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Biomedical Engineering Online

Chun-Ting Li, Yen-Nien Chen, Yen-Ting Tseng, Kuen-Horng Tsai
Prolonged static sitting in wheelchairs increases the risk of pressure ulcers. This exploratory study proposed three dynamic sitting techniques in order to reduce the risk of developing pressure ulcer during wheelchair sitting, namely lumbar prominent dynamic sitting, femur upward dynamic sitting, and lumbar prominent with femur upward dynamic sitting. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical effects of these three techniques on interface pressure. 15 able-bodied people were recruited as subjects to compare the aforementioned sitting techniques in a random order...
January 3, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Juan C Yepes, Mario A Portela, Álvaro J Saldarriaga, Vera Z Pérez, Manuel J Betancur
BACKGROUND: A direct blow to the knee is one way to injure the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), e.g., during a football or traffic accident. Robot-assisted therapy (RAT) rehabilitation, simulating regular walking, improves walking and balance abilities, and extensor strength after ACL reconstruction. However, there is a need to perform RAT during other phases of ACL injury rehabilitation before attempting an advanced exercise such as walking. This paper aims to propose a myoelectric control (MEC) algorithm for a robot-assisted rehabilitation system, "Nukawa", to assist knee movement during these types of exercises, i...
January 3, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Mingjie Xu, Shouliang Qi, Yong Yue, Yueyang Teng, Lisheng Xu, Yudong Yao, Wei Qian
BACKGROUND: Lung segmentation constitutes a critical procedure for any clinical-decision supporting system aimed to improve the early diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases. Abnormal lungs mainly include lung parenchyma with commonalities on CT images across subjects, diseases and CT scanners, and lung lesions presenting various appearances. Segmentation of lung parenchyma can help locate and analyze the neighboring lesions, but is not well studied in the framework of machine learning...
January 3, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Tae-Heon Yang, Gwanghyun Jo, Jeong-Hoi Koo, Sam-Yong Woo, Jaeuk U Kim, Young-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: There exists a growing need for a cost-effective, reliable, and portable pulsation simulator that can generate a wide variety of pulses depending on age and cardiovascular disease. For constructing compact pulsation simulator, this study proposes to use a pneumatic actuator based on cam-follower mechanism controlled by a DC motor. The simulator is intended to generate pulse waveforms for a range of pulse pressures and heart beats that are realistic to human blood pulsations...
January 3, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Kedi Zhou, Yichen Ding, Ivan Vuletic, Yonglu Tian, Jun Li, Jinghao Liu, Yixing Huang, Hongfang Sun, Changhui Li, Qiushi Ren, Yanye Lu
BACKGROUND: Optical imaging is one of the most common, low-cost imaging tools used for investigating the tumor biological behavior in vivo. This study explores the feasibility and sensitivity of a near infrared fluorescent protein mKate2 for a long-term non-invasive tumor imaging in BALB/c nude mice, by using a low-power optical imaging system. METHODS: In this study, breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435s expressing mKate2 and MDA-MB-231 expressing a dual reporter gene firefly luciferase (fLuc)-GFP were used as cell models...
December 29, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Lin Yang, Heng Li, Junjie Ding, Weichen Li, Xiuzhen Dong, Zhihong Wen, Xuetao Shi
BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging imaging technology that has been used to monitor brain injury and detect acute stroke. The time and frequency properties of electrode-skin contact impedance are important for brain EIT because brain EIT measurement is performed over a long period when used to monitor brain injury, and is carried out across a wide range of frequencies when used to detect stroke. To our knowledge, no study has simultaneously investigated the time and frequency properties of both electrode and conductive gel for brain EIT...
December 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Fátima Machado, Francisco Sales, Clara Santos, António Dourado, C A Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Detection and quantification of cyclic alternating patterns (CAP) components has the potential to serve as a disease bio-marker. Few methods exist to discriminate all the different CAP components, they do not present appropriate sensitivities, and often they are evaluated based on accuracy (AC) that is not an appropriate measure for imbalanced datasets. METHODS: We describe a knowledge discovery methodology in data (KDD) aiming the development of automatic CAP scoring approaches...
December 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Hongyun Liu, Ping Zhan, Jinlong Shi, Guojing Wang, Buqing Wang, Weidong Wang
BACKGROUND: Phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) was often applied to assess the cardiac vagal modulation. Despite its broad use, this method suffers from the confounding effects of anomalous variants of sinus rhythm. This study aimed to improve the original PRSA method in deceleration capacity (DC) quantification. METHODS: The refined deceleration capacity (DCref ) was calculated by excluding from non-vagally mediated abnormal variants of sinus rhythms. Holter recordings from 202 healthy subjects and 51 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been used for validity...
December 18, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Alice Lan, Alexandra Lee, Kristin Munroe, Cameron McRae, Linda Kaleis, Karim Keshavjee, Aziz Guergachi
BACKGROUND: Mobile health apps (mHealth apps) are increasing in popularity and utility for the management of many chronic diseases. Although the current reimbursement structure for mHealth apps is lagging behind the rapidly improving functionality, more clinicians will begin to recommend these apps as they prove their clinical worth. Payors such as the government or private insurance companies will start to reimburse for the use of these technologies, especially if they add value to patients by providing timely support, a more streamlined patient experience, and greater patient convenience...
December 17, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Borut Kirn, John Walmsley, Joost Lumens
BACKGROUND: Myocardial deformation measured by strain is used to detect electro-mechanical abnormalities in cardiac tissue. Estimation of myocardial properties from regional strain patterns when multiple pathologies are present is therefore a promising application of computer modelling. However, if different tissue properties lead to indistinguishable strain patterns ('degeneracy'), the applicability of any such method will be limited. We investigated whether estimation of local activation time (AT) and contractility from myocardial strain patterns is theoretically possible...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Hoang-Dung Nguyen, So-Hyeon Yoo, M Raheel Bhutta, Keum-Shik Hong
The study presents a recursive least-squares estimation method with an exponential forgetting factor for noise removal in functional near-infrared spectroscopy data and extraction of hemodynamic responses (HRs) from the measured data. The HR is modeled as a linear regression form in which the expected HR, the first and second derivatives of the expected HR, a short-separation measurement data, three physiological noises, and the baseline drift are included as components in the regression vector. The proposed method is applied to left-motor-cortex experiments on the right thumb and little finger movements in five healthy male participants...
December 4, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Liyuan Zhang, Huamin Yang, Zhengang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Imbalanced data classification is an inevitable problem in medical intelligent diagnosis. Most of real-world biomedical datasets are usually along with limited samples and high-dimensional feature. This seriously affects the classification performance of the model and causes erroneous guidance for the diagnosis of diseases. Exploring an effective classification method for imbalanced and limited biomedical dataset is a challenging task. METHODS: In this paper, we propose a novel multilayer extreme learning machine (ELM) classification model combined with dynamic generative adversarial net (GAN) to tackle limited and imbalanced biomedical data...
December 4, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Kaiyun Gu, Zhe Zhang, Yu Chang, Bin Gao, Feng Wan
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic characteristics of the interaction influence among support level and model of LVAD, and coupling β-blocker has not been reported. METHODS: In this study, the effect of support level and model of LVAD on cardiovascular hemodynamic characteristics is investigated. In addition, the effect of β-blocker on unloading with LVAD is analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of LVAD coupling β-blocker. A multi-scale model from cell level to system level is proposed...
December 3, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Jing Wang, Ming Wang, Song Gao, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of phase contrast imaging to detect fibrotic progress in its early stage; to investigate the feasibility of texture features for quantified diagnosis of liver fibrosis; and to evaluate the performance of back propagation (BP) neural net classifier for characterization and classification of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Fibrous mouse liver samples were imaged by X-ray phase contrast imaging, nine texture measures based on gray-level co-occurrence matrix were calculated and the feasibility of texture features in the characterization and discrimination of liver fibrosis at early stages was investigated...
December 3, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Takuma Inai, Tomoya Takabayashi, Mutsuaki Edama, Masayoshi Kubo
BACKGROUND: Sit-to-stand movements are a necessary part of daily life, and excessive mechanical stress on the articular cartilage has been reported to encourage the progression of osteoarthritis. Although a change in hip joint angle at seat-off may affect hip joint contact force during a sit-to-stand movement, the effect is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of the hip joint angle at seat-off on the hip joint contact force during a sit-to-stand movement by using a computer simulation...
November 29, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
E Sultan, A H Gandjbakhche, K Pourrezaei, A S Daryoush
This paper presents a novel method for early detection of hematomas using highly sensitive optical fNIR imaging methods based on broadband photon migration. The NIR experimental measurements of inhomogeneous multi-layer phantoms representing human head are compared to 3D numerical modeling over broadband frequencies of 30-1000 MHz. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of the head phantom are compared to measurements of insertion loss and phase using custom-designed broadband free space optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules that are developed for photon migration at wavelengths of 670 nm, 795 nm, 850 nm, though results of 670 nm are discussed here...
November 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Xia Huang, Jian Wang, Fan Tang, Tao Zhong, Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women, which is the third leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Brachytherapy is the most effective treatment for cervical cancer. For brachytherapy, computed tomography (CT) imaging is necessary since it conveys tissue density information which can be used for dose planning. However, the metal artifacts caused by brachytherapy applicators remain a challenge for the automatic processing of image data for image-guided procedures or accurate dose calculations...
November 27, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Piotr Morasiewicz, Grzegorz Konieczny, Maciej Dejnek, Leszek Morasiewicz, Wiktor Urbański, Mirosław Kulej, Szymon Łukasz Dragan, Szymon Feliks Dragan, Łukasz Pawik
BACKGROUND: A number of various techniques were proposed to stabilized ankle arthrodesis, among them external and internal fixation. Appropriate balance and adequate distribution of lower limb loads determine normal biomechanics of the locomotor system. We hypothesized that various techniques used to stabilize ankle arthrodesis may exert different effects on (1) balance and (2) distribution of lower limb loads. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included 47 patients who underwent ankle arthrodesis with external stabilization with Ilizarov fixator (group 1, n = 21) or internal stabilization with screws (group 2, n = 26) between 2007 and 2015...
November 26, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yoon Nam, Mi Young Eo, Soung Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Preparation of a uniform angle of walls is essential for making an ideal convergence angle in fixed prosthodontics. We developed a de novo detachable angle-correction apparatus for dental handpiece drills that could help the ideal tooth preparation. METHODS: We utilized a gyro sensor to measure the angular velocities to calculate the slope of an object by integrating the values, acceleration sensor to calculate the slope of an object by measuring the acceleration relative to gravity, and Kalman filter algorithm...
November 26, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Bin Wu, Yipeng Fu, Haotian Shi, Bin Yan, Ruxin Lu, Songyun Ma, Bernd Markert
BACKGROUND: The periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a key role in alveolar bone remodeling and resorption during tooth movements. The prediction of tooth mobility under functional dental loads requires a deep understanding of the mechanical behavior of the PDL, which is a critical issue in dental biomechanics. This study was aimed to examine the mechanical behavior of the PDL of the maxillary central and lateral incisors from human. The experimental results can contribute to developing an accurate constitutive model of the human PDL in orthodontics...
November 23, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
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