lai, Yuewei Liu, Min Zhou, Tingming Shi, Yun Zhou, Shaofan Weng, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Both cigarette smoking and long-term exposure to crystalline silica dust were reported to be associated with increased mortality. However, the combined effect of both factors has not been well evaluated. METHODS: We investigated a retro-prospective cohort of 7,665 workers from one Chinese iron mine with a median follow-up of 42.8 years. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated for each worker by linking work histories with a job-exposure matrix. Cigarette smoking information was collected through face-to-face questionnaires...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724242/heat-mortality-sensitivities-in-los-angeles-during-winter-a-unique-phenomenon-in-the-united-states
#5
Adam J Kalkstein, Laurence S Kalkstein, Jennifer K Vanos, David P Eisenman, P Grady Dixon
BACKGROUND: Extreme heat is often associated with elevated levels of human mortality, particularly across the mid-latitudes. Los Angeles, CA exhibits a unique, highly variable winter climate, with brief periods of intense heat caused by downsloping winds commonly known as Santa Ana winds. The goal is to determine if Los Angeles County is susceptible to heat-related mortality during the winter season. This is the first study to specifically evaluate heat-related mortality during the winter for a U...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720194/increase-in-fertility-following-coal-and-oil-power-plant-retirements-in-california
#6
Joan A Casey, Alison Gemmill, Deborah Karasek, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Dana E Goin, Rachel Morello-Frosch
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the relationship between air pollution and fertility. We used a natural experiment in California when coal and oil power plants retired to estimate associations with nearby fertility rates. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences negative binomial model on the incident rate ratio scale to analyze the change in annual fertility rates among California mothers living within 0-5 km and 5-10 km of 8 retired power plants between 2001 and 2011...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720177/genomic-characterization-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll-in-radiation-exposed-chornobyl-cleanup-workers
#7
Juhi Ojha, Iryna Dyagil, Stuart C Finch, Robert F Reiss, Adam J de Smith, Semira Gonseth, Mi Zhou, Helen M Hansen, Amy L Sherborne, Jean Nakamura, Paige M Bracci, Nataliya Gudzenko, Maureen Hatch, Nataliya Babkina, Mark P Little, Vadim V Chumak, Kyle M Walsh, Dimitry Bazyka, Joseph L Wiemels, Lydia B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was the predominant leukemia in a recent study of Chornobyl cleanup workers from Ukraine exposed to radiation (UR-CLL). Radiation risks of CLL significantly increased with increasing bone marrow radiation doses. Current analysis aimed to clarify whether the increased risks were due to radiation or to genetic mutations in the Ukrainian population. METHODS: A detailed characterization of the genomic landscape was performed in a unique sample of 16 UR-CLL patients and age- and sex-matched unexposed general population Ukrainian-CLL (UN-CLL) and Western-CLL (W-CLL) patients (n = 28 and 100, respectively)...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685149/rationale-for-environmental-hygiene-towards-global-protection-of-fetuses-and-young-children-from-adverse-lifestyle-factors
#8
Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, Anne-Simone Parent, Jos C S Kleinjans, Tim S Nawrot, Greet Schoeters, Nicolas Van Larebeke
BACKGROUND: The regulatory management of chemicals and toxicants in the EU addresses hundreds of different chemicals and health hazards individually, one by one. An issue is that, so far, the possible interactions among chemicals or hazards are not considered as such. Another issue is the anticipated delay of several decades before effective protection of public health by regulatory decisions due to a time consuming process. Prenatal and early postnatal life is highly vulnerable to environmental health hazards with lifelong consequences, and a priority period for reduction of exposure...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669550/cardiorespiratory-health-effects-of-gaseous-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Katherine Newell, Christiana Kartsonaki, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Om Kurmi
BACKGROUND: Lack of research on the effects of gaseous pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx ], sulfur dioxide [SO2 ], carbon monoxide [CO] and ozone [O3 ]) in the ambient environment on health outcomes from within low and middle income countries (LMICs) is leading to reliance on results from studies performed within high income countries (HICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous pollutants in LMICs exclusively. METHODS: Systematic searching was carried out and estimates pooled by pollutant, lag and outcome, and presented as excess relative risk per 10 μg/m3 (NOx , SO2 , O3 ) or 1 ppm (CO) increase pollutant...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665858/emerging-trends-in-geospatial-artificial-intelligence-geoai-potential-applications-for-environmental-epidemiology
#10
LETTER
Trang VoPham, Jaime E Hart, Francine Laden, Yao-Yi Chiang
Geospatial artificial intelligence (geoAI) is an emerging scientific discipline that combines innovations in spatial science, artificial intelligence methods in machine learning (e.g., deep learning), data mining, and high-performance computing to extract knowledge from spatial big data. In environmental epidemiology, exposure modeling is a commonly used approach to conduct exposure assessment to determine the distribution of exposures in study populations. geoAI technologies provide important advantages for exposure modeling in environmental epidemiology, including the ability to incorporate large amounts of big spatial and temporal data in a variety of formats; computational efficiency; flexibility in algorithms and workflows to accommodate relevant characteristics of spatial (environmental) processes including spatial nonstationarity; and scalability to model other environmental exposures across different geographic areas...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661194/association-of-neighborhood-greenness-with-self-perceived-stress-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-older-u-s-adults
#11
Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen H Suh
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment, such as green vegetation, has been shown to play a role in coping with stress and mental ill health. Yet, epidemiological evidence of the association between greenness and mental health is inconsistent. METHODS: We examined whether living in green space is associated with self-perceived stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 4118; aged 57-85 years) in the United States...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653570/susceptibility-to-short-term-ozone-exposure-and-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-mortality-by-previous-hospitalizations
#12
Auriba Raza, Marcus Dahlquist, Tomas Lind, Petter L S Ljungman
BACKGROUND: Ozone (O3 ) has been associated with cardiorespiratory mortality although few studies have explored susceptible populations based on prior disease. We aimed to investigate the role of previous hospitalization on the association between short-term exposure to O3 and cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality. METHODS: We performed time series analyses using generalized additive models and case-crossover on 136,624 CV and 23,281 respiratory deaths in Stockholm County (1990-2010)...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650009/does-precautionary-information-about-electromagnetic-fields-trigger-nocebo-responses-an-experimental-risk-communication-study
#13
Christoph Boehmert, Adam Verrender, Mario Pauli, Peter Wiedemann
BACKGROUND: Regarding electromagnetic fields from mobile communication technologies, empirical studies have shown that precautionary information given to lay recipients increases their risk perceptions, i.e. the belief that electromagnetic fields are dangerous. Taking this finding one step further, the current study investigates whether precautionary information also leads to higher symptom perceptions in an alleged exposure situation. Building on existing research on nocebo responses to sham electromagnetic fields, an interaction of the precautionary information with personality characteristics was hypothesised...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642932/early-life-swimming-pool-exposure-and-asthma-onset-in-children-a-case-control-study
#14
Martin Andersson, Helena Backman, Gunnar Nordberg, Annika Hagenbjörk, Linnea Hedman, Kåre Eriksson, Bertil Forsberg, Eva Rönmark
BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure. METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642904/relationships-between-aeroallergen-levels-and-hospital-admissions-for-asthma-in-the-brussels-capital-region-a-daily-time-series-analysis
#15
Ariane Guilbert, Bianca Cox, Nicolas Bruffaerts, Lucie Hoebeke, Ann Packeu, Marijke Hendrickx, Koen De Cremer, Sandrine Bladt, Olivier Brasseur, An Van Nieuwenhuyse
BACKGROUND: Outdoor pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations have been associated with severe asthma exacerbations at the population level. The specific impact of each taxon and the concomitant effect of air pollution on these symptoms have, however, still to be better characterized. This study aimed to investigate the short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various aeroallergens and hospitalizations related to asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium), an area recording especially high rates of admissions...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622024/longitudinal-associations-of-long-term-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-with-blood-pressure-and-systemic-inflammation-in-puerto-rican-adults
#16
Laura Corlin, Mark Woodin, Jaime E Hart, Matthew C Simon, David M Gute, Joanna Stowell, Katherine L Tucker, John L Durant, Doug Brugge
BACKGROUND: Few longitudinal studies have examined the association between ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, particles < 0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We used data from 791 adults participating in the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (Massachusetts, USA) between 2004 and 2015 to assess whether UFP exposure was associated with blood pressure and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, a biomarker of systemic inflammation)...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615064/childhood-and-adolescent-phenol-and-phthalate-exposure-and-the-age-of-menarche-in-latina-girls
#17
Alexandra M Binder, Camila Corvalan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Verónica Mericq, Ana Pereira, Karin B Michels
BACKGROUND: The age of menarche has been associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, as well as cancer risk. The decline in menarcheal age over the past century may be partially attributable to increased exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). METHODS: We assessed the influence of 26 phenol and phthalate biomarkers on the timing of menarche in a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls. These EDCs were quantified in urine collected prior to the onset of breast development (Tanner 1; B1), and during adolescence (Tanner 4; B4)...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606131/cholinesterase-research-outreach-project-crop-point-of-care-cholinesterase-measurement-in-an-australian-agricultural-community
#18
Jacqueline Cotton, John Edwards, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Susan Brumby
BACKGROUND: Australian farmers are routinely exposed to a wide variety of agrichemicals, including herbicides and insecticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are widely used for agricultural production, horticulture and animal husbandry practices. Symptoms of OP toxicity are the results of inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is found in many types of conducting tissue in human bodies such as nerve and muscle, central and peripheral tissues, motor and sensory fibres...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587831/childhood-fish-oil-supplementation-modifies-associations-between-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-allergic-sensitisation
#19
Anna L Hansell, Ioannis Bakolis, Christine T Cowie, Elena G Belousova, Kitty Ng, Christina Weber-Chrysochoou, Warwick J Britton, Stephen R Leeder, Euan R Tovey, Karen L Webb, Brett G Toelle, Guy B Marks
BACKGROUND: Studies of potential adverse effects of traffic related air pollution (TRAP) on allergic disease have had mixed findings. Nutritional studies to examine whether fish oil supplementation may protect against development of allergic disease through their anti-inflammatory actions have also had mixed findings. Extremely few studies to date have considered whether air pollution and dietary factors such as fish oil intake may interact, which was the rationale for this study. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) birth cohort, where children were randomised to fish oil supplementation or placebo from early life to age 5 years...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587765/occupational-exposure-to-asphalt-mixture-during-road-paving-is-related-to-increased-mitochondria-dna-copy-number-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Yiyi Xu, Christian H Lindh, Bo A G Jönsson, Karin Broberg, Maria Albin
BACKGROUND: Asphalt workers are exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from hot mix asphalt via both inhalation and dermal absorption. The use of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt may result in higher exposure to PAHs and more adverse effects. Our aim is to assess occupational exposure to PAHs from conventional and CRM asphalt paving by measuring PAH metabolites in urine, and to investigate the effects on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length. METHODS: We recruited 116 workers paving conventional asphalt, 51 workers paving CRM asphalt and 100 controls in Sweden, all males...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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