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Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903268/long-term-outdoor-air-pollution-and-dna-methylation-in-circulating-monocytes-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#1
Gloria C Chi, Yongmei Liu, James W MacDonald, R Graham Barr, Kathleen M Donohue, Mark D Hensley, Lifang Hou, Charles E McCall, Lindsay M Reynolds, David S Siscovick, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may mediate effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation in monocytes, which are central to atherosclerosis, has not been studied. We investigated the association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and DNA methylation (candidate sites and global) in monocytes of adults (aged ≥55). METHODS: One-year average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899148/undereporting-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-tanzania-modelling-results-from-two-cross-sectional-studies
#2
Elikana E Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is known to cause serious injuries to end users globally but the magnitude of this problem in Tanzania is not well known. This study aimed to determine the extent and pattern of underreporting of APP in Tanzania to inform the development of a surveillance system and appropriate interventions. METHODS: This study integrates findings from two recent Tanzanian studies. A household survey established the proportion of poisoned farmers in a typical rural area who reported to hospital for a pesticide poisoning...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899110/then-and-now-lessons-learned-from-community-academic-partnerships-in-environmental-health-research
#3
LETTER
Maureen Lichtveld, Bernard Goldstein, Lynn Grattan, Christopher Mundorf
On the occasion of the 50(th) anniversary of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences we reflect on how environmental research incorporating community members as active partners has evolved, benefited communities and advanced environmental health research. We highlight the commitment to community partnerships in the aftermath of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill, and how that commitment helped improve science. We provide examples of community-academic partnerships across the engagement spectrum...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887621/pediatric-emergency-department-visits-and-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-u-s-state-of-georgia-a-case-crossover-study
#4
Qingyang Xiao, Yang Liu, James A Mulholland, Armistead G Russell, Lyndsey A Darrow, Paige E Tolbert, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: Estimating the health effects of ambient air pollutant mixtures is necessary to understand the risk of real-life air pollution exposures. METHODS: Pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visit records for asthma or wheeze (n = 148,256), bronchitis (n = 84,597), pneumonia (n = 90,063), otitis media (n = 422,268) and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (n = 744,942) were obtained from Georgia hospitals during 2002-2008. Spatially-contiguous daily concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants were estimated from CMAQ model simulations that were fused with ground-based measurements...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887618/portable-air-cleaners-should-be-at-the-forefront-of-the-public-health-response-to-landscape-fire-smoke
#5
LETTER
Prabjit K Barn, Catherine T Elliott, Ryan W Allen, Tom Kosatsky, Karen Rideout, Sarah B Henderson
Landscape fires can produce large quantities of smoke that degrade air quality in both remote and urban communities. Smoke from these fires is a complex mixture of fine particulate matter and gases, exposure to which is associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The public health response to short-lived smoke events typically advises people to remain indoors with windows and doors closed, but does not emphasize the use of portable air cleaners (PAC) to create private or public clean air shelters...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884187/a-simulation-study-to-quantify-the-impacts-of-exposure-measurement-error-on-air-pollution-health-risk-estimates-in-copollutant-time-series-models
#6
Kathie L Dionisio, Howard H Chang, Lisa K Baxter
BACKGROUND: Exposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of air pollution and health. METHODS: ZIP-code level estimates of exposure for six pollutants (CO, NOx, EC, PM2.5, SO4, O3) from 1999 to 2002 in the Atlanta metropolitan area were used to calculate spatial, population (i...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884139/brominated-flame-retardants-in-placental-tissues-associations-with-infant-sex-and-thyroid-hormone-endpoints
#7
Christopher Leonetti, Craig M Butt, Kate Hoffman, Stephanie C Hammel, Marie Lynn Miranda, Heather M Stapleton
BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are endocrine disruptors that bioaccumulate in the placenta, but it remains unclear if they disrupt tissue thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Our primary goal was to investigate associations between placental BFRs, TH levels, Type 3 deiodinase (DIO3) activity and TH sulfotransferase (SULT) activities. METHODS: Placenta samples collected from 95 women who delivered term (>37 weeks) infants in Durham, NC, USA (enrolled 2010-2011) were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), THs (T4, T3 and rT3), and DIO3 and TH SULT activities...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881169/spatiotemporal-exposure-modeling-of-ambient-erythemal-ultraviolet-radiation
#8
Trang VoPham, Jaime E Hart, Kimberly A Bertrand, Zhibin Sun, Rulla M Tamimi, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation plays a multifaceted role in human health, inducing DNA damage and representing the primary source of vitamin D for most humans; however, current U.S. UV exposure models are limited in spatial, temporal, and/or spectral resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) residual kriging is a geostatistical method that can be used to create a spatiotemporal exposure model by downscaling from an area- to point-level spatial resolution using fine-scale ancillary data...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881134/low-dose-radiation-risks-for-women-surviving-the-a-bombs-in-japan-generalized-additive-model
#9
Greg Dropkin
BACKGROUND: Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. METHODS: GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852312/erratum-to-change-in-decay-rates-of-dioxin-like-compounds-in-yusho-patients
#10
Shinya Matsumoto, Manabu Akahane, Yoshiyuki Kanagawa, Jumboku Kajiwara, Chikage Mitoma, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue, Tomoaki Imamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846897/a-proposed-case-control-framework-to-probabilistically-classify-individual-deaths-as-expected-or-excess-during-extreme-hot-weather-events
#11
Sarah B Henderson, Jillian S Gauld, Stephen A Rauch, Kathleen E McLean, Nikolas Krstic, David M Hondula, Tom Kosatsky
BACKGROUND: Most excess deaths that occur during extreme hot weather events do not have natural heat recorded as an underlying or contributing cause. This study aims to identify the specific individuals who died because of hot weather using only secondary data. A novel approach was developed in which the expected number of deaths was repeatedly sampled from all deaths that occurred during a hot weather event, and compared with deaths during a control period. The deaths were compared with respect to five factors known to be associated with hot weather mortality...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835959/current-medical-research-funding-and-frameworks-are-insufficient-to-address-the-health-risks-of-global-environmental-change
#12
LETTER
Kristie L Ebi, Jan C Semenza, Joacim Rocklöv
BACKGROUND: Three major international agreements signed in 2015 are key milestones for transitioning to more sustainable and resilient societies: the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; and the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Together, these agreements underscore the critical importance of understanding and managing the health risks of global changes, to ensure continued population health improvements in the face of significant social and environmental change over this century...
November 11, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832786/exploring-the-influence-of-short-term-temperature-patterns-on-temperature-related-mortality-a-case-study-of-melbourne-australia
#13
John L Pearce, Madison Hyer, Rob J Hyndman, Margaret Loughnan, Martine Dennekamp, Neville Nicholls
BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified the association between ambient temperature and mortality; however, several features of temperature behavior and their impacts on health remain unresolved. We obtain daily counts of nonaccidental all-cause mortality data in the elderly (65 + years) and corresponding meteorological data for Melbourne, Australia during 1999 to 2006. We then characterize the temporal behavior of ambient temperature development by quantifying the rates of temperature change during periods designated by pre-specified windows ranging from 1 to 30 days...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825389/maternal-arsenic-exposure-and-gestational-diabetes-and-glucose-intolerance-in-the-new-hampshire-birth-cohort-study
#14
Shohreh F Farzan, Anala Gossai, Yu Chen, Lisa Chasan-Taber, Emily Baker, Margaret Karagas
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major pregnancy complication with detrimental effects for both mothers and their children. Accumulating evidence has suggested a potential role for arsenic (As) exposure in the development of GDM, but current studies have not assessed As exposure from water, urine or toenail samples. METHODS: We investigated the association between As exposure and risk of glucose intolerance and GDM among 1151 women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825359/use-of-a-modified-greenscreen-tool-to-conduct-a-screening-level-comparative-hazard-assessment-of-conventional-silver-and-two-forms-of-nanosilver
#15
Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang
BACKGROUND: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821115/adverse-weather-conditions-and-fatal-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-the-united-states-1994-2012
#16
Shubhayu Saha, Paul Schramm, Amanda Nolan, Jeremy Hess
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury mortality. Adverse weather and road conditions have the potential to affect the likelihood of motor vehicle fatalities through several pathways. However, there remains a dearth of assessments associating adverse weather conditions to fatal crashes in the United States. We assessed trends in motor vehicle fatalities associated with adverse weather and present spatial variation in fatality rates by state. METHODS: We analyzed the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) datasets from 1994 to 2012 produced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that contains reported weather information for each fatal crash...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809911/stunting-is-associated-with-blood-lead-concentration-among-bangladeshi-children-aged-2-3-years
#17
Kelsey M Gleason, Linda Valeri, A H Shankar, Md Omar Sharif Ibne Hasan, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Ema G Rodrigues, David C Christiani, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, Maitreyi Mazumdar
BACKGROUND: Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809917/gene-expression-network-analyses-in-response-to-air-pollution-exposures-in-the-trucking-industry
#18
Jen-Hwa Chu, Jaime E Hart, Divya Chhabra, Eric Garshick, Benjamin A Raby, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution, including traffic-related pollutants, has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes, including increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and increased lung cancer risk. METHODS: To better understand the cellular responses induced by air pollution exposures, we performed genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis using whole blood RNA sampled at three time-points across the work weeks of 63 non-smoking employees at 10 trucking terminals in the northeastern US...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809853/asthma-exacerbations-and-traffic-examining-relationships-using-link-based-traffic-metrics-and-a-comprehensive-patient-database
#19
Paula Lindgren, Jean Johnson, Allan Williams, Barbara Yawn, Gregory C Pratt
BACKGROUND: The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) is a unique community-based medical record data linkage system that provides individual patient address, diagnosis and visit information for all hospitalizations, as well as emergency department, urgent care and outpatient clinic visits for asthma. Proximity to traffic is known to be associated with asthma exacerbations and severity. Our null hypothesis was that there is no association between residential proximity to traffic and asthma exacerbations over eleven years of REP data...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769264/occupation-industry-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-a-case-control-study-in-montr%C3%A3-al-canada
#20
Jean-François Sauvé, Jérôme Lavoué, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: Age, family history and ancestry are the only recognized risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) but a role for environmental factors is suspected. Due to the lack of knowledge on the etiological factors for PCa, studies that are both hypothesis-generating and confirmatory are still needed. This study explores relationships between employment, by occupation and industry, and PCa risk. METHODS: Cases were 1937 men aged ≤75 years with incident PCa diagnosed across Montreal French hospitals in 2005-2009...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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