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Biomedical Engineering Online

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209171/integrated-strategy-for-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-bileaflet-mechanical-aortic-valve
#1
Francesca Maria Susin, Stefania Espa, Riccardo Toninato, Stefania Fortini, Giorgio Querzoli
BACKGROUND: Haemodynamic performance of heart valve prosthesis can be defined as its ability to fully open and completely close during the cardiac cycle, neither overloading heart work nor damaging blood particles when passing through the valve. In this perspective, global and local flow parameters, valve dynamics and blood damage safety of the prosthesis, as well as their mutual interactions, have all to be accounted for when assessing the device functionality. Even though all these issues have been and continue to be widely investigated, they are not usually studied through an integrated approach yet, i...
February 16, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202066/mitotic-counts-in-breast-cancer-should-be-standardized-with-a-uniform-sample-area
#2
Michael Bonert, Angela J Tate
BACKGROUND: Mitotic rate is routinely assessed in breast cancer cases and based on the assessment of 10 high power fields (HPF), a non-standard sample area, as per the College of American Pathologists cancer checklist. The effect of sample area variation has not been assessed. METHODS: A computer model making use of the binomial distribution was developed to calculate the misclassification rate in 1,000,000 simulated breast specimens using the extremes of field diameter (FD) and mitotic density cutoffs (3 and 8 mitoses/mm(2)), and for a sample area of 5 mm(2)...
February 16, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178998/tissue-perfusion-modelling-in-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Petra Stohanzlova, Radim Kolar
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well established imaging technique with different applications in preclinical research and clinical practice. The main potential for its application lies in the possibility of noninvasively performing "optical biopsy". Nevertheless, functional OCT imaging is also developing, in which perfusion imaging is an important approach in tissue function study. In spite of its great potential in preclinical research, advanced perfusion imaging using OCT has not been studied...
February 8, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173816/a-3d-mri-denoising-algorithm-based-on-bayesian-theory
#4
Fabio Baselice, Giampaolo Ferraioli, Vito Pascazio
BACKGROUND: Within this manuscript a noise filtering technique for magnetic resonance image stack is presented. Magnetic resonance images are usually affected by artifacts and noise due to several reasons. Several denoising approaches have been proposed in literature, with different trade-off between computational complexity, regularization and noise reduction. Most of them is supervised, i.e. requires the set up of several parameters. A completely unsupervised approach could have a positive impact on the community...
February 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173809/fast-time-varying-linear-filters-for-suppression-of-baseline-drift-in-electrocardiographic-signals
#5
Jiří Kozumplík, Ivo Provazník
BACKGROUND: The paper presents a method of linear time-varying filtering, with extremely low computational costs, for the suppression of baseline drift in electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. An ECG signal is not periodic as the length of its heart cycles vary. In order to optimally suppress baseline drift by the use of a linear filter, we need a high-pass filter with time-varying cut-off frequency controlled by instant heart rate. METHODS: Realization of the high-pass (HP) filter is based on a narrow-band low-pass (LP) filter of which output is subtracted from the delayed input...
February 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173806/ecg-signal-performance-de-noising-assessment-based-on-threshold-tuning-of-dual-tree-wavelet-transform
#6
Oussama El B'charri, Rachid Latif, Khalifa Elmansouri, Abdenbi Abenaou, Wissam Jenkal
BACKGROUND: Since the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has a low frequency and a weak amplitude, it is sensitive to miscellaneous mixed noises, which may reduce the diagnostic accuracy and hinder the physician's correct decision on patients. METHODS: The dual tree wavelet transform (DT-WT) is one of the most recent enhanced versions of discrete wavelet transform. However, threshold tuning on this method for noise removal from ECG signal has not been investigated yet...
February 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166774/highly-wearable-cuff-less-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-monitoring-with-single-arm-electrocardiogram-and-photoplethysmogram-signals
#7
Qingxue Zhang, Dian Zhou, Xuan Zeng
BACKGROUND: Long-term continuous systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) monitors are of tremendous value to medical (cardiovascular, circulatory and cerebrovascular management), wellness (emotional and stress tracking) and fitness (performance monitoring) applications, but face several major impediments, such as poor wearability, lack of widely accepted robust SBP models and insufficient proofing of the generalization ability of calibrated models. METHODS: This paper proposes a wearable cuff-less electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG)-based SBP and HR monitoring system and many efforts are made focusing on above challenges...
February 6, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095867/effects-of-ablation-depth-and-repair-time-on-the-corneal-elastic-modulus-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#8
Xiaojun Wang, Xiaona Li, Weiyi Chen, Rui He, Zhipeng Gao, Pengfei Feng
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the cornea should be taken into account in the refractive procedure in order to perform refractive surgery more accurately. The effects of the ablation depth and repair time on the elastic modulus of the rabbit cornea after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are still unclear. METHODS: In this study, LASIK was performed on New Zealand rabbits with different ablation depth (only typical LASIK flaps were created; residual stroma bed was 50 or 30% of the whole cornea thickness respectively)...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095866/improvement-of-displacement-estimation-of-breast-tissue-in-ultrasound-elastography-using-the-monogenic-signal
#9
Taher Slimi, Ines Marzouk Moussa, Tarek Kraiem, Halima Mahjoubi
BACKGROUND: In breast ultrasound elastography, tissues displacements estimation is obtained through a technique that follows the evolution of tissues under stress. However, during the acquisition of B-mode images, tissue displacements are often contaminated with multiplicative noise caused by changes in the speckle pattern in the tissue. Thus, the application of monogenic signal technique on the B-mode image in order to estimate displacement tissue, result in a presence of amplified noise in the deformation tissue image, which severely obscures the useful information...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095857/real-time-inverse-kinematics-for-the-upper-limb-a-model-based-algorithm-using-segment-orientations
#10
Bence J Borbély, Péter Szolgay
BACKGROUND: Model based analysis of human upper limb movements has key importance in understanding the motor control processes of our nervous system. Various simulation software packages have been developed over the years to perform model based analysis. These packages provide computationally intensive-and therefore off-line-solutions to calculate the anatomical joint angles from motion captured raw measurement data (also referred as inverse kinematics). In addition, recent developments in inertial motion sensing technology show that it may replace large, immobile and expensive optical systems with small, mobile and cheaper solutions in cases when a laboratory-free measurement setup is needed...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095851/analytical-method-for-calculation-of-deviations-from-intended-dosages-during-multi-infusion
#11
Maurits K Konings, Roland A Snijder, Joris H Radermacher, Annemoon M Timmerman
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a new method is presented that combines mechanical compliance effects with Poiseuille flow and push-out effects ("dead volume") in one single mathematical framework for calculating dosing errors in multi-infusion set-ups. In contrast to existing numerical methods, our method produces explicit expressions that illustrate the mathematical dependencies of the dosing errors on hardware parameters and pump flow rate settings. METHODS: Our new approach uses the Z-transform to model the contents of the catheter, and after implementation in Mathematica (Wolfram), explicit expressions are produced automatically...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088195/automatic-liver-segmentation-based-on-appearance-and-context-information
#12
Yongchang Zheng, Danni Ai, Jinrong Mu, Weijian Cong, Xuan Wang, Haitao Zhao, Jian Yang
BACKGROUND: Automated image segmentation has benefits for reducing clinicians' workload, quicker diagnosis, and a standardization of the diagnosis. METHODS: This study proposes an automatic liver segmentation approach based on appearance and context information. The relationship between neighboring pixels in blocks is utilized to estimate appearance information, which is used for training the first classifier and obtaining the probability distribution map. The map is used for extracting context information, along with appearance features, to train the next classifier...
January 14, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086965/probabilistic-liver-atlas-construction
#13
Esther Dura, Juan Domingo, Guillermo Ayala, Luis Marti-Bonmati, E Goceri
BACKGROUND: Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. RESULTS: A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed...
January 13, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086963/near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-body-fat-sensing-in-neonates-quantitative-analysis-by-gamos-simulations
#14
Fatin Hamimi Mustafa, Peter W Jones, Alistair L McEwan
BACKGROUND: Under-nutrition in neonates is closely linked to low body fat percentage. Undernourished neonates are exposed to immediate mortality as well as unwanted health impacts in their later life including obesity and hypertension. One potential low cost approach for obtaining direct measurements of body fat is near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The aims of this study were to model the effect of varying volume fractions of melanin and water in skin over NIR spectra, and to define sensitivity of NIR reflection on changes of thickness of subcutaneous fat...
January 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086895/design-optimization-of-stent-and-its-dilatation-balloon-using-kriging-surrogate-model
#15
Hongxia Li, Tao Liu, Minjie Wang, Danyang Zhao, Aike Qiao, Xue Wang, Junfeng Gu, Zheng Li, Bao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Although stents have great success of treating cardiovascular disease, it actually undermined by the in-stent restenosis and their long-term fatigue failure. The geometry of stent affects its service performance and ultimately affects its fatigue life. Besides, improper length of balloon leads to transient mechanical injury to the vessel wall and in-stent restenosis. Conventional optimization method of stent and its dilatation balloon by comparing several designs and choosing the best one as the optimal design cannot find the global optimal design in the design space...
January 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086891/measurement-of-electrocardiograms-in-a-bath-through-tap-water-utilizing-capacitive-coupling-electrodes-placed-outside-the-bathtub-wall
#16
Kosuke Motoi, Yasuhiro Yamakoshi, Takehiro Yamakoshi, Hiroaki Sakai, Naoto Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yamakoshi
BACKGROUND: Taking a bath sometimes poses a risk for subjects with chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, due to the thermal effect and water pressure on his/her body. The ECG measurement would be helpful for the early recognition of abnormal cardiac beats and respiratory conditions. This paper describes a new attempt to improve on previous bathtub ECG measurement techniques that had electrodes placed inside the bathtub that were intrusive to the subjects' bathing experience. This study is concerned with the initial development of a method to measure an electrocardiogram (ECG) through tap water without conscious awareness of the presence of electrodes that are placed outside the bathtub wall...
January 11, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086939/feasibility-study-for-the-non-invasive-blood-pressure-estimation-based-on-ppg-morphology-normotensive-subject-study
#17
Hangsik Shin, Se Dong Min
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure is a critical bio-signal and its importance has been increased with the aged society and the growth of cardiovascular disease population. However, most of hypertensive patients have been suffered the inconvenience in monitoring blood pressure in daily life because the measurement of the blood pressure depends on the cuff-based technique. Nowadays there are many trials to measure blood pressure without cuff, especially, photoplethysmography (PPG) based research is carried out in various ways...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086899/evaluations-of-diffusion-tensor-image-registration-based-on-fiber-tractography
#18
Yi Wang, Yu Shen, Dongyang Liu, Guoqin Li, Zhe Guo, Yangyu Fan, Yilong Niu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI, also known as DTI) measures the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissues and to date is one of the main techniques that can effectively study the microstructures of the brain in vivo. Presently, evaluation of DTI registration techniques is still in an initial stage of development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, six well-known open source DTI registration algorithms: Elastic, Rigid, Affine, DTI-TK, FSL and SyN were applied on 11 subjects from an open-access dataset, among which one was randomly chosen as the template...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086888/non-rigid-mr-trus-image-registration-for-image-guided-prostate-biopsy-using-correlation-ratio-based-mutual-information
#19
Lun Gong, Haifeng Wang, Chengtao Peng, Yakang Dai, Min Ding, Yinghao Sun, Xiaodong Yang, Jian Zheng
BACKGROUND: To improve the accuracy of ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate, the non-rigid registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images onto transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images has gained increasing attention. Mutual information (MI) is a widely used similarity criterion in MR-TRUS image registration. However, the use of MI has been challenged because of intensity distortion, noise and down-sampling. Hence, we need to improve the MI measure to get better registration effect. METHODS: We present a novel two-dimensional non-rigid MR-TRUS registration algorithm that uses correlation ratio-based mutual information (CRMI) as the similarity criterion...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086779/the-effect-of-electrical-conductivity-of-myocardium-on-cardiac-pumping-efficacy-a-computational-study
#20
Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
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