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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

Jean-François Sauvé, Jérôme Lavoué, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: Age, family history and ancestry are the only recognized risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) but a role for environmental factors is suspected. Due to the lack of knowledge on the etiological factors for PCa, studies that are both hypothesis-generating and confirmatory are still needed. This study explores relationships between employment, by occupation and industry, and PCa risk. METHODS: Cases were 1937 men aged ≤75 years with incident PCa diagnosed across Montreal French hospitals in 2005-2009...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Berrin Serdar, Stephen Brindley, Greg Dooley, John Volckens, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Ryan Gan
BACKGROUND: Roofers are at increased risk for various malignancies and their occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered as important risk factors. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the usefulness of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) as a short-term biomarker of DNA damage among roofers. METHODS: Blood, urine, and dermal wipe samples were collected from 20 roofers who work with hot asphalt before and after 6 h of work on Monday and Thursday of the same week (4 sampling periods)...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Rebecca DeVries, David Kriebel, Susan Sama
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute greatly to increased morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life. Recent studies report moderately strong positive associations between exposures to several air pollutants and COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HA). Studies that use clinically defined exacerbations rather than counting ED visits and HA may be more sensitive to environmental triggers like air pollution, but very few such studies exist...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Daniele Mandrioli, Fiorella Belpoggi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Melissa J Perry
Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Nathan Rabinovitch, Colby D Adams, Matthew Strand, Kirsten Koehler, John Volckens
BACKGROUND: Most particulate matter (PM) and health studies in children with asthma use exposures averaged over the course of a day and do not take into account spatial/temporal variability that presumably occurs as children move from home, into transit and then school microenvironments. The objectives of this work were to identify increases in morning PM exposure occurring within home, transit and school microenvironments and determine their associations with asthma-related inflammation and rescue medication use...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Shinya Matsumoto, Manabu Akahane, Yoshiyuki Kanagawa, Jumboku Kajiwara, Chikage Mitoma, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue, Tomoaki Imamura
BACKGROUND: Once ingested, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are excreted extremely slowly. Excretion can be evaluated by its half-life. Half-lives estimated from observed concentrations are affected by excretion and ongoing exposure. We investigated the change in apparent half-life using a theoretical model based on exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds. METHODS: We carried out longitudinal measurements of the blood concentration of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in a Yusho cohort during 2002 to 2010...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Krystal J Godri Pollitt, Caitlin L Maikawa, Amanda J Wheeler, Scott Weichenthal, Nina A Dobbin, Ling Liu, Mark S Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma experience increased susceptibility to airborne pollutants. Exposure to traffic and industrial activity have been positively associated with exacerbation of symptoms as well as emergency room visits and hospitalisations. The effect of trace metals contained in fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter 2.5 μm and lower, PM2.5) on acute health effects amongst asthmatic children has not been well investigated. The objective of this panel study in asthmatic children was to determine the association between personal daily exposure to ambient trace metals and airway inflammation, as measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Mee-Ri Lee, Yoon-Hyeong Choi, Hyojung Hwang, Se-Young Oh, ChoongHee Park, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Decreased muscle strength can lead to adverse health outcomes in the elderly. A potential association between phthalate exposure and muscle strength was suggested previously, but has not been investigated directly. We hypothesized that phthalate exposure is associated with lower handgrip strength and that the association is modified by the dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio. METHODS: We analyzed 1,228 participants (≥60 years of age) recruited in Seoul and Asan, Republic of Korea...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Guo-Zhen Lin, Li Li, Yun-Feng Song, Ying-Xue Zhou, Shuang-Quan Shen, Chun-Quan Ou
BACKGROUND: Preventing suicide is a global imperative. Although the effects of social and individual risk factors of suicide have been widely investigated, evidence of environmental effects of exposure to air pollution is scarce. We investigated the effects of ambient air pollution on suicide mortality in Guangzhou, China during 2003-2012. METHODS: A conditional logistic regression analysis with a time-stratified case-crossover design was performed to assess the effects of daily exposure to three standard air pollutants, including particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), on suicide mortality, after adjusting for the confounding effects of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunshine duration...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Lisa Han, Wei-Wen Hsu, David Todem, Janet Osuch, Angela Hungerink, Wilfried Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have suggested a relationship between adult exposures to environmental organochlorines and fecundability. There is a paucity of data, however, regarding fetal exposure to organochlorines via the mother's blood and fecundability of adult female offspring. METHODS: Data from a two-generation cohort of maternal fisheaters was investigated to assess female offspring fecundability. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE) in Michigan female anglers were serially measured between 1973 and 1991 and used to estimate in utero exposure in their female offspring using two different methods...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Donna J Coetzee, Patricia M McGovern, Raghavendra Rao, Lisa J Harnack, Michael K Georgieff, Irina Stepanov
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to manganese (Mn) is a public health concern and consistent policy guidelines for safe levels of Mn exposure is lacking. The complexity of establishing exposure thresholds for Mn partially relates to its dual role as an essential micronutrient with low levels required for good health, but also as a neurotoxin at high levels. Questions exist about the age-related susceptibility to excess Mn, particularly for children, and how best to measure chronic exposures...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Iyad Kheirbek, Jay Haney, Sharon Douglas, Kazuhiko Ito, Thomas Matte
BACKGROUND: On-road vehicles are an important source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in cities, but spatially varying traffic emissions and vulnerable populations make it difficult to assess impacts to inform policy and the public. METHODS: We estimated PM2.5-attributable mortality and morbidity from on-road vehicle generated air pollution in the New York City (NYC) region using high-spatial-resolution emissions estimates, air quality modeling, and local health incidence data to evaluate variations in impacts by vehicle class, neighborhood, and area socioeconomic status...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Despina Giannadaki, Jos Lelieveld, Andrea Pozzer
BACKGROUND: Air pollution by fine aerosol particles is among the leading causes of poor health and premature mortality worldwide. The growing awareness of this issue has led several countries to implement air pollution legislation. However, populations in large parts of the world are still exposed to high levels of ambient particulate pollution. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential impact of implementing current air quality standards for fine particulate matter (PM2...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Zana Percy, Yingying Xu, Heidi Sucharew, Jane C Khoury, Antonia M Calafat, Joseph M Braun, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen, Kimberly Yolton
BACKGROUND: Phthalates, used in a variety of consumer products, are a group of chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment, and their metabolites are detectable in most humans. Some phthalates have anti-androgenic properties; a prior study reported an association between gestational exposure to phthalates and reduced masculine behaviors in preschool boys. METHODS: Concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites were measured in urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks' gestation from pregnant women enrolled in the HOME Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Ryan T Allen, Nicholas M Hales, Andrea Baccarelli, Michael Jerrett, Majid Ezzati, Douglas W Dockery, C Arden Pope
BACKGROUND: Income, air pollution, obesity, and smoking are primary factors associated with human health and longevity in population-based studies. These four factors may have countervailing impacts on longevity. This analysis investigates longevity trade-offs between air pollution and income, and explores how relative effects of income and air pollution on human longevity are potentially influenced by accounting for smoking and obesity. METHODS: County-level data from 2,996 U...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Sun-Young Kim, Steven J Dutton, Lianne Sheppard, Michael P Hannigan, Shelly L Miller, Jana B Milford, Jennifer L Peel, Sverre Vedal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Yan Wang, Jennifer F Bobb, Bianca Papi, Yun Wang, Anna Kosheleva, Qian Di, Joel D Schwartz, Francesca Dominici
BACKGROUND: Heat stroke is a serious heat-related illness, especially among older adults. However, little is known regarding the spatiotemporal variation of heat stroke admissions during heat waves and what factors modify the adverse effects. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale national study among 23.5 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries per year residing in 1,916 US counties during 1999-2010. Heat wave days, defined as a period of at least two consecutive days with temperatures exceeding the 97th percentile of that county's temperatures, were matched to non-heat wave days by county and week...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Zhijiang Liang, Yan Lin, Yuanzhu Ma, Lei Zhang, Xue Zhang, Li Li, Shaoqiang Zhang, Yuli Cheng, Xiaomei Zhou, Hualiang Lin, Huazhang Miao, Qingguo Zhao
BACKGROUND: A few studies have examined the association between ambient temperature and preterm birth (PTB), and the results have been inconsistent. This study explored the association between ambient temperature and PTB in Shenzhen, China. METHODS: Data of daily singleton PTB, air pollution and meteorological variables from 2005 to 2011 were collected in Shenzhen. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to investigate the association of the low and high temperatures (1st, 5th, 95th, and 99th percentiles) with PTB...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Dvera I Saxton, Phil Brown, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Lorraine Eckstein, David O Carpenter, Pamela Miller, Vi Waghiyi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Annette Vriens, Tim S Nawrot, Nelly D Saenen, Eline B Provost, Michal Kicinski, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jan Van Deun, Olivier De Wever, Karen Vrijens, Patrick De Boever, Michelle Plusquin
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine particles (<100 nm) are ubiquitous present in the air and may contribute to adverse cardiovascular effects. Exposure to air pollutants can alter miRNA expression, which can affect downstream signaling pathways. miRNAs are present both in the intracellular and extracellular environment. In adults, miR-222 and miR-146a were identified as associated with particulate matter exposure. However, there is little evidence of molecular effects of ambient air pollution in children...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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