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Biomedical Engineering Online

Patrice Monkam, Shouliang Qi, Mingjie Xu, Fangfang Han, Xinzhuo Zhao, Wei Qian
BACKGROUND: Early and automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from CT lung screening is the prerequisite for precise management of lung cancer. However, a large number of false positives appear in order to increase the sensitivity, especially for detecting micro-nodules (diameter < 3 mm), which increases the radiologists' workload and causes unnecessary anxiety for the patients. To decrease the false positive rate, we propose to use CNN models to discriminate between pulmonary micro-nodules and non-nodules from CT image patches...
July 16, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Dorothea Leonhäuser, Carlos Castelar, Thomas Schlebusch, Martin Rohm, Rüdiger Rupp, Steffen Leonhardt, Marian Walter, Joachim O Grosse
BACKGROUND: Continuous non-invasive urinary bladder volume measurement (cystovolumetry) would allow better management of urinary tract disease. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) represents a promising method to overcome the limitations of non-continuous ultrasound measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the measurement accuracy of EIT to standard ultrasound in healthy volunteers. METHODS: For EIT of the bladder a commercial device (Goe MF II) was used with 4 different configurations of 16 standard ECG electrodes attached to the lower abdomen of healthy participants...
July 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Wei Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Guoqing Wu, Jinhua Yu
BACKGROUND: In ultrasound plane wave imaging (PWI), image details are often blurred by the off-axis artefacts resulting from high sidelobe. Recently plane wave compounding (PWC) is proposed as a promising technique for the sidelobe suppression in the PWI. However, its high demand for the frame number results in an obvious frame rate loss, which is intolerable in the ultrafast imaging modality. To reduce the number of frames required for compounding, coherence in the compounding frames should be exploited...
July 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
M Constable, H E Burton, B M Lawless, V Gramigna, K G Buchan, D M Espino
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve failure can require repair or replacement. Replacement bioprosthetic valves are treated with glutaraldehyde prior to implantation. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in mechanical properties following glutaraldehyde fixation of mitral valve chordae. METHODS: To investigate the impact of glutaraldehyde on mitral valve chordae, 24 basal chordae were dissected from four porcine hearts. Anterior and posterior basal (including strut) chordae were used...
July 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Kai Wang, Yiting Shi, Wen He, Jing Yuan, Yuan Li, Xiaolin Pan, Cuilian Zhao
PURPOSE: To research the possibility of designing customized 3D printing fingerboard to apply to the limb rehabilitation of cerebral stroke patients as well as the prevention and treatment of finger spasm, through 3D printing technology. METHODS: Taking 18 hospitalized cerebral stroke patients for example, through scanning, molding and printing, to make and wear 3D printing fingerboard for them, and then observe the compliance, main complaint, muscular tension of affected hand and changes on range of motion after they wear the fingerboard for 3 weeks and 3 months...
June 26, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yanhuan Huang, Will Poyan Lai, Qiuyang Qian, Xiaoling Hu, Eric W C Tam, Yongping Zheng
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation robots can provide intensive physical training after stroke. However, variations of the rehabilitation effects in translation from well-controlled research studies to clinical services have not been well evaluated yet. This study aims to compare the rehabilitation effects of the upper limb training by an electromyography (EMG)-driven robotic hand achieved in a well-controlled research environment and in a practical clinical service. METHODS: It was a non-randomized controlled trial, and thirty-two participants with chronic stroke were recruited either in the clinical service (n = 16, clinic group), or in the research setting (n = 16, lab group)...
June 25, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ziyan Cai, Zhouyan Feng, Hanhan Hu, Na Hu, Xuefeng Wei
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown wide clinical applications for treating various disorders of central nervous system. High frequency stimulation (HFS) of pulses with a constant intensity and a constant frequency is typically used in DBS. However, new stimulation paradigms with time-varying parameters provide a prospective direction for DBS developments. To meet the research demands for time-varying stimulations, we designed a new stimulation system with a technique of LabVIEW-based virtual instrument...
June 22, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Lan A, Wenzhou Xu, Jinghui Zhao, Chunyan Li, Manlin Qi, Xue Li, Lin Wang, Yanmin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Minocycline has been widely used in central nervous system disease. However, the effect of minocycline on the repairing of nerve fibers around dental implants had not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using minocycline for the repairing of nerve fibers around dental implants by investigating the effect of minocycline on the proliferation of Schwann cells and secretion of neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Raúl Caulier-Cisterna, Sergio Muñoz-Romero, Margarita Sanromán-Junquera, Arcadi García-Alberola, José Luis Rojo-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: The inverse problem in electrophysiology consists of the accurate estimation of the intracardiac electrical sources from a reduced set of electrodes at short distances and from outside the heart. This estimation can provide an image with relevant knowledge on arrhythmia mechanisms for the clinical practice. Methods based on truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) and regularized least squares require a matrix inversion, which limits their resolution due to the unavoidable low-pass filter effect of the Tikhonov regularization techniques...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Massimo Salvi, Filippo Molinari
BACKGROUND: Accurate nuclei detection and segmentation in histological images is essential for many clinical purposes. While manual annotations are time-consuming and operator-dependent, full automated segmentation remains a challenging task due to the high variability of cells intensity, size and morphology. Most of the proposed algorithms for the automated segmentation of nuclei were designed for specific organ or tissues. RESULTS: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully multiscale method, named MANA (Multiscale Adaptive Nuclei Analysis), for nuclei segmentation in different tissues and magnifications...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Shouqiang Li, Dandan Yu, Huan Ji, Baocun Zhao, Lili Ji, Xiaoping Leng
BACKGROUND: In this paper we aimed to investigate the neovascularization and biodegradation of the silk fibroin in vivo using multiple modes ultrasound, including two-dimensional, three-dimensional and contrast-enhanced ultrasound by quantifying the echo intensity, volume and contrast enhancement of the silk fibroin implants. METHOD: A total of 56 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups and 4%(w/v) silk hydrogels were injected subcutaneously at hind limb or upper back of the rats respectively to compare the biodegradation rate in different sites of the body...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Seong Wook Choi, Do Yeon Lee, Kyoung Won Nam
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of patient damage and complications during the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) process in emergency situations, it is necessary to monitor the status of the patient and the quality of CPR while CPR processing without additional bio-signal measurement devices. In this study, an algorithm is proposed to estimate the mechanical impedance (MI) between an actuator of the CPR machine and the chest of the patient, and to estimate the power delivered to the chest of the patient during the CPR process...
June 19, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ming Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiaoyan Deng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The crossed limbs stent graft technique is regularly employed to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm patients with unfavorable aneurysm necks or widely splayed common iliac arteries. This article numerically evaluates the hemodynamic performance of the crossed limbs strategy by analyzing numerical simulations and conducting experiments using two series of idealized bifurcated stent grafts with different cross angles and cross positions. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the absolute helicity at outlets decreased with increased cross angles and increased with decreased cross positions...
June 19, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Tadeja Forjanič, Damijan Miklavčič
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of gene electrotransfer, an electroporation-based method for delivery of pDNA into target tissues, depends on several processes. The method relies on application of electric pulses with appropriate amplitude and pulse duration. A careful choice of electric pulse parameters is required to obtain the appropriate electric field distribution, which not only controls the electroporated volume, but also affects the movement of pDNA. We used numerical modeling to assess the influence of different types of electrodes and pulse parameters on reversibly electroporated volume and on the extent of pDNA-membrane interaction, which is necessary for successful gene electrotransfer...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yan Zhuang, Cheng Li, Zhan Hua, Ke Chen, Jiang Li Lin
BACKGROUND: Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) is the assessment of a risk stratification of thyroid nodules, usually using a score. However, there is no consensus as to the version of TIRADS for reporting the results of thyroid ultrasound in clinic. The objective of this study is to develop a practical TIRADS with which to categorize thyroid nodules and stratify their malignant risk. METHODS: A TIRADS scoring system was developed to provide more decision levels than standard scoring through the selection of the ultrasound features which include the calcification shape, margins, taller-than-wide, internal echo, blood flow quantization of features, setting of the weight, and calculation of the score...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Joonnyong Lee, JangJay Sohn, Jonghyun Park, SeungMan Yang, Saram Lee, Hee Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitors are of great interest to the medical community due to their value in hypertension management. Recently, studies have shown the potential of pulse pressure as a therapeutic target for hypertension, but not enough attention has been given to non-invasive continuous monitoring of pulse pressure. Although accurate pulse pressure estimation can be of direct value to hypertension management and indirectly to the estimation of systolic blood pressure, as it is the sum of pulse pressure and diastolic blood pressure, only a few inadequate methods of pulse pressure estimation have been proposed...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Graham Peyton, Martyn G Boutelle, Emmanuel M Drakakis
BACKGROUND: Point of care ultrasonography has been the focus of extensive research over the past few decades. Miniaturised, wireless systems have been envisaged for new application areas, such as capsule endoscopy, implantable ultrasound and wearable ultrasound. The hardware constraints of such small-scale systems are severe, and tradeoffs between power consumption, size, data bandwidth and cost must be carefully balanced. METHODS: In this work, two receiver architectures are proposed and compared to address these challenges...
June 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Da Un Jeong, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although studies on the relation between arrhythmias and the action potential duration (APD) have been carried out, most of them are based only on electrophysiological factors of the heart and lack experiments that consider cardiac mechanical and electromechanical characteristics. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify the relevance of the shortening of APD of a cell in relation to the mechanical contraction activity of the heart and the associated risk of arrhythmia...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Jisu Hu, Ming Li, Yakang Dai, Chen Geng, Baotong Tong, Zhiyong Zhou, Xue Liang, Wen Yang, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI), both reduced field-of-view (FOV) excitation and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) alone can increase in-plane resolution to some degree. However, when the two techniques are combined to further increase resolution without pronounced geometric distortion, the resulted images are often corrupted by high level of noise and artifact due to the numerical restriction in SENSE. Hence, this study is aimed to provide a reconstruction method to deal with this problem...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Dapeng Wang, Fuqin Bao, Qiang Li, Yugang Teng, Jianjun Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of additional semiautomatic intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremity in these patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, when compared with the conventional graduated compression stockings alone. METHODS: The data of 112 patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery were retrospectively analyzed. 51 patients who ever received IPCD and graduated compression stockings during major orthopedic surgery were taken as the experimental group, and 61 patients who only received the conventional graduated compression stockings during surgery were taken as the observation group...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
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