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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535811/pesticide-exposures-and-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-etiology-an-epidemiologic-review
#1
REVIEW
Mathieu Valcke, Marie-Eve Levasseur, Agnes Soares da Silva, Catharina Wesseling
The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension but epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) occur in Central America, Sri Lanka, India and beyond. Althoug also being observed in women, CKDu concentrates among men in agricultural sectors. Therefore, suspicions fell initially on pesticide exposure, but currently chronic heat stress and dehydration are considered key etiologic factors. Responding to persistent community and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we performed a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that addressed associations between any indicator of pesticide exposure and any outcome measure of CKD...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#2
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526013/human-biomonitoring-from-an-environmental-justice-perspective-supporting-study-participation-of-women-of-turkish-and-moroccan-descent
#3
Bert Morrens, Elly Den Hond, Greet Schoeters, Dries Coertjens, Ann Colles, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Stefaan De Henauw, Vera Nelen, Ilse Loots
BACKGROUND: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form of environmental injustice within research practice itself. METHODS: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514952/distributions-and-determinants-of-urinary-biomarkers-of-organophosphate-pesticide-exposure-in-a-prospective-spanish-birth-cohort-study
#4
Sabrina Llop, Mario Murcia, Carmen Iñiguez, Marta Roca, Llúcia González, Vicent Yusà, Marisa Rebagliato, Ferran Ballester
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with impaired child development. Pesticide exposure determinants need to be studied in order to identify sources and pathways of pesticide exposure. The aim of this paper is to describe prenatal exposure to OPs and evaluate the associated factors in pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women (n = 573) who participated in the INMA birth cohort study in Valencia (Spain, 2003-2006)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499453/monitoring-urban-beaches-with-qpcr-vs-culture-measures-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-implications-for-public-notification
#5
Samuel Dorevitch, Abhilasha Shrestha, Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Cathy Breitenbach, Ira Heimler
BACKGROUND: The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established methods for testing beach water using the rapid quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, as well as "beach action values" so that the results of such testing can be used to make same-day beach management decisions. Despite its numerous advantages over culture-based monitoring approaches, qPCR monitoring has yet to become widely used in the US or elsewhere. Considering qPCR results obtained on a given day as the best available measure of that day's water quality, we evaluated the frequency of correct vs...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468684/a-chronology-of-ratios-between-black-smoke-and-pm10-and-pm2-5-in-the-context-of-comparison-of-air-pollution-epidemiology-concentration-response-functions
#6
Mathew R Heal, Iain J Beverland
BACKGROUND: For many air pollution epidemiological studies in Europe, 'black smoke' (BS) was the only measurement available to quantify ambient particulate matter (PM), particularly for exposures prior to the mid-1990s when quantification via the PM10 and/or PM2.5 metrics was introduced. The aim of this work was to review historic BS and PM measurements to allow comparison of health concentration-response functions (CRF) derived using BS as the measure of exposure with CRFs derived using PM10 or PM2...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464876/prenatal-chlorpyrifos-leads-to-autism-like-deficits-in-c57bl6-j-mice
#7
Anat Lan, Michal Kalimian, Benjamin Amram, Ora Kofman
BACKGROUND: Children are at daily risk for exposure to organophosphate insecticides, of which the most common is chlorpyrifos (CPF). Exposure of pregnant women to CPF was linked to decreased birth weight, abnormal reflexes, reduction in IQ, as well as increased maternal reports of signs of pervasive developmental disorder. The aim of current study was to examine the long term effects of prenatal exposure to CPF in C57BL/6 J (B6) mice with specific focus on social and repetitive behavior...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449666/nicotine-aerosol-particles-carbonyls-and-volatile-organic-compounds-in-tobacco-and-menthol-flavored-e-cigarettes
#8
Mi-Sun Lee, Ryan F LeBouf, Youn-Suk Son, Petros Koutrakis, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. METHODS: We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416002/biological-effects-of-exposure-to-static-electric-fields-in-humans-and-vertebrates-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Petri, Kristina Schmiedchen, Dominik Stunder, Dagmar Dechent, Thomas Kraus, William H Bailey, Sarah Driessen
BACKGROUND: High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. METHODS: Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40)...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399867/the-protracted-waste-crisis-and-physical-health-of-workers-in-beirut-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#10
Rami Z Morsi, Rawan Safa, Serge F Baroud, Cherine N Fawaz, Jad I Farha, Fadi El-Jardali, Monique Chaaya
BACKGROUND: Since July 2015, Lebanon has been experiencing a waste management crisis. Dumpsites in inhabited areas and waste burning have emerged due to the waste accumulation, further adding to the gravity of the situation. However, the association between the crisis and health of the population has not been scientifically reported. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to assess whether exposure to open dumpsites and waste burning is associated with acute health symptoms...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399857/variability-and-predictors-of-urinary-concentrations-of-organophosphate-flame-retardant-metabolites-among-pregnant-women-in-rhode-island
#11
Megan E Romano, Nicola L Hawley, Melissa Eliot, Antonia M Calafat, Nayana K Jayatilaka, Karl Kelsey, Stephen McGarvey, Maureen G Phipps, David A Savitz, Erika F Werner, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Organophospate flame retardants (PFRs) are chemicals of emerging concern due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant formulations. We describe the occurrence, variability, and predictors of urinary metabolites of PFRs among pregnant women. METHODS: In 2014-2015, 59 women from Providence, RI provided up to 3 spot urine samples during pregnancy (~12, 28, and 35 weeks' gestation). We created a pooled urine sample per woman and measured nine relevant metabolites in individual and pooled samples...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388912/environmental-pollutants-a-possible-etiology-for-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-a-narrative-review-of-animal-and-human-data
#12
REVIEW
Pauline Vabre, Nicolas Gatimel, Jessika Moreau, Véronique Gayrard, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Jean Parinaud, Roger D Leandri
BACKGROUND: Because only 25% of cases of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) have a known etiology, the aim of this review was to summarize the associations and mechanisms of the impact of the environment on this pathology. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies. Search terms included ovary, follicle, oocyte, endocrine disruptor, environmental exposure, occupational exposure, environmental contaminant, pesticide, polyaromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl PCB, phenol, bisphenol, flame retardant, phthalate, dioxin, phytoestrogen, tobacco, smoke, cigarette, cosmetic, xenobiotic...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388909/hospitalizations-for-heat-stress-illness-varies-between-rural-and-urban-areas-an-analysis-of-illinois-data-1987-2014
#13
Jyotsna S Jagai, Elena Grossman, Livia Navon, Apostolis Sambanis, Samuel Dorevitch
BACKGROUND: The disease burden due to heat-stress illness (HSI), which can result in significant morbidity and mortality, is expected to increase as the climate continues to warm. In the United States (U.S.) much of what is known about HSI epidemiology is from analyses of urban heat waves. There is limited research addressing whether HSI hospitalization risk varies between urban and rural areas, nor is much known about additional diagnoses of patients hospitalized for HSI. METHODS: Hospitalizations in Illinois for HSI (ICD-9-CM codes 992...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381288/maternal-urinary-phthalates-and-sex-specific-placental-mrna-levels-in-an-urban-birth-cohort
#14
Jennifer J Adibi, Jessie P Buckley, Myoung Keun Lee, Paige L Williams, Allan C Just, Yaqi Zhao, Hari K Bhat, Robin M Whyatt
BACKGROUND: Prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates in women participants in an urban birth cohort were associated with outcomes in their children related to neurodevelopment, autoimmune disease risk, and fat mass at 3,5,7, and 8 years of life. Placental biomarkers and outcomes at birth may offer biologic insight into these associations. This is the first study to address these associations with candidate genes from the phthalate and placenta literature, accounting for sex differences, and using absolute quantitation methods for mRNA levels...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381221/ozone-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-in-three-us-cities-evaluation-of-effect-measure-modification-by-neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-approach
#15
Cassandra R O' Lenick, Howard H Chang, Michael R Kramer, Andrea Winquist, James A Mulholland, Mariel D Friberg, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
BACKGROUND: Ground-level ozone is a potent airway irritant and a determinant of respiratory morbidity. Susceptibility to the health effects of ambient ozone may be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Questions remain regarding the manner and extent that factors such as SES influence ozone-related health effects, particularly across different study areas. METHODS: Using a 2-stage modeling approach we evaluated neighborhood SES as a modifier of ozone-related pediatric respiratory morbidity in Atlanta, Dallas, & St...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376835/indoor-air-pollution-and-its-association-with-poor-lung-function-microalbuminuria-and-variations-in-blood-pressure-among-kitchen-workers-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Amarnath Singh, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Ritul Kamal, Vipin Bihari, Afzal Ansari, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Prem Narain Saxena, Anil Kumar Ks, Altaf Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: The present study is an attempt to explore the association between kitchen indoor air pollutants and physiological profiles in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria (MAU) in north India (Lucknow) and south India (Coimbatore). METHODS: The subjects comprised 145 control subjects, 233 kitchen workers from north India and 186 kitchen workers from south India. Information related to the personal and occupational history and health of the subjects at both locations were collected using a custom-made questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376827/lead-exposure-at-firing-ranges-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Mark A S Laidlaw, Gabriel Filippelli, Howard Mielke, Brian Gulson, Andrew S Ball
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. METHODS: The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376798/effects-of-extreme-temperatures-on-cardiovascular-emergency-hospitalizations-in-a-mediterranean-region-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#18
Anna Ponjoan, Jordi Blanch, Lia Alves-Cabratosa, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Marc Comas-Cufí, Dídac Parramon, María Del Mar Garcia-Gil, Rafel Ramos, Irene Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cold spells and heatwaves increase mortality. However little is known about the effect of heatwaves or cold spells on cardiovascular morbidity. This study aims to assess the effect of cold spells and heatwaves on cardiovascular diseases in a Mediterranean region (Catalonia, Southern Europe). METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study. Data were obtained from the System for the Development of Research in Primary Care and from the Catalan Meteorological Service...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359263/parental-exposures-to-occupational-asthmagens-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-danish-population-based-case-control-study
#19
Alison B Singer, Igor Burstyn, Malene Thygesen, Preben Bo Mortensen, M Daniele Fallin, Diana E Schendel
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures and immune conditions during pregnancy could influence development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. However, few studies have examined immune-triggering exposures in relation to ASD. We evaluated the association between parental workplace exposures to risk factors for asthma ("asthmagens") and ASD. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in the Danish population using register linkage. Our study population consisted of 11,869 ASD cases and 48,046 controls born from 1993 through 2007...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356116/occupational-exposures-and-determinants-of-ultrafine-particle-concentrations-during-laser-hair-removal-procedures
#20
Emily J Eshleman, Mallory LeBlanc, Lisa B Rokoff, Yinyin Xu, Rui Hu, Kachiu Lee, Gary S Chuang, Gary Adamkiewicz, Jaime E Hart
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposures to ultrafine particles in the plume generated during laser hair removal procedures, the most commonly performed light based cosmetic procedure, have not been thoroughly characterized. Acute and chronic exposures to ambient ultrafine particles have been associated with a number of negative respiratory and cardiovascular health effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure airborne concentrations of particles in a diameter size range of 10 nm to 1 μm in procedure rooms during laser hair removal procedures...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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