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Field Crops Research

A S Nehe, S Misra, E H Murchie, K Chinnathambi, M J Foulkes
Nitrogen (N) fertilizer represents a significant cost for the grower and may also have environmental impacts through nitrate leaching and N2 O (a greenhouse gas) emissions associated with denitrification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the genetic variability in N-use efficiency (NUE) in Indian spring wheat cultivars and identify traits for improved NUE for application in breeding. Twenty eight bread wheat cultivars and two durum wheat cultivars were tested in field experiments in two years in Maharashtra, India...
August 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
Ipsita Kar, Sudhir-Yadav, Amit Mishra, Basudev Behera, Chandramani Khanda, Virender Kumar, Ashok Kumar
Increasing farm labor scarcity and depletion of natural resources such as water are posing a major threat to the sustainability of traditional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) farming in Eastern India. Dry-seeded rice (DSR) or non-puddled transplanted rice (NPTR) could be used as an alternative to PTR. To understand the trade-off with different water management and rice genotypes under non-puddled conditions, a field experiment was conducted during 2014-2015 on a sandy clay loam soil of Bhubaneswar, Odisha. The treatments for water regimes were based on soil water tension (no stress, 10 kPa, and 40 kPa) at 15-cm soil depth and the cultivars used in the study were inbreds (Lalat and Sahbhagi Dhan) and hybrids (Arize® 6129, 6444, and US 323)...
June 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
D Burman, B Maji, Sudhanshu Singh, Subhasis Mandal, Sukanta K Sarangi, B K Bandyopadhyay, A R Bal, D K Sharma, S L Krishnamurthy, H N Singh, A S delosReyes, D Villanueva, T Paris, U S Singh, S M Haefele, Abdelbagi M Ismail
Rice is the staple food and provides livelihood for smallholder farmers in the coastal delta regions of South and Southeast Asia. However, its productivity is often low because of several abiotic stresses including high soil salinity and waterlogging during the wet (monsoon) season and high soil and water salinity during the dry season. Development and dissemination of suitable rice varieties tolerant of these multiple stresses encountered in coastal zones are of prime importance for increasing and stabilizing rice productivity, however adoption of new varieties has been slow in this region...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
Ando M Radanielson, Olivyn Angeles, Tao Li, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Donald S Gaydon
Rice is the staple food for almost half of the world population. In South and South East Asia, about 40% of rice production is from deltaic regions that are vulnerable to salt stress. A quantitative approach was developed for characterizing genotypic variability in biomass production, leaf transpiration rate and leaf net photosynthesis responses to salinity during the vegetative stage, with the aim of developing efficient screening protocols to accelerate breeding varieties adapted to salt-affected areas. Three varieties were evaluated in pots under greenhouse conditions and in the field, with average soil salinity ranging from 2 to 12 dS m-1 ...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
Rolando O Torres, Amelia Henry
Although mild to moderately severe drought stress may have less of an effect on rice grain yield than severe drought stress during reproductive stage, its prevalence across rice farmers' fields at the global level may be more economically significant. In this study, field experiments were conducted on selected genotypes with known tolerance to severe reproductive-stage drought in order to identify those that would produce high and stable grain yield across seasons and soil moisture conditions varying from well-watered to mild and moderately severe drought stress...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
M Sikirou, A Shittu, K A Konaté, A T Maji, A S Ngaujah, K A Sanni, S A Ogunbayo, I Akintayo, K Saito, K N Dramé, A Ahanchédé, R Venuprasad
Iron (Fe) toxicity is recognized as one of the most widely spread soil constraints for rice production especially in West Africa. Oryza glaberrima the cultivated rice species that originated from West Africa is well-adapted to its growing ecologies. The aim of this study was to identify the promising O. glaberrima accessions tolerant to Fe toxicity from the 2106 accessions held at the AfricaRice gene bank. The screenings were conducted over a four-year period and involved evaluating the entries under Fe-toxic field conditions in West Africa, selecting good yielding accessions and repeating the testing with newly selected lines...
May 1, 2018: Field Crops Research
P A J van Oort
Maps of abiotic stresses for rice can be useful for (1) prioritizing research and (2) identifying stress hotspots, for directing technologies and varieties to those areas where they are most needed. Large-scale maps of stresses are not available for Africa. This paper considers four abiotic stresses relevant for rice in Africa (drought, cold, iron toxicity and salinity/sodicity). Maps showing hotspots of the stresses, the countries most affected and total potentially affected area are presented. In terms of relative importance, the study identified drought as the most important stress (33% of rice area potentially affected), followed by iron toxicity (12%) and then cold (7%) and salinity/sodicity (2%)...
April 15, 2018: Field Crops Research
Finbarr G Horgan, Ainara Peñalver Cruz, Carmencita C Bernal, Angelee Fame Ramal, Maria Liberty P Almazan, Andrew Wilby
High resource availability can reduce anti-herbivore resistance (a plant's ability to defend against herbivores and reduce damage) in rice, Oryza sativa L, but may also increase tolerance (a plant's ability to withstand damage by, for example, compensatory growth). Through a series of greenhouse, screenhouse and field experiments, this study examines fitness (survival and development × reproduction) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), on resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR22) rice varieties and age-related rice tolerance to planthopper damage under varying resource (nitrogenous fertilizer) availability...
March 2018: Field Crops Research
Govindan Velu, Ravi P Singh, Julio Huerta, Carlos Guzmán
Wheat is a major staple food crop providing about 20% of dietary energy and proteins, and food products made of whole grain wheat are a major source of micronutrients like Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Vitamin B and E. Wheat provides about 40% intake of essential micronutrients by humans in the developing countries relying on wheat based diets. Varieties with genetically enhanced levels of grain micronutrient concentrations can provide a cost-effective and sustainable option to resource poor wheat consumers...
December 2017: Field Crops Research
Michael Kermah, Angelinus C Franke, Samuel Adjei-Nsiah, Benjamin D K Ahiabor, Robert C Abaidoo, Ken E Giller
Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region...
November 2017: Field Crops Research
Nicolas Guilpart, Patricio Grassini, Victor O Sadras, Jagadish Timsina, Kenneth G Cassman
Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential...
May 2017: Field Crops Research
Raju Bheemanahalli, Rajendran Sathishraj, Muthukumar Manoharan, H N Sumanth, Raveendran Muthurajan, Tsutomo Ishimaru, Jagadish S V Krishna
Higher spikelet sterility due to heat stress exposure during flowering in rice is becoming a major threat for sustaining productivity in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Therefore, exploiting and incorporating early morning flowering (EMF) trait into ongoing breeding pipelines could be an effective strategy to minimize the damage. In this study, we have focused on quantifying the time of day of flowering traits such as first spikelet opening time (FSOT) and peak spikelet opening time (PSOT) in a diverse set of cultivars (n = 289) representing major rice growing regions (13 tropical and 20 subtropical countries) over three years (wet season; WS-2012, dry season; DS-2013 and 2014), under field conditions...
March 1, 2017: Field Crops Research
Purushothaman Ramamoorthy, Krishnamurthy Lakshmanan, Hari D Upadhyaya, Vincent Vadez, Rajeev K Varshney
Chickpea, the second most important legume crop, suffers major yield losses by terminal drought stress (DS). Stronger root system is known to enhance drought yields but this understanding remains controversial. To understand precisely the root traits contribution towards yield, 12 chickpea genotypes with well-known drought response were field evaluated under drought and optimal irrigation. Root traits, such as root length density (RLD), total root dry weight (RDW), deep root dry weight (deep RDW) and root:shoot ratio (RSR), were measured periodically by soil coring up to 1...
February 1, 2017: Field Crops Research
Michael L Mann, James M Warner
Despite the routine collection of annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has integrated these data sources in estimating developing nations' agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 principal Meher crop seasons at the kebele administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country...
February 1, 2017: Field Crops Research
Oumarou Halilou, Halime Mahamat Hissene, José A Clavijo Michelangeli, Falalou Hamidou, Thomas R Sinclair, Afshin Soltani, Saadou Mahamane, Vincent Vadez
Rapid leaf area development may be attractive under a number of cropping conditions to enhance the vigor of crop establishment and allow rapid canopy closure for maximizing light interception and shading of weed competitors. This study was undertaken to determine (1) if parameters describing leaf area development varied among ten peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) genotypes grown in field and pot experiments, (2) if these parameters were affected by the planting density, and (3) if these parameters varied between Spanish and Virginia genotypes...
December 2016: Field Crops Research
Balwinder-Singh, E Humphreys, D S Gaydon, P L Eberbach
Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
Purushothaman Ramamoorthy, Krishnamurthy Lakshmanan, Hari Deo Upadhyaya, Vincent Vadez, Rajeev Kumar Varshney
Chickpea is the second most important legume crop largely grown under semi-arid tropics where terminal drought is one of the major constraints for its productivity. A trait-based selection had been considered more beneficial in drought tolerance breeding to overcome the environmental influence on drought yields. Large number of traits had been suggested in literature, with less indication on their importance and priority, for use in such breeding programs resulting in poor utilization of critical traits in drought tolerance breeding...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
Oscar E Gonzalez-Navarro, Simon Griffiths, Gemma Molero, Matthew P Reynolds, Gustavo A Slafer
Developmental patterns strongly influence spike fertility and grain number, which are primarily determined during the stem elongation period (i.e. time between terminal spikelet phase and anthesis). It has been proposed that the length of the stem elongation phase may, to an extent, affect grain number; thus it would be beneficial to identify genetic variation for the duration of this phase in elite germplasm. Variation in these developmental patterns was studied using 27 elite wheat lines in four experiments across three growing seasons...
September 2016: Field Crops Research
Vincent Vadez, Pasala Ratnakumar
Water limitation is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut and transpiration efficiency (TE) is considered the main target for improvement, but TE being difficult to measure it has mostly been screened with surrogates. The paper re-explore the contribution of TE to grain yield in peanut by using a novel experimental approach in which TE is measured gravimetrically throughout the crop life cycle, in addition to measurement of TE surrogates. Experimentation was carried out with the groundnut reference collection (n = 288), across seasons varying for the evaporative demand (vapor pressure deficit, VPD) and across both fully irrigated and intermittent water stress conditions...
July 2016: Field Crops Research
S Mondal, R P Singh, E R Mason, J Huerta-Espino, E Autrique, A K Joshi
Maintaining wheat productivity under the increasing temperatures in South Asia is a challenge. We focused on developing early maturing wheat lines as an adaptive mechanism in regions suffering from terminal heat stress and those areas that require wheat adapted to shorter cycles under continual high temperature stress. We evaluated the grain yield performance of early-maturing heat-tolerant germplasm developed by CIMMYT, Mexico at diverse locations in South Asia from 2009 to 2014 and estimated the breeding progress for high-yielding and early-maturing heat-tolerant germplasm in South Asia...
June 2016: Field Crops Research
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