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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149894/comments-on-incidence-of-cancer-among-licensed-commercial-pilots-flying-north-atlantic-routes
#1
EDITORIAL
S M J Mortazavi
Gudmundsdottir et al. in their paper entitled "Incidence of cancer among licensed commercial pilots flying North Atlantic routes" published in Environmental Health have evaluated the effects of exposure to higher levels of cosmic radiation on cancer incidence in the pilots of commercial flights. Despite its remarkable strengths, the paper authored by Gudmundsdottir et al. has some shortcomings. The shortcomings of this paper such as not determining the shape of dose-response relationship for radiation-induced cancers, limitations in flight dose calculations, the weaknesses of CARI-6 as the program used by Gudmundsdottir et al...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149887/prostate-cancer-in-firefighting-and-police-work-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-epidemiologic-studies
#2
REVIEW
Jeavana Sritharan, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers, Shelley A Harris, Donald C Cole, Marie-Elise Parent
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate potential associations between firefighting and police occupations, and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Original epidemiological studies published from 1980 to 2017 were identified through PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if they contained specific job titles for ever/never firefighting and police work and associated prostate cancer risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141670/correction-to-lung-cancer-mortality-of-residents-living-near-petrochemical-industrial-complexes-a-meta-analysis
#3
Cheng-Kuan Lin, Huei-Yang Hung, David C Christiani, Francesco Forastiere, Ro-Ting Lin
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that the original version of this Article contained a typo in the 3rd paragraph of the section 'Review process and data extraction'. It concerns the equation published as "Var(lnRR) = Var(lnR1 + lnR0)". On the right part, the "+" within the parenthesis should be "-", as defined and derived from the left part. As a result, Var(lnRR) = Var(lnR1 + lnR0) should be revised to Var(lnRR) = Var(lnR1 - lnR0).
November 15, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132367/proposal-for-coordinated-health-research-in-pfas-contaminated-communities-in-the-united-states
#4
LETTER
Thomas A Bruton, Arlene Blum
The drinking water of more than six million Americans in numerous communities has been found to contain highly fluorinated chemicals at concentrations of concern. Certain of these chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative, and associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and animal models. The possible health impacts of exposure to highly fluorinated chemicals are of great concern to communities whose water has been impacted...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132426/comment-on-a-re-assessment-of-the-safety-of-silver-in-household-water-treatment-rapid-systematic-review-of-mammalian-in-vivo-genotoxicity-studies
#5
EDITORIAL
Daniele Lantagne, Justine Rayner, Anjuliee Mittelman, Kurt Pennell
We wish to thank Fewtrell, Majuru, and Hunter for their article highlighting genotoxic risks associated with the use of particulate silver for primary drinking water treatment. The recent promotion of colloidal silver products for household water treatment in developing countries is problematic due to previously identified concerns regarding manufacturing quality and questionable advertising practices, as well as the low efficiency of silver nanoparticles to treat bacteria, viruses, and protozoa in source waters...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078794/the-impact-of-daily-temperature-on-renal-disease-incidence-an-ecological-study
#6
Matthew Borg, Peng Bi, Monika Nitschke, Susan Williams, Stephen McDonald
BACKGROUND: Extremely high temperatures over many consecutive days have been linked to an increase in renal disease in several cities. This is becoming increasingly relevant with heatwaves becoming longer, more intense, and more frequent with climate change. This study aimed to extend the known relationship between daily temperature and kidney disease to include the incidence of eight temperature-prone specific renal disease categories - total renal disease, urolithiasis, renal failure, acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), urinary tract infections (UTIs), lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs) and pyelonephritis...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078782/gestational-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-relation-to-infant-birth-weight-a-bayesian-analysis-of-the-home-study
#7
Meghan M Woods, Bruce P Lanphear, Joseph M Braun, Lawrence C McCandless
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are exposed to a mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Gestational EDC exposures may be associated with changes in fetal growth that elevates the risk for poor health later in life, but few studies have examined the health effects of simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals. This study aimed to examine the association of gestational exposure to five chemical classes of potential EDCs: phthalates and bisphenol A, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with infant birth weight...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073935/human-health-implications-of-organic-food-and-organic-agriculture-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Axel Mie, Helle Raun Andersen, Stefan Gunnarsson, Johannes Kahl, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Gianluca Quaglio, Philippe Grandjean
This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078795/road-traffic-noise-and-registry-based-use-of-sleep-medication
#9
Jorunn Evandt, Bente Oftedal, Norun Hjertager Krog, Svetlana Skurtveit, Per Nafstad, Per E Schwarze, Eva Skovlund, Danny Houthuijs, Gunn Marit Aasvang
BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an opportunity to study the effects of noise on sleep where attribution of sleep problems to noise is not possible. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-10) (n = 13,019)...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041975/extreme-precipitation-and-emergency-room-visits-for-influenza-in-massachusetts-a-case-crossover-analysis
#10
Genee S Smith, Kyle P Messier, James L Crooks, Timothy J Wade, Cynthia J Lin, Elizabeth D Hilborn
BACKGROUND: Influenza peaks during the wintertime in temperate regions and during the annual rainy season in tropical regions - however reasons for the observed differences in disease ecology are poorly understood. We hypothesize that episodes of extreme precipitation also result in increased influenza in the Northeastern United States, but this association is not readily apparent, as no defined 'rainy season' occurs. Our objective was to evaluate the association between extreme precipitation (≥ 99th percentile) events and risk of emergency room (ER) visit for influenza in Massachusetts during 2002-2008...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020961/hazardous-waste-and-health-impact-a-systematic-review-of-the-scientific-literature
#11
REVIEW
L Fazzo, F Minichilli, M Santoro, A Ceccarini, M Della Seta, F Bianchi, P Comba, M Martuzzi
Waste is part of the agenda of the European Environment and Health Process and included among the topics of the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Disposal and management of hazardous waste are worldwide challenges. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the health impact of hazardous waste exposure, applying transparent and a priori defined methods. The following five steps, based on pre-defined systematic criteria, were applied. 1. Specify the research question, in terms of "Population-Exposure-Comparators-Outcomes" (PECO)...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017568/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-depression-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-investigation-of-a-dopamine-related-neurochemical-path-in-the-german-helpcb-surveillance-program
#12
Petra Maria Gaum, Monika Gube, Thomas Schettgen, Franziska Maria Putschögl, Thomas Kraus, Bruno Fimm, Jessica Lang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with depressive symptomatology. A cause of depressive symptoms is a disturbance in the neurotransmitter system of dopamine (DA). Animal as well as human studies report that PCBs can influence the DA system. This study examined whether PCB-related depressive symptoms are affected by DA metabolites in humans with high PCB body burden. METHODS: This study is part of the German HELPcB surveillance program (Health Effects in high Level exposure to PCB) for occupationally exposed workers and their relatives...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017533/persistent-organic-pollutants-and-mortality-in-the-united-states-nhanes-1999-2011
#13
Kristiann Fry, Melinda C Power
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, data on the associations between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the U.S. population is limited. Our objective was to determine if higher exposure to POPs is associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985761/socioeconomic-and-urban-rural-differentials-in-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-mortality-burden-in-england
#14
Ai Milojevic, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Jamie Pearce, James Milner, Ian A MacKenzie, Ruth M Doherty, Paul Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across England. METHODS: Ozone and particulate matter (sub-divided into PM10, PM2.5, PM2...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969670/exposure-to-human-associated-fecal-indicators-and-self-reported-illness-among-swimmers-at-recreational-beaches-a-cohort-study
#15
Melanie D Napier, Richard Haugland, Charles Poole, Alfred P Dufour, Jill R Stewart, David J Weber, Manju Varma, Jennifer S Lavender, Timothy J Wade
BACKGROUND: Fecal indicator bacteria used to assess illness risks in recreational waters (e.g., Escherichia coli, Enterococci) cannot discriminate among pollution sources. To address this limitation, human-associated Bacteroides markers have been proposed, but the risk of illness associated with the presence of these markers in recreational waters is unclear. Our objective was to estimate associations between human-associated Bacteroides markers in water and self-reported illness among swimmers at 6 U...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950902/construction-of-environmental-risk-score-beyond-standard-linear-models-using-machine-learning-methods-application-to-metal-mixtures-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-nhanes
#16
Sung Kyun Park, Zhangchen Zhao, Bhramar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern of health effects of exposure to pollutant mixtures. We initially proposed an Environmental Risk Score (ERS) as a summary measure to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research considering only pollutant main effects. We expand the ERS by consideration of pollutant-pollutant interactions using modern machine learning methods. We illustrate the multi-pollutant approaches to predicting a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)), a common disease pathway linking environmental exposure and numerous health endpoints...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950871/lung-cancer-mortality-of-residents-living-near-petrochemical-industrial-complexes-a-meta-analysis
#17
Cheng-Kuan Lin, Huei-Yang Hung, David C Christiani, Francesco Forastiere, Ro-Ting Lin
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer, as the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, has been linked to environmental factors, such as air pollution. Residential exposure to petrochemicals is considered a possible cause of lung cancer for the nearby population, but results are inconsistent across previous studies. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk and to identify possible factors leading to the heterogeneity among studies. METHODS: The standard process of selecting studies followed the Cochrane meta-analysis guideline of identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938911/psychosocial-and-demographic-predictors-of-adherence-and-non-adherence-to-health-advice-accompanying-air-quality-warning-systems-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Donatella D'Antoni, Louise Smith, Vivian Auyeung, John Weinman
BACKGROUND: Although evidence shows that poor air quality can harm human health, we have a limited understanding about the behavioural impact of air quality forecasts. Our aim was to understand to what extent air quality warning systems influence protective behaviours in the general public, and to identify the demographic and psychosocial factors associated with adherence and non-adherence to the health advice accompanying these warnings. METHOD: In August 2016 literature was systematically reviewed to find studies assessing intended or actual adherence to health advice accompanying air quality warning systems, and encouraging people to reduce exposure to air pollution...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899425/the-physiological-determinants-of-low-level-urine-cadmium-an-assessment-in-a-cross-sectional-study-among-schoolchildren
#19
Hongyu Wang, Xavier Dumont, Vincent Haufroid, Alfred Bernard
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in children have reported associations of urinary cadmium (U-Cd), used as biomarker of Cd body burden, with renal dysfunction, retarded growth and impaired cognitive development in children. Little is known, however, about factors influencing U-Cd in children and likely to act as confounders. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study involving 249 schoolchildren (mean age, 5.72 years; 138 boys), we measured the urine concentrations of cadmium, zinc, lead, albumin, alpha1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein, β2-microglobulin and club cell protein (CC16)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893249/assessment-of-the-potential-respiratory-hazard-of-volcanic-ash-from-future-icelandic-eruptions-a-study-of-archived-basaltic-to-rhyolitic-ash-samples
#20
David E Damby, Claire J Horwell, Gudrun Larsen, Thorvaldur Thordarson, Maura Tomatis, Bice Fubini, Ken Donaldson
BACKGROUND: The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. METHODS: A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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