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Cardiovascular Diabetology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#1
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086882/differential-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-heart-rate
#2
REVIEW
Martin Lorenz, Francesca Lawson, David Owens, Denis Raccah, Christine Roy-Duval, Anne Lehmann, Riccardo Perfetti, Lawrence Blonde
While glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are known to increase heart rate (HR), it is insufficiently recognized that the extent varies greatly between the various agonists and is affected by the assessment methods employed. Here we review published data from 24-h time-averaged HR monitoring in healthy individuals and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with either short-acting GLP-1 RAs, lixisenatide or exenatide, or long-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, or dulaglutide (N = 1112; active-treatment arms)...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086872/dapagliflozin-decreases-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-increases-high-density-lipoprotein-2-cholesterol-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-comparison-with-sitagliptin
#3
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Noriko Nakanishi, Saki Yamamoto, Masako Tomoyasu, Anna Osamura, Makoto Ohara, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been reported to increase both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study aimed to determine how SGLT-2 inhibitors affect LDL and HDL-C subspecies. METHODS: This single center, open-label, randomized, prospective study included 80 patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were allocated to receive dapagliflozin (n = 40) or sitagliptin (n = 40) as add-on treatment...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086863/exercise-mediated-protection-of-diabetic-heart-through-modulation-of-microrna-mediated-molecular-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Jason Kar Sheng Lew, James T Pearson, Daryl O Schwenke, Rajesh Katare
Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086778/diabetes-does-not-impact-the-diagnostic-performance-of-contrast-based-fractional-flow-reserve-insights-from-the-contrast-study
#5
Giuseppe Gargiulo, Eugenio Stabile, Marco Ferrone, Emanuele Barbato, Frederik M Zimmermann, Julien Adjedj, Barry Hennigan, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Nils P Johnson, William F Fearon, Allen Jeremias, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni Esposito
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-free coronary pressure wire metrics have been proposed to test the functional significance of coronary artery lesions, but it is unexplored whether their diagnostic performance might be altered in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the CONTRAST study, which prospectively enrolled an international cohort of patients undergoing routine fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment for standard indications. Paired, repeated measurements of all physiology metrics (Pd/Pa, iFR, contrast-based FFR, and FFR) were made...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068986/leptin-and-adiponectin-as-predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-after-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Tove Lekva, Annika Elisabet Michelsen, Pål Aukrust, Tore Henriksen, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. Adipokine imbalance in the presence of metabolic dysfunction may be a key event in promoting CVD. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between GDM, cardiovascular risk, and plasma adiponectin, leptin and the leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio in pregnancy and at 5 years after the index pregnancy. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort included 300 women who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061854/association-of-statin-use-and-hypertriglyceridemia-with-diabetic-macular-edema-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Yoo-Ri Chung, Sung Wook Park, Shin-Young Choi, Seung Woo Kim, Ka Young Moon, Jeong Hun Kim, Kihwang Lee
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dyslipidemia and statin therapy on progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The medical records of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (70 statin users and 40 non-users) were retrospectively reviewed. The two outcome measures were progression of diabetic retinopathy by two or more steps on the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study scale and diabetic macular edema based on optical coherence tomography...
January 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057001/improved-trends-in-cardiovascular-complications-among-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-in-korea-a-nationwide-study-2006-2013
#8
Chang Hee Jung, Jin Ook Chung, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Soo Ko, Joong-Yeol Park
BACKGROUND: Representative data on the secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) are limited in Asian populations with diabetes. We aimed to estimate the temporal trends in cardiovascular complications using Korean nationwide whole population-based claims data in subjects with and without diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetes was defined as a current medication history of anti-diabetic drugs and the presence of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes (E11-E14) as diagnosis...
January 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056987/blood-pressure-control-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#9
REVIEW
Alon Grossman, Ehud Grossman
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method by which to control hypertension, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological, is also a matter of debate and has been extensively studied in the literature...
January 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056981/arterial-stiffness-endothelial-and-cognitive-function-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-in-accordance-with-absence-or-presence-of-diabetic-foot-syndrome
#10
Antonino Tuttolomondo, Alessandra Casuccio, Giovanni Guercio, Carlo Maida, Alessandro Del Cuore, Domenico Di Raimondo, Irene Simonetta, Danilo Di Bona, Rosaria Pecoraro, Vittoriano Della Corte, Eliana Gulotta, Gaspare Gulotta, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is an early marker of cardiovascular disease so endothelial and arterial stiffness indexes are good indicators of vascular health. We aimed to assess whether the presence of diabetic foot is associated with arterial stiffness and endothelial function impairment. METHODS: We studied 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) compared to 50 diabetic subjects without diabetic foot, and 53 patients without diabetes mellitus, by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) administered to evaluate cognitive performance...
January 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007022/impact-of-obesity-and-epicardial-fat-on-early-left-atrial-dysfunction-assessed-by-cardiac-mri-strain-analysis
#11
Morgane Evin, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Fraser M Callaghan, Rachel T McGrath, Sarah Glastras, Rebecca Kozor, Samantha L Hocking, Jérôme Lamy, Alban Redheuil, Nadjia Kachenoura, Greg R Fulcher, Gemma A Figtree, Stuart M Grieve
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity in obese individuals. We aimed to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived left atrial (LA) strain to detect early diastolic dysfunction in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and to explore the association between cardiac adipose tissue and LA function. METHODS: Twenty patients with obesity and T2D (55 ± 8 years) and nineteen healthy controls (48 ± 13 years) were imaged using cine steady state free precession and 2-point Dixon cardiovascular magnetic resonance...
December 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923363/ankle-brachial-index-and-incident-diabetes-mellitus-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#12
Simin Hua, Laura R Loehr, Hirofumi Tanaka, Gerardo Heiss, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Kunihiro Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) often have reduced physical activity, which may increase the future risk of diabetes mellitus. Although diabetes is a risk factor for PAD, whether low ankle-brachial index (ABI) predates diabetes has not been studied. METHODS: We examined the association of ABI with incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models in the ARIC Study. ABI was measured in 12,247 black and white participants without prevalent diabetes at baseline (1987-1989)...
December 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912784/liraglutide-improves-metabolic-parameters-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-diabetic-patients-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-18-month-prospective-study
#13
Manfredi Rizzo, Ali A Rizvi, Angelo Maria Patti, Dragana Nikolic, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Giuseppa Castellino, Giovanni Li Volti, Massimiliano Caprio, Giuseppe Montalto, Vincenzo Provenzano, Stefano Genovese, Antonio Ceriello
BACKGROUND: Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, exerts several beneficial non-glycemic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM), such as those on body weight, blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammation markers. However, the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular (CV) risk markers in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still largely unknown. We herein explored its effects on various cardio-metabolic risk markers of the MetS in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: We performed an 18-month prospective, real-world study...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905927/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-diabetic-patients-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-in-a-real-world-setting-results-from-the-israeli-icd-registry
#14
Hillel Steiner, Michael Geist, Ilan Goldenberg, Mahmoud Suleiman, Michael Glikson, Alexander Tenenbaum, Moshe Swissa, Enrique Z Fisman, Gregory Golovchiner, Boris Strasberg, Alon Barsheshet
AIMS: There are limited data regarding the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the risks of both appropriate and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. The present study was designed to compare the outcome of appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy in patients with or without DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: The risk of a first appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (including anti tachycardia pacing and shock) was compared between 764 DM and 1346 non-DM patients enrolled in the national Israeli ICD registry...
December 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905925/expression-of-insulin-receptor-ir-a-and-b-isoforms-igf-ir-and-ir-igf-ir-hybrid-receptors-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-their-role-in-cell-migration-in-atherosclerosis
#15
N Beneit, C E Fernández-García, J L Martín-Ventura, L Perdomo, Ó Escribano, J B Michel, G García-Gómez, S Fernández, S Díaz-Castroverde, J Egido, A Gómez-Hernández, M Benito
BACKGROUND: Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerotic process. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) and its association with the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) confer a proliferative advantage to VSMCs. However, the role of IR and IGF-IR in VSMC migration remains poorly understood. METHODS: Wound healing assays were performed in VSMCs bearing IR (IRLoxP(+/+) VSMCs), or not (IR(-/-) VSMCs), expressing IRA (IRA VSMCs) or expressing IRB (IRB VSMCs)...
December 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#16
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881170/relationship-of-cardiometabolic-parameters-in-non-smokers-current-smokers-and-quitters-in-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Debasish Kar, Clare Gillies, Francesco Zaccardi, David Webb, Samuel Seidu, Solomon Tesfaye, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with increased macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. In addition to other concomitant vascular perturbations, it also seems to influence the cardiometabolic parameters, which may partly explain the accelerated rate of vascular complications in smokers with diabetes. While smoking cessation is advocated as a universal component of the management of diabetes, there is some anecdotal evidence that HbA1c could increase following smoking cessation...
November 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835975/empagliflozin-lessened-cardiac-injury-and-reduced-visceral-adipocyte-hypertrophy-in-prediabetic-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Hiroaki Kusaka, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Yu Hasegawa, Hisao Ogawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in metabolic syndrome is with prediabetic stage unclear. This work was undertaken to investigate the non-glycemic effect of empagliflozin on metabolic syndrome rats with prediabetes. METHODS: SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp), a model of metabolic syndrome with prediabetes, were given empagliflozin for 10 weeks to examine the effects on urinary sodium and water balance, visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte, and cardiac injury...
November 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832814/obesity-induced-cardiac-lipid-accumulation-in-adult-mice-is-modulated-by-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-levels
#19
Elisa Lucas, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Alba C Arcones, Marta Cruces-Sande, Victoria Cachofeiro, Federico Mayor, Cristina Murga
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of death among the obese population is heart failure and stroke prompted by structural and functional changes in the heart. The molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related cardiac remodeling are complex, and include hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that ultimately affect the functionality of the myocardium. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an ubiquitous kinase able to desensitize the active form of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is known to play an important role in cardiac GPCR modulation...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832775/correlation-between-insulin-induced-estrogen-receptor-methylation-and-atherosclerosis
#20
Jia Min, Zhong Weitian, Cai Peng, Peng Yan, Zhang Bo, Wang Yan, Bai Yun, Wang Xukai
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been recently recognized as an important cause of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have also found that expression of the estrogen receptor is closely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. This study investigate the effects of insulin and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in atherosclerosis. METHODS: Double knockout ApoE/Lepr mice were given intraperitoneal injections of insulin, and their aortae were harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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