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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970113/changes-in-plasma-levels-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-are-related-to-increase-in-carotid-intima-media-thickness-over-10-years-a-longitudinal-study
#1
P Monica Lind, Samira Salihovic, Jordan Stubleski, Anna Kärrman, Lars Lind
BACKGROUND: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, the purpose of this study was to analyze if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10-year follow-up were related to the change in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) during the same period. METHODS: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, 1016 individuals were investigated at age 70; 826 of them were reinvestigated at age 75 and 602 at age 80 years...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970097/modeled-exposure-to-tetrachloroethylene-contaminated-drinking-water-and-the-risk-of-placenta-related-stillbirths-a-case-control-study-from-massachusetts-and-rhode-island
#2
Ann Aschengrau, Lisa G Gallagher, Michael Winter, Lindsey J Butler, M Patricia Fabian, Veronica M Vieira
BACKGROUND: Residents of Massachusetts and Rhode Island were exposed to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water from 1968 through the early 1990s when the solvent was used to apply a vinyl liner to drinking water mains to address taste and odor problems. Few studies have examined the risk of fetal death among women exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Two previous investigations found moderate increases in the risk of stillbirth among highly exposed women; however, these results were based on a small number of cases...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954383/overweight-modifies-the-association-between-long-term-ambient-air-pollution-and-prehypertension-in-chinese-adults-the-33-communities-chinese-health-study
#3
Bo-Yi Yang, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Steven W Howard, John Phillip Pemberton, Huimin Ma, Duo-Hong Chen, Li-Wen Hu, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Chuan Zhang, Yan-Peng Tian, Min Nian, Xiang Xiao, Guang-Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Research regarding the interaction of ambient air pollution and overweight on prehypertension is scarce. We aimed to test whether overweight modifies the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and prehypertension in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 16,188 Chinese adults, aged 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in 3 Northeastern Chinese cities were evaluated. Three-year average levels of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10 ), sulfur dioxides (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) were calculated at monitoring stations...
June 28, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940975/cancer-prevalence-among-flight-attendants-compared-to-the-general-population
#4
Eileen McNeely, Irina Mordukhovich, Steven Staffa, Samuel Tideman, Sara Gale, Brent Coull
BACKGROUND: Flight attendants are an understudied occupational group, despite undergoing a wide range of adverse job-related exposures, including to known carcinogens. In our study, we aimed to characterize the prevalence of cancer diagnoses among U.S. cabin crew relative to the general population. METHODS: In 2014-2015, we surveyed participants of the Harvard Flight Attendant Health Study. We compared the prevalence of their self-reported cancer diagnoses to a contemporaneous cohort in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014) using age-weighted standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs)...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925380/associations-between-mixtures-of-urinary-phthalate-metabolites-with-gestational-age-at-delivery-a-time-to-event-analysis-using-summative-phthalate-risk-scores
#5
Jonathan Boss, Jingyi Zhai, Max T Aung, Kelly K Ferguson, Lauren E Johns, Thomas F McElrath, John D Meeker, Bhramar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a significant public health concern and exposure to phthalates has been shown to be associated with an increased odds of preterm birth. Even modest reductions in gestational age at delivery could entail morbid consequences for the neonate and analyzing data with this additional information may be useful. In the present analysis, we consider gestational age at delivery as our outcome of interest and examine associations with multiple phthalates. METHODS: Women were recruited early in pregnancy as part of a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898728/trimester-specific-phthalate-concentrations-and-glucose-levels-among-women-from-a-fertility-clinic
#6
Tamarra M James-Todd, Yu-Han Chiu, Carmen Messerlian, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Jennifer B Ford, Myra Keller, John Petrozza, Paige L Williams, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Subfertile women are at increased risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Based on epidemiologic studies, exposure to certain phthalates is associated with diabetes, elevated glucose, and increased insulin resistance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and pregnancy glucose levels in women seeking medically assisted reproduction. METHODS: We evaluated 245 women participating in a prospective cohort study based at a large fertility clinic who delivered live births and had data on pregnancy urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890973/mortality-effects-of-heat-waves-vary-by-age-and-area-a-multi-area-study-in-china
#7
Lingyan Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Tao Ye, Maigeng Zhou, Chenzhi Wang, Peng Yin, Bin Hou
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported an increased mortality risk from heat waves comparing with non-heat wave days. However, how much the mortality rate change with the heat intensity-vulnerability curve-is still unknown. Such unknown information makes the related managers impossible to assess scientifically life losses from heat waves, consequently fail in conducting suitable integrated risk management measures. METHODS: We used the heat wave intensity index (HWII) to characterize quantitatively the heat waves, then applied a distributed lag non-linear model to explore the area-specific definition of heat wave, and developed the vulnerability models on the relationships between HWII and mortality by age and by area...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866119/applying-methods-of-the-global-burden-of-diseases-injuries-and-risk-factors-study-to-developmental-neurotoxicants-a-commentary
#8
LETTER
David C Bellinger
The purpose of this commentary is to consider whether the methods of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) can provide accurate estimates of the impact of developmental neurotoxicant exposures on population health. The discussion focuses on two concerns. First, GBD implicitly largely endorses a "high risk" or "disease" approach to estimating health loss rather than a "population-based" approach. Exposure to many developmental neurotoxicants is highly prevalent but, for most individuals, it does not affect functional health to such an extent that diagnostic criteria for a disease are met...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843729/the-need-for-independent-research-on-the-health-effects-of-glyphosate-based-herbicides
#9
LETTER
Philip J Landrigan, Fiorella Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate, formulated as Roundup, is the world's most widely used herbicide. Glyphosate is used extensively on genetically modified (GM) food crops designed to tolerate the herbicide, and global use is increasing rapidly. Two recent reviews of glyphosate's health hazards report conflicting results. An independent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) found that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen". A review by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) found no evidence of carcinogenic hazard...
May 29, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843725/the-ramazzini-institute-13-week-pilot-study-on-glyphosate-and-roundup-administered-at-human-equivalent-dose-to-sprague-dawley-rats-effects-on-the-microbiome
#10
Qixing Mao, Fabiana Manservisi, Simona Panzacchi, Daniele Mandrioli, Ilaria Menghetti, Andrea Vornoli, Luciano Bua, Laura Falcioni, Corina Lesseur, Jia Chen, Fiorella Belpoggi, Jianzhong Hu
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are broad-spectrum herbicides that act on the shikimate pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The possible effects of GBHs on human health are the subject of an intense public debate for both its potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, including its effects on microbiome. The present pilot study examines whether exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate considered to be "safe" (the US Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI - of 1...
May 29, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843719/the-ramazzini-institute-13-week-study-on-glyphosate-based-herbicides-at-human-equivalent-dose-in-sprague-dawley-rats-study-design-and-first-in-life-endpoints-evaluation
#11
Simona Panzacchi, Daniele Mandrioli, Fabiana Manservisi, Luciano Bua, Laura Falcioni, Marcella Spinaci, Giovanna Galeati, Giovanni Dinelli, Rossella Miglio, Alberto Mantovani, Stefano Lorenzetti, Jianzhong Hu, Jia Chen, Melissa J Perry, Philip J Landrigan, Fiorella Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely used pesticides worldwide, and glyphosate is the active ingredient of such herbicides, including the formulation known as Roundup. The massive and increasing use of GBHs results in not only the global burden of occupational exposures, but also increased exposure to the general population. The current pilot study represents the first phase of a long-term investigation of GBHs that we are conducting over the next 5 years...
May 29, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#12
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759065/high-resolution-mapping-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-with-google-street-view-cars-and-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-within-neighborhoods-in-oakland-ca
#13
Stacey E Alexeeff, Ananya Roy, Jun Shan, Xi Liu, Kyle Messier, Joshua S Apte, Christopher Portier, Stephen Sidney, Stephen K Van Den Eeden
BACKGROUND: Some studies have linked long-term exposure to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) with adverse cardiovascular health outcomes; however, previous studies have not linked highly variable concentrations of TRAP measured at street-level within neighborhoods to cardiovascular health outcomes. METHODS: Long-term pollutant concentrations for nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], nitric oxide [NO], and black carbon [BC] were obtained by street-level mobile monitoring on 30 m road segments and linked to residential addresses of 41,869 adults living in Oakland during 2010 to 2015...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751838/association-between-air-pollution-and-suicide-a-time-series-analysis-in-four-colombian-cities
#14
Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Claudia Iveth Astudillo-García, Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar, Víctor Alfonso Florez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that air pollution could be associated with suicide. However, other studies have criticized these results for being analytically weak and not taking into account potential confounding factors. As such, further studies examining the relationship under diverse contexts are necessary to help clarify this issue. This study explored the association between specific air pollutants (NO2 , SO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 , CO and O3 ) and suicide incidence in four Colombian cities after adjusting for climatic variables and holidays...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743082/combined-effect-of-silica-dust-exposure-and-cigarette-smoking-on-total-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-iron-miners-a-cohort-study
#15
Hanpeng Lai, Yuewei Liu, Min Zhou, Tingming Shi, Yun Zhou, Shaofan Weng, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Both cigarette smoking and long-term exposure to crystalline silica dust were reported to be associated with increased mortality. However, the combined effect of both factors has not been well evaluated. METHODS: We investigated a retro-prospective cohort of 7,665 workers from one Chinese iron mine with a median follow-up of 42.8 years. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated for each worker by linking work histories with a job-exposure matrix. Cigarette smoking information was collected through face-to-face questionnaires...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724242/heat-mortality-sensitivities-in-los-angeles-during-winter-a-unique-phenomenon-in-the-united-states
#16
Adam J Kalkstein, Laurence S Kalkstein, Jennifer K Vanos, David P Eisenman, P Grady Dixon
BACKGROUND: Extreme heat is often associated with elevated levels of human mortality, particularly across the mid-latitudes. Los Angeles, CA exhibits a unique, highly variable winter climate, with brief periods of intense heat caused by downsloping winds commonly known as Santa Ana winds. The goal is to determine if Los Angeles County is susceptible to heat-related mortality during the winter season. This is the first study to specifically evaluate heat-related mortality during the winter for a U...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720194/increase-in-fertility-following-coal-and-oil-power-plant-retirements-in-california
#17
Joan A Casey, Alison Gemmill, Deborah Karasek, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Dana E Goin, Rachel Morello-Frosch
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the relationship between air pollution and fertility. We used a natural experiment in California when coal and oil power plants retired to estimate associations with nearby fertility rates. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences negative binomial model on the incident rate ratio scale to analyze the change in annual fertility rates among California mothers living within 0-5 km and 5-10 km of 8 retired power plants between 2001 and 2011...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720177/genomic-characterization-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cll-in-radiation-exposed-chornobyl-cleanup-workers
#18
Juhi Ojha, Iryna Dyagil, Stuart C Finch, Robert F Reiss, Adam J de Smith, Semira Gonseth, Mi Zhou, Helen M Hansen, Amy L Sherborne, Jean Nakamura, Paige M Bracci, Nataliya Gudzenko, Maureen Hatch, Nataliya Babkina, Mark P Little, Vadim V Chumak, Kyle M Walsh, Dimitry Bazyka, Joseph L Wiemels, Lydia B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was the predominant leukemia in a recent study of Chornobyl cleanup workers from Ukraine exposed to radiation (UR-CLL). Radiation risks of CLL significantly increased with increasing bone marrow radiation doses. Current analysis aimed to clarify whether the increased risks were due to radiation or to genetic mutations in the Ukrainian population. METHODS: A detailed characterization of the genomic landscape was performed in a unique sample of 16 UR-CLL patients and age- and sex-matched unexposed general population Ukrainian-CLL (UN-CLL) and Western-CLL (W-CLL) patients (n = 28 and 100, respectively)...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685149/rationale-for-environmental-hygiene-towards-global-protection-of-fetuses-and-young-children-from-adverse-lifestyle-factors
#19
Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, Anne-Simone Parent, Jos C S Kleinjans, Tim S Nawrot, Greet Schoeters, Nicolas Van Larebeke
BACKGROUND: The regulatory management of chemicals and toxicants in the EU addresses hundreds of different chemicals and health hazards individually, one by one. An issue is that, so far, the possible interactions among chemicals or hazards are not considered as such. Another issue is the anticipated delay of several decades before effective protection of public health by regulatory decisions due to a time consuming process. Prenatal and early postnatal life is highly vulnerable to environmental health hazards with lifelong consequences, and a priority period for reduction of exposure...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669550/cardiorespiratory-health-effects-of-gaseous-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Katherine Newell, Christiana Kartsonaki, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Om Kurmi
BACKGROUND: Lack of research on the effects of gaseous pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx ], sulfur dioxide [SO2 ], carbon monoxide [CO] and ozone [O3 ]) in the ambient environment on health outcomes from within low and middle income countries (LMICs) is leading to reliance on results from studies performed within high income countries (HICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous pollutants in LMICs exclusively. METHODS: Systematic searching was carried out and estimates pooled by pollutant, lag and outcome, and presented as excess relative risk per 10 μg/m3 (NOx , SO2 , O3 ) or 1 ppm (CO) increase pollutant...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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