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Biomedical Engineering Online

Chung-Wein Lee, Keith M Stantz
BACKGROUND: Tumor hypoxia is involved in every stage of solid tumor development: formation, progression, metastasis, and apoptosis. Two types of hypoxia exist in tumors-chronic hypoxia and acute hypoxia. Recent studies indicate that the regional hypoxia kinetics is closely linked to metastasis and therapeutic responses, but regional hypoxia kinetics is hard to measure. We propose a novel approach to determine the local pO2 by fusing the parameters obtained from in vivo functional imaging through the use of a modified multivariate Krogh model...
October 12, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Kamil J Chodzyński, Simone Gremmo, Omer F Eker, Jacques Lalmand, Adel Aminian, Daniel Ribeiro de Sousa, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Grégory Coussement
BACKGROUND: Since hemodynamics plays a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular pathologies, physician's decision must be based on proper monitoring of relevant physiological flow quantities. METHODS: A numerical analysis of the error introduced by an intravascular Doppler guide wire on the peak velocity measurements has been carried out. The effect of probe misalignment (±10°) with respect to the vessel axis was investigated. Numerical simulations were performed on a realistic 3D geometry, reconstructed from coronary angiography images...
October 10, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ya-Chen Chen, Tzu-Chien Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Thoracoabdominal asynchrony is often adopted to discriminate respiratory diseases in clinics. Conventionally, Lissajous figure analysis is the most frequently used estimation of the phase difference in thoracoabdominal asynchrony. However, the temporal resolution of the produced results is low and the estimation error increases when the signals are not sinusoidal. Other previous studies have reported time-domain procedures with the use of band-pass filters for phase-angle estimation...
October 6, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Robert Koprowski
BACKGROUND: The paper presents an automatic method for analysis and processing of images from a camera operating in visible light. This analysis applies to images containing the human facial area (body) and enables to measure the blood pulse rate. Special attention was paid to the limitations of this measurement method taking into account the possibility of using consumer cameras in real conditions (different types of lighting, different camera resolution, camera movement). METHODS: The proposed new method of image analysis and processing was associated with three stages: (1) image pre-processing-allowing for the image filtration and stabilization (object location tracking); (2) main image processing-allowing for segmentation of human skin areas, acquisition of brightness changes; (3) signal analysis-filtration, FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) analysis, pulse calculation...
October 3, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yuan Yang, Nannan Quan, Jingjing Bu, Xueping Li, Ningmei Yu
BACKGROUND: High order modulation and demodulation technology can solve the frequency requirement between the wireless energy transmission and data communication. In order to achieve reliable wireless data communication based on high order modulation technology for visual prosthesis, this work proposed a Reed-Solomon (RS) error correcting code (ECC) circuit on the basis of differential amplitude and phase shift keying (DAPSK) soft demodulation. Firstly, recognizing the weakness of the traditional DAPSK soft demodulation algorithm based on division that is complex for hardware implementation, an improved phase soft demodulation algorithm for visual prosthesis to reduce the hardware complexity is put forward...
September 26, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Siamak Sabour, Zhi-Yong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yongming Li, Xueru Zhu, Pin Wang, Jie Wang, Shujun Liu, Fan Li, Mingguo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaque deposition is an important prevention and treatment target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a noninvasive, nonradioactive and highly cost-effective clinical imaging method, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the perfect imaging technology for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but it cannot display the plaque deposition directly. This paper resolves this problem based on pixel feature selection algorithms at the image level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Firstly, the brain region was segmented from mouse model brain MR images...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
A M Bavo, A M Pouch, J Degroote, J Vierendeels, J H Gorman, R C Gorman, P Segers
BACKGROUND: The goal of this paper is to present a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model with moving boundaries to study the intraventricular flows in a patient-specific framework. Starting from the segmentation of real-time transesophageal echocardiographic images, a CFD model including the complete left ventricle and the moving 3D mitral valve was realized. Their motion, known as a function of time from the segmented ultrasound images, was imposed as a boundary condition in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Shing-Hong Liu, Jia-Jung Wang, Da-Chuan Cheng, Chun-Hung Su, Tzu-Hsin Lin
BACKGROUND: The endothelial function has been proven to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart failure. The flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the peripheral artery is an endothelium-dependent function. Brachial-artery ultrasound scanning is the popular method for evaluating FMD. However, good technical training on ultrasonography is required for the user to obtain high-quality data. Therefore, the goal of this study was to propose a new method which only used a sphygmomanometer cuff to occlude the blood flow and record the vascular volume waveform (Vwave)...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Gerd Schmalisch
Although capnography is a standard tool in mechanically ventilated adult and pediatric patients, it has physiological and technical limitations in neonates. Gas exchange differs between small and adult lungs due to the greater impact of small airways on gas exchange, the higher impact of the apparatus dead space on measurements due to lower tidal volume and the occurrence of air leaks in intubated patients. The high respiratory rate and low tidal volume in newborns, especially those with stiff lungs, require main-stream sensors with fast response times and minimal dead-space or low suction flow when using side-stream measurements...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Andrew R Martin, Chris Jackson, Samuel Fromont, Chloe Pont, Ira M Katz, Georges Caillobotte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator used primarily in the critical care setting for patients concurrently supported by invasive or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. NO delivery devices interface with ventilator breathing circuits to inject NO in proportion with the flow of air/oxygen through the circuit, in order to maintain a constant, target concentration of inhaled NO. METHODS: In the present article, a NO injection and mixing element is presented...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Kerstin Lenk, Barbara Priwitzer, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Lukas H B Tietz, Susanna Narkilahti, Jari A K Hyttinen
BACKGROUND: Microelectrode array (MEA) is a widely used technique to study for example the functional properties of neuronal networks derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-NN). With hESC-NN, we can investigate the earliest developmental stages of neuronal network formation in the human brain. METHODS: In this paper, we propose an in silico model of maturating hESC-NNs based on a phenomenological model called INEX. We focus on simulations of the development of bursts in hESC-NNs, which are the main feature of neuronal activation patterns...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Hongbo Liu, Kun Wang, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) always suffers from high levels of noise due to the constraints of the injected dose and acquisition time, especially in the studies of dynamic PET imaging. To improve the quality of PET image, several approaches have been introduced to suppress noise. However, traditional filters often blur the image edges, or erase small detail, or rely on multiple parameters. In order to solve such problems, nonlocal denoising methods have been adapted to denoise PET images...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Siamak N Doost, Dhanjoo Ghista, Boyang Su, Liang Zhong, Yosry S Morsi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death today, incorporates a wide range of cardiovascular system malfunctions that affect heart functionality. It is believed that the hemodynamic loads exerted on the cardiovascular system, the left ventricle (LV) in particular, are the leading cause of CVD initiation and propagation. Moreover, it is believed that the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD at an early stage could reduce its high mortality and morbidity rate. Therefore, a set of robust clinical cardiovascular assessment tools has been introduced to compute the cardiovascular hemodynamics in order to provide useful insights to physicians to recognize indicators leading to CVD and also to aid the diagnosis of CVD...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Mauro Masili, Liliane Ventura
BACKGROUND: This work is part of a broader research that focuses on ocular health. Three outlines are the basis of the pyramid that comprehend the research as a whole: authors' previous work, which has provided the public to self-check their own sunglasses regarding the ultraviolet protection compatible to their category; Brazilian national survey in order to improve nationalization of sunglasses standards; and studies conducted on revisiting requirements of worldwide sunglasses standards, in which this work is inserted...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Seong Min Kang, Keun Her, Seong Wook Choi
BACKGROUND: In this study, a new algorithm was developed for estimating the pump outflow of a pneumatic ventricular assist device (p-VAD). The pump outflow estimation algorithm was derived from the ideal gas equation and determined the change in blood-sac volume of a p-VAD using two external pressure sensors. OBJECTIVES: Based on in vitro experiments, the algorithm was revised to consider the effects of structural compliance caused by volume changes in an implanted unit, an air driveline, and the pressure difference between the sensors and the implanted unit...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Chunsoo Ahn, Toan Duc Bui, Yong-Woo Lee, Jitae Shin, Hyunjin Park
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on osteoarthritis (OA), which affects millions of adults and occurs in knee cartilage. Diagnosis of OA requires accurate segmentation of cartilage structures. Existing approaches to cartilage segmentation of knee imaging suffer from either lack of fully automatic algorithm, sub-par segmentation accuracy, or failure to consider all three cartilage tissues. METHODS: We propose a novel segmentation algorithm for knee cartilages with level set-based segmentation method and novel template data...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Cassandra Su Lyn Ho, Toshikatsu Horiuchi, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Araya Umetsu, Kohsuke Hagisawa, Keiichi Iwaya, Kanji Nakai, Amalina Azmi, Natasha Zulaziz, Azran Azhim, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Yuji Morimoto
BACKGROUND: Composition of atherosclerotic arterial walls is rich in lipids such as cholesterol, unlike normal arterial walls. In this study, we aimed to utilize this difference to diagnose atherosclerosis via multispectral fluorescence imaging, which allows for identification of fluorescence originating from the substance in the arterial wall. METHODS: The inner surface of extracted arteries (rabbit abdominal aorta, human coronary artery) was illuminated by 405 nm excitation light and multispectral fluorescence images were obtained...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Robert Koprowski, Paweł Olczyk
BACKGROUND: Segmentation of hyperspectral medical images is one of many image segmentation methods which require profiling. This profiling involves either the adjustment of existing, known image segmentation methods or a proposal of new dedicated methods of hyperspectral image segmentation. Taking into consideration the size of analysed data, the time of analysis is of major importance. Therefore, the authors proposed three new dedicated methods of hyperspectral image segmentation with special reference to the time of analysis...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Sotiris Avgousti, Eftychios G Christoforou, Andreas S Panayides, Sotos Voskarides, Cyril Novales, Laurence Nouaille, Constantinos S Pattichis, Pierre Vieyres
Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
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